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  1. Population Growth, Socio-economy and Quality of life in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

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    Piyal Basu Roy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to analyze the decadal variation of population growth, socio-economic condition and quality of life of the people in Birbhum District, West Bengal, India. It has been well accepted that if the amount of resource available within a country does not feed its total inhabitants due to excessive population in comparison to existing resource, quality of life of individual and socio-economy of that area collapse, which is very often found in developing nations of the world. Consequently, well being of common people through provision of basic needs like food, clothing, shelter, education, and health is obstructed. This adversely affects the quality of life of an individual. Increasing rate of population growth brings reduction in per capita income of people by creating pressure on land, making consumer product costlier and decreasing national capital. Moreover, the increase in the population growth rate due to high fertility, low mortality and inflow of migrants prevent improved quality of life also. Among others factors influencing Quality of Life (QOL in particular and socio-economic development and human well being in general are literacy, dietary pattern, transportation, and health service etc., the assessment of which reveals that study area turns out to be one of the backward districts of West Bengal where socio-economy and quality of life are of unfortunate character due to excessive population growth and inconsistent infrastructural development that cannot keep pace with the population increase.

  2. Inferring the fluoride hydrogeochemistry and effect of consuming fluoride-contaminated drinking water on human health in some endemic areas of Birbhum district, West Bengal.

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    Mondal, D; Dutta, G; Gupta, S

    2016-04-01

    This research work is carried out to evaluate fluoride (F) hydrogeochemistry and its effect on the population of two endemic villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal. Fluoride concentration in drinking water varies from 0.33 to 18.08 mg/L. Hydrogeochemical evolution suggests that ion-exchange mechanism is the major controlling factor for releasing F in the groundwater. Most of the groundwater samples are undersaturated with respect to calcite and fluorite. Health survey shows that out of 235 people, 142 people suffer from dental fluorosis. According to fluoride impact severity, almost 80 and 94 % people in an age group of 11-20 and 41-50 suffer from dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. Statistically drinking water F has a positive correlation with dental and skeletal fluorosis. Bone mineral density test reveals that 33 and 45 % of the studied population suffer from osteopenic and osteoporosis disease. IQ test also signifies that F has a bearing on the intelligence development of the study area school children. The existence of significant linear relationship (R (2) = 0.77) between drinking water F and urinary F suggests that consumption of F-contaminated drinking water has a major control over urinary F (0.39-20.1 mg/L) excretion.

  3. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes – a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreya Das; S K Nag

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76°–23.99°N; 87.42°–87.64°E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered – total hardness (TH), Piper’s trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper’s trilinear diagram

  4. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

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    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  5. Multivariate erosion risk assessment of lateritic badlands of Birbhum (West Bengal, India): A case study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sandipan Ghosh; Kamala Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Each geomorphic hazard involves a degree of risk which incorporates quantification of the probability that a hazard will be harmful. At present, the categorization of sub-watersheds into erosion risk is considered as the fundamental step to conserve the soil loss. Development of badlands over the laterites of Birbhum district is an indicative of excessive soil loss in the monsoonal wet-dry type of climate. Slope erosion and channel erosion have generated huge amount of sediment from the small watersheds during intense monsoonal rainfall (June–September). The adjoining areas of Rampurhat I Block, Birbhum (West Bengal) and Shikaripara Block, Dumka (Jharkhand) have lost the lateritic soil cover at a rate of 20–40 ton/ha/year (Sarkar et al. 2005). In order to estimate the progressive removal of soil particles from the gully-catchments of the above-mentioned area, different morphometric parameters, soil parameters, hydrologic parameters and empirical models are employed. Side by side, the study is carried out to categorize the gully-catchments into different magnitude of erosion risk using several multivariate statistical techniques.

  6. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India.

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    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C

    2016-02-01

    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  7. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

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    Vijaya, B. [Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleobotany, Lucknow (India)

    2009-12-15

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit-containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  8. Palynofloral changes in the Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic of the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VIJAYA

    2009-01-01

    The study of Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic palynomorphs in three boreholes from the Deocha-Pachami area, Birbhum Coalfield, West Bengal, India, has allowed dating of the Talchir, Barakar, Dubrajpur, and Rajmahal formations, and revealed many hiatuses. The lowermost unit, the Talchir Formation, yielded earliest Permian palynomorphs. The Barakar Formation, which includes coal-bearing strata, was previously dated as Early Permian. However, data presented herein indicate an Early Permian to earliest Triassic age for this unit,containing actually the Karharbari, Barakar s.s., Kulti, and Ranigang formations as well as the basal part of the Panchet Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation is Jurassic (Callovian to Tithonian), with an unconformity at its base. The uppermost Dubrajpur Formation is Tithonian-Berriasian. The palynomorphs from the intertrappeans within the Rajmahal Formation suggest an Early Cretaceous age. The revised ages of the Barakar and Dubrajpur formations are of major regional significance. The distribution patterns of spore-pollen may provide a broad spectrum of paleoclimate during Permian, Late Jurassic, and Early Cretaceous times, as there is no record of marine signatures in the study area.

  9. Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

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    ASEP SUNJAYA ADHIKERANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhikerana AS, Sugardjito J (2010 Characterizing forest reduction in Ketapang district, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 11: 46-54. We have characterized deforestation in the Ketapang district forests when we implemented the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii Conservation in Trans-boundary Landscape between Central and West Kalimantan provinces. For the purpose of evaluating the changes in land use and land cover in the study areas, a series of Landsat imageries have been analyzed. Each of the Landsat imagery data set for all study areas was initially classified using unsupervised classification into 13 different land-cover types. Ground truth checks were undertaken for Ketapang district forests and Sungai Puteri peat swamp forest, from which the results were used for the supervised land use classification of these two study areas. Between 1992 and 2000 there was only small conversion of primary forest into secondary forests. During this period barren land remained extensive about 30.17% of the total area of Ketapang district. Both agriculture and plantation areas substantially increased 56% and 55% respectively during 2003, while at the same time the extent of both primary and peat swamp forests were considerably reduced up to 15% and 28% respectively. The most striking conversion was from secondary forest to agricultural land and from peat swamp forest to swamp areas. A fraction of lowland forest was also converted into oil-palm plantation which was extended with considerable size into agricultural land. The patterns of land use changes detected in this study indicated a number of possible causes that trigger deforestation in this district include, the local government policy and market demand.

  10. Effect of air and noise pollution on species diversity and population density of forest birds at Lalpahari, West Bengal, India.

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    Saha, Dulal C; Padhy, Pratap K

    2011-11-15

    The Rajmahal-type quality stones for building purposes are found abundantly in Birbhum district, West Bengal, India, where stone mining and crushing have become the main industrial activity. Although crusher dust is injurious to health, demand for crushed stone is ever-increasing as a result of rapid infrastructural growth in the country. Most of the crusher units at Rampurhat are situated along the roadways adjacent to forest under Tumboni Beat of Rampurhat Range of Birbhum Forest Division. Excessive load of air pollution in this area has led to degradation of this forest. The status of the ambient air and noise level was evaluated. The effect of air and noise pollution on abundance and variability of birds in this forest have been compared to an almost non-polluted forest of the same bio-geographic zone. Both species diversity and population density of birds were found to decrease in the polluted forest, especially in the areas adjacent to crushers. For comparing the pollution status of two different forest sites and for establishing whether the density of birds have any correlation between the sites, the Student's t-test and the chi-square test were applied respectively. Most of the results proved to be significant.

  11. Evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti from West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prajna Gayen; Sudipta Maitra; Sutapa Datta; Santi P Sinha Babu

    2010-03-01

    Wolbachia are symbiotic endobacteria that infect the majority of filarial nematodes, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus. Recent studies have suggested that Wolbachia are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes and have highlighted the use of antibiotic therapy such as tetracycline/doxycycline as a novel method of treatment for infections caused by these organisms. Before such therapy is conceived and implemented on a large scale, it is necessary to assess the prevalence of the endosymbiont in W. bancrofti from different geographical locations. We present data from molecular and electron microscopic studies to provide evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in W. bancrofti microfilariae collected from two districts (Bankura and Birbhum) of West Bengal, India.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of folklore plants used in treatment of snakebite in Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal

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    Sumana Sarkhel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate and collect information from traditional health healers/tribal communities on the use of medicinal plants for treatment of snakebite. Methods:The ethno-medicinal study was conducted in 8 villages of the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal in 2012-2013 through questionnaire and personal interviews. Following the method of Martin, information about medicinal plants used in snake bite, precise plant parts used, methods of treatment and administration was enquired from the tribal communities (Santhals, Mundas, Lodhas, Bhumijs, Oraon Kherias) of the region. Results:The present study enumerates 20 ethnomedicinal plant species belonging to 16 families used by the tribal communities and medicinal healers of Paschim Medinipur district, West Bengal in treatment of snakebite. Each plant species has been listed alphabetically according to its botanical name, family, vernacular name, part(s) used, mode of preparation/administration. Conclusions:The importance of traditional medicinal system among the tribal communities of Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal has been highlighted in the present study.

  13. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal:An observation

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    MK Bhattacharya; MK Saha; PS Chakraborty; A Sinha; A Bhattacharya; KK Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Data onHIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country likeIndia and non-existent in state ofWestBengal.These data are essential for formulating policies forHIV intervention strategies to curbHIV epidemic.In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals(Maldah,North24Parganas andDarjeeling) during July2006-December2007was conducted.HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts.A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore furtherHIV/AIDS mortality data inIndia for providing necessary information in developingHIV prevention programs.

  14. HIV/AIDS related deaths from three district hospitals of West Bengal: An observation

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    MK Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on HIV/AIDS incidence or deaths are limited in poor-resource country like India and non-existent in state of West Bengal. These data are essential for formulating policies for HIV intervention strategies to curb HIV epidemic. In present study, a descriptive analysis of all registered cases from three district hospitals (Maldah, North 24 Parganas and Darjeeling during July 2006-December 2007 was conducted. HIV/AIDS related deaths were found to be higher in Darjeeling district compare to other two districts. A comprehensive and well-coordinated survey is needed to explore further HIV/AIDS mortality data in India for providing necessary information in developing HIV prevention programs.

  15. Child Immunization and Vitamin A Supplementation in the District of Bankura, West Bengal

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    Nirmal Kumar Mandal

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: District Health Authority of Bankura in the state of West Bengal desired to estimate the coverage of childhood vaccination and vitamin A prophylaxis by an independent body. To address these issues the present study was undertaken. Objectives: To estimate immunization coverage and vitamin A supplementation in 12-23 months children. Methods: A Cross sectional observational study was conducted in the district of Bankura, West Bengal among children aged between 12-23 months with sample size 320. Study variables were sex, residence, antigen-wise immunization coverage, proportion of fully immunized children, immunization drop-out rate, Vitamin-A (first dose supplementation etc. Coverage was estimated by proportions and Chi-square (c2 was applied as a test of significance. Results: 99.0%, 94.8% and 91.4% of studied children received BCG, DPT-3/OPV-3 and Measles vaccination respectively. 80.3% of children (80.9% male and 79.7% of female were fully immunized. The drop out rate for highest covered antigen dose (DPT1/OPV1 to lowest covered antigen dose (measles was 8.1%. Fully immunized children were found more in rural area (81.7% than the urban area (62.5 of the district. Difference was statistically significant. Almost 92% children received first dose of Vitamin-A. Conclusion: Immunization coverage of Bankura district was higher than that of the state and national figures. Rural coverage is better than urban.

  16. Factors Influencing Teacher’s Employees, Turnover in West Pokot District, Kenya

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    Judith Chepkemboi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Turnover is a very critical issue and each organization should manage its rate. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors influencing TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot district. The specific objectives of the study were to determine the influence of factors such as leadership, remuneration, working conditions and geographical location on TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot district. This study was a descriptive survey, carried out in secondary schools in West Pokot district. The target population comprised a total of 268 secondary school teachers from a total of 30 schools. A sample of 80 respondents was selected using stratified sampling, simple random sampling and systematic random sampling. Questionnaires were the main tool of data collection. The findings indicated that the majority of the respondents felt that their contribution was recognised by the management, 67% of the respondents felt they were given plenty of freedom to decide on how to do their work and that working relations with the boss was not constrained. A majority felt their organization did not give them adequate and fair pay for the work they did as reported by 57%, a fact that led to TSC employees’ turnover in West Pokot. A majority of respondents agreed that they were given adequate facilities and instruments to perform their duties and they worked in a safe and healthy environment as indicated by 42%. The employees said they would leave TSC given an alternative employment, and most of them (24% strongly agreed, some 50% agreed were comfortable with the geographical location of their organizations.

  17. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

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    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  18. Current situation of midwives in indonesia: Evidence from 3 districts in West Java Province

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    Ratminah Mimin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The village midwife is a central element of Indonesia's strategy to improve maternal and child health and family planning services. Recently there has been concern that the midwives were not present in the villages to which they had been assigned. To determine the extent to which this was the case we conducted a field-based census and survey of village midwives in three districts in West Java Province, Indonesia. Findings In June 2009 we interviewed a random sample of village midwives from three districts - Ciamis, Garut and Sukabumi - in West Java Province. Trained interviewers visited all villages represented in the sample to interview the midwives. We also obtained information about the midwives and their professional activities in the last year. Thirty percent of village midwives had moved to another location in the 12 months between the end of 2008, when the sampling frame was constructed, and December 2009 when the survey was conducted; most had moved to a government health center or another village. Of those who were present, there was considerable variation between districts in age distribution and qualifications. The total number of services provided was modest, also with considerable variation between districts. The median number of deliveries assisted in the last year was 64; the amount and mix of family planning services provided varied between districts and were dominated by temporary methods. Conclusions Compared to an earlier survey in an adjacent province, the village midwives in these three districts were younger, had spent less time in the village and a higher proportion were permanent civil servants. A high proportion had moved in the previous year with most moving to a health center or another village. The decision to move, as well as the mix of services offered, seems to be largely driven by opportunities to increase their private practice income. These opportunities are greater in urban areas. As

  19. Availability and use of emergency obstetric care services in four districts of West Bengal, India.

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    Biswas, Akhil Bandhu; Das, Dilip Kumar; Misra, Raghunath; Roy, Rabindra Nath; Ghosh, Debdatta; Mitra, Kaninika

    2005-09-01

    Process indicators have been recommended for monitoring the availability and use of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services. A health facility-based study was carried out in 2002 in four districts of West Bengal, India, to analyze these process indicators. Relevant records and registers for 2001 of all studied facilities in the districts were reviewed to collect data using a pre-designed schedule. The numbers of basic and comprehensive EmOC facilities were inadequate in all the four districts compared to the minimum acceptable level. Overall, 26.2% of estimated annual births took place in the EmOC facilities (ranged from 16.2% to 45.8% in 4 districts) against the required minimum of 15%. The rate of caesarean section calculated for all expected births in the population varied from 3.5% to 4.4% in the four districts with an overall rate of 4%, which is less than the minimum target of 5%. Only 29.9% of the estimated number of complications (which is 15% of all births) was managed in the EmOC facilities. The combined case-fatality rate in the basic/comprehensive EmOC facilities was 1.7%. Major obstetric complications contributed to 85.7% of maternal deaths, and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was the most common cause. It can be concluded that all the process indicators, except proportion of deliveries in the EmOC facilities, were below the acceptable level. Certain priority measures, such as making facilities fully functional, effective referral and monitoring system, skill-based training, etc., are to be emphasized to improve the situation.

  20. Level of Rural Development in Burdwan and Murshidabad Districts, West Bengal: A Comparative Study

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    Syfujjaman Tarafder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The key purpose of this research is to examine the level of attainment of rural development in the two districts—Burdwan and Murshidabad. The reasons for selecting these two districts stems from the fact that majority of the population of these two districts dwell in rural areas. The concept of rural development is comprehensive. It includes economic development of rural people through the development of productive sectors and employment associated with rural infrastructural development as well human development. Therefore, rural development includes in its domain all the aspects of human development of the rural people. The present Central as well as State Governments have undertaken different policies and plans to bring about positive changes amidst the rural people. In most cases, however, the policies and plans fail to achieve the desired level of changes in the rural areas (Desai, 1991. Although in fewer isolated cases, some success has been achieved, but overall development remains to be reached. This research, based mainly on secondary data aims to investigate the scale of progress in the two districts —Burdwan and Murshidabad of West Bengal, India, in the areas embracing social correlates of rural poverty, basic infrastructure facilities, standard of living and quality of life. The data are analysed with the help of statistical and cartographical analysis.

