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Sample records for birbhum district west

  1. Population Growth, Socio-economy and Quality of life in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyal Basu Roy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to analyze the decadal variation of population growth, socio-economic condition and quality of life of the people in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. It has been well accepted that if the amount of resource available within a country does not feed its total inhabitants due to excessive population in comparison to existing resource, quality of life of individual and socio-economy of that area collapse, which is very often found in developing nations of the world. Consequently, well being of common people through provision of basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, education, and health is obstructed. This adversely affects the quality of life of an individual. Increasing rate of population growth brings reduction in per capita income of people by creating pressure on land, making consumer product costlier and decreasing national capital. Moreover, the increase in the population growth rate due to high fertility, low mortality and inflow of migrants prevent improved quality of life also. Among others factors influencing Quality of Life (QOL in particular and socio-economic development and human well being in general are literacy, dietary pattern, transportation, and health service etc., the assessment of which reveals that study area turns out to be one of the backward districts of West Bengal where socio-economy and quality of life are of unfortunate character due to excessive population growth and inconsistent infrastructural development that cannot keep pace with the population increase.

  2. Geochemical appraisal of fluoride-laden groundwater in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum district, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present study has been carried out covering two blocks—Suri I and II in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. The evaluation focuses on occurrence, distribution and geochemistry in 26 water samples collected from borewells spread across the entire study area homogeneously. Quantitative chemical analysis of groundwater samples collected from the present study area has shown that samples from two locations—Gangta and Dhalla contain fluoride greater than the permissible limit prescribed by WHO during both post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sampling sessions. Significant factor controlling geochemistry of groundwater has been identified to be rock-water interaction processes during both sampling sessions based on the results of Gibb's diagrams. Geochemical modeling studies have revealed that fluorite (CaF2) is, indeed, present as a significant fluoride-bearing mineral in the groundwaters of this study area. Calcite or CaCO3 is one of the most common minerals with which fluorite remains associated, and saturation index calculations have revealed that the calcite-fluorite geochemistry is the dominant factor controlling fluoride concentration in this area during both post- and pre-monsoon. High fluoride waters have also been found to be of `bicarbonate' type showing increase of sodium in water with decrease of calcium.

  3. Application of multivariate statistical analysis concepts for assessment of hydrogeochemistry of groundwater—a study in Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques, cluster and principal component analysis were applied to the data on groundwater quality of Suri I and II Blocks of Birbhum District, West Bengal, India, to extract principal factors corresponding to the different sources of variation in the hydrochemistry as well as the main controls on the hydrochemistry. For this, bore well water samples have been collected in two phases, during Post-monsoon (November 2012) and Pre-monsoon (April 2013) from 26 sampling locations spread homogeneously over the two blocks. Excess fluoride in groundwater has been reported at two locations both in post- and in pre-monsoon sessions, with a rise observed in pre-monsoon. Localized presence of excess iron has also been observed during both sessions. The water is found to be mildly alkaline in post-monsoon but slightly acidic at some locations during pre-monsoon. Correlation and cluster analysis studies demonstrate that fluoride shares a moderately positive correlation with pH in post-monsoon and a very strong one with carbonate in pre-monsoon indicating dominance of rock water interaction and ion exchange activity in the study area. Certain locations in the study area have been reported with less than 0.6 mg/l fluoride in groundwater, leading to possibility of occurrence of severe dental caries especially in children. Low values of sulfate and phosphate in water indicate a meager chance of contamination of groundwater due to anthropogenic factors.

  4. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion. PMID:26164468

  5. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes – a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreya Das; S K Nag

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76°–23.99°N; 87.42°–87.64°E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered – total hardness (TH), Piper’s trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper’s trilinear diagram

  6. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  7. IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ASPECTS ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY IN AJAY- MAYURAKSHI INTER RIVERINE TRACT OF BIRBHUM DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Koyel Mukherjee

    2015-01-01

    The present study reveals the “Impact of physical aspects on agricultural productivity in AjayMayurakshi iner riverine tract of Birbhum District’’. The AjayMayurakshi inter riverine tract of Birbhum district occupies a unique position in the agriculture. Various physical and economic factors have prevent edits agricultural development. It has remained a region of small, medium and big farms, with paddy as the chief crop. Other crops like, wheat, potato, sugarcane, mustard etc. are...

  8. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Kamala Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district is an indicative of excessive soil loss in the monsoonal wet-dry type of climate. Slope erosion and channel erosion have generated huge amount of sediment from the small watersheds during intense monsoonal rainfall (June–September). The adjoining areas of Rampurhat I Block, Birbhum (West Bengal) and Shikaripara Block, Dumka (Jharkhand) have lost the lateritic soil cover at a rate of 20–40 ton/ha/year (Sarkar et al. 2005). In order to estimate the progressive removal of soil particles from the gully-catchments of the above-mentioned area, different morphometric parameters, soil parameters, hydrologic parameters and empirical models are employed. Side by side, the study is carried out to categorize the gully-catchments into different magnitude of erosion risk using several multivariate statistical techniques.

  9. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38μgml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15μgml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23μgml(-1)) at 28°C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil. PMID:26805621

  10. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijaya, B. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit-containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  11. Impact of Distance in the Provision of Maternal Health Care Services and Its Accountability in Murarai-II Block, Birbhum District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokananda Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The maternal health issue was a part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, Target-5. Now it has been incorporated into Target-3 of 17 points Sustainable Development Goal-2030, declared by the United Nations, 2015. In India, about 50% of newborn deaths can be reduced by taking good care of the mother during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period. This requires timely, well-equipped healthcare by trained providers, along with emergency transportation for referral obstetric emergency. Governments need to ensure physicians in the rural underserved areas. The utilisation of maternal healthcare services (MHCSs depends on both the availability and accessibility of services along with accountability. This study is based on an empirical retrospective survey, also called a historic study, to evaluate the influences of distance on the provision of maternal health services and on its accountability in Murarai-II block, Birbhum District. The major objective of the study is to identify the influence of distance on the provision and accountability of the overall MHCSs. The investigation has found that there is a strong inverse relationship (-0.75 between accessibility index and accountability score with p-value = 0.05. Tracking of pregnant women, identification of high risk pregnancy and timely Postnatal Care (PNC have become the dominant factors of the maternal healthcare services in the first Principal Component Analysis (PCA, explaining 49.67% of the accountability system. Overall, institutional barriers to accessibility are identified as important constraints behind lesser accountability of the services, preventing the anticipated benefit. This study highlights the critical areas where maternal healthcare services are lacking. The analysis has highlighted the importance of physical access to health services in shaping the provision of maternal healthcare services. Drawing on empirical observations of operation of public distribution system in

  12. WATER DEGRADATION OF BIRBHUM DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    GOPAL CHANDRA DEBNATH; PROLAY MONDAL

    2013-01-01

    Water is the primary medium through which climate change impacts the earth's ecosystem and people. Climate change is the fundamental driver of change in the world's water resources and adds additional stress through its effects on other externalities. The UN suggests that each person needs 20-50 liters of water a day to ensure their basic needs for drinking, cooking and cleaning. The world uses fresh water about 70 percent for irrigation, about 22 percent for industry and about 8 percent for ...

  13. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA; JITO SUGARDJITO

    2010-01-01

    Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010) Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. ...

  14. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Syafruddin, D.; Asih, P.B.; Coutrier, F.N.; Trianty, L; Noviyanti, R; Luase, Y.; Sumarto, W.; Caley, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Sauerwein, R.W.

    2006-01-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects...

  15. Study of ecological situation for the West Kazakhstan south districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of comprehensive research for ecological status of Karabota, Kaztal, Dzhangaly, Dzhanibek and Akzhaik districts of the West Kazakhstan districts adjoining to 'Kapustin Yar' and Azgir' test sites are presented. In the indicated districts the following examinations were conducted: analysis of soils samples; bottom sediments, flora and fauna samples for determination of radionuclide and heavy metals content in its; determination of absorption dose with population by the EPR dosimetry method by human teeth enamel; study of α-radiation accumulation in a diverse trees' annual rings

  16. Economy of Fertilizer Nitrogen through Organic Sources in Rain-Fed Rice-Legume Cropping Systems in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Puste, A.M.; Bandyopadhyay, S.; D. K. Das

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at a farmers’ plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district) of West Bengal, India, situated 23° 24' N latitude, 87° 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources...

  17. District Composite Report: West Baton Rouge Parish. 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. This report is specific to West Baton Rouge Parish. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year's data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating…

  18. Dental caries and oral health practices among 12 year old children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gathecha, Gladwell; Makokha, Anselimo; Wanzala, Peter; Omolo, Jared; Smith, Perry

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental caries is a common disease in children which causes pain with resultant effect on various physiological and social functions. The main objective of the study was to determine the association between dental caries and oral health knowledge and practice among children in Nairobi West and Mathira West Districts. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 639 children aged 12 years attending public primary schools in Nairobi West and Mathira West districts between Augus...

  19. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ...NMFS is opening directed fishing for pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 pollock total allowable catch in the West Yakutat District of the...

  20. Malaria in Wanokaka and Loli sub-districts, West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji B S; Coutrier, Farah N; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Luase, Yaveth; Sumarto, Wajiyo; Caley, Marten; van der Ven, Andre J A M; Sauerwein, Robert W

    2006-05-01

    Malaria has long been known as one of the major public health problems in West Sumba District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. To obtain baseline data for establishment of a suitable malaria control program in the area, malariometric surveys were conducted in two sub-districts, Wanokaka and Loli, during the periods of January, May, and August 2005. The survey included three selected villages in each sub-district, and blood smear analyses of 701, 921, and 894 randomly selected subjects in January, May, and August revealed 30.5%, 25.3%, and 28.2% malaria positives, respectively, consisting mainly of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and in a few cases, P. malariae. Analysis of malaria prevalence at different age groups clearly reflected the common phenomenon that younger individuals are more vulnerable by infection of either P. falciparum or P. vivax. In falciparum malaria, the frequency of cases carrying gametocytes was also relatively high involving all age groups. The findings indicate that the malaria incidence and transmission in the area are relatively high and that further exploration is warranted to establish a precise malaria control program. PMID:16687671

  1. Mammals of Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Mallick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Neora Valley National Park (NVNP in the Kalimpong Hills, Darjeeling District, having a wide range of altitudinal variations (183-3,200 m and climatic conditions and forming an ecological trijunction with Sikkim and Bhutan, is the last virgin wilderness in West Bengal. It is a global hotspot for the unique ecosystem, where tropical, sub-tropical, temperate and sub-temperate forests represent a wealth of biodiversity including many threatened and rare mammals. It is the prime habitat of Ailurus fulgens (estimated population 28-32, Neofelis nebulosa (population unassessed, Ursus thibetanus (18, Bos gaurus (81, Hemitragus jemlahicus (32, Naemorhedus goral (73, Capricornis sumatraensis (89, Rusa unicolor (286, Muntiacus vaginalis (590 and Sus scrofa (615. Discovery of Panthera tigris (20 in 1998 prompted the forest department to include NVNP as a sensitive wildlife zone. Many authors recorded the mammalian diversity in Darjeeling District since the mid-nineteenth century, but most of them referred to the Darjeeling Hills. The documentations on Kalimpong Hills are scarce because of the dense canopy, thick undergrowth and inaccessible terrain, particularly in the pristine forests of Neora Valley. Consequently, a comprehensive compendium of the mammals in this region was not prepared. A study was undertaken in 2008-2009 with a view to bridging this knowledge-gap and presenting an updated account of the mammalian species in this new short-listed World Heritage Site and surrounding forests of the Kalimpong Hills based on literature review, questionnaire survey, direct sighting and indirect evidences. During June-October 1916, N.A. Baptista recorded 29 mammalian species (22 genera out of 563 specimens collected, from the region. The present study registered 99 species (68 genera after 94 years.

  2. GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN LITERACY: A CASE STUDY IN MALDA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    JUEL RANA

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss spatio-temporal variation in total as well as gender discrimination in literacy of Malda district, West Bengal (India). The data for this research work has been collected from the secondary sources particularly District Census Hand Book, Malda district and internet. Some statistics have been employed for calculation as per need. For example standard deviation method to show internal variation of literacy, Z-score to show regional p...

  3. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prajna Gayen; Sudipta Maitra; Sutapa Datta; Santi P Sinha Babu

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  4. 75 FR 71666 - Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West Bend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Jeffries, District Ranger, Bend-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A...-Fort Rock Ranger District, Red Oaks Square, 1230 NE. Third Street, Suite A-262, Bend, Oregon 97701... Forest Service Bend/Ft. Rock Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Deschutes County, OR; West...

  5. Mining Policy, Water Conflicts and Corporate Social Responsibility in Ghana : Perspectives from the Wassa West District

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Nandita; Koku, John

    2005-01-01

    Using evidence from content analysis of secondary data in combination with findings from an ongoing study on mining and contamination of water resources in the Wassa West District, this paper highlights the links between mining policy, water conflicts and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in communities within the study district. Drawing mainly data from the review of cases of mining companies, the paper also examines activities undertaken by some mining companies as part of CSR in the ho...

  6. Determinants of the Adoption of System of Rice Intesification in Tasikmalaya District, West Java Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Laksana; Arie Damayanti

    2013-01-01

    The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) has been claimed to be more productive and sustainable than conventional methods in rice production. However, in some countries like Indonesia, its adoption rate remains low. This paper explores the factors that may affect SRI adoption in Indonesia, choosing Tasikmalaya district in West Java as a case study. By using a farm-level data, this study estimates the Cobb–Douglas production function and carries out a stochastic frontier analysis to assess whe...

  7. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukti Chanda; Monjit Paul; Joydev Maity; Gadadhar Dash; Supriya Sen Gupta; Bidhan Chandra Patra

    2011-01-01

    The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas) are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus) are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high i...

  8. Avifauna in five wetlands of Diara and Barind region in Maldah District of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, M; Nandi, B

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with avifauna of five important wetlands of Diara and Barind region in Maldah District of West Bengal, India. Sixty-two species of water birds belonging to 21 families were regularly seen during the survey period (2008-2010). Out of 62 bird species recorded, 13 are threatened species as per the IUCN checklist. The ecosystem and existing biodiversity of these wetlands are under various levels of anthropogenic pressures that directly affect the avifauna.

  9. The complexities of managing forest resources in post-decentralization Indonesia: a case study from Sintang District, West Kalimantan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yasmi, Y.; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Alqadrie, S.; Budiarto, T.; Ngusmanto,; Abidin, E.; Komarudin, H.; McGrath, S.; Zulkifli,; Afifudin,

    2005-01-01

    The study attempted to understand the dynamics and complexities of forest resources management following decentralization, the interactions among stakeholders in forest resources management, and the impacts of the new legislation on local community livelihoods in Sintang District, West Kalimantan. F

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sumana Sarkhel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods:The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results:The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions:The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

  11. 75 FR 16021 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 23, 2010 (75 FR 14498, March 26, 2010). As of March 25, 2010, NMFS has... Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs,...

  12. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs,...

  13. 77 FR 19145 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... (77 FR 16481, March 21, 2012). As of March 20, 2012, NMFS has determined that approximately 950 metric... Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2012 total allowable catch of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  14. 77 FR 16481 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (77 FR 15194, March 14, 2012). In accordance... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2012 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs,...

  15. 78 FR 14465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... by the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (78 FR 13162, February 26... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hours,...

  16. 76 FR 17570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on March 5, 2011 (76 FR 12883, March 9, 2011). As of March 23, 2011, NMFS has... Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2011 total allowable catch of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska...

  17. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of pollock in the West Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs,...

  18. Factors Influencing Teacher’s Employees, Turnover in West Pokot District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Chepkemboi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Turnover is a very critical issue and each organization should manage its rate. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot district. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the influence of factors such as leadership, remuneration, working conditions and geographical location on TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot district. This study was a descriptive survey, carried out in secondary schools in West Pokot district. The target population comprised a total of 268 secondary school teachers from a total of 30 schools. A sample of 80 respondents was selected using stratified sampling, simple random sampling and systematic random sampling. Questionnaires were the main tool of data collection. The findings indicated that the majority of the respondents felt that their contribution was recognised by the management, 67% of the respondents felt they were given plenty of freedom to decide on how to do their work and that working relations with the boss was not constrained. A majority felt their organization did not give them adequate and fair pay for the work they did as reported by 57%, a fact that led to TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot. A majority of respondents agreed that they were given adequate facilities and instruments to perform their duties and they worked in a safe and healthy environment as indicated by 42%. The employees said they would leave TSC given an alternative employment, and most of them (24% strongly agreed, some 50% agreed were comfortable with the geographical location of their organizations.

  19. Geochemical characterisation of granitoids of Wahkut area, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palaeo-Meso Proterozoic Shillong Group of rocks, Neoproterozoic granitoids and Late Jurassic Sylhet trap from the basement for Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary Mahadek sediments in the southern fringes of Meghalaya plateau. The Mahadek sediments are exposed over 180 km long and < 5 - 20 km wide zone in Jaintia on the east, East Khasi, West Khasi and Garo Hills districts on the west. It comprises about 2400 m thick succession overlying the basement. The lower part of the sedimentary column is divisible into Jadukata (∼235m) and Mahadek Formations (∼200m) of Upper Cretaceous age, which are overlain by Tertiary sequences. Wahkut area is located in the central part of the basin where granitoids comprising pink, grey and gneissic varieties form the basement for Mahadek sediments which host the second largest sandstone type uranium deposit of the country. Further north of the area, pink and grey granites have intrusive relationship with granite gneisses, pink phase being the youngest

  20. ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN DIFFERENT WATER HABITATS OF SOUTH AND NORTH 24 PARGANAS DISTRICTS, WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of arsenic in drinking water samples is an emergent issue in West Bengal, India. The present investigation has been done to study the arsenic concentration. We have collected water samples during month of November, 2014 from South 24 Parganas and North 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal, India. Water samples were collected from pond, river and tube wells. We analyzed the arsenic concentration in water samples collected from 6 different places Among the 6 water samples analyzed the arsenic concentration was ranged from 0.50 ppm to 2.0 ppm and the highest arsenic concentration 2 ppm was observed in Burul and the lowest arsenic concentration was found in Baranagar. So there should be a remediation has to be implemented for arsenic water pollution, otherwise it may leads to serious health effects to the human beings and it may also affect the crop plants such as rice, etc

  1. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  2. STUDY OF FATAL POISONING IN A DISTRICT HOSPITAL OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is an emerging problem worldwide. According to WHO, 3 million acute poisoning cases with 2,20,000 deaths occur annually. Of these, 90% of fatal poisoning occurs in developing countries mainly among agricultural workers. It is estimated that more than 50,000 people die every year from toxic exposure in India. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the current trend of poisoning in a District of West Bengal. 2. To know the burden of pesticide poisoning in society. MATERIAL AND METHODS A hospital based retrospective cross sectional study was conducted in a district hospital of West Bengal. Ethical clearance was taken from Ethics Committee. All the registered cases of poisoning in a district hospital during the study period were included in the study. Data was collected from medico-legal register and respective case sheets using pre-structured and validated questionnaire containing demographic and medico-legal aspects of poisoning for the period of 2 years (March 2014-March 2016. Data was analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Descriptive statistics were reported as mean (SD for continuous variables and frequency (percentage for categorical variables. RESULT Total 7280 patients reported to casualty department over two years; 5.21% were reported to be the poisoning cases. Out of total 380 poisoning cases, 84 (22.10% patients died. Maximum poisoning cases were from rural area falling mainly in the age group of 21-30 and above 50 years. Organ phosphorus poisoning was noted in 46.42% of reported cases. CONCLUSIONS Based on the study findings, we could understand the trend of poisoning in the study area. It is very important to identify these changing trends in the study area, as it will be helpful for policy makers to equip health care institutions which can lead to better management of cases and reduction in the mortality related to poisoning

  3. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District and Salt Lake Field...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Mailing/Street Address Change for the BLM-Utah West Desert District... mailing/street address for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), West Desert District and Salt Lake...

  4. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  5. Monitoring of pesticide residue in bovine milk from Nadia district, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aruna Kumari; Sar, Tapas Kumar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Monitoring of 210 bovine milk samples collected from local markets in the Nadia district of West Bengal during 2011 was performed. Samples were collected in summer and winter seasons. Analysis of pesticides was performed by using a multiresidue method validated in the laboratory. The quantification was performed using GC-ECD. Analysis revealed the presence of lindane in less than 1 % of milk samples. Endosulfan I and II were also detected and were found to exceed MRL recommended by Codex. Overall 1.90 % of the analyzed samples showed trace to measurable amount of pesticide residues. The monitored area provided pesticide residues data of milk, assisting in future scientific assessment on pesticide usage. PMID:23708263

  6. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  7. Indoor radon activity concentrations in Nongstoin town, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of Radon (222Rn) and its progeny are the major sources of natural background radiation exposure. The present paper reports the result of an indoor Radon study carried out in some dwellings of Nongstoin area of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India using LR-115 type2 Solid State Nuclear Tracks Detectors (SSNTDS) in bare mode. The overall radon activity concentration measured has been found to vary from 11.1 to 389.7 Bq.m-3 with an arithmetic mean value of 61.1±76.5 Bq.m-3 and a geometric mean value of 41.6±2.24 Bq.m-3. The measured dose received by the residents has been found to be well below the limits prescribed by World Health Organization. (author)

  8. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  9. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanmay Datta; Amal Kumar Patra; Santanu Ghosh Dastidar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status.Methods:were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons Results: A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.Conclusions:In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

  10. Body Mass Index and Chronic Energy Deficiency among Adult Santals of Purulia District, West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subal Das

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present community based cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the overall prevalance of undernutrition using BMI (kg/m2 among the Santal adult tribes of  Purulia District, West Bengal, India. Present study is based on the data of height and weight of adults aged 18 years and above from 10 villages of Purulia. A total of 513 (196 males and 317 females adults aged 18 years and above were measured. One commonly used indicator i.e., BMI were used to evaluate the nutritional status of the subjects. Females were found more underweight than their male counterpart (30.6% & (63.4%, which is found to be significant (p < 0.001. There is highly significant gender differences in CED (x2= 55.96a; df= 4; p< 0.001. Tribal females of west Bengal were in highly critical situation than other states of the same country (64.2%. Valuable health and nutritional promotion programs can be formulated based on these findings of such researches with the ultimate objective of reducing overall nutritional problem in a population.

  11. Maternal and Child Health Determinants in West Manggarai District East Nusa Tenggara Province

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    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2015-03-01

    kesehatan yang sulit, ibu hamil yang memeriksa ke dukun dan tidak tersedianya rumah sakit di kabupaten serta penyakit infeksi malaria dan diare. Solusinya adalah bidang harus aktif dengan melibatkan kepala desa dalam memantau ibu hamil, perlu disediakan perahu motor dan pembangunan rumah sakit daerah.Kata kunci:kematian ibu dan anak, Manggarai BaratABSTRACTBackground: West Manggarai district in period January until July 2012. Infant mortality rate were 34 cases, stillbirths were 33 cases and maternal mortality rate was 9 cases. Methods:This research is qualitative study using Focus Group Discussion (FGD desain, cooperation with head of public health center, midwife, nutrition program manager, and public health at health department. Results:Maternal and infant mortality in Labuan Bajo public health center caused by maternal nutritional deficiency, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, mother less attention to the baby when the baby’s ill and difficult access to health services. The problem solution is pregnant women should be regularly having antenathal care, using of mosquito nets. Need to be provided cheaper sea transport. Causes of malnutrition and undernourishment is knowledge, parenting skill and infectious diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. To overcome this problem midwife should be proactive giving counseling to families with malnutrition children under five. Maternal and infant mortality in Winekang public health center caused by not availability of hospital at district, pregnant women still seeking treatment to traditional healers, the implementation of government regulations are less strict and families often late in taking decision to be referred. The solution is health officers must always giving counseling to pregnant women and cross-sector approach to monitoring. Whereas the main cause nutritional problems is parenting behavior, infectious diseases, and not enough healthy food. Conclusion:Maternal and infant mortality caused by difficult

  12. Sex differences of Nutritional status among preschool children in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    C. Bhattacherjee; Biswas, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination is a burning issue for quite a long time. The present research is an attempt to find gender equity among pre-school children (below 6 yrs) of 2nd most populated district of India (Census 2011) i.e. North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. 1000 children i.e. 500 of each sex were selected by multistage sampling, and anthropometric measurements like height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-age, arm circumference-forage, were taken along with some cultural...

  13. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p < 0.05) effective to eliminate arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure. PMID:25475613

  14. Assessment of Arsenic Level in Boreholes from the Wassa West District using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Asane

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of drinking water is a necessary action intended to prevent the general public from contaminating water borne diseases. In this study, arsenic concentrations in 22 borehole water samples from various locations in the Wassa West district have been studied using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. The samples were irradiated using a 30 kW tank-in-pool Ghana Research Reactor-1 operating at a thermal neutron flux of 5×10 n/s.cm2. Elevated levels of arsenic were found in virtually all the 22 samples. Arsenic concentration in the samples ranged from 0.06 ppm to 9.43 ppm. (Mean-2.23,Standard Error of Mean-0.57 with minimum concentration of 0.06 ppm occurring at Ayensukrom No.1 and the maximum occurring at Tamsu-9.43 ppm. These values far exceed the World Health Organization’s recommended value of 0.01 ppm for arsenic in drinking water. The occurrence of arsenic in the area is traced to the existence of sulphide minerals such as arsenopyrites (FeAsS2 present in the underlying Birimian Basement rocks in the area.