  1. Evaluation of registered visually disabled individuals in a district of West Bengal, India

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    Ghosh Sambuddha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the sociodemographic characteristics, degree and cause of visual disability among certified visually disabled individuals in a rural district of West Bengal, India and to identify possible lacunae, if any, in the existing certification system. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study by secondary data analysis of medical records of 155 visually disabled individuals and their 310 eyes. Demographical features, diagnosis, percentage of visual disability and work activity status of each individual were analyzed. Results: One hundred and thirty one (84.52% individuals had 100% disability. The number of males was significantly higher than that of females. Fifty eight (37.42% individuals were below 21 years of age. Phthisis bulbi was the most common cause followed by microphthalmos. Further, 81.29% patients had the same lesion bilaterally. Conclusion: Patients with higher grades of disability have attended certification boards. A large number of disabled individuals comprised children and young adults. Male gender bias demands concern.

  2. Anti Diabetic Plants Present In West Godavari District Of Andhra Pradesh India- A Short Review.

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    Venkata Narasimha Kadali

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered as one of the chronic disease more prevalent in India and rest of the world. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to the destruction of different organs in the body.There are lots of synthetic drugs present in the market for the treatment of diabetes but they are prone to noxious effects to human systems. Herbs have natural inhibiting potency against various sorts of diseases and they are the ultimate source of bio active compounds which lacks toxic effects. Medicinal plants which have potent anti hyperglycemic effect have been identified and proved experimentally. In this short review an attempt has been made to review some of the medicinal plants such as Annona reticulata, Carica papaya, Coccinia grandis, Moringa oleifera, Murraya koenigi etc., of about 10 species which are proved to be anti diabetic present in the west godavari district of Andhra Pradesh, India.

  3. An Analysis of the Readiness and Implementation of 2013 Curriculum in the West Part of Seram District, Maluku Province, Indonesia

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    Rumahlatu, Dominggus; Huliselan, Estevanus K.; Takaria, Johanis

    2016-01-01

    The changes of curriculum by government always generate pros and cons endlessly. Similarly, the implementation of 2013 Curriculum, which has been established by the government, makes most of the school educators throughout Indonesia including West Seram district try hard to implement the curriculum. Given that there are a lot schools in the West…

  4. Monitoring of landscape change in paddy fields: Case study of Karawang District - West Java Province

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    Franjaya, E. E.; Syartinilia; Setiawan, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Paddy field is an important agricultural land in Indonesia, as one of the largest rice producing-country in the world. At least 26 from 33 provinces in Indonesia are characterized by the existence of paddy field landscape. However, due to the increasing of population and development of infrastructure building, a conversion of paddy field rapidly occurs in many sites. This study aimed to examine the dynamics change in paddy field in Karawang District-West Java during the period of 1994-2015. The method used in this study mainly by the remote sensing technique using satellite images data. The result indicated that conversion of paddy fields to built area/infrastructure in Karawang is approximately 10.326,6 ha. It took up 56% from the paddy that were changed. Based on the result, the changes are likely to occur in the middle of karawang district, near the central city. This result showed the change of paddy field in 1994 converted into some built-up areas such as settlement or roads in 2015. However, about 85.597,56 ha paddy field is not changed during these period. The study showed that paddy fields landscape is facing a changes over the last two decades.

  5. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tanmay Datta; Amal Kumar Patra; Santanu Ghosh Dastidar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status.Methods:were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons Results: A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases.Conclusions:In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

  6. The Tourist Contract Marriage In Cisarua Sub-District Bogor Regency West Java

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    Ummanah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research entitled Tourist Contract Marriages in Cisarua Sub-District of Bogor Regency West Java aimed to investigate 1 Why was Cisarua Sub-District area interesting for the tourists from the Middle East 2 How do the tourist contract marriages between the Arabs and the Sundanese women occur 3 Since when had the phenomenon of the tourist contract marriages start. The method used was the qualitative method and the techniques of collecting the data were in-depth interviews observation and focused discussion. The research results revealed that Cisarua area was attractive to the tourists from the middle East because beside its weather was cool the area had become the destination of the mountain tourists. The process of the contract marriages was started with the step of engagement the preparation of bride price and the wedding in front of the Moslem leader and the male relative of the bride. Historically nobody knew exactly the phenomenon of the contract marriages in Cisarua area. However most informants stated that the phenomenon of the contract marriages had been known for at least 28 years.

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Phlebotomus argentipes & assessment of vector control in two districts of West Bengal, India

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    Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Kala-azar or visceral leishmanisis (VL is known to be endemic in several States of India including West Bengal (WB. Only meager information is available on the vector dynamics of its vector species, Phlebotomus argentipes particularly in relation to control measure from this State. Hence, a pilot study was undertaken to assess the control strategy and its impact on vector in two endemic districts of WB, India. Methods: Two villages each from the two districts, Maldah and Burdwan, were selected for the study. Seasonal variation of sandflies was observed during pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons. Susceptibility test of P. argentipes against DDT and bioassay on DDT sprayed wall and on long lasting insecticide nets (LN Perma Net [®] 2.0 were conducted as per the WHO standard methods. Results: P. argentipes density was high during March to October. Susceptibility status of P. argentipes ranged from 40 to 61.54 per cent. Bioassay test showed 57.89 per cent mortality against LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. and 50 per cent against DDT on wall within 30 min of exposure. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite the integrated vector management approach, the sandfly population was high in the study area. The reason could be development of resistance in P. argentipes against DDT and low effectiveness of LN PermaNet [®] -2.0. The more pragmatic step will be to conduct large studies to monitor the susceptibility level in P. argentipes against DDT.

  8. Maternal and Child Health Determinants in West Manggarai District East Nusa Tenggara Province

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    Ruben Wadu Willa

    2015-03-01

    kesehatan yang sulit, ibu hamil yang memeriksa ke dukun dan tidak tersedianya rumah sakit di kabupaten serta penyakit infeksi malaria dan diare. Solusinya adalah bidang harus aktif dengan melibatkan kepala desa dalam memantau ibu hamil, perlu disediakan perahu motor dan pembangunan rumah sakit daerah.Kata kunci:kematian ibu dan anak, Manggarai BaratABSTRACTBackground: West Manggarai district in period January until July 2012. Infant mortality rate were 34 cases, stillbirths were 33 cases and maternal mortality rate was 9 cases. Methods:This research is qualitative study using Focus Group Discussion (FGD desain, cooperation with head of public health center, midwife, nutrition program manager, and public health at health department. Results:Maternal and infant mortality in Labuan Bajo public health center caused by maternal nutritional deficiency, infectious diseases such as malaria and typhoid fever, mother less attention to the baby when the baby’s ill and difficult access to health services. The problem solution is pregnant women should be regularly having antenathal care, using of mosquito nets. Need to be provided cheaper sea transport. Causes of malnutrition and undernourishment is knowledge, parenting skill and infectious diseases such as diarrhea and malaria. To overcome this problem midwife should be proactive giving counseling to families with malnutrition children under five. Maternal and infant mortality in Winekang public health center caused by not availability of hospital at district, pregnant women still seeking treatment to traditional healers, the implementation of government regulations are less strict and families often late in taking decision to be referred. The solution is health officers must always giving counseling to pregnant women and cross-sector approach to monitoring. Whereas the main cause nutritional problems is parenting behavior, infectious diseases, and not enough healthy food. Conclusion:Maternal and infant mortality caused by difficult

  9. Evaluation of some selected herbs on arsenic-affected cattle in Nadia District, West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Jantu M; Sarkar, Prasanta K; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan K; Sarkar, Samar

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is one of the most alarming environment hazards in West Bengal, India. Cattle are also affected by arsenic due to ingestion of arsenic contaminated water, paddy straw, crops and vegetables. Thirty milch cattle having arsenic content in the range of 3.5 to 4.5 mg/kg in hair were chosen for this experiment from cattle of five respective villages in Nadia District, West Bengal, India. The cattle were divided into three groups containing 10 animals each. Group I cattle were treated with turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) 20 g/day orally for 60 days. Group II cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Amaranthus spinosus powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Group III cattle were treated with turmeric powder (10 g/day) and Eclipta alba powder (10 g/day) orally for 60 days. Ten apparently healthy milch cows with no history of exposure to arsenic were selected and kept as control group (group IV). Arsenic content in hair, faeces, urine and milk; different biochemical and haematological parameters and DNA fragmentation percentage assay were carried out before commencement of the treatment, after 30 days and after 60 days of treatment. The test drugs were found significantly (p arsenic from the body and lead to significant improvement in different biochemistry, pathology and DNA fragmentation assay. These drugs also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure.

  10. Immigrants Trigger Change, White Exodus in Iowa District: West Liberty District Adjusts Strategies to Improve Outreach to Hispanic Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Like a growing number of other places in America's heartland, West Liberty is watching its share of minority students shift into the majority. In this working-class Iowa town of 3,600, about 65 miles west of the state's southeastern border with Illinois, the changes are less visible than they are consequential for the local economy and school…

  11. Commuting patterns of workers in a village of Barddhaman district, West Bengal

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    Bhaswati Mondal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Commuting helps to keep balance between residence and workplace of workers. With growing accessibility and connectivity, the importance of commuting is increasing all over the world. It is becoming a major substitute to migration. In commute-studies, commute-pattern is an important chapter. It highlights commuters’ directions of movement, distance they cover, modes of transport they use, the time they take to commute, etc. Unlike the urban-based commute pattern, commute pattern in rural areas are relatively an under-researched issue. In fact, traditionally rural people are thought to carry a sedentary lifestyle. Using primary data, this study aims to explore the commute patterns of rural workers located in the village of Gandharbapur of Barddhaman district of West Bengal, India. All the commuters were found to be engaged in non-farm work. Commuters stem from two major groups. One group of commuters is accumulated farm-income induced. They possess sufficient agricultural land. Investing their surplus farm-income, they have established non-farm works. The second group of commuters is poverty-driven. They are landless poor or are marginal farmers and to escape poverty, they have slipped into these works. Located beyond the suburban area (Memari being the nearest town, most commuters commute to nearby rural areas. Due to non-availability of public transport, women commute less than men do. Regular-paid government employees commute longer than other workers commute. The article concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for further research.

  12. Geology of the Brick Flat massive sulfide body, Iron Mountain cluster, West Shasta district, California ( USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brick Flat massive sulfide body is one of a group of 8 individual bodies that constitute the Iron Mountain cluster in the S part of the West Shasta district. Before they were separated by postmineral faulting, 5 of the 8 sulfide bodies formed a single large deposit about 1375 m long with a mass of some 23 million metric tons. The pyritic Brick Flat sulfide body is one of the 5 faulted segements of this deposit. The Brick Flat massive sulfide lies within medium phenocryst rhyolite that is characteristic of the ore-bearing middle unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite. It is interpreted to be downfaulted a vertical distance of 75 to 85 m from the Old Mine sulfide-gossan orebody along the N-dipping Camden South fault. It is bounded in turn on its N side by another parallel fault, the Camden North, which drops the orebody down another 75 m to the level of the Richmond orebody. -from Author

  13. ANALYSIS OF INCIDENCE OF INFERTILITY IN CATTLE OF HOWRAH DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

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    Asit Kumar Maji

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 823 numbers of cattle (342 Crossbred Jersey and 481 Non-descript were presented for gynaeco-clinical examination after considering specific history of cattle at 26 fertility camps during January 2006 to December 2008 in flood prone rural areas of Howrah district of West Bengal, India. Statistical analysis of the data pointed out that among overall infertility problem incidence of anestrous and repeat breeding were 67.68 % and 32.32 % respectively. Incidence of anestrous was higher in Non-descript cattle (53.86 % than that Crossbred Jersey cattle (46.14 % and incidence of repeat breeding was also significantly (P < 0.001 higher in non-descript cattle (68.05% than that of crossbred (31.95% animal. Irrespective of breeds the incidence of true anestrous, subestrus, anestrous due to pyometra with persistent corpus leuteum and infantile genitalia with other congenital disorders were 81.51 %, 9.34%, 1.44% and 7.71% respectively. It also revealed that incidence of repeat breeding due to anovulatory estrus, follicular cyst and uterine infection were 43.61%, 46.24%, and 10.15% respectively which were also significantly higher (P<0.001 in Non-descript cattle in comparison with Crossbred Jersey (72.4 vs. 27.0 %, 59.34 vs. 40.65% and 88.89 vs. 11.11% respectively for ND vs. CBJ.

  14. Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Elangbam J K; Gupta, Abhik; Singh, N R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Eighteen physico-chemical variables were analyzed in groundwater from 30 different hand-operated tube wells in urban, suburban, and rural areas in two seasons. The data were subjected to uni-, bi-, and multivariate statistical analysis, the latter comprising cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA). Arsenic concentrations exceed the Indian standard in 23.3% and the WHO limit in 73.3% of the groundwater sources with only 26.7% in the acceptable range. Several variables like iron, chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and turbidity are also beyond their desirable limits for drinking water in a number of sites. Sodium concentrations and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) are both high to render the water from the majority of the sources unsuitable for agricultural use. Multivariate statistical techniques, especially varimax rotation of PCA data helped to bring to focus the hidden yet important variables and understand their roles in influencing groundwater quality. Widespread arsenic contamination and high sodium concentration of groundwater pose formidable constraints towards its exploitation for drinking and other domestic and agricultural use in the study area, although urban anthropogenic impacts are not yet pronounced.

  15. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Shibabrata Pattanayak; Tapan Kumar Mandal; Susanta Kumar Bandyopadhyay

    2015-01-01

    Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses wit...

  16. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

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    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  17. Oral health status and treatment needs among 10126 school children in West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, M. Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, A. Naga; Kambalimath, Halaswamy V.; Chandrasekhar, Shalini; Deepthi, B.; Ramakrishna, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Oral diseases are affecting a large percentage of children worldwide. This study with Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry collaboration was taken up with the aim to evaluate the oral health status and treatment needs in school-going children of the West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 10126 school children who were randomly selected from 32 schools in West Godavari district. To find the significance of the obtained number of cases for different age groups, Chi-square test of significance was used. Results: The prevalence of dental conditions are as follows: Dental caries 63.5%, periodontal diseases 13.6%, dental anomalies 3.6%, dental trauma 3.2%, and orthodontic treatment 25.1%. Among the different age groups, 11–14 years age group has the highest prevalence of oral health problems. Females were more affected with dental caries (P = 0.17), orthodontic treatment needs (P = 0.12), and dental anomalies (P = 0.86) compared to males which was statistically insignificant. The highest prevalence of dental conditions in the case of females was observed during the age of 11–14 years, and in males, the peak was seen in the 15–18 years age group. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that school-going children in West Godavari district suffer from a high prevalence of dental conditions and have higher treatment needs. PMID:27382536

  18. What Governs District Manager Decision Making? A Case Study of Complex Leadership in Dangme West District, Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwamie, Aku; Agyepong, Irene Akua; Dijk, Van Han

    2015-01-01

    Management and leadership in complex health systems
    have been little addressed as contributors toward improving maternal
    and newborn health. Widespread perceptions of weak district-level
    management and leadership have encouraged capacity strengthening
    interventions with a predominant

  19. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  20. Community acceptance of tsetse control baits: a qualitative study in Arua District, North West Uganda.

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    Vanja Kovacic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is renewed vigour in efforts to eliminate neglected tropical diseases including sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis or HAT, including attempts to develop more cost-effective methods of tsetse control. In the West Nile region of Uganda, newly designed insecticide-treated targets are being deployed over an area of ∼500 km(2. The operational area covers villages where tsetse control has not been conducted previously. The effectiveness of the targets will depend, in part, on their acceptance by the local community. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed knowledge, perceptions and acceptance of tsetse baits (traps, targets in villages where they had or had not been used previously. We conducted sixteen focus group discussions with male and female participants in eight villages across Arua District. Discussions were audio recorded, translated and transcribed. We used thematic analysis to compare the views of both groups and identify salient themes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Despite the villages being less than 10 km apart, community members perceived deployed baits very differently. Villagers who had never seen traps before expressed fear, anxiety and panic when they first encountered them. This was related to associations with witchcraft and "ghosts from the river" which are traditionally linked with physical or mental illness, death and misfortune. By contrast, villagers living in areas where traps had been used previously had positive attitudes towards them and were fully aware of their purpose and benefits. The latter group reported that they had similar negative perceptions when tsetse control interventions first started a decade ago. Our results suggest that despite their proximity, acceptance of traps varies markedly between villages and this is related to the duration of experience with tsetse control programs. The success of community-based interventions against tsetse will therefore depend on early

  1. Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Behzad; Mehrabani, Shiva; Rafiei, Behrouz; Yaghoubi, Behrouz

    2015-12-01

    In this study, 28 groundwater and 13 soil samples from Ahangaran mining district in Hamedan Province, west of Iran were collected to evaluate the level of contamination. Average concentrations of As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb, and Ni in groundwater samples were 1.39, 3.73, 2.18, 9.37, 2.35, 4.44, and 5.50 μg/L (wet season), and 11.64, 4.92, 4.32, 14.77, 5.43, 4.12, and 0.98 μg/L (dry season), respectively. Results of groundwater samples analysis showed that the average of analyzed metals in the wet and dry seasons were below the permissible limits, except As in the dry season which displays concentrations that exceed US EPA water quality criteria recommended for drinking water. Also, the heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values in each sampling station were less than the critical index limit and were suitable for drinking. Factor analysis revealed that variables influential to groundwater quality in one season may not be as important in another season. Average concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn in soil samples were 2.61, 31.44, 0.51, 55.90, 1284.9, 21.26, and 156.04 mg kg(-1), respectively. The results of the geoaccumulation index (I geo) showed the following decreasing order: Pb > Zn > Cu > As > Sb > Cd > Ag. Potential ecological risk index (RI) suggests that the contamination in the investigated area is moderate to very high risk and the ranking of the contaminants in decreasing order is Ag > Sb > Pb > Cd > As > Cu > Zn.

  2. Do Schools in Rural and Nonrural Districts Allocate Resources Differently? An Analysis of Spending and Staffing Patterns in the West Region States. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2011-No. 099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jesse; Manship, Karen; Chambers, Jay; Johnson, Jerry; Blankenship, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the first detailed comparison of resource allocation between rural and nonrural districts in the West Region. Three regional characteristics often associated with rural districts were chosen for the analysis: district enrollment, student population density within a district (students per square mile), and drive time from the…

  3. PLANTS USED TO CURE PROBLEMS OF FLATULENCE AND CONSTIPATION IN THREE SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibabrata Pattanayak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic flatulence and constipation are two very important problems related with digestive system. Information related with use of various plant parts for correction of these problems were collected from three southern districts of West Bengal, India with different agro-climatic conditions viz. Paschim Medinipur, Purba Medinipur, and Murshidabad. A total of six plants and three plant combinations involving another six new plants were identified, practiced methods of their uses with dose are documented and with the help of available literatures, the previously reported uses of these medicinal plants are analyzed in that perspective.

  4. MOSS FLORA OF THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS DISTRICT (WEST SIBERIA

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    E. D. Lapshina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Overview of Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District moss flora was made based on original authors’ data and information from literature sources. List of mosses includes 307 species. 236 species occur on a flat part of the District; theirs distribution and habitats are described. 21 species are reported from the region for the first time.

  5. Heterogeneity in District-Level Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease during the 2013-2015 Epidemic in West Africa.

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    Fabienne Krauer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Ebola virus disease (EVD epidemic in West Africa in 2013-2015 spread heterogeneously across the three hardest-hit countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone and the estimation of national transmission of EVD provides little information about local dynamics. To investigate district-level transmissibility of EVD, we applied a statistical modelling approach to estimate the basic reproduction number (R0 for each affected district and each country using weekly incident case numbers. We estimated growth rates during the early exponential phase of the outbreak using exponential regression of the case counts on the first eight weeks since onset. To take into account the heterogeneity between and within countries, we fitted a mixed effects model and calculated R0 based on the predicted individual growth rates and the reported serial interval distribution. At district level, R0 ranged from 0.36 (Dubréka to 1.72 (Beyla in Guinea, from 0.53 (Maryland to 3.37 (Margibi in Liberia and from 1.14 (Koinadugu to 2.73 (Western Rural in Sierra Leone. At national level, we estimated an R0 of 0.97 (95% CI 0.77-1.18 for Guinea, 1.26 (95% CI 0.98-1.55 for Liberia and 1.66 (95% CI 1.32-2.00 for Sierra Leone. Socio-demographic variables related to urbanisation such as high population density and high wealth index were found positively associated with R0 suggesting that the consequences of fast urban growth in West Africa may have contributed to the increased spread of EVD.

  6. Modelling of land use change in Indramayu District, West Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, L. D. W.; Tejaningrum, M. A.; Damrah, F.

    2017-01-01

    Indramayu District into a strategic area for a stopover and overseas from East Java area because Indramayu District passed the north coast main lane, which is the first as the economic lifeblood of the Java Island. Indramayu District is part of mainstream economic Java pathways so that physical development of the area and population density as well as community activities grew by leaps and bounds. Growth acceleration raised the level of land use change. Land use change and population activities in coastal area would reduce the carrying capacity and impact on environmental quality. This research aim to analyse landuse change of years 2000 and 2011 in Indramayu District. Using this land use change map, we can predict the condition of landuse change of year 2022 in Indramayu District. Cellular Automata Markov (Markov CA) Method is used to create a spatial model of land use changes. The results of this study are predictive of land use in 2022 and the suitability with Spatial Plan (RTRW). A settlement increase predicted to continue in the future the designation of the land according to the spatial plan should be maintained.

  7. Mineralisation footprints and regional timing of the world-class Siguiri orogenic gold district (Guinea, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Erwann; Thébaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; Roberts, Malcolm; Evans, Noreen

    2016-10-01

    expressed as fracture zones of higher V3S vein density. A composite geochemical cross section across fracture zones from the Kosise deposit indicates that gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district is associated with enrichments in Ag, Au, As, Bi, Co, Mo, (Sb), S, Te and W relative to background. Geochemical variations associated with the ore shoots in the Siguiri district are consistent with petrographic observations and highlight an albite-carbonate-sulphide-sericite alteration. The fourth and last hydrothermal event is associated with the development of a late penetrative S4S cleavage during D4S deformation, which overprints all pre-existing hydrothermal features and is associated with the deposition of free gold, chalcopyrite and galena along fractures in V3A pyrite and V3B pyrite and arsenopyrite. Mineralogical and geochemical footprints as well as timing of the gold-mineralising events in the Siguiri district, when compared with other deposits of the West African Craton, highlight the synchronicity of gold mineralisation in Siguiri (syn-D3S and syn-D4S events) with other similar events in this part of the craton, such as the early Au-Sb-Bi-(Te-W) mineralisation at the Morila deposit in Southeast Mali. Our results support the hypothesis that late Eburnean-age gold mineralisation in the Siguiri district and in the West African Craton as a whole was polyphase.

  8. Sedimentology and facies analysis of Devonian Rocks, southern district of Mackenzie, North West Territories, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer Drees, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Devonian rock succession in the southern part of the District of Mackenzie consists of interbedded evaporites and carbonates, fossiliferous carbonates and shales. Inthe study areathe Devonian succession unconformably overlies LowerPaleozoic orPrecambrian strata and thins in a northeastward direc

  9. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Mapping: Study Case in Karawang District, West Java Indonesia

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    Tris Eryando

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The DHF prevention efforts have been continually conducted by the local health office, but some technical obstacles such as surveillance system is still very weak, and this is known as an important part in decision making process to handle the problem using evidence based information. The research objective is to obtain information on dengue endemic mapping through GIS (Geographic Information Systems to strengthen district surveillance system in district level. Most DHF cases occur in the productive age and located in urban areas with the larva-free rate is low. The direction of movement of the case are local diffusion. Karawang district is a low-lying areas prone to flooding. The rainy season occurs in late October to early May, but the rise of dengue cases at the turn of the rainy season to dry season, this indicates that the humidity in Karawang district supports the mosquito vector breeding. Foging will only kill adult mosquitoes, dengue control programs need to involve community participation and emphasized on public areas like schools and offices because a lot of dengue cases occurred in the productive age. GIS is capable of producing a map factors of risk and map of the case to allow for planning and evaluation of area-based dengue eradication program. GIS is useful in surveillance environmentally based disease, health interventions, and disease prevention strategies.

  10. Study of fractures in Precambrian crystalline rocks using field technique in and around Balarampur, Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Monalisa Mitra; Tapas Acharya

    2015-12-01

    Location of recharge zone in Precambrian crystalline rock is still unclear. The present study attempts to perform a detailed analysis of the joints/fractures developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in and around Balarampur in Purulia district of West Bengal, India using bedrock data. The analysis shows that the orientations of major fracture trends are variable along with varying lithological units and structural affinities. The application of lithology-based analysis technique identifies highly predominant fracture frequency and fracture aperture in mica schist and phyllite in the area. This property is not evident in the granite gneiss and epidiorite. The moderate to high fracture permeability value is also associated with the fractures occurring in the shear zone. Mica schist and phyllite associated with the shear zone may represent a permeable recharge zone in the region.

  11. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

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    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  12. [Epidemiology of malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merabishvili, V M; Diachenko, A A; Val'kov, M Iu; Krasil'nikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in Russia the dynamics of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia is presented. A precise elaboration of data on cases is performed according to the database of the Population-based Cancer Registries of St. Petersburg and Arkhangelsk region.

  13. Adherence of doctors to a clinical guideline for hypertension in Bojanala district, North-West Province, South Africa

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    Asafa R. Adedeji

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements that assist practitioners and patients to make healthcare decisions for specific clinical circumstances. Non-adherence of doctors to guidelines is thought to contribute significantly to poor delivery of clinical care, resulting in poor clinical outcomes.Aim: To investigate adherence of doctors in rural district hospitals to clinical guidelines using the South African Hypertension Guideline 2006 as an example.Setting: Four district hospitals in Bojanala district of North-West Province, South Africa.Methods:A cross-sectional study determined adherence practices of doctors from records of patients with established hypertension seen at the four district hospitals.Results: Of the 490 total records documented by 29 doctors, screening for co-morbidity or associated factors was carried out as follows: diabetes mellitus 99.2%, obesity 6.1%, smoking 53.5%, dyslipidaemia 36.9%, abdominal circumference 3.3%; organ damage: eye 0, kidney 82%, heart 43.5%, chronic kidney disease 38.2%, stroke/transient ischaemic attack 15.9%, heart failure 23.5%, advanced retinopathy 0.2%, coronary heart disease 23.7%, peripheral arterial disease 13.9%. Critical tests/measurements were documented in the following proportions: blood pressure 99.8%, weight 85.3%, height 65.7%, body mass index 3.1%, urinalysis 74.5%, lipogram 76.1%, urea/creatinine 80.4%, electrocardiogram 42.9%, blood glucose 100%; risk determination and grading: diagnosis by hypertension severity 19%, low added risk 57.1%, moderate added risk 64.7%, high added risk 89.6%, very high added risk 89.2%. Adherence to therapies was as follows: first-line guideline drugs 69.4%, second line 84.7%, third line 87.8% and fourth-line 89.6%.Conclusion: Overall adherence of doctors to treatment guidelines for hypertension was found to be low (51.9%. Low adherence rates were related to age (older doctors and less clinical experience, and

  14. Integrating refugee and host health services in West Nile districts, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orach, Christopher Garimoi; De Brouwere, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    Refugees are a common feature in Africa and Uganda is no exception. However, Uganda does not have the resources to provide health care to all its own citizens, let alone to refugees. Refugee health services are therefore usually set up and provided separately by international organizations such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). However, such services often end up being the only available or reliable services in a particular location for both host and refugee populations. Yet the host populations are often denied access to these services because, in theory, other services are being provided by their government. The case study in the West Nile region of Uganda describes how host and refugee services were integrated in an attempt to address the concerns of inequity of access to care for host populations, when reasonably good health services were available to nearby refugee populations. The paper identifies and discusses the challenges encountered and those remaining.

  15. Are institutional deliveries promoted by Janani Suraksha Yojana in a district of West Bengal, India?

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    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY′ was implemented in India to promote institutional deliveries among the poorer section of the society. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bankura district among 324 women who delivered in last 12 months selected through 40 cluster technique to find out institutional delivery rate, utilization of JSY during antenatal period and relation between cash benefit under JSY during antenatal period and institutional delivery. Overall institutional delivery rate was 73.1% and utilization of JSY among eligible women was 50.5%. Institutional delivery (84.0%, consumption of 100 iron-folic acid tablets (46.0% and three or more antenatal check-ups (91.0% were better in women who received financial assistance from JSY during antenatal period than other women. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, JSY utilization came out to be significantly (P=0.031 associated with institutional deliveries. The study showed that cash incentive under JSY in antenatal period had positive association on institutional deliveries.

  16. Coverage and Compliance of Mass Drug Administration in Lymphatic Filariasis: A Comparative Analysis in a District of West Bengal, India

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    Tanmay Kanti Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite several rounds of Mass Drug Administration (MDA as an elimination strategy of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF from India, still the coverage is far behind the required level of 85%.Objectives: The present study was carried out with the objectives to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA and their possible determinants. Methods: A cross-sectional community based study was conducted in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India for consecutive two years following MDA. Study participants were chosen by 30-cluster sampling technique. Data was collected by using pre-tested semi-structured proforma to assess the coverage and compliance of MDA along with possible determinants for non-attaining the expected coverage. Results: In the year 2009, coverage, compliance, coverage compliance gap (CCG and effective coverage was seen to be 84.1%, 70.5%, 29.5% and 59.3% respectively. In 2010, the results further deteriorated to 78.5%, 66.9%, 33.3% and 57% respectively. The poor coverage and compliance were attributed to improper training of service providers and lack of community awareness regarding MDA.Conclusion: The study emphasized supervised consumption, retraining of service providers before MDA activities, strengthening behaviour change communication strategy for community awareness. Advocacy by the program managers and policy makers towards prioritization of MDA program will make the story of filaria elimination a success.

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by ethnic people in West and South district of Tripura, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saikat Sen; Raja Chakraborty; Biplab De; N Devanna

    2011-01-01

    An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to highlights the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the tribe in West and South district of Tripura. This paper provides information about the different uses of plants used in their primary health care system. Tripura is a small north-eastern state of India and also a part of both Himalayan and Indo-Burma biodiversity region. It is a goldmine of me- dicinal plants and use of different plants in tribal traditional heath care systems has long history. Nineteen different tribes in Tripura, depend on natural resources at a great extent. This paper documented 113 medicinal plant species from 56 families along with their botanical name, local name, family name, habit, medicinal parts used, and traditional usage of application. The dominant families are Euphorbiaceae (7 species), Apo- cynaceae (6 species), Fabaceae and Rubiaceae (5 species each), Caes- alpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Liliaceae and Verbenaceae (4 species each), Combretaceae, Labiatae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae and Zingiberaceae (3 species each). Tribes of Tripura have rich traditional knowledge on plant based medicine. Different parts of the plants in crude form/plant ex- tracts/decoctions/infusion or pastes are employed in diverse veterinary and human diseases by the tribe's of Tripura in daily life.

  18. Sero diagnosis of dengue activity in an unknown febrile outbreak at the Siliguri Town, District Darjeeling, West Bengal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Debjani Taraphdar; Arindam Sarkar; Mihir Kumar Bhattacharya; Shyamalendu Chatterjee

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the outbreak of unknown fever at Siliguri town, Darjeeling District on request from the State Health Department, Government of West Bengal. Methods:Investigations were made to the affected wards, Sub Divisional Hospital and the nursing homes of Siliguri Town. Duration of illness was 3-5 days. Interesting observations were made in some cases which had gastrointestinal disorders with high serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) levels. A total of 69 blood samples and 7 throat swabs (in Minimum Essential Media) were collected and brought to the ICMR Virus Unit, Kolkata for analysis. Mosquitoes from different affected areas were collected for the identification of the definite vector. Results:Amongst the 69 blood samples, 42 (60.86%) were positive to IgM antibody against dengue virus by Mac enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. No IgM antibody to Japanese encephalitis virus was detected among the collected blood samples. Based on the clinical symptoms, presence of IgM antibody to dengue virus and identification of Aedes mosquito, it amply proves that, the illness of those cases were due to dengue virus infection. Conclusions:Based on clinical-epidemiological observations of the investigations the possibility of a communicable disease of viral origin, the detection of IgM antibody and the identification of Aedes egypti, and the potential circulation of denge virus in Siliguri town for the first time were all suggested.