  15. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced. PMID:22935861

  16. Health: Cognition and Threshold among the Oraon Tea Garden Labourers of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal

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    Subrata K. Roy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is scarcity of health information in many subpopulations in India, which needs to be explored for formulating effective public health policy. Studies on the tea garden population revealed that poor socioeconomic conditions, ignorance due to illiteracy, culture and food habit, overcrowding, and unhygienic living conditions make the population vulnerable to various communicable and noncommunicable diseases and malnutrition. Data were collected from the labourers of Birpara and Dalgaon tea gardens of Jalpaiguri district, West Bengal. The objective was to identify the primary health care available vis-à-vis the health problems. The results were based on mortality data, subjective well-being, frequency of ailment symptoms, perceived health status, and selected health practices as well as some observations, which indicate their cognition and threshold regarding health problems, presented as case studies. Mortality rates were high in the population; comparative mortality data shows no considerable change in mortality rate over time and space. A very high frequency of anaemia was prevalent among females along with sore throat and abdominal pain. Perceived health status of most of the people was good, although that was not always true, because the perception of the people often depends on their threshold and cognition about health and disease.

  17. Radon measurements in the soils of Nongstoin and Mairang regions of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on radium in soil samples collected from different location of Nongstoin and Mairang area of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India have been carried using 'Can Technique'. The radium content of the soil samples collected from Nongstoin was found to vary from 4.72 to 16.39 Bq.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 9.28±2.99 Bq.kg-1 and a geometric mean value of 8.80±1.38 Bq.kg-1. In Mairang, the radium content values was found to vary from 13.51 to 33.42 Bq.kg-1 with an arithmetic mean value of 23.64±5.61 Bq.kg-1 and a geometric mean value of 22.98±1.27 Bq.kg-1. The alpha index values (Iá) have also been calculated and it is found that the values range between 0.02 and 0.08 for Nongstoin and between 0.07 and 0.17 for Mairang. (author)

  18. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  19. Breast Feeding: Practices and Determinants in Rural Area of West Tripura District of India

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    Himadri Bhattacharjya, Shampa Das, Chanda Mog, Sukanta Bhowmik

    2013-01-01

    Methodology: To assess the practice and determinants of breast feeding a community based cross-sectional study using structured questionnaire was conducted during 1st August to 31st August 2009 among 116 mothers from four sub-centre areas under Mohanpur CHC of West Tripura district chosen by multistage sampling. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used. Result: Prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was 25%. Median time of initiating breast feeding was one hour following delivery, median duration of breast feeding was four months and median age of starting weaning was two months. Colostrum was fed by 87.9% women and advice regarding this was mainly obtained from the healthcare providers. Prelacteal feeding was practiced by 56% mothers and honey was the commonest prelacteal feed. With the improvement in mother’s literacy, there was significant increase in colostrum feeding (p = 0.010 and decrease in prelacteal feeding (p = 0.007. Mother’s parity, age, literacy, place of delivery, antenatal checkup and gender of the child were found to be signifi-cant determinants of exclusive breast feeding. Conclusion: Improving literacy status, promoting antenatal checkup and encouraging institutional birth will reduce harmful infant feeding practices. As the health workers were the major source of information, they can initiate behavior change communication for promoting exclusive breast feeding in this community.

  20. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Asit Kumar Maji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anestrous was higher in Non-descript cattle (53.86 % than that Crossbred Jersey cattle (46.14 % and incidence of repeat breeding was also significantly (P < 0.001 higher in non-descript cattle (68.05% than that of crossbred (31.95% animal. Irrespective of breeds the incidence of true anestrous, subestrus, anestrous due to pyometra with persistent corpus leuteum and infantile genitalia with other congenital disorders were 81.51 %, 9.34%, 1.44% and 7.71% respectively. It also revealed that incidence of repeat breeding due to anovulatory estrus, follicular cyst and uterine infection were 43.61%, 46.24%, and 10.15% respectively which were also significantly higher (P<0.001 in Non-descript cattle in comparison with Crossbred Jersey (72.4 vs. 27.0 %, 59.34 vs. 40.65% and 88.89 vs. 11.11% respectively for ND vs. CBJ.

  1. Limited Access to Iodized Salt among the Poor and Disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

    2010-01-01

    Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. ...

  2. Mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis: Recent experiences from a district of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Santanu; Samanta, Amrita; Kole, Seshadri

    2013-01-01

    Background: Annual mass drug administration (MDA) with diethyl carbamazine (DEC) and Albendazole is the most cost-effective strategy to control lymphatic filariasis (LF). Materials and Methods: The aim of the present study was to assess the coverage and the compliance of MDA, to elicit factors that influenced compliance, to document side-effects reported and to assess the awareness of the community regarding the disease and MDA program in Bankura district, West Bengal after 2012 round of MDA....

  3. Smallholder Farmers’ Perceptions and Adaptation to Climate Variability and Climate Change in Doba District, West Hararghe, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Belaineh Legesse; Yared Ayele; Woldeamlak Bewket

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate variability and change in Doba District, West Hararghe, Ethiopia. The study also investigated determinant factors influencing adaptation strategies to climate variability and change. The study followed a multistage stratified random sampling procedure. Data collected from 160 sample households was used in this study. Descriptive statistics were employed to assess perceptions among gender and social groups while the multinomial...

  4. Assessment Of The Physicochemical Characteristics Of Soils In Major Cocoa Producing Areas In The Dormaa West District Of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Okoffo; E.D.; Ofori; De, A.; Nkoom; M.; Bosompem; O.A.

    2015-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of cocoa growing soils were assessed in four cocoa growing communities in the Dormaa West District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana to ascertain the variations in selected soil properties and the quality of these soils for cocoa production. Thirty-two 32 soil samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015 from sixteen 16 selected cocoa farms and analysed using standard procedures. The results of the physicochemical properties of soils were in t...

  5. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

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    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  6. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs.

  7. Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Behzad; Mehrabani, Shiva; Rafiei, Behrouz; Yaghoubi, Behrouz

    2015-12-01

    In this study, 28 groundwater and 13 soil samples from Ahangaran mining district in Hamedan Province, west of Iran were collected to evaluate the level of contamination. Average concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb, and Ni in groundwater samples were 1.39, 3.73, 2.18, 9.37, 2.35, 4.44, and 5.50 μg/L (wet season), and 11.64, 4.92, 4.32, 14.77, 5.43, 4.12, and 0.98 μg/L (dry season), respectively. Results of groundwater samples analysis showed that the average of analyzed metals in the wet and dry seasons were below the permissible limits, except As in the dry season which displays concentrations that exceed US EPA water quality criteria recommended for drinking water. Also, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values in each sampling station were less than the critical index limit and were suitable for drinking. Factor analysis revealed that variables influential to groundwater quality in one season may not be as important in another season. Average concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in soil samples were 2.61, 31.44, 0.51, 55.90, 1284.9, 21.26, and 156.04 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results of the geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed the following decreasing order: Pb > Zn > Cu > As > Sb > Cd > Ag. Potential ecological risk index (RI) suggests that the contamination in the investigated area is moderate to very high risk and the ranking of the contaminants in decreasing order is Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > Cu > Zn. PMID:26545371

  8. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

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    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  9. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  10. Prevalence of the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in layer flocks in four districts in northern West Bank, Palestine

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Abo-Omar; Abdallah, Jihad M; Rateb Aref Othman

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the prevalence of the red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in layer farms in four districts of northern West Bank, Palestine. The four districts were: Nablus, Tulkarm, Tubas, and Jenin. A total of 225 layer farms were investigated for infection with the parasite during the period from September 2009 to August 2010. The highest prevalence of the red mite was observed in the district of Tulkarm (18.3%, 25.5%, 32.7% and 47.3%, for the districts of Nablus, Je...

  11. Interaction of acid mine drainage with waters and sediments of West Squaw Creek in the West Shasta Mining District, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Kirk, Nordstrom D.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acid mine drainage has acidified large volumes of water and added high concentrations of dissolved heavy metals to West Squaw Creek, a California stream draining igneous rocks of low acid-neutralizing capacity. During mixing of the acid sulfate stream waters in the South Fork of West Squaw Creek with an almost equal volume of dilute uncontaminated water, Cu, Zn, Mn, and Al remained in solution rather than precipitating or adsorbing on solid phases. Changes in the concentration of these generally conservative metals could be used to determine relative flow volumes of acid tributaries and the main stream. An amorphous orange precipitate (probably ferric hydroxides or a mixture of ferric hydroxides and jarosite) was ubiquitous in the acid stream beds and was intimately associated with algae at the most acid sites. Relative sorption of cations decreased with decreasing water pH. However, arsenic was almost completely scavenged from solution within a short distance from the sulfide sources.

  12. Arsenic contamination of ground water and its health impact on population of district of Nadia, West Bengal, India

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    Mazumder Debendra Nath

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The global health impact and disease burden due to chronic arsenic toxicity has not been well studied in West Bengal. Objective: To ascertain these, a scientific epidemiological study was carried out in a district of the state. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological study was carried out by house-to-house survey of arsenic affected villages in the district of Nadia. A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for this survey for the selection of the participants. A total number of 2297 households of 37 arsenic affected villages in all the 17 blocks were surveyed in the district. Result: Out of 10469 participants examined, prevalence rate of arsenicosis was found to be 15.43%. Out of 0.84 million people suspected to be exposed to arsenic, 0.14 million people are estimated to be suffering from arsenicosis in the district. Highest level of arsenic in drinking water sources was found to be 1362 μg/l, and in 23% cases it was above 100 μg/l. Majority of the population living in the arsenic affected villages were of low socio-economic condition, inadequate education and were farmers or doing physical labour. Chronic lung disease was found in 207 (12.81% subjects among cases and 69 (0.78% in controls. Peripheral neuropathy was found in 257 (15.9% cases and 136 (1.5% controls. Conclusion: Large number of people in the district of Nadia are showing arsenical skin lesion. However, insufficient education, poverty, lack of awareness and ineffective health care support are major factors causing immense plight to severely arsenic affected people.

  13. Sex differences of Nutritional status among preschool children in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India

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    C. Bhattacherjee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gender discrimination is a burning issue for quite a long time. The present research is an attempt to find gender equity among pre-school children (below 6 yrs of 2nd most populated district of India (Census 2011 i.e. North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. 1000 children i.e. 500 of each sex were selected by multistage sampling, and anthropometric measurements like height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-age, arm circumference-forage, were taken along with some cultural information to observe whether any sort of discrimination exists between children of both sexes and if parents possess any differentiating psychology regarding gender of children. It was found that no significant difference exists among boys and girls in respect of health status. Beside this, other caring facilities also showed the same feature. In every case the Chi-square statistics proved that there is no significant difference between bays and girls regarding caring facilities and nutritional status at 0.05 significance level. A simple conclusion can be drawn from the study that unlike other studies gender equity exists among the reference population of North 24 Parganas, West Bengal

  14. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa.

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    Fabienne Krauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka to 1.72 (Beyla in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland to 3.37 (Margibi in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu to 2.73 (Western Rural in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.18 for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.55 for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32-2.00 for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD.

  15. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauer, Fabienne; Gsteiger, Sandro; Low, Nicola; Hansen, Christian H; Althaus, Christian L

    2016-07-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka) to 1.72 (Beyla) in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland) to 3.37 (Margibi) in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu) to 2.73 (Western Rural) in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.18) for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.55) for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32-2.00) for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD. PMID:27434164

  16. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gsteiger, Sandro; Low, Nicola; Hansen, Christian H.; Althaus, Christian L.

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa in 2013–2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka) to 1.72 (Beyla) in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland) to 3.37 (Margibi) in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu) to 2.73 (Western Rural) in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77–1.18) for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98–1.55) for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32–2.00) for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD. PMID:27434164

  17. Dengue Virus Serotypes in Three Districts/Municipalities with Different Endemicity Level of Dengue in West Java

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    Heni Prasetyowati

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence rate of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF disease in Indonesia is increasing over years. DHF outbreaks happen in many provinces of Indonesia. West Java is a DHF endemic province. Nearly all districts/municipalities at the West Java Province are endemic areas and have reported DHF outbreaks. Factors supporting high incidence rate of DHF are tropical climate of Indonesia and the circulation of four dengue virus serotypes. The study aimed to identify dengue virus serotype distribution in the districts with different DHF endemic at the Province of Jawa Barat.The study was observational with cross sectional design. Samples consisted of 60 samples of blood serum of patients serologically infected by dengue virus. Samples came from three districts/municipalities with different DHF endemic. Dengue virus serotype of samples was detected using nested RT-PCR (Reserve Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction examination.Results showed that, four serotypes of dengue virus could be isolated from serum samples. Out of all positive samples, Den-2 was the serotype most frequently appeared (55% followed by Den-3 (29%, Den-1 (9.6% and Den-4 (6.4%. At dengue high endemic areas there were 4 serotypes of dengue virus Den-3 (6 times, Den-2(twice, Den-4 and Den-1 (once each. At medium endemic areas there were 4 serotypes of dengue virus, i.e. Den-2 (9 times, Den-3 (twice, Den-1 and Den-4 (once each. At low endemic areas there were two serotypes, i.e. Den-2 (6 times and Den-1 (once.

  18. Coverage and Awareness of and Compliance with Mass Drug Administration for Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Rabindra Nath; Sarkar, Aditya Prasad; Misra, Raghunath; Chakroborty, Amitava; Mondal, Tusar Kanti; Bag, Kanad

    2013-01-01

    India adopted WHO's strategy of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. The present study attempted to assess the coverage and awareness of and compliance with MDA for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Burdwan district of India, following MDA round in July 2010. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the four randomly-selected clusters in the district of Burdwan, West Bengal, India, covering 603 individuals from 15...

  19. [Sanitary service of West Special Military District on the eve and in the first days of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelepov, A M; Ishutin, O S; Leonik, S I

    2011-06-01

    This article evaluates military and political situation in the world and operational-strategic environment on the West Theater of operations on the eve of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945). We analyze structure and overall condition of sanitary service of West Special Military District of the Workers and Peasants Red Army and causes of failure of mobilization, organization and deployment of military units and establishments from the beginning of aggression of Fascist Germany to the Soviet Union. PMID:21899072

  20. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  1. Palyno-taxonomic study of some plant taxa of Fabaceae from Arambagh region of Hooghly district, West Bengal, eastern India

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    Pritha Bhattacharya (Sasmal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation is to study different pollen parameters such as shape, size, colpa and exine ornamentation for the taxonomic assessment of the groups of plants. The pollen morphology of some plant taxa of the family Fabaceae growing in the area of Arambagh of Hooghly district, West Bengal, India were studied using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM during the period of September 2012 to July 2013. The pollen grains of Cassia sophera, Cassia alata, Cassia occidentalis, Cassia fistula, Cassia tora, Cassia siamea, Butea monosperma, Bauhinia purpurea, Crotalaria retusa, Delonix regia, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Sesbania grandiflora and Tamarindus indica are 3-colporate type. The polyad types of pollen grains consisting of 12 cells were observed in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia arabica. The polyad type of pollen grain consisting of 16 cells is observed in Albizzia lebbek. The flowering period of the investigated taxa are recorded.

  2. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field technique in and around Balarampur, Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monalisa Mitra; Tapas Acharya

    2015-12-01

    Location of recharge zone in Precambrian crystalline rock is still unclear. The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological units and structural affinities. The application of lithology-based analysis technique identifies highly predominant fracture frequency and fracture aperture in mica schist and phyllite in the area. This property is not evident in the granite gneiss and epidiorite. The moderate to high fracture permeability value is also associated with the fractures occurring in the shear zone. Mica schist and phyllite associated with the shear zone may represent a permeable recharge zone in the region.

  3. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

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    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  4. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from…

  5. Health Seeking Behavior of Dengue Patient in Ciamis District West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Rohmansyah Wahyu Nurindra; Imas Masturoh; Joni Hendri; Mara Ipa

    2010-01-01

    cross sectional study was carried out to determine health seeking behaviour of dengue patient in Ciamis district. Subjects were 80 dengue patient’s care taker chosen by purposive sampling. Data was presented descriptively.The result showed based on the first place of treatment, pattern of treatment seeking behavior were identified the most common one was using public hospital as the first step. Pattern of treatment seeking behavior of the patient’s care taker that influenced decision making t...

  6. Mapping gender networks in Bogor District, West Java: Farmers accessing markets for their agricultural products

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Maria Elisa; Puspitawati, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Nanggung, West Java Province, Indonesia, agricultural production is dominated by men while women have little access and control over land, capital, and production inputs. Using qualitative methodology including mapping nodes in social networks, this study aims to understand how gendered networks affect women's ability to access markets and capture value for their agricultural products. While men farmers benefit from long established male-dominated information networks, women who are able t...

  7. Probability and variability analysis of rainfall characteristics of Dinhata in Koch Behar district of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanta Das

    2012-01-01

    The historical daily rainfall data for the period of 40 years (1972-2011) of Dinhata in Koch Behar district of W.B. were analyzed to know weekly, monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal rainfall variability and probabilities at different level for suitable crop planning. The overall mean annual rainfall was 2909.88 mm, with standard deviation 658.39 mm and coefficient of variation 22.62 %. The annual rainfall of 2800.5 mm with 105 rainy days and 2487.2 mm rainfall and 91 rainy days may be expec...

  8. Too Green to be True. IOI Corporation in Ketapang District, West Kalimantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maher, I. [Aidenvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    This report reveals that the Malaysian showcase company IOI Group does not live up to its environmental promises in newly established plantations in the Ketapang district - the Indonesian part of Borneo. Glossy CSR policies, engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives and the possession of certificates from the Round Table on Sustainable Palm Oil do not offer proof of IOI Group's 'green' credentials. Instead, Europe's increasing demand for palm oil in food and biofuels is leading to deforestation, breaches of environmental law and land conflicts in Asia (authors abstract)

  9. Nuclear power development in West Germany and aspects of the expanding district heat supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a general outline of the energy situation and the developments on the nuclear power plant sector, the possibilities and chances of the major oil and gas conservation methods are reviewed (domestic coal, district heating, dual-purpose power plants, waste heat utilisation, solar energy, heat pumps, coal gasification, fast breeders, nuclear fusion, efficient utilisation of energy). Spectacular solutions are nowhere in sight, so that only conventional ways remain. Nuclear power will expand, and energy growth will be 5% rather than 3-3.5%. (orig.)

  10. Health Seeking Behavior of Dengue Patient in Ciamis District West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohmansyah Wahyu Nurindra

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available cross sectional study was carried out to determine health seeking behaviour of dengue patient in Ciamis district. Subjects were 80 dengue patient’s care taker chosen by purposive sampling. Data was presented descriptively.The result showed based on the first place of treatment, pattern of treatment seeking behavior were identified the most common one was using public hospital as the first step. Pattern of treatment seeking behavior of the patient’s care taker that influenced decision making to take treatment alternatives included knowledge, attitude and practice about the caused, symptomp’s, virulence and transmission of dengue virus infection; the distance to treatment places and family role (husband/wife were important for caretakers to take into consideration when making treatment choices.

  11. Childhood leukaemia in the West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities in relation to nuclear establishments in the vicinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These data indicate that in the two district health authorities studied there was an excess incidence of childhood leukaemia during 1972-85 in the vicinity of the nuclear establishments. In the West Berkshire and Basingstoke and North Hampshire District Health Authorities an average of 60 000 children aged 0-14 lived within a 10 km radius of a nuclear establishment each year. The normal expectation of leukaemia in these children was two cases a year, whereas the recorded incidence was three cases per year, representing one extra case of leukaemia each year among these 60 000 children. (author)

  12. Understanding Crop Growing Pattern in Bardhaman district of West Bengal using Multi-Date RISAT 1 MRS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neetu; Prashnani, M.; Singh, D. K.; Joshi, R.; Ray, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    Information on crop phenology is essential for evaluating crop productivity and crop management. Phenological phases of rice and jute show great inter-annual variability and also large spatial distribution in West Bengal. Hence, it is essential to map the pheonological patterns. In this study spatio-temporal monitoring of the growing pattern of rice and other crops was carried out using multi-date RISAT-1 MRS data in the major rice growing region of Bardhaman district of West Bengal. RISAT-1 provides C band (5.3 Ghz) SAR data. The MRS (Medium Resolution ScanSAR) mode data with HH polarization having spatial resolution of 25 m and swath 115 km was used for this study. Total fifteen sets of MRS SAR data (with repetivity of 25 days) covering a complete year (May, 2013 to April, 2014) was used. Pre-processing of multi-date MRS data included georeferencing, calibration, image-image registration and speckle removal using Lee filter. Groundtruth collected during various cropping seasons (pre-Kharif, Kharif and Rabi) were used to generate crop signature pattern based on which hierarchical decision based models could be formed for classification. The periodic backscatter pattern of different crops and crop sequences were analysed. Accuracy of rice crop classification was higher by using 4-date data, compared to 3-date data. Rice transplanting patterns (Early, Normal and Late), both for Kharif and Rabi, could be identified using multi-date data. Major transplanting period for Kharif Rice was Early August and that of Rabi Rice was Early February.

  13. Are institutional deliveries promoted by Janani Suraksha Yojana in a district of West Bengal, India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY′ was implemented in India to promote institutional deliveries among the poorer section of the society. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bankura district among 324 women who delivered in last 12 months selected through 40 cluster technique to find out institutional delivery rate, utilization of JSY during antenatal period and relation between cash benefit under JSY during antenatal period and institutional delivery. Overall institutional delivery rate was 73.1% and utilization of JSY among eligible women was 50.5%. Institutional delivery (84.0%, consumption of 100 iron-folic acid tablets (46.0% and three or more antenatal check-ups (91.0% were better in women who received financial assistance from JSY during antenatal period than other women. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, JSY utilization came out to be significantly (P=0.031 associated with institutional deliveries. The study showed that cash incentive under JSY in antenatal period had positive association on institutional deliveries.

  14. Construction of a district heating supply line for the thermal power station 'Reuter-West' in Berlin; Bau einer Fernwaermezuleitung fuer das Heizkraftwerk 'Reuter-West' in Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knothe, Ralf [MRA - Wir uebernehmen die Leitung, Maerkische Rohrleitungs- und Anlagenbau GmbH und Co. KG, Bernau bei Berlin (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    For three years, the district heating grid in Berlin-Spandau (Federal Republic of Germany) is intensively developed. The increasing electrical connection of new customers requires an enhanced supply from the central power station Reuter-West. In the winter 2012/2013, steel pipes DN 700 were placed on a length of over one kilometer together with the necessary steel construction and the required thermal insulation. This was a logistical masterpiece due to the exceptional situation.

  15. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  16. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Bansah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impact of blast induced ground vibration prior to mining and establish remediation techniques. Blast impact study was conducted at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Building structures within the study area were mapped and characterized. A blast impact prediction model was also generated. Blast induced vibrations that may propagate from the Father Brown pit of Golden Star Wassa Limited using various instantaneous charges were determined. It was found that bench blasting at the Father Brown pit has a potential of causing damage to building structures within the Awunakrom community if the maximum instantaneous charge adopted at the southernmost periphery of the pit exceeds 30 kg. It was therefore, recommended that all bench blast conducted at the southern periphery of the Father Brown pit should adopt a maximum instantaneous charge of 30 kg to avert any potential blast damage. However, variable instantaneous charges of more than 30 kg can be adopted as the blast location moves towards the northern periphery.

  17. Limited access to iodized salt among the poor and disadvantaged in North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tapas Kumar; Das, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Chakrabarty, Indranil; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Roy, Rabindranath

    2010-08-01

    Iodine deficiency is endemic in West Bengal as evident from earlier studies. This community-based, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in North 24 Parganas district during August-November 2005 to assess the consumption of adequately-iodized salt and to ascertain the various factors that influence access to iodized salt. In total, 506 households selected using the multi-stage cluster-sampling technique and all 79 retail shops from where the study households buy salt were surveyed. The iodine content of salt was tested by spot iodine-testing kits. Seventy-three percent of the households consumed salt with adequate iodine content (> or = 15 ppm). Consumption of adequately-iodized salt was lower among rural residents [prevalence ratio (PR): 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-0.9], Muslims (PR: 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-0.9), and households with monthly per-capita income of shops had the iodine content of > or = 15 ppm. The findings indicate that elimination of iodine deficiency will require targeting the vulnerable and poor population. PMID:20824980

  18. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  19. Association of body weight concern with media exposure: A study on young girls of Howrah District, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the association between body weight concern and their frequency of exposure to the media among a group of young girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 110 girls aged 14-21 years, residing in the district of Howrah, West Bengal. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight related concern and media exposures were collected using pretested questionnaires. Weight related concerns included body weight dissatisfaction and perceived body weight. Media exposures included frequency of watching television programs, reading newspaper and magazine articles and browsing internet on topics related to body weight concern. Results: Although the frequency of watching television programs was high among the study participants yet it was not significantly associated with their body weight. Ch-square test showed that there was an association between the frequency of exposure to magazine articles related to body weight concern and initiation of exercise to reduce body weight. Reading of newspaper articles related to body weight by the participants was significantly associated with those who perceive themselves as fat. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of being overweight was found to be four times more among the girls below 17 years compared to those who are older. Conclusions: Print media (both news paper and magazine did play a significant role in developing concerns over body weight among this group of young girls.