  19. Parasitic prevalences in fresh water prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

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    Monjit Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of different freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii parasites, found during the period from April to August 2007, was investigated in different freshwater wetlands of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal state in India. Eleven parasites - Zoothamnium, Epistylis, Gregarina, Amphileptus, Dileptus, Myxobolus, Chilodonella, Balladyna, Gozia, Rhabdochona, Indocucullanus, Procamallanus and Cucullanus - were found after examining 1,000 specimens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii of different-sized groups. The highest prevalence of the parasites was recorded in the size group of 81-85 mm and 136-140 mm. The intensity of ectoparasitic infection was observed to be high with an increase in size. The gills and the surface of the body were mostly infected. Endoparasites were found in the intestinal part, and mostly due to poor raw foods given to the prawns as their diets. The parasites get more shelter and space for them. The highest intensity of those parasites was found in the month of August due to favourable autumnal conditions, with little rain and favourable breeding time of the parasites. Stressed and weak prawns are more vulnerable to infestation under adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Determinants of smoking and chewing habits among rural school children in Bankura district of West Bengal, India

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    Naba Kumar Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of smoking and chewing habits and causes of addiction among the school children of rural areas.Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools from rural areas of Bankura District, West Bengal during August 2012 to September 2012. Total 1674 students studying in 5th to 10th standard (age group of 10-15 years were enrolled in the present study. A self-administered questionnaire was applied for data collection.Results The study showed that 18.45%, 27.95% and 67.56% of the students were smokers, chewer and non-addicted, respectively. Considerable number of boys were addicted with smoking (boys 32.3% vs. 4.33girls % and chewing habits (boys 43.53% vs 12.15girls %. In case of boys, these habits were increased with advancement of ages. Students were more attracted to bidi and tobacco with pan-masala among different types of smoking and chewing agents. The most familiar reasons for tobacco user were: influenced by friends (22.88%, influenced by family members (16.32% and stress relief (10.88%. Conclusion This study indicated that smoking and chewing habits among school children in rural areas is looming public health issue. Adverse health effect of tobacco use may be incorporated in school secondary curriculum to change the attraction with tobacco among the young generation.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index (HIS) of Surili (Presbytis comata Desmarest, 1822) in mixed forest of Kuningan District, West Java-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Prasetyo, Lilik; Supartono, Toto; Priyono Kartono, Agus; Hikmat, Agus; Ramdhoni, Syahru

    2017-01-01

    Java has been experiencing deforestation due to high population pressure. A lot of natural forests which play an important role as wildlife habitat are loss. The remaining natural forest distribute in mountainous areas in the form natural conservation area, meanwhile the others have been converted into settlement andinfrastructure, food crops, cash crops plantation, estate and private forest plantation. Javan langur (Presbytiscomata) is an endemic species of Java and used to utilize natural forest as their habitat. However, in a recent observation the species isfound inside plantation forest in Kuningan district, West Java. This is a unique finding, due to the fact that a plantation forest is not suitable habitat for Javan langur. The research is aimed to develop Habitat Suitability for this species based on physical, biological and human disturbance factors. Data on Javan langur presence and its habitat component were derived from field observation and secondary data/map. Result showed HSI could be developed based on 4 PC and showed that the study area mostly is occupied by low HIS Index or not suitable area for surili.

  2. Skill of frontline workers implementing integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: experience from a district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil B; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mandal, Nirmal K; Panja, Tanamy K; Sinha, Nirmalya; Mitra, Kaninika

    2011-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Purulia district, West Bengal, India, to assess the skill of 155 frontline workers implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and the logistic support thereof. The skills of counting respiratory rate, assessing immunization status in both age groups, assessment of breastfeeding in young infants and plotting of weight in a growth chart in case of children aged 2-59 months were acquired by majority of workers. Around two-thirds workers synthesized correct classification and nearly 60% gave appropriate management of at least one subgroup. In 30-40% cases, carers received feeding advices. Around 50% casesheets were complete and timely report submission rate was nearly 70%. Necessary equipments were available with majority of workers except the utensils for preparation of ORS. The supply of essential drugs varied from 33.5 to 71.6%. These findings suggest that IMNCI program offered a scope for capacity-building and infrastructure strengthening of the health system.

  3. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  4. Association of body weight concern with media exposure: A study on young girls of Howrah District, West Bengal

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    N. Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the association between body weight concern and their frequency of exposure to the media among a group of young girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted of 110 girls aged 14-21 years, residing in the district of Howrah, West Bengal. Information on socio-demographic characteristics, weight related concern and media exposures were collected using pretested questionnaires. Weight related concerns included body weight dissatisfaction and perceived body weight. Media exposures included frequency of watching television programs, reading newspaper and magazine articles and browsing internet on topics related to body weight concern. Results: Although the frequency of watching television programs was high among the study participants yet it was not significantly associated with their body weight. Ch-square test showed that there was an association between the frequency of exposure to magazine articles related to body weight concern and initiation of exercise to reduce body weight. Reading of newspaper articles related to body weight by the participants was significantly associated with those who perceive themselves as fat. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that the perception of being overweight was found to be four times more among the girls below 17 years compared to those who are older. Conclusions: Print media (both news paper and magazine did play a significant role in developing concerns over body weight among this group of young girls.

  5. Predicting the Impact of Rock Blasting on Building Structures at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana

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    K.J. Bansah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blasting is an important process after drilling is completed in hard rock mining. It involves placing explosives in drill holes and detonating them to cause explosion. The energy released during this process fragments the rocks into sizes for desired end use. The detonation of these explosives may produce undesirable effects such as ground vibration which is capable of causing damage to building structures. It is therefore, necessary to conduct blast impact studies to determine potential impact of blast induced ground vibration prior to mining and establish remediation techniques. Blast impact study was conducted at Awunakrom in the Ahanta West District of Ghana. Building structures within the study area were mapped and characterized. A blast impact prediction model was also generated. Blast induced vibrations that may propagate from the Father Brown pit of Golden Star Wassa Limited using various instantaneous charges were determined. It was found that bench blasting at the Father Brown pit has a potential of causing damage to building structures within the Awunakrom community if the maximum instantaneous charge adopted at the southernmost periphery of the pit exceeds 30 kg. It was therefore, recommended that all bench blast conducted at the southern periphery of the Father Brown pit should adopt a maximum instantaneous charge of 30 kg to avert any potential blast damage. However, variable instantaneous charges of more than 30 kg can be adopted as the blast location moves towards the northern periphery.

  6. Birds Communities at Mangrove of Batu Ampar, Kubu Raya District, West Kalimantan Province

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    Jarwadi Budi Hernowo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Batu Ampar mangrove is an important bird habitat especially for birds which have relation to mangrove ecosystem in West Kalimantan. The research was conducted in February to March 2007, at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. Sampling was done to get representative area for bird survey. The 19 transects were chosen as sampling site to collect bird data such as species and number of individual. Bird surveys were carried out using Reconnaissance method and index point of abundance (IPA count method. The length of each transect was approximately 500 m. The results showed that the bird community's structure dominated by insectivorous birds represented approximately 60 % of total bird's species at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site. The abundance numbers of the individual with the bird's species has relation pattern like J opposite. Percentage of dominant bird species was approximately 11%, those are such as stork billed kingfisher, white-collared kingfisher, common iora, chestnuts-rumped babbler, Strip-Tit Babbler, magpie robin, ashy tailorbird, mangrove blue flycatcher, pied fantail, mangrove whistler, Brown-throated Sunbird and Cooper-Throated Sunbird. Vertical structure of mangrove vegetation was used by birds at mangrove Batu Ampar demo site is mainly B stratum, and it used around 60% birds species. Based on dendrogram analysis there were 5 cluster birds species. The mangrove bird specialists found at sampling area were mangrove blue flycatcher and Cooper throated sunbird.

  7. Assessment of groundwater quality from Bankura I and II Blocks, Bankura District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, S. K.; Das, Shreya

    2017-02-01

    Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4-8.6, electrical conductivity 80-1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30-730 mg/l, TDS 48-1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2-222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33-103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56-115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67-14 mg/l and Fe BDL-2.53 mg/l, HCO3^{ - } 48.8-1000.4 mg/l, Cl- 5.6-459.86 mg/l and SO4^{ = } BDL-99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1-S1, C2-S1 and C3-S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper's trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( HCO3^{ - } ) dominate the other anions (Cl- and SO4^{2 - } ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of

  8. Economy of Fertilizer Nitrogen through Organic Sources in Rain-Fed Rice-Legume Cropping Systems in West Bengal, India

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    A.M. Puste

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were conducted at a farmers’ plot adjacent to the Regional Research Station, red and laterite zone, Sub-center Sekhampur (Birbhum district of West Bengal, India, situated 23° 24' N latitude, 87° 24' E longitude, to study the effect of different bio- and organic sources of nutrients instead of total fertilizer N in terms of crop productivity in the sequence and building up of soil fertility. During the wet seasons of 1997 and 1998, 12 combinations of bio- and organic sources (crop residues, well decomposed cow dung, dhanicha as green manure were substituted for 25–50% of N fertilizer applied on transplanted rice (Cv. IR 36. Subsequently, during the winters of 1997–1998 and 1998–1999, leguminous pulse crops like lentil (Lens culinaris [L.] Medic., gram (Cicer arietinum L. and lathyrus (Lathyrus sativus L. were grown with and without inoculation of Rhizobium. Results revealed that the application of inorganic N in combination with organic sources exhibited a significant increase in rice yield (3.60–3.84 t ha-1 compared to the yield from sole application of N (3.19–3.26 t ha-1. The study showed that about 25% of total applied N was saved without significant yield reduction with simultaneous improvement of soil physical properties (pH, organic matter, available N, P, K, and CEC. Seed yield of pulses (lentil, gram, and lathyrus were more pronounced in the treatment inoculated with Rhizobium, with a saving of 42.6–48.4 kg N ha-1. Therefore, the results suggest that the combined application of inorganic and organic N sources in a 75:25 ratio is a superior N-management practice with regards to crop yields as well as improvement of soil fertility.

  9. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, South Africa

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    C.N. Makgatho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE, or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984. In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men (n = 55. The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  10. Participatory rural appraisal to investigate constraints in reporting cattle mortalities in the Odi district of North West Province, south Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgatho, C N; McCrindle, C M E; Owen, J H

    2005-12-01

    Mortalities in cattle can have severe financial implications for small scale and communal farmers in South Africa. They could also be a measurable indicator for surveillance of animal diseases, such as those listed by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE), or diseases included in the regulations of the South African Animal Diseases Act, 1984 (Act 35 of 1984). In order to prevent further mortalities and for accurate surveillance and monitoring of diseases, it is important that farmers participate in the determination of causes of mortality in their cattle. This paper reports on constraints of the reporting diseases to the state veterinary services, the study area being Odi district, in the North West Province. The method that was followed was based on participatory rural appraisal. The selected cattle owners participated in every phase. They were the ones who first spoke to veterinary services about ways to decrease the diseases and mortalities of their cattle. A questionnaire to verify the facts complemented the survey. A total number of 60 farmers were randomly selected from 12 villages. One farmer withdrew, leaving 59 farmers. Most of the farmers in the study were men ( n = 55). The area of study was communal and the farming system traditional and extensive. It was suspected that there was a communication problem and this was proven by the results of the research, as 23 farmers were not even aware that mortalities have to be reported by law. The real problem was that causes of death were not being diagnosed because farmers were not aware that a necropsy could give information on the causes of death. Farmers were keen to receive training in elementary necropsy techniques so as to be able to discuss the cause of death of cattle with the state veterinarian.

  11. Factors Affecting of Attitude in Breast Self-Examination among Fertile Age Women in Wosi Sub District of West Manokwari

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    Jeane Caroline Etwiory

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2010 the WHO (World Health Organization estimates that the incidence of breast cancer are 11 million and in 2030 will grow to 27 million cancer deaths. Ministry of Health, there are about 80 cases of breast cancer in the province of West Papua. This is not as much as the one in Papua province whose cases reached 466 cases of breast cancer. The factors that influence the actions breast self examination (BSE in women of childbearing age in the Wosi sub district, western Manokwari. Methods: This cross-sectional observational study design. Cross-sectional study. Women of fertile age population is 259 and 157 samples. Results indicated that there was an effect of age with action (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 0.102-Upper 0.519, no effect of recent education (p-value 0.516 RP = Lower 1.479 - Upper 1.919, there was no effect of the work (p-value 0.406 RP = Lower 0.714 - Upper 2.671, there was no effect of Social Economy (p-value 1.000 RP = Lower .545 - Upper 1.958, there was the influence of Information (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,022 - Upper 15.383, there is no influence of Knowledge ( p-value 0.840 0.410 RP = Lower - Upper 2.023, there is no influence of attitude (p-value 0.316 RP = Lower 0,493- Upper 12.218, there is the influence of Family Support (p-value 0.000 RP = Lower 3,186- Upper 13.175.

  12. A study on knowledge and practice related to bird flu in a rural community of Hooghly District of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shibani; Sen, Shibotosh; Sengupta, Bhaswati

    2010-01-01

    For last few years in the early spring bird flu poses a threat to India. The causative agent H5N1 virus is also getting robust day by day acquiring an ability to cross the species barrier. It is now known as (H5N1) which is emerging as killer virus to man. Although human casualty is yet to be recorded from India, but the threat is not over. The present study had been undertaken in the village of Hakimpur of Singur Block of District Hooghly, West Bengal, with a population 862 of 215 families. The objective of the study was to assess the knowledge of the study population regarding bird flu and to study their practice regarding poultry maintenance. The head of the family from each family was interviewed. A house to house survey in the census method on a pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured schedule was done. Information regarding socio-demographic profile, poultry keeping, correct knowledge about bird flu, mode of transmission, culling, etc was recorded. The data were collected and analyzed by relevant statistical methods. The results showed that 46% respondents knew what bird flu is, 62.8% knew the mode of transmission, and 35.3% knew the procedure of culling. Out of literates about 53% and out of the illiterates only 0.93% were aware of the transmission of the virus through body fluids. The predominant source of information was mass media. 57.14% of the families rearing poultry, kept the birds in shed, 40.48% in cage, and 2.38% in living room.

  13. Profile of Community Mental Health Service Needs in the Moretele District (North-West Province) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modiba, Precious; Schneider, Helen; Porteus, Kimberly; Gunnarson, Veronica

    2001-12-01

    BACKGROUND: The emergence of democracy in South Africa led to a need to transform all public structures, including the health care system. The aim has been to transform these structures in order to bring them in line with the new culture of human rights. Transformation of the whole health care system is motivated by a number of key objectives, which include achieving equity in resource allocation and health service delivery, developing primary health care infrastructure and decentralising services to promote community participation. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In the context of de-institutionalising mental health services in South Africa, this study aimed to investigate community mental health service needs of mental health service users and that of their families in the Moretele district, North-West province, South Africa. METHODS: The study was conducted in three clinics situated in three different communities in the Moretele district. Data collection consisted of : 147 clinical record reviews, 105 interviews with patients followed by a joint interview with a family member, 83 interviews with caregivers and eight interviews with community key informants (traditional healers, a civic leader, a councillor, a retired teacher, and a physician). RESULTS: The majority of service users were males (54%). The mean age was 41 years and 63% had completed primary schooling.Patients were recorded as having only one of two primary diagnoses, namely schizophrenia (57%) or epilepsy (41%). However, a review of prescribed drugs and caregiver interviews showed that there was a presence of mood disorders among service users. The local hospital was service users primary entry point into the mental health care system, followed by traditional healers (30%). Interviews with service users, service providers and caregivers reveal limited knowledge of patient illness. Nevertheless, service users who had epilepsy were more likely to provide details of their illness than those with mental illness

  14. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms of north and south 24 Parganas districts of West Bengal

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    Monjit Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii farms and hatcheries of north and south 24 Parganas districts in West Bengal were surveyed for the details of antibiotics and disinfectants used for controlling the prawn diseases and pathogens. During the survey, 4antibiotics and four 4disinfectants were found to be used commonly by the farmers during a 12-month period of study. The chemicals used in the culture systems as antibiotics or disinfectants for the culture water, tanks, other utensils, and others have serious health hazards for both the cultured prawns and human beings. The study also indicates no herbal medicines, and probiotics are being used in prawn farms.