  20. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  1. Assessment of nutritional status of rural early adolescent school girls in Dantan-ii block, Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyajit Maiti, Kauhik Chattterjee, Kazi Monjur Ali, Debidas Ghosh Shyamapada Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to ascertain the growth and nutritional status of adolescent school girls in rural area. Present study was conducted among adolescent girls studying in 5th to 8th standard (age group of 10 to 14 years of eighteen government approved school in Dantan-II block, Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal. Physical growths of total of 3611 girls were assessed through anthropometry. Data on weights and heights of girls were collected using standardized techniques. The extent of malnutrition of adolescent girls was evaluated by well-to-do Indian and NCHS median value. The results revealed that the weights and heights of these girls were below those of standard value. As regards weight for age index, only 28.2% subjects were in the normal category and the percentage of subjects suffering from Grade I (25.7%, Grade II (30.4%, Grade III (13.7% and Grade IV (1.9% malnutrition was quite prevalent in present study. With respect to height for age index, 65.2% of the subjects were in the normal category, 32.6% had mild retardation and about 2.2% had poor status. The present study revealed that different grades of malnutrition are widely prevalent among the girls in our study area. All these observations suggest that school going early adolescent girls need better nutrition to combat the problem of under nutrition. Further studies should be made to identify the factors responsible for it.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Productivity among Organic and Non-Organic farms in the West Mamprusi District of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu B. Issaka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in organic and conventional crop farms in the West Mamprusi District of the Northern Region of Ghana. The key issue the study sought to determine was whether there are productivity differences among organic and conventional crop farms and what factors account for these differences. The results indeed revealed that there are productivity differences among organic and conventional crop farms. However, both had negative total factor productivity growth, largely accounted for by a negative technical change over the period considered. The technical efficiency change, however, was positive for both but much higher for organic farms than conventional farms. More importantly, the study revealed that the type of agriculture practiced by farmers is not the most critical problem confronting farmers as indicated by the negative total productivity growth for both. Major constraints confronting farmers that need to be addressed include better organization on the farmers’ front, improved access to extension and improved access to farm inputs. These challenges notwithstanding, the study revealed that organic agriculture has the potential, in the long run, to achieve much more progress in total factor productivity, compared to conventional agriculture, if the right conditions exist for its uptake and optimal application.

  3. Sero diagnosis of dengue activity in an unknown febrile outbreak at the Siliguri Town, District Darjeeling, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Mihir Kumar Bhattacharya; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the outbreak of unknown fever at Siliguri town, Darjeeling District on request from the State Health Department, Government of West Bengal. Methods:Investigations were made to the affected wards, Sub Divisional Hospital and the nursing homes of Siliguri Town. Duration of illness was 3-5 days. Interesting observations were made in some cases which had gastrointestinal disorders with high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels. A total of 69 blood samples and 7 throat swabs (in Minimum Essential Media) were collected and brought to the ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata for analysis. Mosquitoes from different affected areas were collected for the identification of the definite vector. Results:Amongst the 69 blood samples, 42 (60.86%) were positive to IgM antibody against dengue virus by Mac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. No IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus was detected among the collected blood samples. Based on the clinical symptoms, presence of IgM antibody to dengue virus and identification of Aedes mosquito, it amply proves that, the illness of those cases were due to dengue virus infection. Conclusions:Based on clinical-epidemiological observations of the investigations the possibility of a communicable disease of viral origin, the detection of IgM antibody and the identification of Aedes egypti, and the potential circulation of denge virus in Siliguri town for the first time were all suggested.

  4. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  5. Assessment of indoor radiation level in the environs of the uranium deposit area of West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    War, S.A. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India)], E-mail: aaron2416@yahoo.com; Nongkynrih, P.; Khathing, D.T. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India); Iongwai, P.S. [Department of Zoology, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong - 793 022, Meghalaya (India)

    2009-11-15

    An estimation of the indoor background radiation dose distribution was carried out in dwellings of eleven villages located within and around the uranium mineralization area of Kylleng-Pyndensohiong, Mawthabah in West Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India. The ambient indoor gamma radiation level was monitored using Thermo Luminescence Dosimeters (TLDs) while the indoor radon and thoron concentration was measured using twin-cup dosimeters employing Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs). Results obtained from the study reveals that the local inhabitants of villages located close to the mining site receive higher doses than those inhabitants of villages located at a much farther distance from the mining site. The average total annual effective dose was found to be varying from 1.2 mSv y{sup -1} in the village of Langpa to 3.4 mSv y{sup -1} in the village of Nongbah Jynrin. The data obtained will serve as a reference in documenting changes to environmental radioactivity if mining is to be carried out in the future.

  6. CHILDREN BEAR THE BRUNT OF NEGLIGENCE OF THE UNORGANISED SECTOR: A STUDY IN BRICK-KILNS OF HOOGHLY DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    D Aparajita; Sukesh Das; M Sudarsan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brickfields belong to the unorganised sector and the workers are neglected, living in utterly poor conditions.The objective of the study was to assess the problems of their children with special emphasis on their nutritional status and the morbidity pattern. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, observational type of study on 86 children of up to 14 years of age belonging to three randomly selected brickfields of Singur Block(Hooghly District), West Bengal.The parents of the childre...

  7. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Manjulika; Taranga; Amar

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 201...

  8. Wood Production and Management of Woody Species in Homegardens Agroforestry: The Case of Smallholder Farmers in Gimbo District, South West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun Yakob; Zebene Asfaw; Solomon Zewdie

    2014-01-01

    Homegardens are defined as a system of production of diverse plant species, which can be adjacent to household or slightly further away and is easily accessible. Wood production and management systems of Kaffa homegardens are poorly known. The study was conducted to assess the wood production and farmers’ strategy of managing woody species in Gimbo district, South West Ethiopia. A complete homegarden woody species inventory was carried out to collect vegetation data, while simple random sampl...

  9. Tourism SMME adoption of Information and Communication Technology in Ngaka Modiri Molema district of the North West province of South Africa / S.H. Phetlhe

    OpenAIRE

    Phetlhe, S H

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigation of ICT adoption of tourism SMMEs in Ngaka Modiri Molema District of the North West Province in South Africa. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 200 tourism enterprises with the response rate of 68%. The results indicate, that the level of adoption of ICT is highly influenced by the perception of ICT adoption of tourism SMMEs. Most of the tourism SMMEs use ICT for business purpose and factors such as size of enterprise...

  10. Investigation into the role of the North-West Water Board in water service delivery management in municipalities : the case of Mafikeng Central District Municipality / Lefora France Mafete

    OpenAIRE

    Mafete, Lefora France

    2005-01-01

    This study is based on investigation into the role of the North West Water supply (which changed the name to Botshelo Water Board during the period of study in water service delivery management in municipalities. The case of Mafikeng Central District municipality. The major findings area as follows: In South Africa the role of regional water supply services providers, typically water boards, is changing. Historically they were established with the primary function of supplying ...

  11. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE ATTITUDE OF COLLEGE TEACHERS TOWARDS E-¬ LEARNING IN PURULIA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar BEHERA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Today we are living in an Information and Communication Technology (ICT era. All over the world, there is a trend to use ICT in the teaching-learning process. The teacher and learner must gain access to technology for improving learning outcomes. ICT is a new paradigm of the teaching-learning process widely accepted as a necessary tool for attainment of developmental goals. Particularly higher education plays an important role for achieving MDGs. In the process of education teacher plays vital role for promoting quality education. In order to development of teacher’s professional efficiency, gaining update knowledge and promoting quality education Electronic Learning is very much necessary in the present knowledge and information explosion age. E- Learning is widely accepted and it can be rich and as valuable as the classroom teaching. E-Learning is more useful in educational research. In the circumstance, E-Learning (EL plays an important role for creating awareness among the teachers. In the present study the investigator made an attempt to study the attitude of college teachers towards E-learning in Purulia district of West Bengal. One hundred teachers (both male and female teaching in Arts and Science streams were taken as representative sample of the whole population. An attitude scale was used for collecting the data. The means of both groups were tested for significance of difference by using ‘t’ test. The differences in the groups were statistically significant and the attitude of College teachers was more favourable towards E-Learning.

  12. Assessment Of The Physicochemical Characteristics Of Soils In Major Cocoa Producing Areas In The Dormaa West District Of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okoffo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties of cocoa growing soils were assessed in four cocoa growing communities in the Dormaa West District of the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana to ascertain the variations in selected soil properties and the quality of these soils for cocoa production. Thirty-two 32 soil samples were collected between December 2014 and February 2015 from sixteen 16 selected cocoa farms and analysed using standard procedures. The results of the physicochemical properties of soils were in the ranges of pH 7.35-8.49 EC 203-251 Scm OC 1.38-6.25 OM 2.38-10.8 TN 1.64-2.13 Available phosphorous 0.63-2.47 mgkg Available potassium 0.35-0.85 ppm NH4 34.8-45.0 mgL NO3- 25.7-40.6 mgL Sand 50.8-67.8 Clay 11.7-25.0 and Silt 9.96-24.3. The texture of the soils were generally sandy loam. In this study the scientifically measured soil properties showed significant variations p0.05 in some of the soils properties except EC available K TN NH4 Clay and Exchangeable K. Soil properties such as organic matter electrical conductivity available potassium and available phosphorous were below the minimum required value of soils for cocoa cultivation. In addition total nitrogen and pH were above the recommended limit required for cocoa production. However percent organic carbon and exchangeable potassium were within their respective critical limits for cocoa production. A guided application of fertilizer and manure is recommended to cocoa farmers for improved cocoa productivity.

  13. Impact of MGNREGA on Reducing Rural Poverty and Improving Socio-economic Status of Rural Poor: A Study in Burdwan District of West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Prattoy; Kumar, Jagdish; Supriya

    2011-01-01

    The present study conducted in the Burdwan district of West Bengal, has examined the socio-economic impact of MGNREGA on the rural poor who are mainly comprised of small and marginal farmers & agricultural labourers. The study is based on a random sample of 102 respondents (82 beneficiary and 20 non-beneficiary households) drawn by the PPS method from two good-performing and two poorly-performing Gram Panchayats randomly selected from one randomly selected good-performing block in the distric...

  14. Experiences and support needs of poverty-stricken people living with HIV in the Potchefstroom district in the North West Province / Anita Feitsma

    OpenAIRE

    Feitsma, Anita

    2005-01-01

    The majority of the people living with HIV in the North West Province are part of households living in an unfavourable economic situation (Kotze, Roux & Wessels 2001 :83). The AlDS pandemic has intensified their poverty situation even more, which is emphasized by Nattrass (2004:150) in the following statement: 'The AlDS pandemic is both a cause and effect of poverty.' Adding to this, the majority of the poverty-stricken people living with HIV in the Potchefstroom district do no...

  15. Perspectives of Urban Growth Management and Sustainable Development In West Bank, Hebron District as a case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Talahma, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD research study is to provide a perspective on the urban growth management and sustainable development in Palestine, and more specifically in Hebron district as a case study. Hebron is located 36 km south of Jerusalem, with an overall population size of around 600,000 people living in a total area around1246km2. Hebron is the biggest Palestinian district that has 16 municipalities and 154 localities. The research discusses and analyzes the urban planning system, ...

  16. The dynamics of population, land scarcity, agriculture and non-agricultural activities : West Usambara mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambiya, G.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the findings of research conducted between December 1996 and December 1997 in two villages, Kweminyasa and Lukozi, in Lushoto District, Tanzania, and comprising a general broad survey of individuals to determine the pattern of nonagricultural activities over time, a survey of ex

  17. The particulate fraction of nutrients transported in river loads in the South West River Basin District (SWRBD), Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, S.; Harrington, J.

    2009-04-01

    Nutrient and sediment budgets help river basin managers devise and implement appropriate strategies and methods to manage river basins. The enriching effects of nutrients are well documented, and quantifying nutrient loads can help predict algal blooms and thus minimise their occurrence. Many studies concentrate on the dissolved fraction of nutrients whilst ignoring the particulate proportion. Other studies fail to differentiate between particulate and dissolved forms. This paper reports on the results of the first investigation on Irish rivers concerning the fraction of nutrients that are found in particulate form, as well as nutrient riverine loads. Seven rivers in three different catchments in the South West River Basin District (SWRBD), as defined under the Water Frameworks Directive (200/60/EC, WFD), in the Republic of Ireland were investigated. The rivers investigated were the Lee, Shournagh, Glashaboy and Owenabue which discharge to Cork Estuary; the Bandon River which discharges to Kinsale Estuary; and the Blackwater and Bride rivers which discharge to Youghal Estuary. Thirty five water samples (five on each river) were collected for nutrient analysis between January and September 2008. Nutrients tested included; total dissolved P (TDP), total particulate P (TPP), dissolved orthophosphate, particulate orthophosphate, total dissolved N (TDN), total particulate N (TPN), dissolved nitrate and particulate nitrate. Results show that phosphorus transport in all catchments is largely dependent on suspended sediment concentration and flow rate. The fraction of total load for nitrogen and phosphorus that was found to be particulate varied largely between catchments. Nutrient loads were calculated for each river. Annual TN loads ranged approximately between 655 tonnes and 17,000 tonnes. TP loads ranged from as little as 12 tonnes to almost 1,400 tonnes. The fraction of TP found to be particulate varied from 16% to 81%, with an average of 50%. TPN had a range of 20

  18. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION IN TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCES IN SECONDARY SCHOOL OF THE RURAL AREA OF BURDWAN DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basudeb Roy Chaudhury

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This Experimental study compared academic performance of students in class- X (ten in one of the Bengali Medium School of rural area of Burdwan District, West Bengal , India between traditional instruction, and Computer Assisted Instruction with simultaneous discussion. The design used in this study was pre-test and post-test to control group and experiment group. Fifty students of class-x were selected and two groups were formed. Students of each group were selected randomly. Statistical data analysis was used in data analysis. Significant difference was found in the post test scores of students receiving traditional method, and CAI with simultaneous discussion. It revealed that CAI with simultaneous discussion is more effective than traditional method

  19. Butterfly diversity in tropical moist deciduous sal forests of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Singh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Butterflies were sampled during February and September 2008 using pollard walk method to assess the species diversity in the tropical moist deciduous sal forest habitats of Ankua Reserve Forest, Koina Range, Saranda Division, West Singhbhum District, Jharkhand. This area, a total of 999.9ha, is being proposed for lease under an iron ore mining project. This short-term study revealed high beta diversity of butterflies in these forest tracts, with 71 species recorded. Of these, two species, Leopard Lacewing Cethosia cyane (Drury, 1773 and Restricted Demon Notocrypta curvifascia (C. & R. Felder, 1862, are new records for Jharkhand state while three other species recorded are listed in the Indian Wildlife (Protection Act 1972. This study provides support for long-term conservation of these fragmented sal forest tracts to ensure biodiversity protection.

  20. U, Th enrichment in cesium bearing aplitic pegmatite of Belamu (North) area, Purulia district, West Bengal with special reference to monazite group of minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium bearing aplitic pegmatites of Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex, Purulia district, West Bengal show enrichment in U and Th through at least one phase of lanthanide-actinide rich hydrothermal activity. Monazite group of minerals with Th and REE are hosted by the aplitic pegmatites with varying texture and composition. Monazite (Ce) occurs as inclusions within quartz and feldspar, with evolutionary trend from huttonitic monazite at core to monazite (Ce) at rim. Ce/Sm ratio varies from 8.11 to 25.67, representing a wider evolutionary trend of the melt from which monazite crystallized. Principal component analysis shows different substitution phenomenon in monazite. Chemical variations indicate the huttonitic monazite to be a primitive component, which was transformed to monazite (Ce) by interaction with LREE-P-rich fluid. (author)

  1. Effects of Development Interventions on the Productivity and Profitability of Women Shea Butter Processors in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of development agencies’ interventions on productivity and profitability of women shea butter processors in contributing to the development of the shea nut industry in Northern Ghana. A survey of 114 women shea butter processors, comprising of 57 each of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of development interventions in the West Gonja District were sampled and interviewed with a semi structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held to obtain qualitative data. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA conducted at 5% level of significance found that labour productivity of beneficiaries of development interventions by way of training, equipment and machinery provisions do not differ significantly from that of respondents who had never benefited from such interventions. Similar results were found with regard to average monthly profit made by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Market sourcing was identified as a major problem affecting women shea butter processors in the district. The study therefore recommends that development agencies programs should highlight follow-up trainings, monitoring and supervisions to ensure the sustainability of projects so that they can continue to yield expected impacts. Also, development agents should include market sourcing opportunities in rural enterprise improvement interventions since that remains a challenge to the realization of development interventions

  2. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megersa, Moa; Asfaw, Zemede; Ensermu KELBESSA; Beyene, Abebe; Woldeab, Bizuneh

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structu...

  3. Assessment of Control Measures and Trends of Malaria in Burie-Zuria District, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Addisu Workineh Kassa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Malaria is caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes. The aim of this study was to assess control measures and trends of malaria and guide intervention measures at Burie-Zuria district, Amhara region. Methods. Descriptive cross-sectional assessment of control measures was undertaken. We used health facility records of malaria data. We surveyed households for clinical malaria cases and utilization of Long Lasting Impregnated Nets (LLINs and its status; the condition of Indore Residual Spraying (IRS operation at household level was observed. Results. In Zelma-Shenbekuma kebele (village the prevalence rate of confirmed malaria cases in the 2nd week of September was 1.2 per 1000 (17 of population and increased to 11.5 per 1000 (163 of population in the 3rd week of September 2012 and reached 16.6 per 1000 (236 of population in the 1st week of November 2012. The attack rate was the highest in 1-<5 years 120.3 per 1000 (1920 of population. LLINs were distributed four years back and only five of the fifteen respondents knew about the use of LLINs and used it regularly. Four of the fifteen households were not sprayed with IRS. Conclusion. Vector control interventions were not carried out timely.

  4. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Faizal Maad; Sumardjo Sumardjo; Amiruddin Saleh; Pudji Muljono

    2014-01-01

    The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1) analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs) entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR); (2) analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3) formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district in...

  5. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  6. Policy Implementation Of Special Autonomy Funds Case Study Of Education Funding In The District Manokwari West Papua Indonesia

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    Baesara Wael

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulations special autonomy Papua is a product policy given by the central government in an effort to promote development in various aspects of the four main program priorities for the economy education health and infrastructure. in the context of policy implementation then this can be considered as one of the factors that interfere with activities especially in relation to the legal rules of the program is not yet clear. the focus of this study is how can the implementation of special autonomy fund policies in education in Manokwari West Papua province. This study used a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. This study seeks to identify and analyze on the implementation of policy autonomy special funds Education in Manokwari West Papua Province through qualitative interpretation. This study seeks to reveal how the implementation of the Special Autonomy Fund for Education in Manokwari West Papua Province. The research concludes that the Communication External and Internal communication is not maximized. The quality of human resources is still minimal and not understand the working procedures due to no regulation or supported by PERDASI PERDASUS governing socialisation Education and lack of special autonomy or special autonomy funds in terms of the form of facilities or equipment Resource inadequate facilities. In terms of the funds Resources regarding the distribution of the Special Autonomy Fund of uneven and has not touched most of the basic needs of the people of Papua especially Papuan society itself as well as in terms of the Resource Authority regarding the delegation of authority from supervisor to subordinate unclear because there is no standard operating Procedure SOP. Furthermore in terms of structure in an organizational bureaucracy that there should be a very clear organization structure to facilitate the delegation of authority and accountability.

  7. THE VICIOUS CYCLE BETWEEN LOW LITERACY AND EARLY MARRIAGE IN AGRO-BASED ECONOMY: A CASE STUDY IN NADIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

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    Mahadeb Ghosh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is the approved social pattern where by two or more people establish a family (Herton & Hunt, 1984.Throughout the world, marriage is regarded as a moment of celebration and a milestone in adult life (UNICEF, 2001.Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching the age of 18 (UNICEF, 2011. Sadly, in case of where bride’s age is less than 18 years, the marriage gives no such celebration and enjoy in human life but it is enunciated bewilderment in life of the bride. Patriarchal society gives less value to girl child, mainly in less educated agrarian society where female children are illiterate or less educated has no chance for job, hence force to marry. Child marriage is one of the most prevalent forms of sexual abuse and exploitation especially of girls (Ghosh, 2011.This social practice is also a violation of human rights. Nadia district, the study area, of West Bengal is situated in flood plain of lower Ganges Basin and main economic activity of the area is agriculture. As par 2011 census, Govt. of India, except urban centre, percentage of literacy of the district is lower (75.58% than state level (77.1% and female literacy rate is (70.98% which is (7.77% lower than male literacy rate (78.75%. In this agro-based society, generally poor families want to reduce their economic constrain, protect girl child from pre- marriage sex and avoid pregnancy outside marriage, marry off their girl in very early before legal age of marriage (18 years.

  8. PKDL—A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Swagata; Saha, Pabitra; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Roy, Surajit; Ghosh, Tamal Kanti; Guha, Subhasish K.; Kundu, Pratip K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita; Maji, Ardhendu K.

    2015-01-01

    Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46%) for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6–12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period. PMID:26485704

  9. PKDL--A Silent Parasite Pool for Transmission of Leishmaniasis in Kala-azar Endemic Areas of Malda District, West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagata Ganguly

    Full Text Available Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL is a chronic but not life-threatening disease; patients generally do not demand treatment, deserve much more attention because PKDL is highly relevant in the context of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL elimination. There is no standard guideline for diagnosis and treatment for PKDL. A species-specific PCR on slit skin smear demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8%, but it has not been applied for routine diagnostic purpose. The study was conducted to determine the actual disease burden in an endemic area of Malda district, West Bengal, comparison of the three diagnostic tools for PKDL case detection and pattern of lesion regression after treatment. The prevalence of PKDL was determined by active surveillance and confirmed by PCR based diagnosis. Patients were treated with either sodium stibogluconate (SSG or oral miltefosine and followed up for two years to observe lesion regression period. Twenty six PKDL cases were detected with a prevalence rate of 27.5% among the antileishmanial antibody positive cases. Among three diagnostic methods used, PCR is highly sensitive (88.46% for case confirmation. In majority of the cases skin lesions persisted after treatment completion which gradually disappeared during 6-12 months post treatment period. Reappearance of lesions noted in two cases after 1.5 years of miltefosine treatment. A significant number of PKDL patients would remain undiagnosed without active mass surveys. Such surveys are required in other endemic areas to attain the ultimate goal of eliminating Kala-azar. PCR-based method is helpful in confirming diagnosis of PKDL, referral laboratory at district or state level can achieve it. So a well-designed study with higher number of samples is essential to establish when/whether PKDL patients are free from parasite after treatment and to determine which PKDL patients need treatment for longer period.

  10. Hydrogeochemistry and isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater systems in the Ellembelle district, Ghana, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjah, A. K. M.; Akiti, T. T.; Osae, S.; Adotey, D.; Glover, E. T.

    2015-03-01

    An integrated approach based on the hydrogeochemistry and the isotope hydrology of surface water and groundwater was carried out in the Ellembelle district of the Western Region of Ghana. Measurement of physical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, total dissolved solutes, total hardness and conductivity), major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, Cl-, SO4 2- and NO3 -), and stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) in 7 rivers, 13 hand-dug wells and 18 boreholes were taken. Na+ was the dominant cation and HCO3 - was the dominant anion for both rivers and groundwater. The dominant hydrochemical facies for the rivers were Na-K-HCO3 - type while that of the groundwater (hand-dug wells and boreholes) were Na-Cl and Na-HCO3 - type. According to the Gibbs diagram, majority of the rivers fall in the evaporation-crystallization field and majority of the hand-dug wells and the boreholes fall in the rock dominance field. From the stable isotope composition measurements, all the rivers appeared to be evaporated, 60 % of the hand-dug wells and 70 % of the boreholes clustered along and in between the global meteoric water line and the local meteoric water line, suggesting an integrative and rapid recharge from meteoric origin.

  11. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizal Maad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1 analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR; (2 analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3 formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district involved 212  (SMEs entrepreneurs which determined from population (450 SMEs entrepreneurs by Solvin formula with level of error 5 % and drawn by cluster random sampling. Data collection was conducted from July to November 2013, and consisted  the primary and secondary data. Data analysis was simulated by using structural equation model (SEM . The results showed that the degree  of autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs is low, its core was 36.89 out of 100.00. There are three strategies that must be done to develop of  autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs through  CSR, such as; (a an increase the empowerment sustainable of MSEs entrepereneurs (b improve the quality of  the environment  supporting MSEs and (c an increase in intensity of  empowerment for MSEs entrepreneurs.