  15. Water resources and related geology of Dera Ismail Khan district, West Pakistan, with reference to the availability of ground water for development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, J.W.; Khan, Lutfe Ali; Jawaid, Khalid

    1970-01-01

    Dera Ismail (D.I.) Khan District contains an area of 3,450 square miles between the right bank of the Indus River and the Sulaiman Range in westcentral West Pakistan. Agriculture is the principal source of income in the District, but only a small part of the arable land is fully utilized. The region is semiarid and has an average annual rainfall of about 9 inches and a potential evapotranspirational rate of eight to nine times the annual rainfall. Thus, rainfall alone is not adequate for high-intensity cropping. Irrigation is practiced near the Indus River; the Paharpur Canal is used, as well as the traditional inundation method. Elsewhere in the District, adequate water is supplied to local areas by karezes, perennial streams from the mountains, and some recently installed tubewells (see 'Glossary'). Further development of ground-water supplies would permit a more effective utilization of most of the presently tilled land and would allow additional land to be farmed. D.I. Khan District is primarily an alluvial plain that slopes from the mountain ranges in the northern and western parts of the District toward the Indus River. Rocks in the bordering mountains are of Paleozoic to early or middle Pleistocene age. The unconsolidated rocks of the plain, of middle (?) Pleistocene to Holocene (Recent) age, consist of piedmont deposits derived from the hills to the north and west and of alluvium laid down by the Indus River. These deposits interfinger in a transitional zone about 8 to 12 miles west of the river. Lithologic and structural features indicate that the unconsolidated rocks possibly may be divided into broad units. The investigations in D.I. Khan District have revealed two main areas of potential ground-water development based on considerations of both permeability and chemical quality of the ground water: 1. A belt about 10 miles wide parallels the Indus River from the Khisor Range southward to the area immediately south of D.I. Khan town. In this belt, the

  16. Work-Related Well-Being of Educators in a District of the North-West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the relationship between burnout, health, job demands and job resources in a sample of educators. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Stratified random samples (N = 266) were taken of educators in an area of the North-West Province. The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Health…

  17. Effects of Development Interventions on the Productivity and Profitability of Women Shea Butter Processors in the West Gonja District of Northern Ghana

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    Afishata Mohammed Abujaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of development agencies’ interventions on productivity and profitability of women shea butter processors in contributing to the development of the shea nut industry in Northern Ghana. A survey of 114 women shea butter processors, comprising of 57 each of both beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of development interventions in the West Gonja District were sampled and interviewed with a semi structured questionnaire. Focus group discussions were also held to obtain qualitative data. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA conducted at 5% level of significance found that labour productivity of beneficiaries of development interventions by way of training, equipment and machinery provisions do not differ significantly from that of respondents who had never benefited from such interventions. Similar results were found with regard to average monthly profit made by beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Market sourcing was identified as a major problem affecting women shea butter processors in the district. The study therefore recommends that development agencies programs should highlight follow-up trainings, monitoring and supervisions to ensure the sustainability of projects so that they can continue to yield expected impacts. Also, development agents should include market sourcing opportunities in rural enterprise improvement interventions since that remains a challenge to the realization of development interventions

  18. Status of groundwater arsenic contamination in all 17 blocks of Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, India: A 23-year study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mondal, Debapriya; Das, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Ahamed, Sad; Hossain, M. Amir; Samal, Alok Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Dutta, Rathindra Nath; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted in Nadia, one of the nine arsenic (As) affected districts in West Bengal, India to determine the extent and severity of groundwater As contamination and its health effects in particular, dermatological effects and neurological complications. We collected 28,947 hand tube-well water samples from all 17 blocks of Nadia district and analyzed for As by the flow injection-hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HG-AAS). We found 51.4% and 17.3% of the tube-wells had As above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively and observed that groundwater of all 17 blocks contained As above 50 μg/L with maximum observed level of 3200 μg/L. We estimated that about 2.1 million and 0.6 million people could be drinking As contaminated water above 10 and 50 μg/L, respectively, while 0.048 million could be at risk of drinking As-contaminated water above 300 μg/L, the concentration predicted to cause overt arsenical skin lesions. We screened 15,153 villagers from 50 villages and registered 1077 with arsenical skin lesions resulting in a prevalence rate of 7.1%. Analyzing 2671 biological samples (hair, nail and urine), from people with and without arsenical skin symptoms we found 95% of the samples had As above the normal level, indicating many people in Nadia district are sub-clinically affected. Arsenical neuropathy was observed in 33% of 255 arsenicosis patients with 28.2% prevalence for predominant sensory neuropathy and 4.7% for sensorimotor. As groundwater is still the main source of drinking water, targeting low-As aquifers and switching tube-well from unsafe to nearby safe sources are two visible options to obtain safe drinking water.

  19. Magmatic-hydrothermal origin of the early Triassic Laodou lode gold deposit in the Xiahe-Hezuo district, West Qinling orogen, China: implications for gold metallogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiao-ye; Li, Jian-wei; Hofstra, Albert H.; Sui, Ji-xiang

    2016-12-01

    The Xiahe-Hezuo district in the West Qinling orogen contains numerous Au-(As-Sb) and Cu-Au-(W) deposits. The district is divided into eastern and western zones by the Xiahe-Hezuo Fault. The western zone is exposed at a shallow level and contains sediment-hosted disseminated Au-(As-Sb) deposits, whereas the eastern zone is exposed at a deeper level and contains Cu-Au-(W) skarn and lode gold deposits within or close to granitic intrusions. The Laodou gold deposit in the eastern zone consists of auriferous quartz-sulfide-tourmaline and minor quartz-stibnite veins that are structurally controlled by fault zones transecting the Laodou quartz diorite porphyry stock and enveloped by potassic and phyllic alteration. Both the veins and alteration halos commonly contain quartz, sericite, tourmaline, pyrite, and arsenopyrite, with minor galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, and enargite. Gold occurs mainly as invisible gold in pyrite or arsenopyrite and locally as inclusions less than 50 μm in diameter. The zircon U-Pb age of 247.6 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ) on the host quartz diorite porphyry and the sericite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 249.1 ± 1.6 and 249.0 ± 1.5 Ma (2σ) on two ore-related hydrothermal sericite samples are within analytical errors of one another. At the formation temperature (275 °C) inferred from microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion, sericite and tourmaline yield calculated δDH2O values of -70 to -45‰ and δ 18OH2O of 5.8 to 9.7‰, while quartz yields calculated δ 18OH2O values of 5.1˜5.7‰. Hydrothermal tourmaline in quartz-sulfide-tourmaline veins has δ 11B of -11.2 to -0.9‰ (mean of -6.3‰) that are similar to the values of magmatic tourmaline (-8.9 to -5.5‰ with a mean of -6.8‰) in the host quartz diorite porphyry. The δ 34S values of sulfide minerals range from -5.9 to +5.8‰ with a mean of -0.6‰ that is typical of magmatic sulfur. Pyrite from hydrothermally altered quartz diorite porphyry and quartz

  20. Histopathological features of Marek’s disease infections in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis West Java

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    R Damayanti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Marek’s disease was reported to occur in broiler chicken in Districts of Tasikmalaya and Ciamis. A total number of 58 tissues samples of broiler chicken were collected from 7 flocks of commercial broiler chicken farms in both Districts. The disease affected broiler chicken aged 17 to 24 days. Those chickens had been vaccinated to Newcastle Disease (ND and at age of 10 days had been vaccinated to Gumboro using blended bursa of fabricius. Tissue samples were fixed in 10% of buffered neutral formalin (BNF prior to haematoxilin and eosin (H and E stain using standard procedures. Histopathological features show that out of 58 samples, 32 (55.2% were infected by Marek’s Disease (19.0% were infected by Marek’s Disease, 20.1% were infected by Marek’s Disease and Gumboro, 16.1% Marek’s Disease and other infections, whereas 44.8% were infected by Gumboro alone or accompanied by other infections, ND and Colibasillosis. The study reveals that Marek’s Disease infection in broiler chicken tends to be mild i.e. infiltration of neoplastic cells (lymphoid, pleomorphic in proventriculus, intestine, spleen, livers and bursa of fabricius. In addition to this, there were mild non-supurative inflammation in heart, lung, peripheral nerve and brain, as well as a severe demyelination in brain. It is concluded that the histopthological features confirm the diagnosis of Marek’s Disease.

  1. Policy Implementation Of Special Autonomy Funds Case Study Of Education Funding In The District Manokwari West Papua Indonesia

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    Baesara Wael

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Regulations special autonomy Papua is a product policy given by the central government in an effort to promote development in various aspects of the four main program priorities for the economy education health and infrastructure. in the context of policy implementation then this can be considered as one of the factors that interfere with activities especially in relation to the legal rules of the program is not yet clear. the focus of this study is how can the implementation of special autonomy fund policies in education in Manokwari West Papua province. This study used a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. This study seeks to identify and analyze on the implementation of policy autonomy special funds Education in Manokwari West Papua Province through qualitative interpretation. This study seeks to reveal how the implementation of the Special Autonomy Fund for Education in Manokwari West Papua Province. The research concludes that the Communication External and Internal communication is not maximized. The quality of human resources is still minimal and not understand the working procedures due to no regulation or supported by PERDASI PERDASUS governing socialisation Education and lack of special autonomy or special autonomy funds in terms of the form of facilities or equipment Resource inadequate facilities. In terms of the funds Resources regarding the distribution of the Special Autonomy Fund of uneven and has not touched most of the basic needs of the people of Papua especially Papuan society itself as well as in terms of the Resource Authority regarding the delegation of authority from supervisor to subordinate unclear because there is no standard operating Procedure SOP. Furthermore in terms of structure in an organizational bureaucracy that there should be a very clear organization structure to facilitate the delegation of authority and accountability.

  2. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients.

  3. Community-based study on knowledge, attitude and practice on the mode of transmission, prevention and treatment of the Buruli ulcer in Ga West District, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Woods, Paul V; Ackumey, Mercy M; Harvey, Simon K; Kotin, Jacob

    2007-03-01

    Buruli ulcer disease (BUD), a devastating tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, occurs in more than 80% of the administrative districts of Ghana. To elucidate community perceptions and understanding of the aetiology of BUD, attitudes towards Buruli patients and treatment-seeking behaviours, we conducted a survey with 504 heads of households and seven focus group discussions in Ga West District, Ghana. Although 67% of participants regarded BUD as a health problem, 53% did not know its cause. Sixteen per cent attributed the cause to drinking non-potable water, 8.1% mentioned poor personal hygiene or dirty surroundings, and 5.5% identified swimming or wading in ponds as a risk factor. About 5.2% thought that witchcraft and curses cause BUD, and 71.8% indicated that BU sufferers first seek treatment from herbalists and only refer to the hospital as a last resort. The main reasons were prospects of prolonged hospital stay, cost of transport, loss of earnings and opportunity associated with parents attending their children's hospitalization over extended period, delays in being attended by medical staff, and not knowing the cause of the disease or required treatment. The level of acceptance of BUD sufferers was high in adults but less so in children. The challenge facing health workers is to break the vicious cycle of poor medical outcomes leading to poor attitudes to hospital treatment in the community. Because herbalists are often the first people consulted by those who contract the disease, they need to be trained in early recognition of the pre-ulcerative stage of Buruli lesions.

  4. The Autonomous Development Strategies of Micro and Small Entrepreneurs Through Coorporate Social Responsibility in Bogor District of West Java

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    Faizal Maad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective  of this  reseach were to: (1 analyze the level of autonomous of mikro and small entreprise (SMEs entrepreneurs are empowered through Coorporate Social Responsibility (CSR; (2 analyze the dominant factors that influence autonomous of MSEs entrepreneurs  are empowered through CSR;  and (3 formulate an appropriate  a strategy  in developing autonomy of MSEs entrepreneurs through CSR. The reseach  was conduct  in the village built two companies running CSR in Bogor district involved 212  (SMEs entrepreneurs which determined from population (450 SMEs entrepreneurs by Solvin formula with level of error 5 % and drawn by cluster random sampling. Data collection was conducted from July to November 2013, and consisted  the primary and secondary data. Data analysis was simulated by using structural equation model (SEM . The results showed that the degree  of autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs is low, its core was 36.89 out of 100.00. There are three strategies that must be done to develop of  autonomous MSEs entrepreneurs through  CSR, such as; (a an increase the empowerment sustainable of MSEs entrepereneurs (b improve the quality of  the environment  supporting MSEs and (c an increase in intensity of  empowerment for MSEs entrepreneurs.

  5. Evaluation of regional fracture properties for groundwater development using hydrolithostructural domain approach in variably fractured hard rocks of Purulia district, West Bengal, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tapas Acharya; Rajesh Prasad; S Chakrabarti

    2014-04-01

    Estimation of geohydrologic properties of fractured aquifers in hard crystalline and/or metamorphosed country rocks is a challenge due to the complex nature of secondary porosity that is caused by differential fracturing. Hydrologic potentiality of such aquifers may be assessed if the geological controls governing the spatial distribution of these fracture systems are computed using a software-based model. As an exemplar, the Precambrian metamorphics exposed in and around the Balarampur town of Purulia district, West Bengal (India) were studied to find out the spatial pattern and consistency of such fracture systems. Surfer and Statistica softwares were used to characterize these rock masses in terms of hydrological, structural and lithological domains. The technique is based on the use of hydraulically significant fracture properties to generate representative modal and coefficient of variance () of fracture datasets of each domain. The is interpreted to obtain the spatial variability of hydraulically significant fracture properties that, in turn, define and identify the corresponding hydrolithostructural domains. The groundwater flow estimated from such a technique is verified with the routine hydrological studies to validate the procedure. It is suggested that the hydrolithostructural domain approach is a useful alternative for evaluation of fracture properties and aquifer potentiality, and development of a regional groundwater model thereof.

  6. Predicted weight with different body segments and its use in nutritional assessment among older Bengalees of Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal

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    Binoy Kuiti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of alternative versus direct anthropometric measurements for evaluating of nutritional status among older Bengalees. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a coastal area of Purba Medinipur District, West Bengal. We measured weight, height, knee height, waist, hip and mid-upper-arm circumferences of 114 older individuals. Correlations between the different methods for calculating body mass index (BMI; using direct or alternative measurements were evaluated by Passing-Bablok regression method; agreement in the allocation of participants to the same risk category was assessed by squared weighted kappa statistic and indicators of internal relative validity. Using the Passing-Bablok regression method, the best agreement was found in fourth model (height + WC + HC for men and in women, the best agreement was found in the second model (height + MUAC. The agreement between this classification and that obtained using BMI calculated by alternative measurements was “fair-good.” When it is not possible to determine nutritional status risk category by using weight, we suggest that for older Bengalees, it may be appropriate to use the alternative measurements to predict weight and BMI.

  7. Are the adolescent behaviors too risky? A school-based study in a district of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mukhopadhyay, Sujishnu; Sinhababu, Apurba; Biswas, Akhil B

    2012-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 2068 school-going adolescents of a subdistrict area of West Bengal, India for assessment of entire array of risk behaviors and their correlates. Aggressive, suicidal, substance use and sexual risk behaviors were measured using a self-administered, multi-item, validated questionnaire in the local vernacular. Prevalence of physical fights, weapon carrying in the last 30 days and gang fights in the last 12 months were 27.1%, 7.3% and 13.0%, respectively. Current users of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances were 7.1%, 3.4% and 2.0%, respectively. Suicidal ideation and attempts were reported by 11.7% and 3.5% of students. Almost one-tenth of respondents had premarital sexual intercourse. Male gender, low subjective economic status, exposure to electronic media and poor academic achievements were associated with most of the studied risk behaviors, except that females showed more propensities to suicidal behavior. The magnitude and pattern of adolescent risk behaviors, though less studied in India, warrants urgent, coordinated actions.