  12. A STUDY TO ASSESS THE KNOWLEDGE OF RURAL MOTHERS REGARDING COMMON DOMESTIC CHILDHOOD INJURIES AND HOME-SAFETY MEASURES ADOPTED BY THEM IN WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjulika

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fragile, helpless and innocent, an infant enters the world completely dependent on its caretakers. The house is an exciting place for infants and small children, who love to explore but aren’t aware of the potential dangers. OBJECTIVES: To assess knowledge of mothers regarding domestic childhood injuries and safety measures adopted by them. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 230 rural mothers of west Tripura district during May to June 2012. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select individual participant and information collected using pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule. RESULTS: The majority (71.3% of respondents were in the age group 20-25 yea, housewives (79.56%, nuclear families (67.7%, up to primary education (60.9% and family income of

  13. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Acharya; Rajesh Prasad; S Chakrabarti

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance () of fracture datasets of each domain. The is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  14. An Inventory of the Diversity and Ethnomedicinal Properties of Cucurbitaceous Vegetables in the Homestead Gardens of Sub Himalayan Districts of West Bengal, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Chatterjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbits are group of vegetable crops belong to family cucurbitaceae. Apart from nutraceuticals and phytomedicinal properties, cucurbits are rich in several minerals, vitamins and dietary fibres. Homestead gardens are traditional ex-situ conservation sites for crop biodiversity. The agro-climatic condition of sub Himalayan West Bengal is ideally suited for cultivation of different cucurbitaceous vegetables including cucumber, bottle gourd, pumpkin, ridge gourd, sponge gourd, pointed gourd, spine gourd, ash gourd, bitter gourd, snake gourd, water melon, muskmelon, chow chow, ivy gourd etc, a majority of which are available in homestead gardens. Among individual crop, variability exists in fruit shape, fruit size, fruit colour, fruit length, fruit lustre, stem shape, seed size, 100 seed weight etc. The rich diversity remains unexploited for crop improvement, which may offer tremendous scope for utilization in food and nutritional security. These plants are having wide ethnomedicinal properties. To understand the pattern of biodiversity and ethnomedicinal uses under different home garden system an exploration was carried out during 2011 and 2012 covering two sub Himalayan districts namely Coochbehar and Jalpaiguri. Information was collected through questionnaire survey and field observation in selected villages. The findings revealed that morphological variability exists within the crop species and cultivars. Successful exploitation will lead to higher profitability and stability in production, increase home herbal remedy and reduce the risks of unexpected natural calamity.

  15. CHILDREN BEAR THE BRUNT OF NEGLIGENCE OF THE UNORGANISED SECTOR: A STUDY IN BRICK-KILNS OF HOOGHLY DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Aparajita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brickfields belong to the unorganised sector and the workers are neglected, living in utterly poor conditions.The objective of the study was to assess the problems of their children with special emphasis on their nutritional status and the morbidity pattern. Methods: It was a cross-sectional, observational type of study on 86 children of up to 14 years of age belonging to three randomly selected brickfields of Singur Block(Hooghly District, West Bengal.The parents of the children were interviewed and clinical examination done on the children. Results: Data were analysed using SPSS software 17.0 version. Forty nine (57% children were malnourished.On examination and on previous two weeks recall it was observed that sixty six (77% children had one or more morbidities. Pallor was the most common morbidity (70%, followed by ARI (18.6% and diarrhoea (9.3%.School attendance was 12% and child labor was found in 20% children. Conclusion: The children live in unimaginably poor conditions deprived of all basic amenities. Due attention must be given to these children regarding adequate social security and comprehensive health care.

  16. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and its correlates among police personnel in Bankura district of west Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranav Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted among police personnel (N = 1817 in Bankura District, West Bengal, India to estimate the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM, impaired fasting glucose (IFG, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, and its correlates during July-November, 2011. Participants were enquired about their age, gender, physical activity, and predominant occupational activity. Diagnosis of DM, IFG, and IGT was based on a history, fasting, and 2-h post-load blood glucose estimation as per World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Body mass index, waist circumference (WC, and blood pressure (BP were estimated. Out of 1817 subjects, DM was found in 15%, 1.1% had IFG and 5.7% had IGT. Age >50 years, family history of diabetes, hypertension, and abdominal obesity were found to be significantly associated with DM and IGT, whereas IFG was significantly associated with the family history of diabetes and hypertension. High prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetic condition warrants early effective intervention to keep the police force healthy and agile.

  17. Arsenic and Mercury Levels in Earthenware Clays in Otsew in Gomoa West District of Central Region of Ghana using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V. Samlafo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and extent of potentially toxic heavy metals, As and Hg in earthenware clay deposits at Otsew in the Gomoa West District of the Central Region of Ghana using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA technique. Arsenic concentrations in the clay ranged from 1.55±0.23 to 18.47±2.60 μg/g at S6 and S10 respectively with a mean of 9.48 μg/g. Arsenic was not detected in sample S3. Mercury concentration in the clay ranged from 0.030±0.005 to 0.31±0.01 μg/g in S2 and S3 respectively, with a mean of 0.14 μg/g. Mercury was however, not detected in S10. The precision and accuracy of the analytical technique (INAA were assessed by simultaneous activation of reference material IAEA soil-7. The values obtained compared favourably well with the recommended values as Spearman’s correlation coefficient was +0.99. The experimental samples were within ±5% of the recommended values. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ±4%.

  18. Willingness to pay for improvement in the agricultural activities of some six selected villages in west Akim district of Ghana (emphasis on cassava

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    Isaac Baidoo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a tropical crop which originated from South America. Structured questionnaires were used to gather essential information on farmers’ willingness to pay for improved cassava by means of contingent valuation Method (CVM. The Survey carried out in the West Akim District of Ghana shows that 54% are willing to pay for improvement in their agricultural activities. The varieties of cassava they cultivate are Madumaku, Otuaka, Bosuminsia, Bankyebrodee, Ankrah, Esiabeyem, Soshe, Ada and Krobo. OLS Regression results show that the area of land for cassava cultivation depends on the total acre of land the individual farmers possess, type of labour and the number of children they have and logistic regression results shows that, cassava variety, livestock and family labour are significant variables that affect the willingness to pay for improvement in their farming activities. It is recommended that a pilot project is set up in these communities so that those who are not sure will see the proposed improvement in agriculture in order to build up confidence in them.

  19. Effect of heat wave on the Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Pteropodidae population from Purulia District of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Dey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of heat wave on the behavior and population count of Indian Flying Fox Pteropus giganteus from a roosting colony occupying a Tamarind tree Tamarindus indica at Simla Village of Purulia District of West Bengal, India during the period from March 2010 to July 2010.  A total population comprising 250 individuals, recorded in March 2010, came down to 80 by June 2010.  Information obtained from local villagers affirmed that the roosting bat colony from the present study location was a century old and had no apparent conflicts with villagers; moreover, it was protected with reverence.  However, soaring day temperatures (with a maximum of up to 480C, recorded during May and June 2010 alongside drought were the major threats that the population faced and mass die-offs caused the population to decline during the hotter months.  Continuous fanning and belly-soaking were common behavioural features recorded during the summer months.  However, death rate due to hyperthermia and dehydration was uncommonly high. 

  20. 海峡西岸经济区中式快餐业现状研究%Rearch on the Status of Chinese Fast Foods Industry in the West Coast Economic District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震

    2011-01-01

    海峡西岸经济区是国家战略的重要组成部分,中式快餐业在福建省本土却远远不敌洋快餐,肯德基、麦当劳、必胜客等洋快餐占据一半以上的快餐市场。从海西中式快餐业经营的各项数据出发,剖析海西中式快餐业发展现状,对研究海峡西岸经济区中式快餐业发展策略具有重要的现实意义。%The West Coast Economic District is an important component of national strategy,Chinese fast food industry in Fujian Province is far to match for Western fast food.KFC,McDonald's,Pizza Hut and other Western fast food accounted for more than half of fast food market.starting from the business operators data for Chinese fast food,Analysis the Status of Chinese fast food industry in The West Coast Economic District,has an important practical significance on the research development strategy of Chinese fast food industry in The West Coast Economic District.

  1. A process evaluation of user fees abolition for pregnant women and children under five years in two districts in Niger (West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African policy-makers are increasingly considering abolishing user fees as a solution to improve access to health care systems. There is little evidence on this subject in West Africa, and particularly in countries that have organized their healthcare system on the basis of the Bamako Initiative. This article presents a process evaluation of an NGO intervention to abolish user fees in Niger for children under five years and pregnant women. Methods The intervention was launched in 2006 in two health districts and 43 health centres. The intervention consisted of abolishing user fees and improving the quality of services (drugs, ambulance, etc.. We carried out a process evaluation in April 2007 using qualitative and quantitative data. Three data collection methods were used: i individual in-depth interviews (n = 85 and focus groups (n = 8; ii participant observation in 12 health centres; and iii self-administered structured questionnaires (n = 51 health staff. Results The population favoured abolition; health officials and local decision-makers were in favour, but they worried about its sustainability. Among health workers, opposition to providing free services was more widespread. The strengths of the process were: a top-down phase of information and raising community awareness; appropriate incentive measures; a good drug supply system; and the organization of a medical evacuation system. The major weaknesses of the process were: the perverse effects of incentive bonuses; the lack of community-based management committees' involvement in the management; the creation of a system running in parallel with the BI system; the lack of action to support the service offer; and the poor coordination of the availability of free services at different levels of the health pyramid. Some unintended outcomes are also documented. Conclusion The linkages between systems in which some patients pay (Bamako Initiative and some do not should be

  2. Prospecting for groundwater in the Bawku West district of the Upper East region of Ghana using the electromagnetic and vertical electrical sounding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated approach involving the Electromagnetic (EM) and Vertical electrical sounding (VES) survey methods, has been used to locate potential drilling sites to find groundwater for twenty (20) rural communities in the Bawku West District of the Upper East Region of Ghana. The EM method involved the use of the Geonics EM 34-3 equipment to obtain traversing data for the horizontal dipole (HD) and vertical dipole (VD) modes at station intervals of 10 m for a 20 m coil separation. The EM survey provided subsurface information relating to positions of high electrical conductivity anomalies which presumably pointed to locations for groundwater structures. As a follow up, the VES was carried out with respect to the anomalous positions, using the dipole-dipole configuration with the McOhm-EL resistivity meter. The VES enabled the estimation of the depth of the weathered layer to the bed rock. The results of the VES data were interpreted quantitatively by modeling using IX1D V.3 software. The study identified prospective sites for drilling of bore-holes to provide potable water for the communities. Results for the VES suggested that the aquifer zones in the area under study are mainly deeply weathered and fractured. The lithology for some of the recommended drilled points correlated well with the results obtained from the EM and VES investigations. The aquifer depth was found to be between 10 and 40 m with an average value of 21.5 m. The depth of the basement rock from the surface was 21.4 m. The estimated yield of the boreholes drilled within the area was between 10 and 500 litres/min with an average value of 136.8 lit/min. the success rate was found to be about 95%. The integrated use of EM and VES surveys has been found to be very successful in locating groundwater resources for the rural communities with the area studied. (au)

  3. Development of experimental approach to examine U occurrence continuity over the extended area reconnoitory boreholes: Lostoin Block, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exploratory drilling was undertaken in the Lostoin block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya based on the geological extension to the major uranium deposit in the basin. Gamma ray logging of drilled boreholes shows considerable subsurface mineralization in the block. However, environmental and exploration related challenges such as climatic, logistic, limited core drilling and poor core recovery etc. in the block severely restricted the study of uranium exploration related index parameters for the block with a high degree confidence. The present study examines these exploration related challenges and develops an integrated approach using representative sampling of reconnoitory boreholes in the block. Experimental findings validate a similar geochemically coherent nature of radio elements (K, Ra and Th) in the Lostoin block uranium hosting environment with respect to the known block of Mahadek basin and uranium enrichment is confirmed by the lower U to Th correlation index (0.268) of hosting environment. A mineralized zone investigation in the block shows parent (refers to the actual parent uranium concentration at a location and not a secondary concentration such as the daughter elements which produce the signal from a total gamma ray measurement) favoring uranium mineralization. The confidence parameters generated under the present study have implications for the assessment of the inferred category of uranium ore in the block and setting up a road map for the systematic exploration of large uranium potential occurring over extended areas in the basin amid prevailing environmental and exploratory impediments. - Highlights: • Examining of U occurrence continuity over the similar geological extended area. • Experimental results validates similar geo-coherence of U hosting environment. • Validation of U exploration related index parameters in sedimentary environment. • .Implication for exploration of large U potential over the extended are in the basin

  4. Influence of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) on recent phyto- and zooplankton in "the Anthropogenic Lake District" in south-west Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gasiorowski, Michal

    2015-04-01

    In south-west Poland (central Europe) many the post-mining lakes formed so-called "the Anthropogenic Lake District". Areas, where water comes in contact with lignite beds characterized by high concentration of sulfide minerals are called Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). Pyrite oxidation and other sulfide compounds caused release sulfuric acids and heavy metal ions. These processes caused decline of water pH, sometimes to extremely low pH AMD we analyzed recent diversity of diatoms and Cladocera remains and water chemistry from extremely acidic, relatively young lakes and from alkaline, older water bodies. As we expected, flora and fauna from acidic lakes have shown very low diversity and species richness. Among diatoms, Eunotia exigua (Bréb. ex Kütz.) Rabenhorst and/or E. paludosa Grunow were dominated taxa, while fauna Cladocera did not occurred in lakes with water pH < 3. On this area, exploitation of lignite continued up to 1973. Older lakes were formed in the region where the mine started work in 1880 and lignite mining stopped in 1926. Measurements of pH value in situ point to neutral or alkaline water, but because of the possibility of hysteresis phenomenon, the studies of phyto- and zooplankton have shown if there has already been a widespread neutralization of lake ecosystems, what encompassing both recovery of water chemistry and rebuilding of biota communities. Studies have confirmed, that phyto- and zooplankton living nowadays in lakes located on this area, where exploitation of lignite ended at the beginning of 20th century, indicate completely recovery from acidification caused by coal mine activities. Presently, the lakes were dominated by planktonic diatoms and Cladocera taxa, such as Discostella pseudostelligera (Hust.) Houk & Klee and Bosmina longirostris, respectively.

  5. Developing a correlation index and U disequilibrium factor for the exploratory boreholes in Wahkut block of West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the objective to affirm the apparent uranium ore zone grade/thickness with good confidence for the non-cored as well as those boreholes with poor core recovery in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, West Khasi Hills district of Meghalaya, a systematic study between the in situ measured γ-ray logs under field conditions and laboratory analyzed core assay under controlled conditions has been carried out. The study area spans 2 sqkm having 33 cored and 39 non-cored boreholes with a cumulative drilled depth of about 11,000 m. On this available cored borehole database, simultaneous uranium ore zone continuity, both for in situ γ-ray logs and radiometric core assay, was evaluated with the experimental parameters of 1.0 m ore zone thickness at 0.010% eU3O8 cut off grade. A population of 18 such simultaneous qualifying zone (borehole log and core assay) across the 15 cored boreholes gave a grade thickness continuity index of 0.92 with a moderately strong relationship between the radiometric core assay and the in situ γ-ray logs. After validation of an in situ uranium ore zone, study boreholes were examined for their uranium disequilibrium status by fitting regression equations for the radiometric U3O8(β/γ) and spectrometric radium measurements, done on the borehole core samples. A parent favoring uranium disequilibrium was observed in the sedimentary environment of Wahkut block, with a log normal distribution. An average uranium disequilibrium factor 1.46±0.245 was estimated for the 19 study boreholes, across the block. - Highlights: ► Developing U ore zone grade thickness index for sedimentary environment. ► Model offers benefit to non-cored or missing core boreholes with similar conditions. ► U ore equilibrium status indicates parent favoring condition for the apparent grade.

  6. Spatial distribution of natural radioactivity levels in topsoil around the high-uranium mineralization zone of Kylleng-Pyndensohiong (Mawthabah) areas, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    War, S.A. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya (India)], E-mail: aaron2416@yahoo.com; Nongkynrih, P.; Khathing, D.T. [Department of Physics, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya (India); Iongwai, P.S. [Department of Zoology, North Eastern Hill University, Shillong 793 022, Meghalaya (India); Jha, S.K. [Environmental Assessment Division, BARC, Mumbai 400 085, Maharashtra (India)

    2008-10-15

    A study of background radiation and the distribution of radionuclides in the environment of the proposed uranium mining sites of Kylleng-Pyndensohiong (Mawthabah) areas, West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India, has been carried out with the objective of establishing a baseline radiation level of the region. Topsoil samples collected from the region are analysed for radioactivity measurements of primordial radionuclides by gamma-spectrometry technique. Direct dose measurement using a survey meter was also carried out simultaneously. Measurement carried out in the region shows that the activity concentration of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in soil samples is found to be highest in Kylleng with respective median values of 335.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 283.9 Bq kg{sup -1} followed by Syngkai with activity concentration of 285.3 Bq kg{sup -1} and 257.4 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th, respectively. The distribution of {sup 40}K concentration in the study area is found to be in the range of 173.1-359.0 Bq kg{sup -1} which is below the global and Indian average values of 420 Bq kg{sup -1} and 394 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. The contribution of the primordial radionuclides to the total dose of the study area is found to be very high with a range of 136.8-334.5 nGy h{sup -1} in comparison to the global as well as Indian average values.

  7. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still th...... facing immediate endangerment, althoug the minority dialects (including East Greenlandic and Polar Eskimo) face increasing pressure from the standard Central West Greenlandic dialect....

  8. Petrography, Geochemistry and Rb-Sr geochronology of the basement granitoids from Umthongkut area, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya, India: implications on petrogenesis and uranium mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basement granitoids from Umthongkut, West Khasi Hills district, Meghalaya is exposed in a very small area (1.5 km x 0.5 km) and unconformably overlain by Mahadek sandstone of upper Cretaceous age and successively followed by rocks of Tertiary age. Megascopically, granitoids are leucocratic, mesocratic to mild melanocratic and differ in texture and mineral abundance without any definite contact relation in field. The leucocratic granitoid is medium-grained, designated as granite (syenogranite and monzogranite) with appreciable content of biotite and garnet and has peraluminous to mild metaluminous character (mol. Al2O3/mol. CaO+Na2O+K2O = 0.9-1.17). However, mesocratic granitoid is relatively fine-grained, identified as quartz monzonite with abundant biotite, minor hornblende and opaque like magnetite, ilmenite, anatase, pyrite and chalcopyrite and metaluminous to mild peraluminous (mol. A/CNK = 0.76-1.02) in nature. The presence of characteristic minerals and textural replacement features point towards S-type signature for granite and I-type for quartz monzonite. On the other hand, mixed S and I-type characters are observed in geochemical plot of SiO2 vs. A/CNK. The coexistence of granite and quartz monzonite with former being more evolved, S-type signature and presence of garnet with biotite suggests that the granite appears to be generated from melting of lower crustal source of monzonitic composition. The Rb-Sr dating is also attempted and the errorchron age of 1130±53 with low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7063±0.001 Ma appears to be the emplacement age for these coexisting phases of granitoid. Considering the Meghalaya plateau being northeastern extension of Chhotanagpur granite-gneiss complex (CGGC), the calculated age for the studied samples corresponds to the 1200-1000 Ma. which is defined as fourth tectono-magmatic thermal event of CGGc. Interestingly, these granitoids are considered as the probable source for uranium in the sandstones of Mahadek

  9. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  10. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The papers presented at this meeting dealt with an international comparison of district heating, the Swiss district heating network, political aspects of nuclear district heating, nuclear and non-nuclear sources for district heating. 17 figs., 6 tabs

  11. Radiotracer technique to quantify change in filtration velocity as a measure of dilution effect by artificial recharge in an arsenic infested aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra - II block, 24 Paragana district, West Bengal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are frequently employed as tracers for various applications in industry, agricultural, medicine and hydrology. In hydrology, radiotracers are commonly applied to investigate several hydrological parameters of aquifers such as hydraulic conductivity, groundwater velocity and direction of flow etc. They impart valuable insight into the understanding of the hydrological systems. Application of radioisotopes in determination of groundwater flow velocity is now a well established technique. In this paper, groundwater filtration velocity was determined in an arsenic infested alluvium aquifer at Ashoknagar, Habra, West Bengal for determining the dilution effect due to arsenic free water. In some parts of West Bengal, generally shallow aquifers up to 80 m deep are contaminated due to geogenic arsenic. Researchers have different views about origin and mobility of arsenic in the groundwaters of West Bengal. For the removal of Arsenic from the groundwater various methods have been suggested and implemented such as ion-exchange, co-precipitation, adsorption, membrane separation and dilution etc. Dilution of the Arsenic concentration by artificial recharge of arsenic free water from the constructed pits in the contaminated aquifer is one such simple method. Efficacy of this method was studied by measuring filtration velocity in the contaminated aquifer at the Ashoknagar, Habra - II Block, North 24 Paragana district, West Bengal. Radioactive 82Br in the form of aqueous ammonium bromide was used as a tracer to measure filtration velocity of the groundwater. Point dilution technique in a single well was applied. Filtration velocity provided relevant information about the arsenic dilution in the groundwater by the artificial recharge and its value will be used as a model parameter. (author)

  12. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  13. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  14. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  15. Reality of Educational Technology Use in Primary Level Social Studies Teaching in North West Badiya Education District Schools in Mafraq Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the use of educational technology in social studies teaching and the obstacles to availability and use of educational technology in teaching social studies at schools in the North West Badiya Education Directorate in Mafraq governorate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study population comprised of 137 male and…

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY AND WETLAND MANAGEMENT: AN ATTEMPTED TO RELATE NATURE, CASE STUDY BLOCK ENGLISH BAZAR, DISTRICT MALDA,WEST BENGAL,INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Dutta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In India wetland are one the most threatened habitats facing several anthropogenic pressures. Thus the rapidly expanding human populations, large scale changes in land use /land covers, burgeoning development projects and improper use of watersheds have all caused a substantial decline of wetland resources of the country. Significant losses from industrial, agriculture and various urban developments. This has led to hydrological perturbations, pollution and there effects, unsustainable levels of grazing and fishing activities have also resulted in degradation of wetlands. The study area , Malda District, located at 25° 32' 08"N to 24° 40' 20"N by latitude and 88° 28' 10" E to 87° 45' 50" E by longitude and cover a total area (in sq. km 3713 sq.km. In the district of Malda there is a despondent condition in industrial sector.

  17. Factors affecting the healthcare-seeking behavior of mothers regarding their children in a rural community of Darjeeling district, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Nilanjana Ghosh; Indranil Chakrabarti; Manasi Chakraborty; Romy Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Background : An ailing, unresponsive health system and the existing social complexities, with considerable contextual differences, are all pervasive in India. In health, these are manifested as differences in morbidity and mortality, severely affecting child health and survival. Objectives: To find out the possible factors affecting the health-seeking behavior of mothers with regard to their children, in a rural community of Darjeeling district, and the reasons for not seeking curative care f...

  18. Knowledge attitude and practices for antenatal care and delivery of the mothers of tea garden in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers...

  19. The awareness of wildlife conservation by learners and educators in the Bojanala district, North-West Province Soth Africa / Ramanakana Frederick Khumalo.

    OpenAIRE

    Khumalo, Ramanakana Frederick

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is entitled, "The Awareness of Wildlife Conservation by learners and educators in the Bojanala District". Following a national initiative driven by the Department of Education, the entire School Curriculum is being changed. Since 1998 there has been a shift from the traditional system of individual, unrelated subjects to an emphasis on integrated themes. The subject of environment was to be incorporated into the new curriculum, particularly at the primary school ...

  20. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants

  1. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these

  2. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED MAJOR BEHAVIOURAL RISK FACTORS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF BANKURA DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eashin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 , the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7 proposed the term Prehypertension for elevated blood pressure values below 140/90 mm of Hg to more accurately justify the tendency of blood pressure to rise with age. 1 Prehypertension is considered as a precursor of clinical hypertension which in turn has emerged as a major health problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of Prehypertension as well as to find out major behavioural risk factors associated with Prehypertensi on among the study population. It was a community based descriptive cross - sectional study conducted in rural field practice area of Community Medicine Department of BSMC in Bankura district from February to April 2014 among the permanent resident young adu lts (age 18 - 35 years of Descriptive analysis , chi - square and from the 2 x 2 (contingency table OR were calculated. Prehypertension was found to be 43%. The proportion of pre hypertensives was much higher in the male subjects (60.2% compared to the female s (39.8%. Age , alcohol intake , tobacco use , extra salt intake and physical activity were significantly related with Prehypertension but physical exercise , BMI and were not significantly related to it in this study. Prevalence of Prehypertension was found to be substantially high in rural area of Bankura District. Lifestyle modifications can achieve a downward shift in the overall blood pressure , thus reducing the risk of Prehypertension and cardiovascular disease

  3. District heat for Bern-West and vicinity from waste heat of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant and biogas from the Teuftal refuse tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when man in industrial countries is creating heavy environmental, especially atmospheric pollution through energy consumption and its side effects, the use of waste heat from existing plants is an exemplary measure of active environmental conservation. West of Bern in Switzerland the Muehleberg nuclear power plant and the Teuftal refuse tip are sources of waste heat which have the potential for supplying large areas of the Bern region with environment compatible heat for space and water heating. Fundamental surveys for this region have shown that a secure and environment oriented heat supply can be realised for at least 20 years. With the proper extension of the supply area the economy of the project could be improved even further. (orig.)

  4. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzi, Kevin T. J.; Ngimuh, Leonard; Enyong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p < 0.001) and Nyasoso (p < 0.015) health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  5. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  6. Knowledge attitude and practices for antenatal care and delivery of the mothers of tea garden in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.

  7. The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in the Mezdra and Lyutidol syncline, Vratza District (West-Fore Balkan, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolkičev Nikola A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unjustified assignment (based on calcareous nannofossils of a large portion of the Maastrichtian strata in the Mezdra and Lyutidol synclines (West Fore Balkan, Bulgaria to the Paleogene. The co-occurrence of Paleocene nannofossils, reported by some authors, and Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa in these sections indicates diachronism in the appearance of macro- and nannofossils across the K/Pg boundary. Thus, this boundary cannot be precisely localized except if the Maastrichtian fossils are assumed to have been redeposited, but there is no evidence of resedimentation. Maastrichtian macrofossils are found not only within the range of the Paleogene nannofossil zones, but also in sections overlying them in the Kajlâka Formation where new Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa, such as the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE, appear and some inoceramid and cephalopod taxa range into this unit. These facts shed doubt over the applicability of nannofossils in determining the K/Pg boundary where this has already been firmly documented by macrofauna.

  8. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  9. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  10. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    vulnerable condition than industrial and urban area of Hooghly and Burdwan district. Moreover the micrograph study of representative lichen samples directly proved that lichen structure affected by air pollutants, but the extent of deformation exclusively depends on the level of pollutants present in the air. Results also suggest that different level of air pollutants (SO2, NOx and SPM affect the biochemical parameters of lichen, but more extensive study is needed to confirm the relationship between air pollution status and lichen biochemistry.

  11. A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTI CE ON INTESTINAL HELMINTHIASIS AMONG RURAL TRIBAL MOTHERS OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN MOHANPUR BLOCK, WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA: A NORTH EASTERN STATE OF INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall prevalence of helminths infection in school age children in India is about 50% in Urban and 68% in rural a rea. Tribal populations especially the children living under low socio - economic conditions in the rural villages where poor sanitary system exist are at higher risk of worm infestation. Objectives : To assess mother’s knowledge and practice towards worm inf ection of their under five children. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 117 mothers of under five children who were selected through systematic random sampling method in the year 2012 and face to face interview was performed using semi - st ructured questionnaire in the rural village under Mohanpur Rural Development block, West district of Tripura. RESULTS: 19%, 26.80% and 2.6% of respondent reported of round worm, thread worms and tape worms respectively. 23%, 19.60%, 19.60%, 23% and 14.80% reported of pain abdomen, pain abdomen and itching, perianal itching, vomiting and worms in stool or worms coming through nose respectively. About 51.60% of the respondents were unable to describe even a single helminthic infection. There were significant associations observed between helminthic infection and use of types of latrine (p=0.000, hand washing after defecation (p=0.000, regular hand wash before meals (p=0.000 and regular use of foot wears (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents being literate, intestinal helminthiasis was considered harmless and normal phenomenon. A wrong idea also prevailed that eating sugary things caused worm infestation. Other risk factors that existed were lack of hygienic behavior about washing hands & using insa nitary latrines. Awareness generation and behavior change programs were needed in this group of population

  12. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  13. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk product...

  14. Characteristics of uranium districts of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium deposits are discovered in 15 ore districts of the Russian Federation. They are subdivided into four groups: Streltsovsky district with existing production centre, Stavropolsky district with depleted deposits, three prospective districts and ten reserve districts. The overview of new data on these districts is presented. Streltsovsky district with Priargunsky Production Centre include 19 molybdenum-uranium deposits of structure-bound volcanic type in caldera. The main activities in Stavropolsky district with two depleted uranium deposits are connected with restoration works and wastes rehabilitation. Except Streltsovsky district there are no more deposits in the Russian Federation prepared for uranium production. At the same time some uranium deposits of Vitimsky, Zauralsky, and West-Siberian districts are prospective for new development of production centres. They belong to the sandstone type, related to paleovalley or basal channel, and are suitable for ISL operation. The deposits of the other districts are considered to be reserve and considered unprofitable for uranium production at present and in the nearest future. The biggest of them is Aldansky district with gold-uranium deposits in potassium metasomatites in areas of Mesozoic activation of Archean cratons. Central Transbaikalsky, Yeniseisky, Yergeninsky, Onezhsky, Ladozhsky, Bureinsky, Khankaisky, Volgo-Uralsky reserve districts include mainly small-size deposits of vein, volcanic, surficial and metasomatite types with low uranium grades. (author)

  15. Nonpublic Competition and Public School Performance: Evidence from West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Cebula; Joshua C. Hall; Maria Y. Tackett

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether nonpublic school enrollment affects the performance of public school districts. If homeschooling and private schools act as competition, public school districts test scores should be positively associated with nonpublic enrollment. Using data on West Virginia county school districts, and controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental variables approach, we find that a one standard deviation increase in relative nonpublic enrollment in a county is associ...

  16. Oakland, West

    OpenAIRE

    Kwamille, Tasion Shawniece

    2013-01-01

    “Oakland, West” Produced by: Tasion Kwamilele          After World War II, many blacks from the south migrated to Oakland to work in the shipyards; housing discrimination forced blacks to move to West Oakland. But when those jobs died out many Blacks moved from West Oakland and the area became deserted and filled with crime, drugs, violence, and poverty.         The 7.0 Loma Prueta Earthquake, also known as the World Series Quake of 1989, shook the Bay Are...

  17. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Heywood Peter; Hunter Cynthia L; Titaley Christiana R; Dibley Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using thes...

  18. 75 FR 53608 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... GOA (75 FR 11749, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...

  19. 78 FR 44465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... (78 FR 13162, February 26, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the...

  20. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  1. AORTIC KNOB DIAMETER IN CHEST X-RAY AND ITS RELATION WITH AGE, HEART DIAMETER AND TRANSVERSE DIAMETER OF THORAX IN A POPULATION OF BANKURA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT BACKGROUND: Aortic knob or aortic knuckle is an important finding in chest radiograph. It may give the first clue of cardiovascular disease. Though many sophisticated investigations are there to diagnose cardiovascular diseases, but these investigating tools are only available in urban developed areas. They are hardly available in rural developing areas of West Bengal, where low cost X-ray machine is available. So, still today chest X-ray is the first investigation in suspected cardiac disease especially in rural areas. There should be a normal reference value of aortic knob diameter (AD with variation of age and sex. The value may vary with Heart diameter (HD and Transverse thoracic diameter (TD. In our study we tried to find out all these parameters. SETTING: Sub-divisional hospitals in Bishnupur and Chhatna blocks, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN: Simple random sampling method DURATION OF STUDY: Two years. METHOD: 650 people attending the out-patient department, meeting the deserved criteria are selected. Their chest X-ray were taken, aortic diameter, heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter were measured. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: From these data, we calculate the mean and standard deviation and lastly correlation coefficient. RESULT: We find the mean average diameter of aortic knob is 3.10cm±3.34 in male and 3.076cm±3.9 in female. We also note that aortic diameter in both male and female increases in increasing age. We also note that there lies positive correlation of aortic diameter with heart diameter and transverse diameter of thorax. CONCLUSION: Aortic knob diameter is slightly more in male than in female. It increases as age increases. It has got positive correlation with heart diameter and transverse thoracic diameter.

  2. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  3. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  4. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  5. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  6. Texas Disaster Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A polygon shapefile of the 24 Disaster Districts in Texas. Disaster districts are emergency operation areas created by Executive Order from the Governor's Office....

  7. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  8. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic...

  9. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  10. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  11. CORRELATION OF HEART DIAMETER AND CARDIO-THORACIC RATIO WITH BODY HABITUS FOR EVALUATION OF CARDIAC ENLARGEMENT IN A POPULATION OF BANKURA DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT BACKGROUND: Cardiac enlargement may give the first indication of some of the cardiac diseases in man. In rural areas, where sophisticated investigating tools are not available or beyond the reach of common poor people, the cardiac enlargement can be evaluated by routine chest X-ray by the maximum transverse diameter of the heart (HD and the cardio-thoracic ratio (CTR. The standard text books denote that the HD 15.5cms, cardio-thoracic ratio (CTR 0.5 in Chest X-ray (PA view, are the upper limits of normal. These studies are mainly based on European population. As the heart diameter and CTR depends on TD of chest and this may vary in different body habitus of different racial groups. So to note any significant relationship expects to occurbetween HD and CTR with body habitus like height, weight, body mass index (BMI, body surface areas (BSA so that we can find any significant relationship between HD and CTR with different parameters of body habitus and also to findoutbetweenHD and CTR which is leastaffectedbythevariationsoftheparametersofbodyhabitus. SETTING: Sub-divisional Hospital, Bishnupiu and Chhatna, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN: Simple random sampling method. DURATION OF STUDY: Three years. METHOD: 850 people meeting the deserved criteria are chosen. Chest x-rays are taken. Body weight and body height are measured. We calculate the TD, CTR, BMI and BSA from the measured data. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: From this data we statistically calculate the correlation coefficient of the HD and CTR with the different parameters of the body habitus. RESULT: Our study reveals that there is strong correlation of weight, height, BMI and BSA with Heart Diameter (HD and poor correlation of the above parameters with CTR. CONCLUSION: So we can conclude that Cardio-thoracic ratio is less affected by the body habitus changes as mentioned above; so CTR is better indicator in predicting cardiac enlargement than HD in routine x-rays

  12. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, North West of Ethiopia: A community - based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teferra Alemayehu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries including Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. The key to reducing maternal mortality ratio and improving maternal health is increasing attendance by skilled health personnel throughout pregnancy and delivery. However, delivery service is significantly lower in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess factors affecting institutional delivery service utilization among mothers who gave birth in the last 12 months in Sekela District, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among mothers with birth in the last 12 months during August, 2010. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 371 participants. A pre tested and structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0 software. Results The study indicated that 12.1% of the mothers delivered in health facilities. Of 87.9% mothers who gave birth at home, 80.0% of them were assisted by family members and relatives. The common reasons for home delivery were closer attention from family members and relatives (60.9%, home delivery is usual practice (57.7%, unexpected labour (33.4%, not being sick or no problem at the time of delivery (21.6% and family influence (14.4%. Being urban resident (AOR [95% CI] = 4.6 [1.91, 10.9], ANC visit during last pregnancy (AOR [95% CI] = 4.26 [1.1, 16.4], maternal education level (AOR [95%CI] =11.98 [3.36, 41.4] and knowledge of mothers on pregnancy and delivery services (AOR [95% CI] = 2.97[1.1, 8.6] had significant associations with institutional delivery service utilization. Conclusions Very low institutional delivery service utilization was observed in the study area. Majority of the births at home were assisted by family members and relatives. ANC visit and lack of

  13. Responding to Demographic Change: What Do Suburban District Leaders Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrassouba, Nagnon; Johnson, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the demographic shifts in a medium-sized school district in West Michigan and the responses developed as a result of these changes during the last two decades. Findings indicated that the district's school demographics changed from being European American to minority dominant. As a result of these changes in student…

  14. Road Density and Levels of Development in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Shamshad; Dr. Jabir Hasan Khan

    2012-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyse the spatial patterns of road density, variations in the level of development and casual relationship between road density (dependent variable) and selected variables of socio-economic development (independent variables) among the districts of the state of West Bengal. The entire research work is based on secondary sources of data, collected from Census of India publications (2001), New Delhi and Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, West Bengal...

  15. Modeling Spatial Invasion of Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    D'Silva, Jeremy P.; Marisa C Eisenberg

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2015 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa was the largest ever recorded, representing a fundamental shift in Ebola epidemiology with unprecedented spatiotemporal complexity. We developed spatial transmission models using a gravity-model framework to explain spatiotemporal dynamics of EVD in West Africa at both the national and district-level scales, and to compare effectiveness of local interventions (e.g. local quarantine) and long-range interventions (e.g. border-closu...

  16. Complete genome sequence of two genotype III Japanese encephalitis virus isolates from West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports on complete gene based phylogenetic analysis of JEV isolates from the State of West Bengal. It was evident from the results that JEV was still under circulation in both vaccine covered and not covered districts of West Bengal.

  17. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay; Indrani Bhattacharyya; Srima Adhikary; Saiantani Mondal; Jayashree Konar; Nidhi Dawar; Asit Biswas; Nemai Bhattacharya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or...

  18. Operation experience with consolidated road supports at the West mine; Betriebserfahrungen mit hoch verguetetem Streckenausbau auf dem Bergwerk West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmans, Karl-Heinz [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Bergwerk West Kamp-Lintfort; Hellwig, Rainer [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik und Logistikdienste

    2012-07-01

    The extraction depth at the West mine has increased continuously over the last 10 years. Rock control on the faces and roads is of crucial importance because of the greater depths and the associated higher rock pressure and due to the more extensive workings. Highly developed support sections are combined with innovative bolt technology on the roads to ensure the efficiency of the workings. These high rock mechanical loads can be anticipated in particular in working district 1 WN in the Girondelle 5 seam at the West mine. Panels 630 and 632 in the 1 WN district are at a depth of about 1300 m. Both panels worked at the same time are separated by a pillar approx. 220 m wide. Hence the gate roads in this working district are predestined for the use of highly consolidated road supports.

  19. EDRP public local inquiry, UKAEA/BNFL precognition on: Concern about childhood leukaemia in the West of Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date relating to the West of Scotland Cancer Registry Region, comprising 26 local government districts and containing 4 nuclear installations, are presented. The data relate to children aged 0-14 years. (UK)

  20. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  1. Impressions from South-West Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain features of the prevailing agricultural and livestock management practices in four districts of the South-West Uganda are briefly described. This area is characterized by rather high elevation, good rainfall, fertile soil and hills with steep slopes and mountains in some parts. In three ofthe four districts land is becoming scarce though agricultural production is high but traditional. Cash and food crop production are prevalent ; the staple food being plantain banana and milk production is noticeable. The economy shows evident difficulties mainly due to the so called mismanaged Amin's regime and the ensuing Liberation War. Comments are made on the Queen Elisabeth National Park and some prices are given.

  2. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  3. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  4. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  5. 76 FR 45709 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the West Yakutat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the... for Pacific ocean perch in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is... Yakutat District of the GOA. DATES: Effective 1200 hrs, Alaska local time (A.l.t.), July 27, 2011,...

  6. Risk Workshop: Moorland Wildfires in the Peak District. Technical Report,

    OpenAIRE

    McMorrow, Julia M; Lindley, Sarah J; Cavan, Gina; Aylen, Jonathan; Handley, John

    2005-01-01

    This risk workshop on Moorland Wildfires in the Peak District was held at Sustainability North West on the 28th January 2005. It provided an opportunity for members of the CCVE research team to engage with interested experts and stakeholders to help scope out the key issues for the study, that is, those climate-related impacts of most concern to experts and stakeholders. A total of 17 people attended the meeting, including 10 invited stakeholders. The workshop was considered extremely success...

  7. Tectonogeochemical features and metallogenic prognosis in the Xiaolongtan copper mining district, Binchuan, Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Mingqin; SONG Huanbin; SU Xunqing

    2007-01-01

    The Xiaolongtan copper mining district is an important area in Dali, West Yunnan, where porphyry copper deposits occur, and copper orebodies are controlled by fault or contact zone structures between porphyry massifs and country rocks. Based on detailed field investigation and deep-going analysis, the authors systematically studied the tectonogeochemical features of this mining district, proposed the principle and foundation of metallogenic prognosis, and delineated the most potential mineralization target area.

  8. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  9. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  10. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  11. Groundwater Characterization of Cihaur Watershed Basin, Batujajar and Adjacent, West Bandung District, West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azy, Fikri Noor; Sapari Dwi Hadian, Mohamad; Ismawan

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted based on data from outcrop, well data, and springs with field orientation method assisted by the use of GPS and measurement tool physical and chemical properties of groundwater. Geological conditions investigated were geomorphology and stratigraphy, geomorphology unit study area consists of four units, namely geomorphology unit of strato volcano body, foot of strato volcano, intrusion units, and plains units and the river drainage patterns are parallel and subparallel. Stratigraphy in the study area are volcanic breccia (Qbv), Unit Andesite (Qa), Unit Tuff (Qtf) and Unit Clay Tuffan (Qlt). The characteristics of the groundwater of the study area are in form of the physico-chemical, major elements, and hydrolic parameter of the groundwater aquifers. From 27 locations, the water quality assesment by physico-chemical properties is classified as fresh water category and based on chemical major elements, has been classified 8 facies which are located in the study area. Then, there are two lithologies which act as aquifers ie, tuff and volcanic breccias. Conductivity values in the range of volcanic breccia aquifers respectively 0,128 m/day and 0,288 m/day, transmitivity (T) ranges respectively 1,9296 m2/day and 4,32 m2/day. The value of conductivity in tuff aquifer is 0,063 m/day, transmitivity (T) is 0,95 m2/day. While lithology Qlt (Clay tuffan) is lithology with very low productivity of groundwater or called groundwater rare area (akiclud) and the rock units Qa (Andesite) is a non-aquifer that is the absence of groundwater in these rock units (akifug).

  12. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  13. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  14. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  15. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  16. School District Budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.

    This book is devoted exclusively to the budgeting process in school districts, unlike the more common generic budgeting texts. As such, it allows an in-depth treatment of both conceptual and practical aspects of budgeting in a single volume. By default, school business officials have had to rely on the state education accounting manual as their…

  17. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  18. Telesupport Experiment for Agricultural Information Management in West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Rupak; Ghosh Roy, Jhumpa; Ghose, Jhulan

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the experimentation of Change Initiatives, an Indian NGO of sub-regional scope, with the application of ICT in agricultural information management under the EUsponsored TeleSupport Project at Nadia district of West Bengal, India. During the piloting phase, an innovative mechanism of information management was experimented for facilitating a twoway interaction between expert and client system with the involvement of local community. To sustain this two-way communication s...

  19. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  20. 12. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the seven districts of West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the permissible limit. The concentrations of arsenic is ranging from 200-800 (g/l according to latest reports. More than 200,000 people have already shown different types of arsenical skin lesions in these seven districts of West Bengal. It has been regarded as the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. However, there is

  1. Census Snapshot: West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Adam P; Rosky, Clifford J; Badgett, M. V. Lee; Gates, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau, this report provides demographic and economic information about same-sex couples and same-sex couples raising children in West Virginia. We compare same-sex “unmarried partners,” which the Census Bureau defines as an unmarried couple who “shares living quarters and has a close personal relationship,” to different-sex married couples in West Virginia. In many ways, the almost 3,500 same-sex couples living in West Virginia are similar to married ...

  2. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  3. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  4. Solar district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The model presented here analyzes solar district heating systems on the basis of the power supplied at the grid feeding point. Consumption patterns are taken into account only in the form of different preset load curves. Processes are selected in consideration of the following aspects: (1) The design of a solar district heating system (collector surface, storage volume) depends on the expected contribution of solar power to electricity supply. For each of the key years 1989, 2005 and 2020, a low, average and high contribution were investigated, from which design concepts for other supply rates can be derived. (2) Yields and economic efficiency of solar systems also depend on collector sites and consumption patterns. 10 variants each with low and very high contributions of solar power were calculated for the key year 2020. (orig.)

  5. Districting and Government Overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Baqir

    2001-01-01

    The common-pool problem is a central issue in the relationship between the political structure of jurisdictions and the size of public spending. Models predict that, other things being equal, greater political districting of a jurisdiction raises the scale of government. This paper presents new evidence on this and related predictions from a cross-section of city governments in the United States. The main finding is that one additional legislator is associated, on average, with 3 percent larg...

  6. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  7. Districts, spillovers, and government overspending

    OpenAIRE

    Baqir, Reza

    1999-01-01

    The author considers the overspending bias in legislatures when the benefits of public policies are concentrated in particular districts but the costs of financing them are spread over the entire political jurisdiction. He formalizes this idea in a simple theoretic framework, in the context of externalities between districts. His main prediction is that greater districting leads to bigger government, but the effects are mitigated if there are positive spillovers of government spending between...

  8. Minneapolis district-heating options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  9. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  10. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  11. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  12. Characteristics of District Evaluation Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Pamela

    This study provides information about the actual functions and activities of school district evaluation units by examining an integral product of the units. This product, an evaluation report, was examined from a nationwide sample of district evaluation organizations (N=116). Reports were checked for the presence of particular evaluation report…

  13. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  14. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  15. Modular approach for modeling a multi-energy district boiler

    OpenAIRE

    Eynard, Julien; Grieu, Stéphane; Polit, Monique

    2011-01-01

    The present paper deals with the modeling of a district boiler (city of La Rochelle, west coast of France), as part of the OptiEnR research project. This "multi-energy" boiler supplies domestic hot water and heats residential and public buildings, using mainly wood and sometimes fuel or gas if necessary. The OptiEnR research project focuses on optimizing the performance of the boiler. Its main objective is to minimize the use of fossil energy, stocking renewable energy during low-demand perio...

  16. U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This layer is a polygonal dataset that represents land and maritime boundaries for each representative United States Coast Guard district, which includes district...

  17. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  19. Biological screening of selected traditional medicinal plants species utilized by local people of Manokwari, West Papua Province

    OpenAIRE

    OBED LENSE

    2011-01-01

    Lense O. 2011. Biological screening of selected traditional medicinal plants species utilized by local people of Manokwari, West Papua Province. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 145-150. The aim of the research was to determine the presence of alkaloids and anti-microbial activity in extracts from selected medicinal plants from Manokwari District, West Papua, Indonesia. The method of alkaloid testing followed the standard phytochemical methods. The procedure of the Calibrated Dichotomous Sensitivity (...

  20. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  1. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lul Raka; Monica Guardo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  2. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  3. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    OpenAIRE

    Hannele Ahvenniemi; Krzysztof Klobut

    2014-01-01

    The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we...

  4. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire van Deventer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

  5. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  6. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  7. Districts for 104th Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that...

  8. New Burns Centre in Parma Hospital, West Emilia Hub

    OpenAIRE

    Caleffi, E.; Bocchi, A.; Soncini, I.; Arena, A.

    2008-01-01

    Parma Hospital is the Trauma Centre for SIAT (Trauma Patients Integrated Assistance System) in the West Emilia District in the regional trauma patient project. SIAT's goal is to provide the quickest and most appropriate treatment in major trauma patients. Extensive burns are a multi-organ pathology, i.e. a major life-threatening trauma. Our burn patients are treated on the "Hub and Spoke" model: triage and immediate transfer from the Spoke (first- and second-level Centre) to the Hub (third-le...

  9. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin... dustan Publication Company, Delhi, pp 311-318 Pascoe EH (1964) A Manual of the geology of India and Bunna. Goverment of India Press, New Delhi, 1906-1907, P Russel RJ, McIntire WG (1965) Southern hemisphere beach rock. 115 Indian Ocean Studies Technical...

  10. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Belant Jerrold L; Minnis Richard B; Wang Guiming; Wax Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local econom...

  11. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jodhpur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalla Gyaneshwar

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease with a wide geographical distribution in a range of climate and with different epidemiological patterns. In Rajasthan a new endemic zone of the disease has been found at Jodhpur district. The clincial features of 21 smear positive cases of oriental sore from Jodhpur district studied during a period of 1 year have been described. Also the importance of intralesional berberine sulphate in the treatment of oriental sore has been highlighted.

  12. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (3)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  13. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (1)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  14. Marshallian Industrial Districts Revisited (2)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaratiegui, J.M. (Jesús M.)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall pointed out that a specific form of industrial organisation (industrial districts) increased the wealth of some regions in England and Germany, and connected it with the accumulation of capital and investment, social capital, externalities and increasing returns. In his view, industrial location was closely linked to demography, local governments, freedom and social institutions. He recognised that districts were a main territorial framework for knowledge-based economic growth.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of underweight children in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati S; Chakrabarty S; Som S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the extent of undernutrition at district level and the socio-economic determinants of underweight children aged 0-71 months in West Bengal.Methods: The data were accessed from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey (RCHS-II), which contained information of 7 550 children and their parents. Information of socio-economic variables about the associated families of these children had also been taken for our study. This study computed weight-for-age z-scores to assess the nutritional status of the children using WHO (2006) reference.Results: The prevalence of underweight varied over the districts. Districts with very high prevalence of underweight children were Murshidabad, Burdwan, Purulia, Medinipur, Howrah and South 24 Parganas. High prevalent districts for both boys and girls were Jalpaiguri and Coochbihar. Low prevalent districts for both boys and girls were South Dinajpur, Nadia and Kolkata. The percentage of underweight children were more in rural areas among Muslim families with illiterate parents and low standard of living. In Murshidabad, Bankura, Nadia, Medinipur and South 24 Parganas districts, i.e., where prevalence of underweight children were higher, the rural and urban differences were less. The characteristics like religion, parents' educational status and standard of living index showed significant effect on the children's weights.Conclusions: Public intervention programs on the parent's education and the standard of living of the households at district level should be given high priority to combat the children's undernutrition problems so far as weight for age is concerned.

  16. Financial and economic aspects of district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grooten, J.; van Bemmelen, J.H.A.

    1982-05-01

    Financial and economic aspects play a large role in the decision-making process about the feasibility of district heating projects. Factors to consider include the relationship of district heating and gas and electricity supplies, annual cost per unit of energy conserved, fuel type, gas price for district heating, cost/benefit ratio for district heating, side effects of district heating, and the relative tariff situation.

  17. District formation: a co-opetition approach

    OpenAIRE

    Soubeyran, Antoine; Weber, Shlomo

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers a model of district formation that incorporates a notion of regional industrial systems. Each firm chooses its location from the set of existing industrial districts. The heterogeneous firms are distinguished by its "stand alone" district-dependent production and transportation cost. However, if other firms locate in the same district, the firm's stand alone cost is reduced by a factor that depends on the number of firms in the district. Thus, firms must take into account...