  8. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  9. Evaluation of a national universal coverage campaign of long-lasting insecticidal nets in a rural district in north-west Tanzania

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    West Philippa A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticide-treated nets (ITN are one of the most effective measures for preventing malaria. Mass distribution campaigns are being used to rapidly increase net coverage in at-risk populations. This study had two purposes: to evaluate the impact of a universal coverage campaign (UCC of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs on LLIN ownership and usage, and to identify factors that may be associated with inadequate coverage. Methods In 2011 two cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 50 clusters in Muleba district, north-west Tanzania. Prior to the UCC 3,246 households were surveyed and 2,499 afterwards. Data on bed net ownership and usage, demographics of household members and household characteristics including factors related to socio-economic status were gathered, using an adapted version of the standard Malaria Indicator Survey. Specific questions relating to the UCC process were asked. Results The proportion of households with at least one ITN increased from 62.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 60.9-64.2 before the UCC to 90.8% (95% CI = 89.0-92.3 afterwards. ITN usage in all residents rose from 40.8% to 55.7%. After the UCC 58.4% (95% CI = 54.7-62.1 of households had sufficient ITNs to cover all their sleeping places. Households with children under five years (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.9-2.9 and small households (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.5-2.4 were most likely to reach universal coverage. Poverty was not associated with net coverage. Eighty percent of households surveyed received LLINs from the campaign. Conclusions The UCC in Muleba district of Tanzania was equitable, greatly improving LLIN ownership and, more moderately, usage. However, the goal of universal coverage in terms of the adequate provision of nets was not achieved. Multiple, continuous delivery systems and education activities are required to maintain and improve bed net ownership and usage.

  10. A Study on Gender Preference and Awareness Regarding Prenatal Sex Determination among Antenatal Women in a Rural Area of Darjeeling District, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Archak

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sex ratio is one of the major indicators to find the gender preferences in the community. Change in sex ratio reflects underlying socioeconomic, cultural patterns of a society. Aim The present study was conducted with the aim to find out the knowledge of antenatal women regarding the prenatal sex determination and the Pre Natal Diagnostic Techniques (PNDT) Act in a rural area along with assessing the gender preference in family among the study population. Materials and Methods A community based, descriptive, cross-sectional study was undertaken in the villages of Matigara Block of Darjeeling district of West Bengal, which serves as a field practice area of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital for two months. A total of 116 pregnant women were included and a pre designed pre tested questionnaire was used to collect the socio demographic details. The data were analysed by SPSS 20.0 software for proportions with chi-square tests. Results Knowledge of sex determination and the PNDT Act were found to be 44.82% and 18.10% among antenatal women. Knowledge regarding assessment of gender preference showed 52.58% expect a boy in this pregnancy. It was found that the determinants for gender preference were caste, sex of the last pregnancy and current gender composition. It was found that the determinants for knowledge of sex determination are age of the mother and the gravida of the mother. It was also found that the factor for the knowledge regarding the PNDT Act is age of the mother. These associations are statistically significant. Conclusion This situation calls for a strategy which includes community based awareness campaigns, women employment, education, and empowerment and by ensuring effective implementation of PNDT Act by the government so that families find it difficult to undertake sex determination.

  11. The profile and treatment outcomes of sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis re-treatment cases, in a district medical college of West Bengal, India

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    Abinash Agarwala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In a high tuberculosis (TB burden county like India with different regional demography, knowledge about patient profile has a pivotal role in determining and identifying the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among TB re-treatment cases. Aim: The aim was to describe the demography and clinical characteristics of TB re-treatment cases and to evaluate the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes among those patients. Settings and Design: A prospective longitudinal cohort study was carried out at chest medicine outdoor from February, 2011 to 2014 in a district medical college of West Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Sputum smear positive re-treatment pulmonary TB patients attending our chest medicine outdoor during the 3 years study period were evaluated for demographic and clinical characteristics on the basis of previous treatment history and records at the beginning of the study. Patients were followed-up during the 8 months treatment period (Category II treatment regimen under Revised National TB Control Program. At the end of the study period, treatment outcomes were analyzed and factors associated with poor treatment outcomes were identified. Statistical Analysis: All variables were described by proportions, and differences between independent groups were compared using the Chi-square test and Fisher′s exact test, as applicable. Results: Among 74 patients, re-treatment was successful in 75.7% of relapse case, 66.7% of loss to follow-up cases and 53.8% of failure cases. Re-treatment failure was higher (38.5% in treatment failure cases compare to relapse cases (10.8% and initial loss to follow-up cases (16.7%. Young age, male, unmarried, employed who work outside appears to be the risk factors for loss to follow-up. Low body mass index, treatment from the private sector, history of alcoholism, radiological cavitory lesion, larger duration of previous treatment, lesser gap from previous treatment has

  12. Undernutrition among Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Scheme Children aged 2-6 years of Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India: A serious public health problem

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    Gopal Chandra Mandal

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Childhood undernutrition is a major public health problem in developing countries. In view of this, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the rates of stunting, underweight and wasting among 2-6 year old rural children of Bengalee ethnicity.

    Methods: In this study, 20 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS Centres of Bali gram panchayet, Arambag, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India, were selected. A total of 1012 (boys = 498; girls = 514 2-6 year old children were studied. Height-for-age (HAZ, weight-for-age (WAZ and weight-for-height (WHZ < -2 z-scores were used to evaluate stunting, underweight and wasting, respectively, following the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS Guidelines. Classification of severity of malnutrition was done based on the World Health Organization recommendations.

    Results: Boys were significantly heavier than girls at ages 2-4 years; they were significantly taller at ages 2 and 4. Significant age differences existed in mean height and weight in both sexes. Mean HAZ, WAZ and WHZ were less than those of NCHS for both sexes at all ages. The overall (age and sex combined rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were 26.6 %, 63.3 % and 50.0 %, respectively. The prevalence of stunting (boys = 24.9 %; girls = 28.2 %, and underweight (b = 62.2 %; g = 64.4 % was higher among girls whereas that of wasting was higher among boys (b = 52.4 %; g = 47.4 %. Based on World Health Organization classification of severity of malnutrition, the overall prevalence of stunting was medium (20 . 29 %, whereas those of underweight (. 30 % and wasting (. 15 % were very high, in both sexes.

    Conclusions: The nutritional status of the subjects was unsatisfactory indicating a major public health problem. There is scope for much improvement in the form of enhanced supplementary nutrition.

  13. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  14. Legislative Districts - Senate Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State Senate district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of Apportionment,...

  15. ANALYSIS OF AGRO-ECOLOGICAL SITUATION FOR IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEMS BY PRA TECHNIQUES IN ADAPTIVE VILLAGE OF KRISHI VIGYAN KENDRA UNDER NEW ALLUVIA ZONE OF MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT OF WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishake Naskar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agro Ecosystem analysis using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA techniques of an adaptive village (Jainpur of New Alluvial Zone of Murshidabad-Jiaganj block in Murshidabad district, West Bengal revealed that the village basically has rice and jute based farming system. The cropping intensity of the village is 233%. Out of 363 household 80% is engaged in Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and other allied activities. The land availability per household is 0.40 ha. The villagers are mostly scheduled caste. By snow ball technique major problems were identified .On the basis of bio-physical and socio-economic problems, thrust area were selected. Area specific On Farm Trials (OFT in farmers' were conducted on some researchable issues. Front Line Demonstration (FLD, training programme, health camp, awareness camp and other different extension activities were arranged to mitigate the problems.

  16. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  17. Health impact of supplying safe drinking water containing fluoride below permissible level on flourosis patients in a fluoride-endemic rural area of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Kanti Majumdar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The problem of high fluoride concentration in groundwater resources has become one of the most important toxicological and geo-environmental issues in India. Excessive fluoride in drinking water causes dental and skeletal fluorosis, which is encountered in endemic proportions in several parts of the world. World Health Organization (WHO guideline value and the permissible limit of fluoride as per Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS is 1.5 mg/L. About 20 states of India, including 43 blocks of seven districts of West Bengal, were identified as endemic for fluorosis and about 66 million people in these regions are at risk of fluoride contamination. Studies showed that withdrawal of sources identified for fluoride often leads reduction of fluoride in the body fluids (re-testing urine and serum after a week or 10 days and results in the disappearance of non-skeletal fluorosis within a short duration of 10-15 days. Objective: To determine the prevalence of signs and symptoms of suspected dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among participants taking water with fluoride concentration above the permissible limit, and to assess the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants after they started consuming safe drinking water. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal intervention study was conducted in three villages in Rampurhat Block I of Birbhum district of West Bengal to assess the occurrence of various dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal manifestations of fluorosis, along with food habits, addictions, and use of fluoride containing toothpaste among the study population and the impact of taking safe water from the supplied domestic and community filters on these clinical manifestations. The impact was studied by follow-up examination of the participants for 5 months to determine the changes in clinical manifestations of the above participants

  18. Reality of Educational Technology Use in Primary Level Social Studies Teaching in North West Badiya Education District Schools in Mafraq Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the use of educational technology in social studies teaching and the obstacles to availability and use of educational technology in teaching social studies at schools in the North West Badiya Education Directorate in Mafraq governorate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study population comprised of 137 male and…

  19. Classroom organization and management for effective teaching and learning at the intermediate phase in the Mafikeng District of the North West Province / Mmapula Joyce Segatlhe

    OpenAIRE

    Segatlhe, Mmapula Joyce

    2003-01-01

    This study concerns itself with issues relating to classroom management and organisation for effective teaching and learning. The study focuses on these aspects of classroom management and organisation: What is classroom management? What is effective within the management of the classroom? What role does or should a teacher play in classroom management? What contributions do discipline and 'tasks' make to effective classroom management in the Mafikeng District? Eighteen primary...

  20. Why don't some women attend antenatal and postnatal care services?: a qualitative study of community members' perspectives in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal, delivery and postnatal care services are amongst the recommended interventions aimed at preventing maternal and newborn deaths worldwide. West Java is one of the provinces of Java Island in Indonesia with a high proportion of home deliveries, a low attendance of four antenatal services and a low postnatal care uptake. This paper aims to explore community members' perspectives on antenatal and postnatal care services, including reasons for using or not using these services, the services received during antenatal and postnatal care, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods in Garut, Sukabumi and Ciamis districts of West Java province. Methods A qualitative study was conducted from March to July 2009 in six villages in three districts of West Java province. Twenty focus group discussions (FGDs and 165 in-depth interviews were carried out involving a total of 295 respondents. The guidelines for FGDs and in-depth interviews included the topics of community experiences with antenatal and postnatal care services, reasons for not attending the services, and cultural practices during antenatal and postnatal periods. Results Our study found that the main reason women attended antenatal and postnatal care services was to ensure the safe health of both mother and infant. Financial difficulty emerged as the major issue among women who did not fulfil the minimum requirements of four antenatal care services or two postnatal care services within the first month after delivery. This was related to the cost of health services, transportation costs, or both. In remote areas, the limited availability of health services was also a problem, especially if the village midwife frequently travelled out of the village. The distances from health facilities, in addition to poor road conditions were major concerns, particularly for those living in remote areas. Lack of community awareness about the importance of these

  1. Chemical study of limestone and clay for cement manufacturing in Darukhula, Nizampur District,Nowshera, North West Frontier Province(N.W.F.P.), Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khurshid Ali; Noor-ul-Amin; M.Tahir Shah

    2008-01-01

    Limestone and clay samples were collected from Darukhula and adjoining areas of the Nizampur District,Nowshera, N.W.F.P., Pakistan, and analyzed for different parameters in order to search for new reserves of suitable material for the manufacture of different types of cements in N.W.EP. It was found that the area under study contains three types of limestones, including high grade limestone, Darukhula limestone and siliceous limestone, which contain 53%, 49.03% and 45.19% CaO, respectively, and three types of clay, including maroon color, yellow to yellowish-green color and green color clay containing 57.76%, 65.47% and 61.24% SiO2, respectively. Chemical analysis of the limestone and clay samples collected from the deposits in the area under study showed that all the dements found in these samples are within the range of permissible limits for the production of high-strength Portland cement,sulphate resisting cement and white cement. This paper covers the detailed version of the potential raw material deposits at Darukhula and adjoining areas of the Nizampur District.

  2. PREVALENCE OF PREHYPERTENSION AND ASSOCIATED MAJOR BEHAVIOURAL RISK FACTORS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS IN A RURAL COMMUNITY OF BANKURA DISTRICT IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eashin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 , the seventh report of the Joint National Committee (JNC 7 proposed the term Prehypertension for elevated blood pressure values below 140/90 mm of Hg to more accurately justify the tendency of blood pressure to rise with age. 1 Prehypertension is considered as a precursor of clinical hypertension which in turn has emerged as a major health problem. The objectives of the study were to estimate the prevalence of Prehypertension as well as to find out major behavioural risk factors associated with Prehypertensi on among the study population. It was a community based descriptive cross - sectional study conducted in rural field practice area of Community Medicine Department of BSMC in Bankura district from February to April 2014 among the permanent resident young adu lts (age 18 - 35 years of Descriptive analysis , chi - square and from the 2 x 2 (contingency table OR were calculated. Prehypertension was found to be 43%. The proportion of pre hypertensives was much higher in the male subjects (60.2% compared to the female s (39.8%. Age , alcohol intake , tobacco use , extra salt intake and physical activity were significantly related with Prehypertension but physical exercise , BMI and were not significantly related to it in this study. Prevalence of Prehypertension was found to be substantially high in rural area of Bankura District. Lifestyle modifications can achieve a downward shift in the overall blood pressure , thus reducing the risk of Prehypertension and cardiovascular disease

  3. Identification of Mardivirus Serotypes Circulating in Poultry Farms in Sukabumi and Cianjur District, West Java, 2011 using Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (mPCR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Three serotypes of Mardivirus had been circulating in the farm environments, these being Marek’s disease virus serotype 1 (MDV-1, Gallid hepesvirus 3 (GaHV3 and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT. However, only MDV-1 poses a significant hazard to the poultry farm. The virus causes a neoplastic syndrome that inflicting severe economic loss to the affected farms. Although vaccination has successfully reduced the frequency and severity of outbreaks, the threat does not disappear since several more pathogenic strains have evolved, and these can overcome protection by vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of three Mardivirus serotypes in commercial poultry farms in Sukabumi and Cianjur district using mPCR approach for the feather samples. A low prevalence of these three serotypes was detected. However, the practice of vaccinating using live attenuated MDV-1 caused difficulty in the investigation. Differentation between virulent field strains and CVI988 vaccine strain using the 132 bp repeat motif attenuation marker within the terminal and inverted repeats flanking the unique long region generated an ambiguous result. Thus, other approaches are required to address this issue, such as selection of other markers, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP, high-resolution melt curve analysis (HRM and gene sequencing.

  4. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric B. Fokam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4% patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%. The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season. Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3% than in females (23.2%. Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p<0.001 and Nyasoso (p<0.015 health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group.

  5. Knowledge attitude and practices for antenatal care and delivery of the mothers of tea garden in Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling districts, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Kumar Manna, Debasis De and Debidas Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to access the influence of socioeconomic factors on antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother of North Bengal. A community based study was carried out among 1772 families of the 7 blocks of the two districts. Various socio economic factors were considered for the antenatal care and delivery practices. We also tried to find out the relationship between antenatal check up with perinatal mortality. The study shows that the muslim mothers, Scheduled tribe mothers, non -educated and mothers with higher age group are less interested about ANC. Family income 2000/- month showing 62.42% ANC coverage. We found that only 7.11% mother used Govt. hospital and 2.65% used private clinic. The mother with medical problems and obstetric problems has high ANC coverage. So, socioeconomic factors significantly influence the antenatal coverage and delivery practices. Hence initiative may be taken at Government and non government levels to raise knowledge, attitude and practices for the improvement of antenatal care and delivery practices of the mother at these zones.

  6. The Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg boundary in the Mezdra and Lyutidol syncline, Vratza District (West-Fore Balkan, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolkičev Nikola A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the unjustified assignment (based on calcareous nannofossils of a large portion of the Maastrichtian strata in the Mezdra and Lyutidol synclines (West Fore Balkan, Bulgaria to the Paleogene. The co-occurrence of Paleocene nannofossils, reported by some authors, and Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa in these sections indicates diachronism in the appearance of macro- and nannofossils across the K/Pg boundary. Thus, this boundary cannot be precisely localized except if the Maastrichtian fossils are assumed to have been redeposited, but there is no evidence of resedimentation. Maastrichtian macrofossils are found not only within the range of the Paleogene nannofossil zones, but also in sections overlying them in the Kajlâka Formation where new Maastrichtian macrofossil taxa, such as the echinoid Hemipneustes striatoradiatus (LESKE, appear and some inoceramid and cephalopod taxa range into this unit. These facts shed doubt over the applicability of nannofossils in determining the K/Pg boundary where this has already been firmly documented by macrofauna.