  18. Certification of district heating substations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-01-15

    These Technical Regulations, F:103-6, have been produced and published by the Swedish District Heating Association in conjunction with manufacturers. Approved testing is part of the process of obtaining certification for a district heating substation. In addition, the process includes a review of documentation and of the manufacturer's production inspection procedures. A certified unit fulfils the requirements set out in the Association's document F:101, General Technical Requirements. Until further notice, the Association has selected SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden for certification of district heating substations. Certification means that the quality and function/performance of a prefabricated district heating substation have been examined and approved. Certification test method F:103-6 includes both static and dynamic tests and inspections. Detailed information on the district heating substation and its properties is given in the certification test reports. The unique feature of this certification is that the test reports are in the public domain. This is possible because the Association has full right of insight into the certification process, and because testing is performed in accordance with test programmes and procedures decided by the Association. In this document (F: 103-6), the Association specifies what is to be reported when SP carries out inspections at the manufacturer's premises. This can include details of claims lodged with the manufacturer and/or non-compliances with the required specification of the district heating substation. Such cases will be considered by a Certification Panel. Test reports and certificates provide information on the district heating substation's properties and performance, which can be used when assessing the substations. The technical tests do not address the long-term properties of substations, but SP's inspection specifically includes visual examination and application of its

  19. West Bank and Gaza : Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2010-01-01

    The West Bank and Gaza is focusing on strengthening its education system: provision of schooling is relatively equitable and increased decentralization is planned. West Bank & Gaza (WB&G) spent 1.3 percent on public education as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This year, the Palestinian Authority (PA) published a report entitled Homestretch to Freedom, which outlines the obj...

  20. Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan CCP will guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

  1. Ebola in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  2. Ebola in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lul Raka

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  3. West-Side Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marochnik, L. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with the history of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The motivation to write the paper was the publication of two papers on the history of these theories (Pasha 2004a, b). Pasha's papers tell only a part of the story that took place on the Western side of the Iron Curtain in the 1960s. But giving only a part of the full story is a distortion of historical truth. Important work done on the Eastern side of the Iron Curtain is still little known in the West. In this paper, I fill the gaps and correct chronological inaccuracies in Pasha's story and mention facts that are still unknown (or little known) to the astronomical community in the West. I also give my recollection of the development of Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. The paper gives examples of important results in the theory of density waves in galaxies that are mistakenly attributed to C. C. Lin, F. H. Shu, Y.Y. Lau, C. Yuan and others, meanwhile they were obtained earlier by L. Marochnik, A. Suchkov and others. Below is another example. Both "famous" paper of Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) and Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) have appeared simultaneously in March of 1969. Both papers dealt, in particular, with the comparison of theory with observations. However, in the frame of their WKB approximation, Lin, Yuan and Shu (1969) employed an incorrect approach. It was a direct consequence of Marochnik and Suchkov (1969a) analysis and led to the far-going consequences. The paper has been published at the http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0501170 web site.

  4. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  5. Improving district heating in Kiev

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The district heating modernisation project currently under way in Kiev, the capital of the Ukraine, is the largest project of its type financed by the World Bank. The budget for the five-year project is some USD 250 million of which USD 200 million is financed by the World Bank loan. The target of the project is to improve the city's district heating system, which is owned and operated by Kyivenergo. Consultancy services for the Project Implementation Unit are being provided by Electrowatt-Ekono and financed by the Finnish government

  6. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  7. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  8. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  9. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  10. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  11. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  12. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  13. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  16. Your District Deserves an Audit Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaupp, Frederick W.; Maust, Robert S.

    1974-01-01

    A school district audit committee has the capacity to unearth pertinent information about the operating efficiency and effectiveness of a school district, as well as providing a more professional audit. (Author/WM)

  17. A study on fertility perception: An experience from West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Sankar Nath Jha; Baijayanti Baur; Anima Haldar; Urmila Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fertility pattern has some influence on health of mother and child as well as it can resist population growth. Methods: A cross sectional study on fertility perception among married women of reproductive age group, was carried out in 3 blocks and 2 municipality areas of Howrah District of West Bengal, India, covering 12 villages and 4 wards, selected by stratified multistage random sampling, for a period of 6 months from April to September 2009. Two thousand married women were...

  18. Primary Health Centre disaster preparedness after the earthquake in Padang Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Mansyur Muchtaruddin; Pakasi Trevino A; Fuady Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The West Sumatra earthquake that occurred on September 30, 2009, caused severe damage in some districts, including Padang Pariaman. As Padang Pariaman is an earthquake-prone area, disaster and emergency management is necessary. Due to the limited health facilities, the health services completely rely on Puskesmas (Primary Health Centres, PHCs). This study is aimed at assessing the preparedness of PHCs to response to potential disasters in their surrounding area. Findings P...

  19. Land scarcity, rural livelihoods and forest management in West Usambara, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Songoro, Alexander Elias

    2014-01-01

    This PhD research was conducted in West Usambara (northeastern Tanzania) in Lushoto District, Tanga Region. The area is characterized by high population density; mountainous nature, and tropical rain forests which are rich in biodiversity. These features have largely influenced the availability of arable land, especially for agricultural activities. The research aimed at analyzing the inter-linkages between land, rural livelihoods, and forest management. It thus sought to provide answers to t...

  20. An epidemic of mass hysteria in a village in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, A. N.; Brahma, A.

    2005-01-01

    This is a report of an outbreak of mass hysteria, attributed to an unknown infectious disease, in a small village near Baruipur, South 24 Parganas district of West Bengal. The epidemic was triggered following the death of 2 persons of the same family on the same day. Thereafter, several other family members and villagers became ill and complained of similar symptoms. They were hospitalized for observation and all were discharged after a couple of days. We report the detailed sequence of event...

  1. From mine to life cycle closure: towards a vision for the West Rand, Johannesburg

    OpenAIRE

    Wambecq, Wim; Toffah, Tahira; De Meulder, Bruno; le Roux, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    Mine closure needs reinvention. The notion of the lifecycle might be helpful for this purpose, as waste then becomes just another resource for the next productive process cycle. By closing lifecycles, e.g. soil, water and urban, a vision for the West Rand could be constructed that turns mine closure from a somewhat unwelcome and expensive obligation of restoration into a possibly strategic reinvention of the district. Instead of providing ad hoc and end-of-life solutions, mine closure then be...

  2. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  3. "Urban improvement districts" als Instrumente lokaler Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Böhme, René; Warsewa, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The exploratory study examines the implementation of Urban Improvement Districts (umbrella term for Innovationsquartiere, Housing Improvement Districts, Neighbourhood Improvement Districts, Eigentümer-Standort-Gemeinschaften, lokale Bürgeretats etc.) in three German cities and makes up a balance of ef-fects identified in practical experiences with this new instrument of participative urban design. According to the concept of Business Improvement Districts, citizens, real estate owners and fur...

  4. Marketing Techniques for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John J., Ed.

    Development of marketing plans can assist not only public school districts in meeting recent competition but will also improve educational processes, increase revenue, and restore confidence in schools. This collection of articles describes a new role for school administrators--particulary for business managers: administrators as "entrepreneurs."…

  5. Accounting Systems for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, E. Barrett, Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Advises careful analysis and improvement of existing school district accounting systems prior to investment in new ones. Emphasizes the importance of attracting and maintaining quality financial staffs, developing an accounting policies and procedures manual, and designing a good core accounting system before purchasing computer hardware and…

  6. District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

    2014-01-01

    The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

  7. Sharing Local Revenue: One District's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, David S.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of U.S. school districts are considered independent and have taxing authority; the remaining districts rely on revenue and budgetary approval from their local government. In the latter case, localities often use some form of negotiated process to determine the amount of revenue their school districts will receive. Typically, a…

  8. The Phantom Mandate: District Capacity for Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, Judy; Hange, Jane; Copeland, Glenda

    Nearly every state focuses on implementing standards-based systems but supports educational reform in as many different ways as there are states. An examination of 15 districts located in 13 states suggests, however, that some states and districts have policies and practices in common that support a district's capacity for reform, whether there is…

  9. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... County, Yuba County, and Sierra County. (c) Sacramento River District includes and consists of Sacramento... the Sacramento River District, and that portion of Solano County not included in the Sacramento River..., Calaveras County, and Alpine County. (m) Stanislaus District includes and consists of Merced...

  10. related Factors of chronic Energy Deficiency at Pregnant Woman in kamoning and Tambelangan Sub District, Sampang District, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Kartika Mahirawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Pregnant woman who suffered Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED has delivered babies with low birth weight and increased the risk for mortality. The objective of this research was to analyze the related factors of CED at pregnant woman. Method:A Cross sectional design was used. A random sample of pregnant women who registered in kohort. has taken 104 people as the samples. Collecting data using questionnaires (quantitative and secondary data obtain through kohort register during 2012–2013 and profile of Dinkes 2012, conducted during 6 (six months 2013 in Puskesmas Kamoning and Tambelangan. The data were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Chi Square test. result: The socio-economic factors: 35.5% mother’s education mostly elementary school graduates. 29.4 % didn’t graduate from elementary school. The majority of their husband (39.2% work as farm worker with income less than 1 million rupiah per month. The maternal factors: the average age between 21 until 34 years old (70.6%. The age of marriage mostly under 17 years old (41.1% and most of them (31.4% have their first pregnancy in the age between 18 until 21 years old. The most pregnant women (54.9% ate 3 times/day. 70.6% pregnant women with CED suffered from anemia; 66.7% of them took irow tablets every day. conclusion:economic factors social conditions associated with the incidence of maternal CED husband is education and maternal work status, whereas maternal factors are gestational age, hemoglobin levels in the blood and consumption of iron pills. recommendation:Areas programme and sectorce, should be involved to reduce the CED prevalence.

  11. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OBED LENSE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lense O. 2012. The wild plants used as traditional medicines by indigenous people of Manokwari, West Papua. Biodiversitas 13: 98-106. The aims of the research were to identify the main plant species which are used as traditional medicines by native people in Manokwari District, West Papua Province and also to describe the method of preparation and uses of some of the medicinal plants. This research was conducted in seven sub-regencies, ie. Manokwari, Ransiki, Kebar, Wasior, Mimyambouw, Merdey and Anggi-Sururey sub-District. Information recorded including methods of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, tribal name of a plant they used for treating disease (s, part of the plant used, preparation and mode of application, and whether the plant is used alone or in combination with other plants. Results indicate that the indigenous people in Manokwari District have been using at least 99 plant species (93 genera and 59 families as sources of medicines. Most of these traditional medicinal plants are commonly gathered from the local tropical rainforest communities. At least 40 kind of sickness and injuries such as malaria, fever, and wounds can be treated by using traditional medicinal plants from Manokwari District. Reserach also found that all parts of plants used, but leaf extracts are the most common part of the plant used for treating medical condition.

  12. Supply of veterinary medicinal products to an emerging farming community in the North West Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gehring

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Madikwe District of the North West Province to investigate the supply of veterinary medicinal products to small-scale, subsistence and emerging farmers. A combination of individual interviews, focus groups and direct observation was used to collect data. Stock remedies were made available to farmers within the district at Field Service Units that were managed by administrative staff of the Directorate of Field Services. The state veterinarian and animal health technicians were not directly involved with the sale of products. Most farmers still travelled to farmers' cooperatives in the larger centres outside the district to purchase the veterinary medicinal products they needed. Factors such as the quality of service provided, affordability and availability of required products as well as inaccessibility of outlets to all farmers contributed to the poor support of these outlets by the farmers of the district.

  13. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  14. Planning environmental restoration in the North Bohemian uranium district, Czech Republic: Progress report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium ores have been mined in Bohemian Massif in different mining districts i.e. in West Bohemia, Pribram region and Middle Bohemia, Rozna district and in Straz pod Ralskem district. The latter is represented by stratiform sandstone type of deposit where acid in-situ leaching has been applied as mining method since 1968. More than 4 million tons of leaching acids have been injected into the ore bearing sandstones. The district falls in an area of natural water protection in North Bohemian Cretaceous platform. A complex evaluation of negative impact of uranium mining and milling in this area has been clearly articulated in Government Decrees Nos.:366/92, 429/93, 244/95 and 170/96. A special declining regime of mining has been ordered for the implementation of which together with the Government Commission of Experts a remediation programme has been designed and put into operation in 1996. The uranium producer DIAMO a.s. prepared a Concept of Restoration of the area affected by in-situ leaching and MEGA a.s. has prepared the Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) according to the law No.244/1992. The Ministry of the Environment issued an Environmental Impact Statement which included evaluation of the condition of mining and restoration programme because both activities will influence the environment of the district. (author)

  15. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  16. GeoPowering the West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  17. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Kathleen Y.; Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005).

  18. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  19. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  20. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of ∼323+/-5Bqm-3 was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of ∼13+/-6Bqm-3 was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm-3) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm-3 was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of ∼25+/-7Bqm-3 was measured in Mardan and maximum of ∼210+/-5Bqm-3 was measured in Charsadda District

  2. Measurement of indoor radon levels in North West Frontier Province and federally administered tribal areas-Pakistan during summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Matiullah [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan)]. E-mail: matiullah@pieas.edu.pk; Rahman, Z. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Mati, N. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ghauri, B.M. [SPAS Division, Sparcent, SUPARCO Karachi (Pakistan)

    2007-02-15

    Indoor radon level measurement survey has been performed in several districts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and federally administered tribal areas (FATA), Pakistan. These include Swabi, Mardan and Charsadda Districts of NWFP and Mohmand and Bajuar Agencies of FATA. CR-39-based National Radiological Protection Board, UK-type radon dosimeters were used in this study. The dosimeters were installed in bedrooms and drawing rooms of a total of 200 carefully selected houses and were exposed to radon and its daughters for three months. In bedrooms, maximum radon concentration of {approx}323+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was found in District Charsadda and minimum value of {approx}13+/-6Bqm{sup -3} was found in the District Swabi. Like bedrooms, maximum radon concentration level in drawing rooms (281+/-5Bqm{sup -3}) was also found in District Charsadda. Minimum level of indoor radon concentration of 21+/-8Bqm{sup -3} was found in a drawing room of District Mardan. According to the weighted average minimum indoor radon of {approx}25+/-7Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Mardan and maximum of {approx}210+/-5Bqm{sup -3} was measured in Charsadda District.

  3. Macrofungi of Kemaliye district (Erzincan)

    OpenAIRE

    ALLI, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The material of this study comprises macrofungi specimens collected from different localities in Kemaliye district (Erzincan, Turkey) in 2006 and 2007. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 106 taxa under 35 families belonging to the classes Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are described: 3 of them, namely Psathyrella panaeoloides (Maire) Arnolds, Galerina stylifera var. stylifera (G.F.Atk.) A.H.Sm. & Singer, and Inocybe amblyspora Kühner, are new records for Turkey.

  4. Voting Districts and Minority Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1999-01-01

    In 1872, in the first congressional reapportionment after African-Americans won the right to vote everywhere in the country, white North Carolina Democrats packed blacks into a strangely-shaped, over-populated, predominantly black congressional district in a racially discriminatory and partisan effort to minimize the influence of black Republican voters. Neither this nor any of the myriad of other nineteenth century anti-black racial gerrymanders was challenged in court. 120 ye...

  5. District heating using wood briquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new district heating plant in Drammen, Norway, uses wood briquettes as the energy source. This reduces the emission of carbon dioxide in Drammen by 16 000 tonnes per year. The briquettes are made of compressed wood from waste chips from forestry and bark and other waste from sawmills and wood processing. The plant is expected to use 10 000 tonnes of briquettes per year, which corresponds to 4 780 cubic metres of oil. Burning the briquettes produces less than one percent ash

  6. Nuclear power for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current district heating trends are towards an increasing use of electricity. This report concerns the evaluation of an alternative means of energy supply - the direct use of thermal energy from CANDU nuclear stations. The energy would be transmitted via a hot fluid in a pipeline over distances of up to 40 km. Advantages of this approach include a high utilization of primary energy, with a consequent reduction in installed capacity, and load flattening due to inherent energy storage capacity and transport delays. Disadvantages include the low load factors for district heating, the high cost of the distribution systems and the necessity for large-scale operation for economic viability. This requirement for large-scale operation from the beginning could cause difficulty in the implementation of the first system. Various approaches have been analysed and costed for a specific application - the supply of energy to a district heating load centre in Toronto from the location of the Pickering reactor station about 40 km away. (author)

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Saguaro National Park, Tucson Mountain District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F., (Edited By); Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of plants and vertebrates at the Tucson Mountain District (TMD) of Saguaro National Park, Arizona. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at the district to document the presence of species within its boundaries. Park staff also carried out extensive infrared-triggered camera work for medium and large mammals from 2002-2005 and results from that effort are reported here. Our spatial sampling design for all taxa employed a combination of random and nonrandom survey sites. Survey effort was greatest for medium and large mammals and herpetofauna. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the district. We also provide an overview of previous survey efforts in the district. We use data from our inventory and other surveys to compile species lists and to assess inventory completeness. The survey effort for herpetofauna, birds, and medium and large mammals was the most comprehensive ever undertaken in the district. We recorded a total of 320 plant and vertebrate species, including 21 species not previously found in the district (Table 1). Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the district, there have been a total of 723 species of plants and vertebrates found there. We believe inventories for most taxonomic groups are nearly complete. Based on our surveys, we believe the native plant and vertebrate community compositions of the district are relatively intact, though some species loss has occurred and threats are increasing, particularly to herpetofauna and larger mammals. Of particular note is the relatively small number of non-native species and their low abundance in the district, which is in contrast to many nearby natural areas. Rapidly expanding development on the west, north, and east sides of

  8. Analysis of variables affecting unemployment rate and detecting for cluster in West Java, Central Java, and East Java in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Putra A.; Widyaningsih, Yekti; Lestari, Dian

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is modeling the Unemployment Rate (UR) in West Java, Central Java, and East Java, with rate of disease, infant mortality rate, educational level, population size, proportion of married people, and GDRP as the explanatory variables. Spatial factors are also considered in the modeling since the closer the distance, the higher the correlation. This study uses the secondary data from BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). The data will be analyzed using Moran I test, to obtain the information about spatial dependence, and using Spatial Autoregressive modeling to obtain the information, which variables are significant affecting UR and how great the influence of the spatial factors. The result is, variables proportion of married people, rate of disease, and population size are related significantly to UR. In all three regions, the Hotspot of unemployed will also be detected districts/cities using Spatial Scan Statistics Method. The results are 22 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed (Most likely cluster) in the study area; 2 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in West Java; 1 district/city as a regional groups with the highest unemployed in Central Java; 15 districts/cities as a regional group with the highest unemployed in East Java.

  9. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...

  10. Thermodynamic calculation of a district energy cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a calculation model for a nuclear district energy circuit. Such a circuit means the combination of a steam reforming plant with heat supply from a high-temperature nuclear reactor and a methanation plant with heat production for district heating or electricity production. The model comprises thermodynamic calculations for the endothermic methane reforming reaction as well as the exothermic CO-hydrogenation in adiabatic reactors and allows the optimization of the district energy circuit under consideration. (orig.)

  11. School Districts, washoe county school district, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county school district'....

  12. Election Districts and Precincts, City Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'City Council districts'....

  13. Special Taxing Districts, TaxDistricts2004, Published in 2004, Daggett County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2004. It is described as 'TaxDistricts2004'. Data by this publisher...

  14. FLYPAPER EFFECTS ANOMALY OF WEST PAPUA CAPITAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU, the Special Allocation Fund (DAK and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK partially and simultaneously have positive impact on total capital spending and capital expenditure in education, health, and infrastructure. It is also indicated the anomaly of flypaper effect in DAU, DAK, and DOK.Keywords: Flypaper effect, anomaly, fiscal decentralization, capital expendituresJEL classification numbers: H50, H75

  15. Demographic Characteristics of Farmers and General Use of Electronic Media in District Dir Lower Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad Ali; Muhammad Shahzad; Zahid Khan; Junaid Nazir; Ahmad Ijaz

    2013-01-01

    Electronic media have greater role in modern world. Every aspect of life and every occupation are affected either positively or negatively by the media. This study aims to dig out the types of media used by the farmers and major purpose of watching it. As well as chi- square test was used to know the association among the demographic characteristics and use of electronic media by farmers of district Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (previously Know as North West Frontier province (NWFP)), Pakist...

  16. Healthcare seeking behaviour, barriers in accessing medicines, and coping strategies in Africa : evidence from Koboko District, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Dill, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Despite free healthcare in public facilities, access to medicines is a serious problem in Uganda. Unavailability of drugs in the public sector, high prices in the private sector, and the absence of a national insurance system result in high out-of-pocket expenditures for households. Drug shops run by the communities present an opportunity to improve access to medicines for people in the poor rural northern west district Koboko. Managed by community members and provided with medicines by...

  17. The Five Buddha Districts on the Yunnan-Burma Frontier: A Political System Attached to the State

    OpenAIRE

    Jianxiong Ma

    2013-01-01

    The Five Buddha Districts system prevailed from the 1790s to the 1880s on the frontier between Yunnan, in Southwest China, and the Burmese Kingdom, in the mountainous areas to the west of the Mekong River. Through more than a century of political mobilization, the Lahu communities in this area became an integrated and militarized society, and their culture was reconstructed in the historical context of ethnic conflicts, competition, and cooperation among the Wa, Dai, and Han Chinese settlers....

  18. Land suitability evaluation for greenhouse cultivation of cucumber in comparison with alternative plantations in Mobarakeh- Zarrinshahr district using AHP

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoubi, S.; V. Shahrokh; A Jalalian

    2012-01-01

    Land suitability evaluation is the fitness of a given tract of land based on its production potential for a defined use. This study was conducted to evaluate the land suitability of Mobarakeh-Zarrinshahr district located in west of Isfahan province using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique. To do the evaluation, firstly the hierarchy structure was established, which consisted of objectives, criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives. The objective was determination of landuse priority i...

  19. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  20. AGRICULTURAL LANDUSE PATTERN IN JALNA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhare Shivkanya Nagnath

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a main primary activity across world. It is also a prime source of food. Agricultural productivity plays an important role in the development of agriculture sector. Agriculture productivity depends upon the landuse pattern. Most of developed countries has systematic and progressive pattern of agricultural landuse. Considering this importance, researcher has tried to assess the agricultural landuse pattern in Jalna district. Crop combination regions in Jalna district for year 198085 to 2000-05. This is normal year for agricultural phenomenon in this district. The crop data has been computed with the help of wevears technique of crop combination. Jalna district occupies central part of Maharastra state.

  1. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  2. One Approach to Increasing Revenues for Your School District. (A Small School District's Successful Struggle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Richard J.

    In 1983, Channahon School District 17 in Illinois was $1.3 million in debt. Real estate taxes constituted the school district's chief source of revenue, but because the state's oil industry kept its assessed valuations below the actual value of its property through the use of experts and lawyers, the school district was denied much of its income.…

  3. Budget Stability, Revenue Volatility, and District Relations: Determinants of Georgia ELOST Distribution to Municipal School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinagel, Tyler P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts across the United States are often forced into situations where limited public funds must be distributed among multiple districts. These are often reliant on distribution rates negotiated by district leadership and elected officials. An example of this is Georgia's 1% Education Local Option Sales Tax (ELOST). The tax is collected…

  4. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity the DOE provides Technical Assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar American Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar PV projects in school districts across the country.

  5. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  6. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic an...

  7. Anurans Collected in West Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Distributional records and natural history noles are given for anurans collected in West Malaysia 1976. Rano baramica was observed when it was caught by an Ahaetulfa nasula (Serpentes: Colubridae). Rhacophorus leucomystax, Limnonectes limnociulris and Microhyla heymonsi were all found al night on...

  8. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  9. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  10. Status of the WEST project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power exhaust has been identified as a challenge for ITER and a potential showstopper on the roadmap towards fusion energy. Reliable power exhaust requires a thorough integration of physics and technology. The WEST project main objective is the minimization of risks for ITER divertor plasma facing components (PFC) construction and operation. The WEST project also fills the gap on long pulse tokamak operation in the European fusion program. It offers a readily available integrated tokamak environment for ITER but also at a later stage for DEMO divertor testing. The assessment of ITER PFC performance and lifetime as well as innovative PFC under relevant power fluxes and particle fluence is the central thrust of the WEST program. Other issues including operation at high radiated fraction in compact divertor geometry, demonstration of detachment control over long pulse, exhaust physics at large aspect ratio and operation in double null are key topics which will be also tackled in the perspective of the fusion reactor. The WEST project consists in the transformation of the French Tore Supra facility into a diverted tokamak with ITER-like divertor PFC. The limited Tore Supra circular cross section plasma is turned into D-shape diverted plasma by the addition of two poloidal field coils inside the upper and lower region of the vacuum vessel. The carbon environment is changed into a tungsten environment with a set of new actively cooled plasma facing components. 9 MW of ICRH and 7 MW of LHCD will provide relevant heat and particle load conditions on the divertor PFC over duration up to 1000s. A new infrared thermography system, together with embedded temperature sensors and calorimetry of the cooling circuits will ensure PFC protection and accurate power balance. A new visible spectroscopy system will monitor all potential tungsten sources. The WEST assembly phase has started in October 2014. The manufacturing of the divertor coils casing, conductors and supporting

  11. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  12. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  13. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  14. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  15. Grantmaking to School Districts: Lessons for Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Julia; Weiss, Heather; Harris, Erin; Little, Priscilla M. D.

    2010-01-01

    This brief offers lessons and best practices from foundations across the country on grantmaking to school districts. It offers advice to foundations that are considering school district investments for the first time. It also offers a useful "check" to more experienced foundations that want to examine their thinking and approaches against the…

  16. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...