  7. Birthweight by gestational age and its effect on perinatal mortality in white and in Punjabi births: experience at a district general hospital in West London 1967-1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, I; Golder, R Y; Jonas, E G

    1982-11-01

    At Hillingdon Hospital in West London two main ethnic groups: 'UK' (i.e. white European) and 'Indian' (i.e. Punjabi) account for the bulk of obstetric work load. Birthweight by gestational age graphs were calculated for some 6000 Indian and 18000 UK infants born between 1967 and 1975 inclusive. A mean weight difference at term favoured UK male babies by 240 g and UK female babies by 230 g. Though the crude perinatal results in the two populations were not significantly different, the perinatal mortality of infants less than 2500 g in birthweight was lower in the Indian than the UK population, particularly in the 1500-2400 g group. This is attributed to a levelling off in intrauterine growth from 36 to 37 weeks gestation onwards in Indian compared with UK pregnancies, so that they were more mature than UK births of the same weight. However light-for-dates births, defined as birthweights below the 10th centile of weight-for-gestational age on their own ethnic and sex specific standards pose problems, irrespective of ethnic background.

  8. Epidemics of the central nervous system infections caused by West Nile virus in the territory of the South Bačka District, Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sević Siniša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. West Nile virus (WNV is a neurotropic RNA virus particle which belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. It is sustained in arthropods within the transmission cycle between the mosquitoes and birds. Most commonly (80% of cases WNV infections are asymptomatic among people. Less than 1% of patients develop neuroinvasive forms of the disease - meningitis, encephalitis, or acute flaccid paralysis. The aim of the research is to determine most common clinical and laboratory manifestations, to emphazise the presence of comorbidities and outcomes of treatment among patients with WNV infection. Methods. This retrospective study, which was conducted in the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013, evaluated 32 patients who were diagnosed with WNV infection based on clinical findings, laboratory, and serological tests. To assess statistical significance we used χ2, and t-test. Results. The study involved 22 (69% males and 10 (31% females aged from 31 to 65 years. On admission, there were 16 (50% febrile individuals, 27 (84.4% with positive meningeal signs, 17 (53.2% with pathological neurological signs, and 10 (31.3% with consciousness disorders. WNV infection was confirmed by the method enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA in all the patients, while Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR test was positive in 3 (30% of the tested patients. Cardiovascular comorbidities dominated in 7 (21.9% of the cases. Full recovery was accomplished in 87.5 % of the cases. Conclusion. The results of our study show that the absence of meningeal signs and fever on the day 7 of hospital treatment are indicators of good course and prognosis of neuroinvasive forms of WNV infection. Comorbidities do not increase the risk of disease. ELISA test is a sovereign diagnostic method. In most cases, after the administered symptomatic therapy, the complete recovery of patients was achieved. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike

  9. A comparative study of lichen biochemistry and air pollution status of urban, semi urban and industrial area of Hooghly and Burdwan district, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K.

    2011-12-01

    vulnerable condition than industrial and urban area of Hooghly and Burdwan district. Moreover the micrograph study of representative lichen samples directly proved that lichen structure affected by air pollutants, but the extent of deformation exclusively depends on the level of pollutants present in the air. Results also suggest that different level of air pollutants (SO2, NOx and SPM affect the biochemical parameters of lichen, but more extensive study is needed to confirm the relationship between air pollution status and lichen biochemistry.

  10. Effectiveness of Tarling Cirebonan Cultural Arts as a Media to Improve Pregnant Women’s Knowledge in Cirebon District of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Maryani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antenatal class is a program from the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia for increasing pregnant women’s knowledge. Until recently, the media used in has not varied yet; thus, innovation on instructional media based on culture to complement the existing media is needed. One of the typical cultural arts of Cirebon is Tarling Cirebonan. The objective is to analyze the effectiveness of media Tarling Cirebonan to improve pregnant women’s knowledges. Methods: This was an analytic study with a quasi experimental design and a non-randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design, by making use of qualitative data. The study was conducted in Cirebon District from March to September 2014. The study sample was 80 pregnant women in Kalibuntu Health Center (40 with Cirebonan Tarling media and 40 with fl ipchart media. Research instruments included music box containing ringtone and lyrics of Tarling Cirebonan consisting of antenatal class materials, fl ipchart, questionnaires, in-depth interview and focus group discussion’s guide. Data analysis with a paired t-test and independent t-test. Result: There were signifi cant differences in score changes on pregnant women’s knowledge at pre-test and fi rst post-test and second post test with a mean difference of 1.35 and 1.70. There was a positive response from pregnant women, the husband, village midwives and society against Cirebonan Tarling media. Conclusions: There were signifi cant differences in score changes on pregnant women’s knowledge at pre-test and fi rst post-test and second post test with a mean difference of 1.35 and 1.70. There was a positive response from pregnant women, the husband, village midwives and society against Cirebonan Tarling media. Recommendation: Tarling Cirebonan Media is more effective to improve pregnant women’s knowledge than fl ipchart media, so that it can be used as an innovative media in improving pregnant women’s knowledge.

  11. A STUDY OF KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTI CE ON INTESTINAL HELMINTHIASIS AMONG RURAL TRIBAL MOTHERS OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN MOHANPUR BLOCK, WEST DISTRICT OF TRIPURA: A NORTH EASTERN STATE OF INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall prevalence of helminths infection in school age children in India is about 50% in Urban and 68% in rural a rea. Tribal populations especially the children living under low socio - economic conditions in the rural villages where poor sanitary system exist are at higher risk of worm infestation. Objectives : To assess mother’s knowledge and practice towards worm inf ection of their under five children. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 117 mothers of under five children who were selected through systematic random sampling method in the year 2012 and face to face interview was performed using semi - st ructured questionnaire in the rural village under Mohanpur Rural Development block, West district of Tripura. RESULTS: 19%, 26.80% and 2.6% of respondent reported of round worm, thread worms and tape worms respectively. 23%, 19.60%, 19.60%, 23% and 14.80% reported of pain abdomen, pain abdomen and itching, perianal itching, vomiting and worms in stool or worms coming through nose respectively. About 51.60% of the respondents were unable to describe even a single helminthic infection. There were significant associations observed between helminthic infection and use of types of latrine (p=0.000, hand washing after defecation (p=0.000, regular hand wash before meals (p=0.000 and regular use of foot wears (p=0.000. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the respondents being literate, intestinal helminthiasis was considered harmless and normal phenomenon. A wrong idea also prevailed that eating sugary things caused worm infestation. Other risk factors that existed were lack of hygienic behavior about washing hands & using insa nitary latrines. Awareness generation and behavior change programs were needed in this group of population

  12. West Virginia State Budgeting for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    County school districts in West Virginia are facing a funding crisis. Significant outmigration resulting in decreased school enrollment has caused the state legislature to change the state school aid formula, forcing school districts to lay off large numbers of low-seniority employees. The state legislature's perception that public schools are…

  13. Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 114th Congressional Districts for the United States. Found within this layer is the listing of the 114th House of Representatives. Elected to...

  14. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  15. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  16. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  17. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  18. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  19. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  20. Analysis on 2077 Hospitalized Cases of Death in a Hospital of the West District in Inner Mongolia%内蒙古西部区某院2077例住院死亡病例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盖红卫; 赵莉; 盖自强

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨内蒙西部区某三级乙等医院近8年内住院患者死亡病例的主要特点,为医院管理和相关部门制定针对性卫生策略和疾病预防措施提供科学依据.方法 按ICD-10疾病分类编码,通过HIS系统统计2007年-2014年期间307563例住院患者的基本信息,对于其中2077例死亡病例应用Excel 2003和SPSS19.0统计软件进行分析,以x2检验及秩和检验做组间数据对比.结果 男女死亡比例1.97:1,8年期间男性死亡率高于女性(x2=158.67,P<0.01).排名前五位死因为循环系统疾病、肿瘤、呼吸系统疾病、损伤中毒和外因的某些其他后果、消化系统疾病;蒙汉民族死因统计死亡率对比有差异(P<0.01);死亡高发年龄段为70岁~79岁年龄组,与全国人口普查预期人均寿命一致.结论 结合本地区死亡高危因素及不同民族死亡特点制定预防、诊断和治疗措施,以降低病死率.%Objectives To investigate the characters of hospitalized cases of death in a Third Grade Class B Hospital in the west district of Inner Mongolia, provide scientific basis for hospital management and relevant departments to make regional and targeted health strategies as well as preventive measures. Methods According to the diseases classification coding in ICD-10, to collect the basic information of 307563 of hospitalized cases from 2007 to 2014 through the HIS system, and conducted statistical analysis on the 2077 death cases with Excel 2003 and SPSS19.0.x2 test and rank-sum test were used to compare the data between groups, if P<0.01, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant. Results The death rate between male and female was 1.97:1, and male patients had higher death rate than female ones in the past 8 years(x2=158.67,P<0.01). The five leading causes of death were circulation system disease, tumor, respiratory diseases, damage poisoning or other results from external reasons and digestive system disease. The

  1. Geothermal district heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  2. A Tapestry of Inquiry and Action: Cycle of Learning Weaves Its Way through Washington District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Harriette Thurber; Karschney, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the West Valley School District in eastern Washington. Home to almost 4,000 students, West Valley made a public commitment more than seven years ago that all students would graduate with the option to attend college. This daunting goal--made even more so by the fact that almost half of the district's high school students come from…

  3. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin...

  4. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  5. West Virginia Digital Learning: Report to the Governor, Legislature, and West Virginia Board of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Accomplishing personalized, deeper learning through anywhere, anytime digital learning requires a redesign of the K-12 education system. This report looks at readiness for digital learning at two levels in West Virginia: the district capacity building to ready the system for digital learning and school implementation of digital learning. The…

  6. District nurses prescribing as nurse independent prescribers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Frances; Shepherd, Chew Kim

    2010-07-01

    Nurse prescribing has been established in the UK since 1994, however, limited focus has been placed on the experiences of district nurses adopting this additional role. This phenomenological study explores the experiences of district nurses prescribing as nurse independent prescribers across the West of Scotland. A qualitative Heideggarian approach examined the every-day experiences of independent prescribing among district nurses. A purposive sample was used and data collected using audio taped one-to-one informal interviews. The data was analysed thematically using Colaizzi's seven procedural steps. Overall these nurses reported that nurse prescribing was a predominantly positive experience. Participants identified improvements in patient care, job satisfaction, level of autonomy and role development. However, some of the participants indicated that issues such as support, record keeping, confidence and ongoing education are all major influences on prescribing practices.

  7. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  8. Legislative Districts - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Each coverage contains a COVER-ID field that defines the House or Senate district number. Kansas House and Senate districts were created by the Legislative Research...

  9. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  10. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  11. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  12. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  13. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  14. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  15. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the us

  16. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  17. Operation of Urban-Rural Residents Cooperative Medical Scheme in a District in West China%西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培艺; 顾雪非; 毛正中; 张振忠

    2011-01-01

    目的:通过分析西部某县城乡居民合作医疗运行情况,发现运行过程中出现的问题,提出解决问题的建议.方法:对2008年和2009年该县城乡居民合作医疗运行数据做对比分析.结果:该县在城乡居民合作医疗运行过程中出现了住院人次、住院率和住院费用增长过快,参舍居民受益水平增长不明显,城镇居民占用农村居民卫生服务资源的问题.结论:建议该县实施支付方式改革,适当调整补偿方案,完成合管办从卫生部门到人力资源与社会保障部门的平稳过渡.%Objective: To find out problems and propose countermeasures by analyzing the state of Cooperative Medical Scheme (CMS) in a west county in China.Methods: Comparing the data of CMS in 2008 and 2009.Result: The hospitalization, hospitalization rate, and hospital cost increase too fast during the running of the CMS in this county; the growth of benefit level of the participating residents is not obvious; and urban residents impropriate the health service resources of rural residents.Conclusion: The county should do some payment reform and adjust the compensation programs to make a smooth transition of CMS Management Office from the health department to human resources and social security departments.

  18. VT Maintenance District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont has eight transportation maintenance districts which are responsible for all maintenance activities on state highways, and for providing technical assistance...

  19. Etiological analysis of acute infectious diarrhea in adults of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai in 2011-2013%2011-2013年上海西区哨点医院成人急性腹泻细菌感染的病原学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈思兰; 李颖; 史慧晶; 刘岩红; 张万菊; 何静; 朱绍琴; 胡芸文; 钱方兴

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the distribution of pathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea in adults of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai and analyze the change trend so as to put forward targeted prevention and control measures of the acute diarrhea .METHODS A total of 2 091 patients with acute diarrhea who were not treated with antibiotics in diarrhea outpatient department of west district sentinel hospital of Shanghai from Jan 2011 to Dec 2013 were enrolled in the study ,then the stool specimens were collected to culture and isolate the common species of intestinal tract pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus ,Escherichia coli ,Salmonella , Campylobacter jejuni ,and Shigella) ,and the isolated positive strains were identified and preserved by center for disease control and prevention of Changning district .RESULTS The stool specimens were cultured positive in 671 patients ,with the positive rate 32 .1% .Totally 671 strains of pathogens were isolated;the V .parahaemolyticus , E .coli ,Salmonella ,and Shigella were dominant among the pathogens ,accounting for 33 .8% ,22 .1% ,21 .5% , and 10 .3% ,respectively ;the enterotoxigenic E .coli was dominant among the E .coli strains ,accounting for 74 . 3% (110/148);the Salmonella Enteritidis was the most common species of Salmonella ,accounting for 44 .4%(64/144);the Shigellasonnei was dominant among the Shigellaspp ,accounting for 84 .1% (58/69) .The isola‐tion rate of pathogens was highest (29 .5% ) in the patients aged from 21 to 30 years old (198/671);68 .70%(461/671) of the pathogens were isolated in July‐September .CONCLUSION The adults with acute diarrhea in the western district of Shanghai show remarkable seasonal character ,and the young patients are dominant .The inci‐dence of E .coli infection shows an upward trend .It is necessary to actively conduct the targeted prevention and control of the diarrhea in the key population .%目的:了解上海市西区哨点医院成人急性腹泻病

  20. REGULATION OF THE ASYMMETRY IN SPATIAL SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE WEST KAZAKHSTAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Imashev

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on the research results, the scientific work indicates economic trends and issues in the territorial organization of the economy and population of West Kazakhstan region. Analysis of the spatial development in the economic sphere has shown that there is a territorial localization of the productive forces in the north of West Kazakhstan region. The typology of the West Kazakhstan administrative districts was formed according to their level and pace of socioeconomic and environmental development, from 1997 to 2011, on the basis of rank-scoring methodology. The results of this work demonstrate that the Northern administrative districts of West Kazakhstan region have a relatively high or an average level of social and economic development.  A low level of social and economic development characterizes the administrative districts located to the south, west, southwest and southeast of West Kazakhstan region. These spatial differences reveal the current asymmetry in the level of social and economic development of the administrative districts, which determined the need for detecting major priorities in regulation of spatial social and economic development of the region.  Thus, we propose the basic priorities for the spatial regulation of social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region within the framework of an effective intra-regional policy.  The research results can be used by local government agencies to develop a regional management program for spatial social and economic development of West Kazakhstan region.

  1. Notes on the occurrence of Mortonagrion aborense Laidlaw, 1914 (Odonata: Coenagrionidae from lower West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arajush Payra

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distribution record of an Odonata species from lower West Bengal. Mortonagrion aborense laidlaw, 1914 is recorded for the first time from Purba Medinipur district, lower West Bengal. Previously the species was recorded only from north-east India (Mizoram, West Bengal, Assam and Nagaland. Diagnostic characters with photographic details of male anal appendages are also given for easy identification of this rare damselfly species.

  2. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  3. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  4. Economic geology of the Central City district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, P.K.; Drake, A.A.; Tooker, E.W.

    1963-01-01

    The Central City district, in Gilpin County, Colo., is on the east flank of the Front Range, about 30 miles west of Denver. The district is the most important mining camp in the Front Range mineral belt, and has yielded more than $100 million worth of gold, silver, uranium, and base-metal ores since 1859. Gold accounts for about 85 percent of the dollar value of the ore. In recent years mining activity has been slack but from 1950 to 1955 the search for uranium ores stimulated prospecting and development.