  17. Supporting Solo at the District Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Mary

    2011-01-01

    School librarians in the Mesquite Independent School District (ISD) have been operating solo on their campuses since the 1970s. Campus clerical assistance in the school libraries was a luxury that they couldn't afford. Since the district's vision was of a teaching librarian, a Library Processing Department was established in 1972. As years passed,…

  18. District heating today and in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing and projected district heating in Switzerland, with and without power generation, is reviewed with detailed tables and diagrams. Particular reference is made to the system using the Beznau 1 and 2 nuclear power plants. Topics discussed include: heat sources; district heating networks; energy accounting; development potential in Switzerland; possibilities for environmental pollution reduction. (F.Q.)

  19. Districts Create Community Connections with Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan

    2012-01-01

    More districts realize that communicating in a clear and engaging way with stakeholders about everything from the district's overall education vision to scholastic and extracurricular success stories can go a long way toward enlisting broad community support. And although face-to-face communications are still important, technology provides a…

  20. Amid Uncertainty, Districts Weighing "Sequester" Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Alyson

    2013-01-01

    Even as they seek to quantify the impact of across-the-board federal budget cuts on K-12 programs, some of the nation's neediest school districts are bracing for tough choices. The pinch from sequestration--or "the sequester," in Washington shorthand--is expected to be particularly painful for districts that depend on the most on the federal…

  1. 5 Steps to a Greener School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes all it takes is a little fate to accomplish something great, or in this case, something green. The Broward County Public School (BCPS) District shows how a natural disaster (Hurricane Wilma) inspired a green revolution. This article presents the five steps that the Broward County School District followed in implementing an Environmental…

  2. Characteristics of Improved School Districts. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This research brief presents an overview of a 2004 study by G.S. Shannon and P. Bylsma entitled "Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research" (Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction). The authors reviewed more than 80 research articles that investigated the attributes of schools and districts that have…

  3. Does School District Consolidation Cut Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    2007-01-01

    Consolidation has dramatically reduced the number of school districts in the United States. Using data from rural school districts in New York, this article provides the first direct estimation of consolidation's cost impacts. We find economies of size in operating spending: all else equal, doubling enrollment cuts operating costs per pupil by…

  4. A Guide to School District Reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Allan K.

    School district reorganization is a process that requires considerable planning. This guide provides information on school district reorganization in the state of Nebraska, to interested boards of education and county and citizen reorganization committees. Topics discussed include planning for reorganization, establishing citizen committees, using…

  5. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  6. Assessment of Overall Prevalence of Undernutrition Using Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) Among Preschool Children of West Bengal, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal Chandra Mandal; Kaushik Bose

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Under-nutrition continues to be a primary cause of ill-health and premature mortality among children in developing countries. Present study attempted to assess the overall prevalence of undernutrition using composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF) among rural preschool children of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India. Methods:A total of 1012 rural children (498 boys; 514 girls) aged 2-6 years were measured. Three commonly used undernutrition indicators, ie, stunting...

  7. Confluence Dynamics in an Ephemeral Gully Basin (A Case Study at Rangamati, Paschim Medinipur, West Bengal, India)

    OpenAIRE

    Pravat Kumar Shit; Ramkrishna Maiti

    2013-01-01

    Despite many efforts over the last decades to understand confluence angles of rill or gully, they remain unclear. This paper presents the results of gully confluence angles developed at Rangamati ephemeral gully basin of Paschim Medinipur District, West Bengal in India. The confluence angles are monitored for 3 years (2007-2009) and gradient, discharge and stream power of both parent and tributary stream are measured at each junction. Calibrating the data to existing models shows that Optimal...

  8. The Role Of Health Education In Participatory Rural Health Development; The Case Of The Rural Fulani In Kogi West, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Metiboba

    2011-01-01

    This study is a social survey of 235 Fulani rural dwellers living at the outskirts of 3 communities in Kogi west senatorial district of Kogi State, Nigeria. The main objective of the study was an investigation of the role of health education principles in health programs among the study population. Through the stratified sampling technique, a structured interview schedule was administered on the respondents. Findings of the study revealed that relevant health education principles served as a ...

  9. Spin systems and Political Districting Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, C.-I [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 111 (China)]. E-mail: cichou@faculty.pccu.edu.tw; Li, S.-P. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 115 (China)

    2007-03-15

    The aim of the Political Districting Problem is to partition a territory into electoral districts subject to some constraints such as contiguity, population equality, etc. In this paper, we apply statistical physics methods to Political Districting Problem. We will show how to transform the political problem to a spin system, and how to write down a q-state Potts model-like energy function in which the political constraints can be written as interactions between sites or external fields acting on the system. Districting into q voter districts is equivalent to finding the ground state of this q-state Potts model. Searching for the ground state becomes an optimization problem, where optimization algorithms such as the simulated annealing method and Genetic Algorithm can be employed here.

  10. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkata Narasimha Kadali; Sudhakara Rao Pola; Tadi Ramesh; B V Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants whi...

  11. Health: Cognition and Threshold among the Oraon Tea Garden Labourers of Jalpaiguri District, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Subrata K. Roy; Sujata Kar Chakraborty; Arupendra Mozumdar

    2013-01-01

    There is scarcity of health information in many subpopulations in India, which needs to be explored for formulating effective public health policy. Studies on the tea garden population revealed that poor socioeconomic conditions, ignorance due to illiteracy, culture and food habit, overcrowding, and unhygienic living conditions make the population vulnerable to various communicable and noncommunicable diseases and malnutrition. Data were collected from the labourers of Birpara and Dalgaon tea...

  12. DETERMINATION OF BACKWARDNESS LEVELS IN LITERACY IN MEMARI-II BLOCK, BURDWAN DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    BHASWATI MONDAL

    2013-01-01

    Literacy is one of the most prerequisite conditions of human development. That is why it has been used as an indicator of Human Development Index and planners have emphasized on different schemes and programmes for development of literacy in every planning year. It reduces the obstacles in life. However widespread illiteracy is not new. It is proved from 2001 census data of Memari-II Block that still more than 1/3rd of population of this block is still far from light of literacy. However this...

  13. Hydrogeochemistry of the groundwater in the Tarkwa area, Wasa west District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pH of the groundwater is acidic (4.3-6.7) and acidification of the groundwater is principally due to natural biogeochemical processes. Three main water types were delineated: Na-Cl (31.3%), Ca-Mg-HCO3 (62.5%) and mixed type (6.3%) Major cation and anion concentrations dominance pattern observed in this study were generally in the order of Na > Ca > Mg > K and HCO3 > CI > SO4 and indicated partial cationic and anionic characteristics of fresh water. The chemistry of groundwater is controlled by mineral weathering, ion exchange and to some extent precipitation. Iron and manganese were the predominant trace elements in the groundwater and contributed substantially (93.1 %) to the metal load of the groundwater. The pollution index (HPI) for the groundwater came out to be 9.82; which is far below the critical value of 100 indicating that the groundwater is not critically contaminated. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater is at present minimal. Water quality is good for the majority of the groundwater samples as the majority of samples were within the permissible drinking limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 1998). However the pH of the groundwater was disturbingly low. (au)

  14. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, S

    2004-01-01

    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this consideration, the study has posed the research question as to what determines non-farm entrepreneurship among farmers and thus attempted to identify the factors that may influence farmer's non-farm entre...

  15. Factors affecting peasants’ empowerment in West Halmahera District – a case study from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitti Aminah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development has not yet created empowered farmers in Indonesia. Most farmers living in eastern Indonesia are peasants with low access to development resources. This condition causes most of the peasants to be classified as poor citizens. This research was meant to formulate improvement strategies for empowerment of the peasants. The data were collected between March – May 2012 using the following methods: observation, interview and focus group discussion. The data was analysed using descriptive statistic and structural equation modelling (SEM and showed that: (1 the empowerment of peasants was within the lowest category for all variables, namely: the peasant characteristics, the role of the agents for development, program quality, the learning process and access to environmental support, (2 the determining factors affecting the empowerment of the peasants were: program implementation quality, the role of the agents of development, environmental access and support, the peasant characteristics, and the appropriateness of the learning process and (3 the strategy to improve empowerment of the peasants could be through corrective efforts towards program implementation quality, the role of facilitators, environmental access and support while considering the peasant characteristics and the learning process of the peasants.

  16. Uranium mineralisation in Domiasiat area, west Khasi hills district, Meghalaya- a case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sandstone-type of uranium deposit in the Mahadeks of Domiasiat, Meghalaya is one of the most important discoveries of 1980's. The first radioactive anomaly in Meghalaya was located near Dawki during 1962-63 field season by jeep-borne radiometric surveys. As a result of the investigations in subsequent years a number of uranium anomalies were located in Lower Mahadek sandstone which established it as the favourable sandstone horizon for uranium mineralisation

  17. SOCIO - ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OFWOMEN ENTREPRENEURS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COOCH BEHAR DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindom Biswas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of women worldwide is undergoing a histrionic change. Women have been successful in breaking their confinement within the limits of their homes by entering into different kinds of professionals and services women entrepreneurs have proved to be on par with their men complements in business acumen and developing as smart and dynamic entrepreneurs. For sustained economic development and social justice, socio-economic status of women should be upgraded along with that of the men folk. Socio-economic liberty gives women the right to control the development of their lives. Entrepreneurship enhances the social standing of women. Entrepreneurial activity is dependent on several multifarious social, economic and psychological aspects. Thus, for any attempt made to understand the entrepreneurial activity among women, an analysis of their socio-economic conditions is necessary.

  18. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: A survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Reactive lesions of the oral cavity are associated with injuries of soft tissue and have high prevalence rates and different involvement patterns in different parts of the world. This study reviews the pathogenesis and analyzes demographic data, histopathological features and compares the clinico-pathologic profiles of the diseases to those previously reported. Materials and Methods:Patient records of the Department of Oral Pathology during one and half year period were reviewed for diagnosis of oral connective tissue reactive hyperplastic lesion. Data including the area involved and the type of lesion were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and ANOVA test. Results:100 cases (mean age 36 years, male:female ratio 1:2 matched study criterion. The most common affected site was mandibular anterior region and buccal mucosa and the most common lesion was pyogenic granuloma and focal fibrous hyperplasia. All the lesions were more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. PGCG was seen to be equally distributed in males and females. Conclusion: Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral connective tissue are more common in females and the majority of the lesions occur in gingiva. This study supports previous assertions that PG and FFH may occur on any oral mucosal site with special preference for the mandibular anterior gingiva and buccal mucosa while PGCG and POF occur exclusively on the mandibular gingiva.

  19. FOREST MANAGEMENT THROUGH SOCIAL INNOVATION IN RURAL GHANA: THE CASE OF THE WEST GONJA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kwabena Donkor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and its associated socio-economic consequences reflect the wide gap between the goals of sustainability and present resource management practices. The crucial role of bottom-up strategies in managing natural resources is highlighted in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Millennium Development Goals. Community/grassroots institutions can build on traditional norms to create strategies which will address environmental challenges from the local level. Environmental management is one key challenge facing Africa’s growing population in the quest for sustainable development. Nonetheless, the continent has a sizeable rural population. The research sheds light on how social innovation can enhance grassroots natural resource management and climate adaptation so as to harmonise environment-society relations. Sharing themes with the Post-2015 Development Agenda of the United Nations, and the New Partnership of African Development (NEPAD research is of both local and international significance. Purpose – to develop knowledge on the relationship between social innovations and rural forests livelihoods. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses literature review, interviews and participant observation to assess the subject matter. Findings – Localised knowledge systems and practices –have evolved in rural niches closely tied to resident communities and their associated livelihood patterns. The remoteness of such communities from central authority makes such innovation less apparent and lacking the needed support. Non-technical innovation is not adequately aided by current policy regimes, regulatory, institutional as well as infrastructural frameworks. Hence in the absence of policy intervention, there is the risk of several missed opportunities. Research limitations/implications – language barrier: difficulties in translation from local language to English, distrust of local authorities of outsiders. Practical implications – In the absence of policy intervention, there is the risk of several missed opportunities in benefitting from the vital localised knowledge systems and practices which have evolved in rural niches. Originality/Value – The attributes of social innovation are attuned with solving several of the environmental issues confronting contemporary societies which current systems are not addressing. Keywords: forest management, social innovation, rural livelihoods, indigenous knowledge

  20. FOREST MANAGEMENT THROUGH SOCIAL INNOVATION IN RURAL GHANA: THE CASE OF THE WEST GONJA DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    Felix Kwabena Donkor

    2015-01-01

    Environmental degradation and its associated socio-economic consequences reflect the wide gap between the goals of sustainability and present resource management practices. The crucial role of bottom-up strategies in managing natural resources is highlighted in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Millennium Development Goals. Community/grassroots institutions can build on traditional norms to create strategies which will address environmental challenges from the local level. Environme...

  1. District Education Offices in French-Speaking West Africa: Autonomy, Professionalism and Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grauwe, Anton; Lugaz, Candy

    2007-01-01

    Decentralization occupies a prominent place on the policy agenda at international level and, within many countries, at national level. It regularly forms part of an overall package of reform of the public service, which has been summarized under the concept of "new public management" (Pollitt & Bouckaert, 2000). This package also includes advocacy…

  2. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: fl

  3. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  4. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  5. Australia's North West Shelf Venture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North West Shelf Venture is based in Karratha, 1500 km north of Perth in Western Australia. At a cost of $A12bn, it is the biggest and one of the most important natural resource developments in Australia. Originally constructed in 1984 to supply gas to the West Australian domestic and industrial market, the Venture is now the third-largest LNG exporter in the Asia-Pacific region, generating more than $A1.5bn a year in export income. The Venture supplies about 15 percent of Japan's LNG demand, or 7.5 million tonnes a year, to eight Japanese power and gas utilities under 20-year contracts. In addition, 'spot' sales have been made to Spain, South Korea, Turkey and the United States. The Venture also supplies more than 70 percent of Western Australia's domestic gas requirements and exports LPG, condensate and crude oil to global markets

  6. Conjoined twins in West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H

    1980-01-01

    12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...

  7. Earthquake vulnerability evaluation Faizabad district of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naderi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as examplehas been studied Faizabad district of Kermanshah and to reach its main purpose, which is reducing the damagecaused by the earthquake on the Faizabad district is been providedand in subsidiary purposes part the research is tried identify factors influence in vulnerability earthquakes,pay to provide the factors required; All these factors havean impact on reducing earthquake vulnerability. This data using geological data, soil texture, getting satelliteimages and layering over Arc Gis software identified and for long term periods donepredict using relation kernel PSHA also. In determining the level ofenvironmental risk is to use software crisis. Finally, by recognizing the riskzone, solutions for Faizabad district offered.

  8. REVIEW: Social and Environmental Issues of Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    TSUYOSHI KATO; IIN PURWATI HANDAYANI; BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO; CECEP KUSMANA; ONRIZAL

    2005-01-01

    Danau Sentarum National Park (DSNP) is a cluster of lakes located in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan Province with the total area of 132,000 ha. From 1981 to January 1999 this site was recognized as Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum (Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve). Since 1994 this site had been declared as Ramsar site. DSNP is a “monumental site”, since the only undisturbed peat swamp forest was found in this site. Peat swamp forest in the national park stores the oldest tropical peat i...

  9. HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN JAIPANDA WATERSHED, WEST BENGAL STATE, INDIA USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUBODH CHANDRA PAL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the hydrogeomorphological conditions of Jaipanda watershed, Bankura district, West Bengal geological, hydrogeological and geomorphological studies were carried out, through visual interpretation of satellite data (LANDSAT, ETM+ with adequate ground truth. The study shows that the Jaipanda river basin is occupied by granites and gneisses of Archaean age. The recent alluvium deposits are present along the steam courses. The study area is traversed by various directional features or lineaments and most of them are NE-SW, ENE-WSW and EW directions. Groundwater potential of geomorphological unites viz. Denudational hill, Residual hill, Pediment, Pediplain and Valley fill is discussed.

  10. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  11. First-aid training and results in Logan and Mingo Counties, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Veer, H.J.; Ellis, R.

    1939-01-01

    Cooperative plan of first-aid training and intensive campaign conducted by Bureau of Mines in cooperation with coal-mining companies of Logan and Mingo Counties, State Department of Mines of West Virginia, and district officials of United Mine Workers of America is described. Companies trained in first aid and some advantages that may be expected from first-aid training are listed. The record of accidents of several companies is given, each showing immediate reduction in accident frequency or severity, or both, as result of campaign. Examples of application of first aid are cited.

  12. Preschool Guidelines: Rural Model (Trimble Local School District).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Educational Services.

    The purpose of this handbook is to guide rural school districts intending to establish a preschool program. The program described was established in the Trimble Local School District in the rural Appalachian area of northern Athens County, the third poorest district in Ohio. Contents concern: (1) the district's beliefs about children; (2)…

  13. School District Employment Reductions Slow. Get the Facts. #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Kansas school districts reduced employment by 327 full-time equivalent positions this school year, the smallest reduction in three years of cuts to district operating budgets. Districts reduced positions by 561 in FY 2010 and 1,626 in FY 2011. Districts eliminated nearly 400 "regular" teaching positions this year, but added 114 special education…

  14. Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Instructional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, William A.; Martinez, M. Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this article explores how leadership is distributed in districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and…

  15. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin;

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part of the...... implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...... to be developed further into a new generation in order to play such a role. Unlike the first three generations, the development of 4GDH involves meeting the challenge of more energy efficient buildings as well as being an integrated part of the operation of smart energy systems, i.e. integrated smart...

  16. Industrialization of districts; 1 : 2 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size (number of workers in 1997) and structure of industry in the districts of Slovakia are represented. The degree of industrialisation expresses the share of workers in industry of the total number of economically active population. (authors)

  17. Licensing and Certification District Offices, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains a list of California Licensing and Certification District Offices. The California Department of Public Health, Center for Health Care Quality,...

  18. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii;

    2013-01-01

    more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well as...... sources that can complement each other on daily and yearly basis and reduce negative aspects of particular energy source utilisation. In district heating systems, hybridisation could be performed through utilisation of renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Potential of fuel and emission reduction...... could reach up to 20% with utilisation of solar energy as supplement energy source in traditional fossil fuel based district heating systems. In this work, the performance of hybrid district energy system for a particular location will be analysed. For performance analysis, mathematical model that...

  19. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  20. Madison Wetlands District 1970 Narrative report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison Wetlands Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by...

  1. Leopold Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CCP articulates the management direction for the Leopold Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. Through goals, objectives, and strategies, this CCP...

  2. Litchfield Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Litchfield Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan provides a longterm vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of...

  3. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  4. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  6. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  7. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  8. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  9. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  10. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  11. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  12. Lostwood Wetland Management District: Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. Zoning Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  14. Legislative Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Legislative Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please...

  15. School Districts, Published in unknown, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Other (please list)...

  16. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  17. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  18. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  20. Nuclear medicine in district general hospitals.

    OpenAIRE

    Staffurth, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a recognised clinical specialty both nationally and internationally. Compared with other countries, it is inadequately developed in Britain, particularly in district general hospitals. To create clinical radioisotope services at district level physicians or radiologists with experience in nuclear medicine need to be trained and appointed. Such appointments would allow facilities to evolve that would provide either a comprehensive nuclear medicine service formed around a ph...

  1. Domestic Violence Aganist Women In Ernakulam District

    OpenAIRE

    Celine Sunny

    2005-01-01

    Gender discrimination manifests itself as violence in the family, community, and society. It takes the forms of female foeticide, female infanticide, abuse of the girl child, social harassment, mental torture, physical violence, and cruelty affecting body and mind of women. The present study attempts to examine the causes and extent of domestic violence as well as its manifestations and consequences in a selected district in Kerala,.Ernakulam, one of the advanced districts of Kerala in terms ...

  2. District heating in sequential energy supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► European excess heat recovery and utilisation by district heat distribution. ► Heat recovery in district heating systems – a structural energy efficiency measure. ► Introduction of new theoretical concepts to express excess heat recovery. ► Fourfold potential for excess heat utilisation in EU27 compared to current levels. ► Large scale excess heat recovery – a collaborative challenge for future Europe. -- Abstract: Increased recovery of excess heat from thermal power generation and industrial processes has great potential to reduce primary energy demands in EU27. In this study, current excess heat utilisation levels by means of district heat distribution are assessed and expressed by concepts such as recovery efficiency, heat recovery rate, and heat utilisation rate. For two chosen excess heat activities, current average EU27 heat recovery levels are compared to currently best Member State practices, whereby future potentials of European excess heat recovery and utilisation are estimated. The principle of sequential energy supply is elaborated to capture the conceptual idea of excess heat recovery in district heating systems as a structural and organisational energy efficiency measure. The general conditions discussed concerning expansion of heat recovery into district heating systems include infrastructure investments in district heating networks, collaboration agreements, maintained value chains, policy support, world market energy prices, allocation of synergy benefits, and local initiatives. The main conclusion from this study is that a future fourfold increase of current EU27 excess heat utilisation by means of district heat distribution to residential and service sectors is conceived as plausible if applying best Member State practice. This estimation is higher than the threefold increase with respect to direct feasible distribution costs estimated by the same authors in a previous study. Hence, no direct barriers appear with

  3. District banks' exposure to modified loans limited

    OpenAIRE

    Kory A. Killgo

    2010-01-01

    Banks in the Eleventh Federal Reserve District are performing better than their peers. However, signs of strain are still evident following the recession and financial market crisis. Some banks that restructure troubled loans by granting borrowers easier terms subsequently find the loans delinquent again. ; While the number of restructured loans has grown dramatically, these loans remain a small part of the average bank's balance sheet, a review of district data shows. Lenders here are less l...

  4. Plans for nuclear district heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plans to make greater use of nuclear district heating in Switzerland are examined. Operation of the Goesgen nuclear power station to supply process steam to a cardboard mill is described. Future developments will include the Refuna project which involves the provision of district heat through cogeneration at Beznau, and the Plenar system which utilizes the waste heat from a nuclear power plant. (U.K.)

  5. Earthquake vulnerability evaluation Faizabad district of Kermanshah

    OpenAIRE

    Saba Naderi; Yasmin Kolyai; Sirus Rezaei

    2014-01-01

    This paper as examplehas been studied Faizabad district of Kermanshah and to reach its main purpose, which is reducing the damagecaused by the earthquake on the Faizabad district is been providedand in subsidiary purposes part the research is tried identify factors influence in vulnerability earthquakes,pay to provide the factors required; All these factors havean impact on reducing earthquake vulnerability. This data using geological data, soil texture, getting satelliteimages and layering o...

  6. Quality indicators for district heating networks

    OpenAIRE

    Pacot, Pierre-Emmanuel; Reiter, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    District heating networks are very common energy systems all over the world but only few studies have been carried out to assess their performances through quality indicators. These indicators express district heating performances through different points of view. Four ones are developed in this study: energy sources, efficiencies, heat delivering equipments characteristics and environmental efficiency as a sum up. First, the only energy indicator generally used is the primary energy fact...

  7. Swedish district heating - owners, prices and profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owners, prices and profitability are examined in this report for 152 Swedish district heating companies during 1999. Only public information available has been used: Prices from a national annual consumer study, energy supplied, lengths of district heating pipes installed, and average prices for energy supplied. These companies are responsible for 96 % of all district heat supplied in Sweden. District heating systems owned by municipalities were responsible for 65 % of all district heat supply, while the share of power companies was 34 %. Other private owners accounted for 1 %. Only 12 % of the board members are women and more than 40 % of the companies have no woman in the board. The prices gathered by the annual consumer study are good estimates of the price level of district heating in Sweden. The average revenues are only 4,1 % lower than the effective average of prices gathered. Price of district heating decrease with size and market share. Use of combined heat and power plants decrease prices slightly. Lower prices with size can mainly be explained by lower energy supply costs. Calculated rates of return in relation to calculated replacement values increase slightly by size and are almost independent of age and market share. The purport of these conclusions is that the district heating companies share the cost reduction from size with their customers, while the whole benefit from high market shares is repaid to the customers. Calculated rates of return vary among the owner groups examined. Lower rates are accepted by municipalities, while power companies have higher rates at the average costs used. Total replacement costs for the 152 companies has been estimated to 89 billion Swedish crowns or 10 billion Euro. Only correlation analyses using one dimension have been used in this study. A higher degree of quality can be obtained by using multi-dimensional analyses

  8. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  9. Modular district heating system MODiS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K.; Ranne, A.; Koljonen, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    2000-12-01

    MODiS (Modular District Heating System) products were developed for either building an entirely new district heating (DH) system or for renovating and extending an existing system. MODiS products comprise highly integrated prefabricated and pre- tested modules, where the modules themselves may be boilers, pumping stations, substations, metering devices, automation equipment, planning tools, information and management systems. The MODiS Concept tool was developed by VTT Energy for the rough planning of a MODiS district heating system. As a result, the MODiS Concept model can give the budget for a DH-system divided into the boiler plant, the district heating pipelines and the consumer substations. The annual investment and running cost of the system are evaluated. A dynamic simulation model for MODiS was also created with a real time simulation tool called APROS. The simulator can be used for studying normal operation, behaviour under emergency conditions, and process failures. The APROS simulation program has also been used to investigate an ejector connection in an apartment building and for analysing the operation of the ejector in relation to the entire heating system. A DH system in a Russian district heating zone was modelled with the programs. A knowledge-based tool, PIPECOR, has been developed and it estimates the remaining service life of the pipelines under the defined conditions, and the current corrosion rate. Renovation principles for the East European district heating systems have been developed during the project. (orig.)

  10. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  11. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  12. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Comments on Ode to the West Wind

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩; 张冬妮

    2013-01-01

      Ode to the West Wind, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley, is considered as a masterpiece in the English literature, even in the whole culture. There is no denying that Ode to the West Wind is not simply to sing of the west wind, while there are many thoughts that Shel ey wants to express. This paper has comments on it from three aspects — the revolution, the new ideas and the writer himself.

  14. Pegmatite geology of the Shelby district, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1957-01-01

    The Shelby district is divided into a northwestern and a southeastern province. The rocks in the southeastern province include various units in the Battleground schist formation and the Yorkville granodiorite. Those in the northwestern province include the Carolina gneiss, with its Shelby gneiss member, and the Toluca quartz monzonite. The Cherryville quartz monzonite forms a batholith that is just west of the boundary between the two provinces. Pegmatites related to both the Toluca and the Cherryville quartz monzonites lie in the Carolina gneiss and many dikes of pegmatite that are related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite are in the tin-spodumene belt that lies along the boundary between provinces. The rocks of the southeastern province have been bent into steep isoclinal folds; those of the northwestern province were bent into open folds and gently-dipping isoclinal folds. The rocks to the southeast have been metamorphosed in the epidote-amphibolite facies whereas the rocks to the northwest represent the amphibolite or granulite facies. The pegmatites related to the Toluca quartz monzonite form sills, dikes, and concordant lenses in the Carolina gneiss, as well as dikes in the Toluca quartz monzonite. The bodies are unzoned and consist mainly of gneissic microcline-plagioclase-quartz pegmatite. The pegmatites related to the Cherryville quartz monzonite form dikes and disconformable lenses in the Carolina gneiss and the Toluca quartz monzonite. These pegmatites range widely in composition and many are zoned. The dikes west of the Cherryville batholith are rich in muscovite and plagioclase and may contain no microcline or only a moderate amount of microcline. Quartz cores and microcline-rich intermediate zones are common. Similar pegmatite forms dikes along the west edge of the tin-spodumene belt. The tin-spodumene belt containes albite-microcline-spodumene-quartz pegmatite. These dikes of albitic pegmatite are largest and most nearly parallel to one another

  15. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa.
...

  16. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  17. Special Taxing Districts, TaxDistricts-The data set is a polygon feature representing special taxing districts., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1991. It is described as 'TaxDistricts-The data...

  18. Election Districts and Precincts, Census 2000 Voting Districts: Partial Statewide coverage of polygonal boundaries for the Census 2000 Voting districts., Published in 2002, Arizona State Land Department.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset as of 2002. It is described as 'Census 2000 Voting Districts: Partial Statewide coverage of polygonal boundaries for...

  19. Preliminary investigation on presence of peste des petits ruminants in Dakawa, Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Kgotlele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by the sudden onset of depression, fever, oculonasal discharges, sores in the mouth, foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. For many years, in Africa, the disease was mainly confined to West and Central Africa but it has now spread southwards to previously PPR-free countries including Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. Presence of the disease has also been confirmed in southern Tanzania especially Mtwara region. Recently, a suspected outbreak of PPR in Dakawa area, Mvomero district, Morogoro region was reported. Clinical samples (lungs, intestines, lymph nodes, whole blood and sera from suspected goats (n = 8 and sheep (n = 1 were submitted to Sokoine University of Agriculture for analysis. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of the nucleoprotein gene and the fusion gene of PPR virus (PPRV using PPRV specific primers was done. Five goats and the sheep were positive for PPRV after performing RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the presence of PPR in the Mvomero district of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Hence, more efforts should be put in place to prevent the spread of PPR in Tanzania.

  20. Exploring Superintendent Leadership in Smaller Urban Districts: Does District Size Influence Superintendent Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on urban school reform focuses on how the relatively small number of our nation's largest urban districts are approaching school reform with these objectives in mind. However, does smaller district size have any bearing, direct or indirect, on the nature of superintendent leadership? The authors' exploratory…

  1. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... in the Federal Register (76 FR 65525, October 21, 2011). Huron Wetland Management District was..., Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts from October 21, 2011 to November 21, 2011 (76 FR... this process through a notice in the Federal Register (73 FR 53439, September 16, 2008). We...

  2. How Does District Principal Evaluation Affect Learning-Centered Principal Leadership? Evidence from Michigan School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Youngs, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study used Hierarchical Multivariate Linear models to investigate relationships between principals' behaviors and district principal evaluation purpose, focus, and assessed leadership activities in 13 school districts in Michigan. The study found that principals were more likely to engage in learning-centered leadership behaviors when the…

  3. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event... areas: A race area, where all persons and vessels, except those persons and vessels participating in...

  4. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed approval of the revised regulation, 45 CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards, submitted by West Virginia...

  5. Geographic Analysis of Alaska Lake Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C. D.; Jones, B. M.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The state of Alaska has over 400,000 lakes greater than 0.01 km2 in surface area covering approximately 3.3% of the landscape. As in most lake-rich regions, these lakes are unevenly distributed on the landscape. So in order to better understand how lakes are organized on the landscape and relate this geographic organization to other climatologic, geologic, and biogeographic characteristics, we analyzed the spatial distribution of Alaska lakes. Using a combination of numerical abundance and surface-area extent of lakes, we selected lake density thresholds to identify and delineate 22 lake districts in Alaska. The total area of these 22 lakes districts occupy 16% of Alaska, yet encompass 64% of lakes and 76% of lake surface-area. The three largest lake districts are associated with the Yukon-Kuskokwin Delta, the Northern Arctic Coastal Plain, and the mountain front of the Alaskan Range on the Alaska Peninsula. Interestingly, these largest lake districts are covered by >17% lakes, while most of the smaller lake districts we identified have Parks (NP) and National Wildlife Refuges (NWR). Not surprisingly, 12 of these lake districts occur partly or wholly within NWRs, and all but two are associated with other state or federally managed parks or wildlife refuges. Analysis of lake districts in Alaska, or other regions on Earth, may prove to be useful for better understanding lake change, aquatic and terrestrial habitats, and regional hydrologic budgets and regimes. Such fresh views of the landscape may become increasingly important for improving natural resource science and management in Alaska, where future climate change is predicted to be very rapid.

  6. District heating strategy model: community manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  7. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... boundaries: The area west of the Feather River; north of the Butte/Sutter county line; east of Pennington and..., Contra Costa, El Dorado, Amador, Sacramento, Alpine, San Francisco, Alameda, San Mateo, Santa...

  8. Domestic and international district energy success stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortum is a leading Nordic energy company that is increasingly focusing on the provision of heat supply from waste energy and renewables. This power point presentation gave an outline of Fortum's involvement in district energy projects in Sweden. Details of Fortum's heating distribution, power and electricity sales were presented, as well as a chart of share performance to 2006. A chart of Swedish electricity production from 1970 to 2003 was provided, in addition to energy input sources for district heating from 1970-2003. Details of the Hammarby eco-cycle model were presented, as well as issues concerning the use of bio-gas for stoves and vehicles. An outline of the Hammarby heat plant was presented, with details of heat pumps, bio-oil boilers, electric boilers, and heat production data. Issues concerning district cooling for commercial customers were reviewed. A bio-fuel district energy plant in Stockholm was discussed, as well as issues concerning the transportation of biofuel by sea and rail. Electric energy savings due to the use of district cooling were evaluated. Details of new gas works facilities in Hjorthagen were presented, as well as details of a proposed terminal in Nynashamn which will interact with a natural gas system. tabs., figs

  9. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  10. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  11. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It e

  12. West Nile virus: a growing concern?

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, L. Hannah; Fikrig, Erol

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has subsequently spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. This review describes the epidemiology and ecology of West Nile virus in North America and the prospects for effective treatments and vaccines.

  13. Household Milk consumption and Its Socio-economic Associates in West Azarbayejan Province, North-west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Esfarjani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: According to the available evidence, consumption of milk and other dairy products among Iranians is far less than recommendations. The share of different milks (i.e., traditionally vs. industrially processed and its associated variables are, however, neither consistent nor fully known in different Provinces.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household milk consumption and its association with selected socio-demographic factors in West Azarbayejan Province, North-west Iran. A total of 650 households were selected from urban and rural areas in three major Azeri and Kurdish districts (i.e. Urmia, Khoy and Mahabad using a multi-stage cluster sampling method. Data were collected using socio-economic and milk frequency questionnaires. Results: The findings indicated that traditionally-processed milk (bulk was the most common milk consumed at household level (62.5%. Mean of bulk milk consumption in urban and rural areas was 479±23 and 730±64 ml/wk per capita, respectively. It was also shown that establishment of the new food subsidization policy has decreased the mean of household milk consumption by approximately 3 l/wk in urban areas. Factor analysis detected a significant decrease in the higher tertiles of family size/ethnicity score consumption of both bulk and pasteurized milk, which resulted in decreased consumption of total milk. Conclusions: Designing and implementation of alternative approaches, such as targeted milk subsidies for poor households or vulnerable age-groups should be considered. Keywords: Household milk consumption, Milk processing method, Socio-economic variables, Iran.

  14. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-01

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study. PMID:27479854

  15. Energy cascading in large district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study shows that it is possible to force a district heating system with low flow- and return-line temperatures by using energy cascading, which means that the heat is transmitted to several consumer regions at different temperature ranges. Thereby results an evident reduction of the electric power loss in the power station and the district heating system can be supplied now economically with heat by a nuclear power station built at a great distance to the supply region because of reasons of security. (M.S.)

  16. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... measurements was too long for real time data, and reliable mass loss data could only be obtained after 6 months exposure. It was furthermore found that localized corrosion events detected by the carbon steel crevice corrosion cell correlated with oxygen peaks of even a few hours duration....

  17. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project is...... to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons will...

  18. First record of the Borneo Earless Monitor Lanthanotus borneensis (Steindachner, 1877) (Reptilia: Lanthanotidae) in West Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Yaap; G.D. Paoli; A. Angki; P.L. Wells; D. Wahyudi; M. Auliya

    2012-01-01

    The following paper presents the first published record of the cryptic Borneo Earless Monitor (Lanthanotus borneensis Steindachner, 1877) from West Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). This sole member of the family Lanthanotidae is endemic to Borneo. Since its description in 1877, all locality records of specimens refer to Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). The recent discovery of this “living fossil” in an oil palm estate under development in Landak District expands its known distribution southward ...

  19. Determinants of delay in malaria treatment-seeking behaviour for under-five children in south-west Ethiopia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Deribew Amare; Deribe Kebede; Getahun Alemayehu

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Prompt diagnosis and timely treatment of malaria within 24 hours after onset of first symptoms can reduce illness progression to severe stages and therefore, decrease mortality. The reason why mothers/caretakers delay in malaria diagnosis and treatment for under-five children is not well studied in Ethiopia. The objective of this study was to assess determinants of malaria treatment delay in under-five children in three districts of south-west Ethiopia. Methods A case cont...

  20. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-01-01

    In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist ...

  1. An evaluation of the management of the selection process for educators at primary schools in the North West Area : theoretical and practical implications / A.T. Aphane

    OpenAIRE

    Aphane, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the research is about the evaluation of the management of the selection for educators at a primary school in the North West, Klerksdorp District and to consider theoretical and practical implications. Questionnaires were used as the main measuring instrument. The findings of the research revealed that some of the role players lack necessary skills and expertise to be part of the selection process. Policy implications were found to have an effect on the process. Ne...

  2. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  4. [Waubay Wetland Management District: Narrative report - Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  5. Crosby Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  6. Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  7. [Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  8. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins by...

  9. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by...

  11. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Crosby Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins by describing...

  13. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Landfills - MO 2006 Solid Waste Management Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains boundaries and contact information for Missouri Solid Waste Management districts and regions. The districts were created by statute to foster...

  16. What does distance matter? Leprosy control in West Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, M

    1988-01-01

    One of the major planks of leprosy control strategies is that distance from established treatment centres deters leprosy cases from seeking treatment. The integration of leprosy care with locally available primary health care services is therefore a common feature of leprosy control programmes. Within these guidelines, a National Leprosy Control Programme was established in Nepal in 1975, with intensive case-finding surveys and the provision of leprosy care in government basic health posts. A study of one district, Lamjung, in West Nepal suggests that far from being a deterrent, distance afforded welcome anonymity for leprosy cases anxious to disguise their diagnosis and thereby avoid the social ostracism which could result. Cases from ethnic groups in which the stigma of leprosy was high travelled farther for treatment. Gender differences in distance travelled suggest that women's mobility was restricted, but the local availability of care did not increase attendance for regular treatment. It is suggested that this was more the result of poor quality of care than fear of being known locally as a leprosy case. PMID:3353751

  17. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain. PMID:27501538

  18. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  19. CHANGING PATTERN OF LAND UTILIZATION AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY,A CASE STUDY BLOCK ENGLISHBAZAR, DISTRICT MALDA, WESTBENGAL, INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjoy Dutta

    2015-01-01

    “ Land” is the basic resource of human society. It’s utilization shows a reciprocal relationship between the prevailing ecological condition of a region and man. So the study of land use is of prime importance to any researcher for the economic development ,resource planning, cultural advancement of people. The district of Malda(24 40 20 N to 25 33 08 N and 87 45 50e to 88 28 10E) comprising an area of 3713 sq km located between the state of Bihar in the west and Bangladesh in ...

  20. Water and energy management in an automated irrigation district

    OpenAIRE

    Stambouli, Talel; Faci González, José María; Zapata Ruiz, Nery

    2014-01-01

    An important modernization process providing pressurized irrigation systems to the traditional surface irrigation districts has taken place in Spain over the last 20 years However, an adverse consequence of modernization is the important increase in the energy cost in the modernized irrigation districts, which is aggravated by the current high energy prices. The Almudévar irrigation district (AID), a traditional surface irrigation district, was transformed into a pressurized sprinkler irrigat...

  1. "SPINNING MILLS IN KOLHAPUR DISTRICT: A CASE STUDY OF DRKCOSPIN"

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Soudagar Raut

    2016-01-01

    The first successful co-operative spinning mill was established at Ichalkarangi in Kolhapur District of Maharashtra in 1960.Development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District is influenced by many natural as well as economic factors. The entire factors provide a good base upon which the Spinning Mills flourish. Economic or demographic factors play a powerful part in the development of Spinning Mills in Kolhapur District. The Spinning Mills are of paramount importance in Kolhapur District. The...

  2. Open district heating and marginal cost based heat pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkelä, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Currently, an increasing usage of individual heating systems such as heat pumps and solar heat collectors, pose a challenge to the district heating market. However, individual heating technologies together with industrial processes produce excess heat, which can be utilized in district heating. The usage of excess heat can be seen as an opportuni-ty for new business strategies in district heating. The objective of this thesis was to simulate hourly district heat production in an open dist...

  3. IRRIGATION DISTRICT ADOPTION OF WATER CONSERVING RATE STRUCTURES

    OpenAIRE

    Michelsen, Ari M.; McGuckin, J. Thomas; Taylor, R. Garth; Huffaker, Ray G.

    1998-01-01

    A binary choice model was used to identify the attributes that influence irrigation district adoption of conservation rate structures. Using principles of rate design and irrigation district administration as a framework, measures of irrigation district rate structure objectives and physical and economic conditions were developed. The factors investigated characterize the constraints under which districts operate, value and cost of water, quantity of water delivered and revenue risk for distr...

  4. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994

  5. The West and Contemporary Peace Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Alex J. Bellamy; Williams, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, senior UN officials have raised concerns about the decline of Western contributions to UN peace operations. Although this is a worrying trend for supporters of the UN, it does not mean that the West is playing a smaller role in peace operations per se. Instead, the West has increased its contribution to `hybrid' peace operations and missions that take place outside of the UN system. This article examines the West's contribution to both UN and non-UN peace operations since the...

  6. ISLAM, POLITICS AND IDENTITY IN WEST SUMATRA

    OpenAIRE

    Delmus Puneri Salim

    2013-01-01

    Since Indonesia has undergone a decentralisation phase, its regions have searched for their local identities. In West Sumatra, for instance, Islam is dominant. Con­se­quently, there has been a constant attempt to infuse Islamic values into social, political and economic aspects. The paper seeks to contextualise the key phases in the history of West Sumatra in the broader history of the archipelago and the Malay world, and to show how key events in West Sumatra and at the national level set th...

  7. Mangrove swamp rice production in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Agyen-Sampong, M.

    2013-01-01

    Mangrove swamp rice cultivation, located in coastal areas where the population is relatively dense, is one of the oldest forms of rice culture in West Africa. Of approximately 1.2 million hectares of mangrove swamp in West Africa about 200 000 ha is cleared for mangrove swamp rice production in Guinea Bissau, the Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The mangrove swamp rice areas in West Africa cover a wide range of climatic conditions from dry tropical climate (savanna) with 800 mm or le...

  8. 1979 State of the District Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Leslie

    The running of the Los Angeles Community College District incorporates two distinct kinds of functions: those of an educational nature and those that are corporate in scope. While the educational functions have been performed well, the future will demand even greater responsiveness to student needs. Issues to be faced in the future to insure that…

  9. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro;

    2014-01-01

    comparing with other local heat generation units. The design and operation of DH systems therefore needs to be re-examined, part of the solution being low operational temperature. The 3-years IEA DHC Annex X project ‘Towards 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low...

  10. Court Cases Involving Contracts for School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, L. Hank

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze trends in the United States regarding contract disputes that exist in school districts. Court cases were identified at the state and federal level to determine the outcomes and the fact patterns of contract disputes. To gain the knowledge of how courts handle cases of contractual breach, contracts…

  11. Woodfuel procurement strategies of district heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodfuel use in the Swedish district heating sector increased significantly from 1985 to 1999. This study analysed strategies and considerations concerning woodfuel procurement in district heating plants. Priorities and concerns in the industry involved an increased woodfuel share, ambitions to create an environmental image, cost minimisation, awareness about the role of energy policies for fuel choice, improvement of woodfuel quality and the ambition to maintain a competitive woodfuel market with several suppliers. Factor analysis yielded five dimensions in the woodfuel procurement strategies among the district heating companies: (1) increased woodfuel use; (2) import; (3) spot market woodfuel purchases; (4) focus on refined woodfuels; and (5) using price only when deciding whether to use woodfuels or other fuels. Five clusters were defined along the three strategy dimensions (1)-(3). The clusters differed concerning size, experiences from the introduction of woodfuels, perceptions about woodfuels and strategies employed to date. This paper describes different strategies that the district heating companies apply on the woodfuel market. The conclusion is that policies should consider this diversity in procurement strategies, mitigate their negative side-effects and assist to make them cost-effective. (author)

  12. School Attendance and the District Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert-Guillory, Julie

    2009-01-01

    House Bill 1 became a major piece of legislation in Texas a few years ago. It was designed primarily to address public school finance, property tax relief, public school accountability, and education-related matters. This piece of legislation has forced districts to manage their finances very differently, undergo budget reductions, and continue…

  13. Demand side management for smart district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Big, Oovidiu; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    The influence on the district heating network design and operation by using the energy storage capability inside the building is studied on different types of buildings under Danish climate. The building envelope has significant role in buildings energy consumption but also in building time const...

  14. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once the...

  15. Tri-District Arts Consortium Summer Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Charlotte O.

    1990-01-01

    The Tri-District Arts Consortium in South Carolina was formed to serve artistically gifted students in grades six-nine. The consortium developed a summer program offering music, dance, theatre, and visual arts instruction through a curriculum of intense training, performing, and hands-on experiences with faculty members and guest artists. (JDD)

  16. 43 CFR 426.19 - District responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... district that delivers irrigation water to nonexempt land under a contract with the United States must: (a... director; (h) Withhold deliveries of irrigation water to any landholder not eligible to receive irrigation... from each landholder based on the landholder's acreage limitation status, landholdings,...

  17. New Attitudes Shaping Labor-District Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Back in the mid-2000s, in public and in the news media, Joseph P. Burke, then superintendent of the Springfield public schools, and Timothy T. Collins, president of the local teachers' union, often seemed to be at odds with each other. Out of the public eye, however, the two men had begun meeting regularly. When Burke left the district, the work…

  18. School Districts Can Stretch the School Dollar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Many districts continue to face budget challenges of historic proportions. Decisions made in the coming months will carry significant repercussions for years to come. The path of least resistance is to slash budgets in ways that erode schooling. In this scenario, important reforms are left behind, overall services are diminished, innovations are…

  19. 7 CFR 959.24 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 959.24 Section 959.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Counties of Val Verde, Frio, Kinney, Uvalde, Medina, Maverick, Zavala, Dimmit, and La Salle in the State...

  20. Election Districts and Precincts, Supervisory Districts for County, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described...

  1. 13 CFR 305.5 - Project administration by District Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project administration by District Organization. 305.5 Section 305.5 Business Credit and Assistance ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION... § 305.5 Project administration by District Organization. (a) When a District Organization is not...

  2. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  3. How State Takeover School Districts Shake Up Teacher Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kaitlin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, many state departments of education have taken over low-performing schools or districts as a school turnaround strategy. Recently, that strategy has shifted to creating new districts--managed by the state--that include schools and parts of districts that face challenges in performance. The governance structure brings…

  4. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  5. 27 CFR 9.143 - Spring Mountain District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spring Mountain District... Spring Mountain District. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Spring Mountain District.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of...

  6. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…

  7. Tax Area Boundaries, TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries, Published in 2010, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries'....

  8. Election Districts and Precincts, Voting districts provided to us from Johnson County Election office., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Voting districts provided to us...

  9. Election Districts and Precincts, Supervisor Districts, Published in 2000, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Bayfield County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2000. It is described as 'Supervisor Districts'. Data by this publisher...

  10. Narrative report for calendar year 1972 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1972. The report begins by giving a...

  11. Narrative report for calendar year 1971 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1971. The report begins by summarizing...

  12. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  13. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  14. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF TOURISM IN THE NORTH – WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION (DURING 2009 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borma Afrodita

    2013-07-01

    insse.ro/cms/rw/pages/index.ro.do in order to gather representative data on the evolution of national tourism for the 2009 – 2011, in each districts of North-West. The first part of the paper presents the foreign visitors who come to Romania, hence the largest number of foreign visitors and how it evolved from 2009 to 2011 the number of foreign tourists in Romania.The second part deals with the existing tourism potential in the North-West region and the opportunities offered by the region. The three part deals with the main touristic indicators in the six counties of North-West and the differences between them. The analysis is based on the comparison of main tourism indicators showing the tourist activity in the development regions of Romania, namely: the number of arrivals, number of nights and existing tourist capacity. The last part presents the steps that should be followed to overcome the losses caused by the crisis of 2008-2009 and to ensure a positive growth of the indicators analyzed.

  16. Implementation of a district-initiated inquiry process in a Southern California School District

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, Jose Francisco

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how a district- initiated inquiry process affected principal and staff behaviors, while being incorporated into school practices. This study contributed to the limited literature about the use of the inquiry process as a reform strategy within the context of a district-initiated inquiry process. Research suggests that an inquiry process is the construct for quality decision-making practices that lead schools toward sustainable change (Reeves, 2006, Cop...

  17. Mobility management at district level - The impact of car-reduced districts on mobility behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Nobis, Claudia; Welsch, Janina

    2003-01-01

    The model district Freiburg-Vauban is one of the first low-car housing projects in Germany. Within the project "Optimisation of the Traffic Concept of the District Freiburg-Vauban during Implementation" sponsored by the German Federal Foundation for Environment, an evaluation of the traffic concept was carried out. The Analysis described in this paper is part of the project and edlivers data in a new scientific quality about the way in which thes kind of car-reduction measures influ...

  18. About the marshallian industrial district and the theory of the contemporary district. A brief critical reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Becattini

    2002-01-01

    As a departing point, the paper presents the historical genesis of the concept of industrial district focusing on the scientific views of the pioneer of this field, Alfred Marshall. The concept has its origins in the observation of the current industrial reality, mainly of the British one. The purpose is to give an explanation to the difficulties of the classic theory and to study the challenges of the class conflicts. The economic conditions which launched British industrial districts were p...

  19. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease at Sub-National Level during the 2014 West Africa Epidemic: Model Scrutiny and Data Meagreness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Santermans

    Full Text Available The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has infected at least 27,443 individuals and killed 11,207, based on data until 24 June, 2015, released by the World Health Organization (WHO. This outbreak has been characterised by extensive geographic spread across the affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and by localized hotspots within these countries. The rapid recognition and quantitative assessment of localised areas of higher transmission can inform the optimal deployment of public health resources.A variety of mathematical models have been used to estimate the evolution of this epidemic, and some have pointed out the importance of the spatial heterogeneity apparent from incidence maps. However, little is known about the district-level transmission. Given that many response decisions are taken at sub-national level, the current study aimed to investigate the spatial heterogeneity by using a different modelling framework, built on publicly available data at district level. Furthermore, we assessed whether this model could quantify the effect of intervention measures and provide predictions at a local level to guide public health action. We used a two-stage modelling approach: a a flexible spatiotemporal growth model across all affected districts and b a deterministic SEIR compartmental model per district whenever deemed appropriate.Our estimates show substantial differences in the evolution of the outbreak in the various regions of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, illustrating the importance of monitoring the outbreak at district level. We also provide an estimate of the time-dependent district-specific effective reproduction number, as a quantitative measure to compare transmission between different districts and give input for informed decisions on control measures and resource allocation. Prediction and assessing the impact of control measures proved to be difficult without more accurate data. In conclusion, this study provides us a

  20. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.