  5. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  6. Municipal League Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries for the Municipal League Districts in New Mexico. It is a vector digital data structure at a scale of 1:100,000.

  7. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  8. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  9. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  10. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  11. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  12. Special Taxing Districts, TIF districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'TIF districts'. Data by...

  13. School Districts, School districts-Elementary, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Elementary'. Data by this...

  14. School Districts, School districts-Middle, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'School districts-Middle'. Data by this...

  15. Election Districts and Precincts, Voter districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'Voter districts'. Data by...

  16. State Highway District Boundaries - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data represents the NM Department of Transportation District boundaries as legislatively defined (i.e. these are not maintenance defined districts).

  17. Unified School Districts, Census 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The New Mexico 2000 Unified School Districts layer was derived from the TIGER Line files from the US Census Bureau. The districts are clipped to the state...

  18. Analysis of traffic characteristics of entrance and exit in urban underground parking system in west district of Zhongguancun in Beij ing%北京中关村西区地下停车系统出入口交通特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平; 陈志龙; 刘康; 魏怀淼

    2016-01-01

    An efficient entrance and exit location in urban underground parking system that minimizes the impact of parking vehicles on traffic flows on the urban roadways was studied.Through an investigation on the traffic situation of connection area between the urban main roads and the underground parking gate-ways in the West district of Zhongguancun in Beijing,and the traffic characteristics were analyzed by cal-culating traffic flow ratio between entering and exiting in gateway area.Using parameters (including the scale of underground parking,the number of gateways,the length of ramp in entrances and exits,the length and width of underground motor vehicle circle corridor,the number of underground parking and the average speed of motor vehicles in underground parking)as components in an analogue simulation of Vis-sim traffic modeling,traffic characteristics were revealed for different time sections (flat peak and peak pe-riod of working days,as well as weekends),with evaluation indicators such as average travel time,average time delayed,average queue length and parking times.Due to the changing traffic flow in entrance and exit junction,these evaluation indicators show variations at different time sections.These variations are more relevant at the rush time of working days than at the rush time of weekends.%为了科学合理地设置地下停车场出入口,减少出入口对城市道路交通的影响,通过对北京中关村西区地下停车系统出入口与城市主干道接驳处交通运行情况的现场调研,分析了出入口于主干道的交通特性,得到了出入口驶入和驶出的交通流比例和交通流量。利用 Vissim 交通仿真模拟,将地下停车场规模、出入口数量、出入口坡道长度、地下机动车环廊长度和车道宽度、地下停车泊位数、地下车辆平均车速等指标作为仿真评价的阙值,提出了地下停车系统出入口与地面道路衔接段在平峰、工作日和周末早晚高

  19. District-Level Downsizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make…

  20. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy.

  1. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake...

  2. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  3. Vindicating Sustainable Leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hengky, S. H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to vindicate the development of sustainable leisure in Kuningan and responding the statement of the Indonesian minister of tourism by vindicating sustainable leisure in Kuningan, West Java, Indonesia. This statement was so important for realizing the development of sustainable tourism. This study found four potential sustainable tourism based on sustainable leisure in Kuningan District: Linggarjati Natural Park is the most potential to be a sustainable leisure park...

  4. 12. Chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the symptomatic individuals exposed to arsenic through drinking water in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@In the seven districts of West Bengal, India arsenic in ground water has been found to be above the permissible limit. The concentrations of arsenic is ranging from 200-800 (g/l according to latest reports. More than 200,000 people have already shown different types of arsenical skin lesions in these seven districts of West Bengal. It has been regarded as the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. However, there is

  5. [Blood free radical oxidation indices in the inhabitants of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiak, M A; Buganov, A A; Lobanov, A A; Popov, A I

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the data of examination of 1333 residents from different areas of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. The examination has demonstrated that oxidative process increase from south to north and from west to east, antioxidative defense becoming weaker.

  6. An Exploration of Supply Chain Management Practices in the Central District Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, I. M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to explore supply chain management practices in the Central District Municipality, North West province of South Africa, using the grounded theory methodology. Supply chain management was introduced in the South African public sector to alleviate deficiencies related to governance, interpretation and…

  7. Government Districts, Other - MDC_CommissionDistrict2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class representing the Redistricting Commission Plan 11-15, adopted November 15, 2001. This Commission District Boundary layer becomes effective...

  8. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  9. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  10. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  11. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  12. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  13. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  14. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  15. Redesigning the District Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodas, Steven

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we look at the inner workings of a school district through the lens of the "district operating system (DOS)," a set of interlocking mutually-reinforcing modules that includes functions like procurement, contracting, data and IT policy, the general counsel's office, human resources, and the systems for employee and family…

  16. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  17. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  18. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  19. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  20. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  1. 2006 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: North District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is one component of a digital terrain model (DTM) for the Southwest Florida Water Management District's FY2006 Digital Orthophoto (B089) and LiDAR...

  2. Government Districts, Other, National Register districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'National Register...

  3. Government Districts, Other - MO 2014 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  4. Zoning Districts - MO 2011 Springfield Conditional Overlay Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Conditional Overlay District polygons for the City of Springfield, inside city limits only. Created and maintained by the GIS Division of the Information Systems...

  5. Amalgamation of Green, Culture, Network, and Artistic Conceptional Space─ ─ Introduction to the Conceiver of Landscape Architecture Design for Zhongguancun West District%绿色·文化·网络及其意境空间的多元融合 ──北京中关村西区景观园林环境设计方案构思简介

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田园

    2001-01-01

    We have raise the challenge of the inherit of the ancient culture of the Chinese city space and the restructure of urban space changed by the fast civilization movement while the disappearing of old street and old living way. Every residence notes and hopes the beautiful picture of our new living space.It is something that springs from the landscape design of the west district of Zhongguancun,about how to create such urban space that merges the satisfaction and comfort of the ancient space into the massive and geometry urban scale, supply human living environment, reflect the Chinese space ideal─ ─ the meaning space, and fit the character of information era.%中国正在面临着迅速的城市化以及广泛的空间文化重新构建当中,规模庞大的新城建设所带来的不仅仅是宏伟壮观的城市景观,更加重要的是城市特色空间文化的延续和创造,当一条条旧街坊和古老宅院的生活环境在满怀激情的推土机轰鸣声中土崩瓦解之时,我们的新的空间文化在写着怎样的篇章,这是每一个城市居住者有权关注的话题。北京中关村西区景观园林环境设计的内容从城市新区园林环境文化构建的角度提出了尺度庞大的城市空间环境如何能在现有的城市功能体系当中创造并融合中国传统空间文化的宜人感与舒适感,充分体现人性化的居住生活环境,极大的体现中华民族优秀的空间理想──意境空间,并与时代文化(绿色、科技)形成良好的共鸣。

  6. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  8. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District includes and consists of Alameda County, Monterey County, Santa Clara County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz.... (k) South Coast District includes and consists of San Luis Obispo County, Santa Barbara County,...

  9. New Mexico Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  10. Districts for 104th Congress

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of 104th Congressional District boundaries obtained from the U.S. Bureau of the Census. The 103rd Congress was the first Congress that...

  11. Allegheny County School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the school district boundaries within Allegheny County If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open...

  12. Boise geothermal district heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  13. 77 FR 63326 - Huron Wetland Management District, Madison Wetland Management District, and Sand Lake Wetland...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... Sand Lake Wetland Management District, SD; Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No... assessment (EA) involving Huron, Madison, and Sand Lake Wetland Management Districts (Districts). In this..., Madison Wetland Management District, Sand Lake Wetland Management District final CCP'' in the subject...

  14. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don...

  15. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241...

  16. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  17. District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Menno; de Ree, Joppe

    2014-01-01

    We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we sh...

  18. Chronic patient care at North West Province clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire van Deventer

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic illnesses are a significant burden to the health services in South Africa. There is a specific national health plan whereby chronically ill patients who are acceptably controlled should be managed at clinic level. The perception has emerged that the management of primary care has not been optimal in the Southern District of the North West Province. This provided the motivation to initiate this research, namely consideration of chronic patient care at clinics in the North West Province of South Africa.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out at four randomly selected clinics covering four sub-districts in the Southern District (North West Province. This was done using charts and registers at the clinics. Inclusion criteria were patients older than 18, and presenting with the following chronic illnesses: asthma/chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD, hypertension, diabetes and epilepsy. The major focus areas were the regular assessment of the patients, the level of control of the illness and the use of the Essential Drugs List and Standard Treatment Guidelines (EDL/STG.Results: In the cases of all the chronic illnesses it was found that regular assessments were poorly done, with asthma (peak flow measurements being the most poorly done. Control was generally less than 50% for all the illnesses, although the EDL was followed fairly well by the personnel at the clinics.Conclusion: In the light of the burden of chronic illness the results give cause for great concern about the quality of care for chronically ill patients, and reasons were sought for some of the poor results. A subsequent decision was taken to carry out comprehensive quality improvement projects on each of the illnesses over the following five years.

  19. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  20. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-26

    WEST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Tindemans on Problems of Belgian EC Presidency ( Leo Tindemans Interview; LA LIBRE BELGIQUE...Interview with Minister of Foreign Relations Leo Tindemans; date and place not given] [Text] [Question] The implementation of the "Single Act," reform of...Izeboud was reelected in the party executive of 55 members, as were former members of the chamber Ina Brouwer , Marius Ernsting and Evelien Eshuis

  1. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  2. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  3. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Belant Jerrold L; Minnis Richard B; Wang Guiming; Wax Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local econom...

  4. Socio-economic determinants of underweight children in West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharati S; Chakrabarty S; Som S; Pal M; Bharati P

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the extent of undernutrition at district level and the socio-economic determinants of underweight children aged 0-71 months in West Bengal.Methods: The data were accessed from the Reproductive and Child Health Survey (RCHS-II), which contained information of 7 550 children and their parents. Information of socio-economic variables about the associated families of these children had also been taken for our study. This study computed weight-for-age z-scores to assess the nutritional status of the children using WHO (2006) reference.Results: The prevalence of underweight varied over the districts. Districts with very high prevalence of underweight children were Murshidabad, Burdwan, Purulia, Medinipur, Howrah and South 24 Parganas. High prevalent districts for both boys and girls were Jalpaiguri and Coochbihar. Low prevalent districts for both boys and girls were South Dinajpur, Nadia and Kolkata. The percentage of underweight children were more in rural areas among Muslim families with illiterate parents and low standard of living. In Murshidabad, Bankura, Nadia, Medinipur and South 24 Parganas districts, i.e., where prevalence of underweight children were higher, the rural and urban differences were less. The characteristics like religion, parents' educational status and standard of living index showed significant effect on the children's weights.Conclusions: Public intervention programs on the parent's education and the standard of living of the households at district level should be given high priority to combat the children's undernutrition problems so far as weight for age is concerned.

  5. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion...

  6. Seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Archana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to know the seasonal prevalence of different species of Culicoides in Bangalore rural and urban districts of South India. Materials and Methods: The flies were collected with UV-light traps (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute. ARC. LNR ?? during rainy season (south west monsoon: June, July, August and September: North West monsoon: October, November and December, winter season (January, February and summer season (March, April and May in eleven different farms of cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats in Bangalore rural and urban districts. Results: From a total of 83, 629 number of Culicoides midges collected, 77906 (93.16% were female and 5723 (6.84% were males. In rainy season a total of 48,318 (57.77%, winter season 18,592 (22.23% and summer season 16719 (19.99% were reported. Conclusion: In rainy season, highest numbers of Culicoides were found whereas least in summer.

  7. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in French 24 Jun 87 p 2 [Article by Ch. B.] [Text] A crisis? In the PSC? You’re dreaming . Or else you are seeking to destroy stability in the...partners. The ups and downs of recent weeks have done him harm, and it said that he dreams of distancing himself somewhat. If only Willy De Clercq were...a lucid and objective account of his subject matter. It is still quite common for more or less well-informed West Europeans to use the term

  8. Mines and Prospects, Idaho Springs District, Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties, Colorado - Descriptions and Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moench, Robert Hadley; Drake, Avery Ala

    1966-01-01

    The Idaho Springs mining district forms an important segment of the Front Range mineral belt, a northeast-trending zone of coextensive intrusive rocks and hydrothermal ore deposits of early Tertiary age. This belt, which is about 50 miles long, extends from the region just west of Boulder southwestward across the Front Range. From 1859, when placer gold was discovered in Idaho Springs and lode gold in Central City, through 1959, ores valued at about $200 million were shipped from a 50-square-mile area that includes the Idaho Springs and adjacent districts to the north, west, and southwest. The adjacent Central City district, which produced ores valued at more than $100 million, is clearly the most important district in the mineral belt. The Idaho Springs district from 1860 to 1959 produced ores valued at about $65 million, and the districts to the west and southwest produced smaller amounts. Gold has accounted for about 60 percent of the value of the ore, but in some areas silver provides the chief values, and copper, lead, and zinc add value to the ores in most areas. Mining activity in the Idaho Springs and adjacent districts was at its 'heyday' in the late 1800's, it declined sharply after 1914, it was somewhat renewed during the 1930's, and it greatly declined during World War II. In the 1950's uranium prospecting stimulated some mining activity. No uranium was produced, however, and at the close of the decade only one mine--the Bald Eagle--was being worked for its precious- and base-metal ores. In this report, 135 mines and prospects are described. The mines and prospects described are those that were accessible at the time of this study, as well as a few inaccessible properties for which some information was available. Most of the data for the inaccessible or unimportant properties were obtained from Bastin and Hill (1917) and Spurr, Garrey, and Ball (1908). The following list shows, in alphabetical order, the names of about 325 openings of mines and

  9. Assessment of existing and prospective piping technology for district-heating applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, I.

    1979-09-01

    Data on design features and operational experience of 40 hot water and steam district-heating networks with an overall heat capacity of 18,000 MWt have been collected, systematized, and analyzed. Piping networks located in Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Sweden, USA, USSR, and West Germany have been analyzed and the data assembled. The data bank and analysis of the operational experience design features of hot water and steam district-heating networks are provided in Sections 2 and 3. In Section 4 the piping installation design is optimized in order to reduce costs wherever possible, without jeopardizing overall system efficiency, reliability or service life, and employing a mixture of typical US and European district-heating practices. The status of prospective non-metallic piping materials is presented in Section 5. The following materials have been investigated: fiberglass reinforced plastic, cross-linked polyethylene, polybutylene, prestressed concrete, polymer concrete, and asbestos-cement piping. (MCW)

  10. Industrial District as a Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MOHAMMADY GARFAMY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comparison study of industrial districts in two European countries, Spain and Sweden, using the conceptual framework of corporation. The relevance of this approach is based on the specific qualities that the industrial districts have, including the preexisting conditions, local traditions, products and production characteristics, marketing strategies, local policies and present challenges. The findings indicate the ways in which different patterns of inter-firm relationships, organization of production and dynamics of local alliances have shaped divergent regional responses to the industrial construction.

  11. Future Services for District Heating Solutions in Residential Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannele Ahvenniemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of this study is that in order to retain the competitiveness while reaching for the EU targets regarding low-energy construction, district heating companies need to develop new business and service models. How district heating companies could broaden their perspective and switch to a more service-oriented way of thinking is a key interest of our research. The used methods in our study are house builder interviews and a questionnaire. With the help of these methods we discussed the potential interest in heating related services acquiring a comprehensive understanding of the customer needs. The results indicate the importance of certain criteria when choosing the heating system in households: easiness, comfort and affordability seem to dominate the house builders’ preferences. Also environmental awareness seems to be for many an important factor when making a decision about the heating of the house. Altogether, based on the results of this study, we suggest that the prospects of district heating could benefit from highlighting certain aspects and strengths in the future. District heating companies need to increase flexibility, readiness to adopt new services, to invest in new marketing strategies and improving the communication skills.

  12. DETECTION OF CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS BY RT-PCR IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Chowdhury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Classical swine fever is a deadly disease of swine, caused by a RNA virus. The present study has identified presence of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV in pigs of West Bengal by one step reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR performed using 5’ NTR specific primers. Internal organs from clinically affected pigs were examined from three districts of West Bengal. RT-PCT has identified presence of CSFV in all the tissues examined confirming presence of CSFV in different parts of the state.

  13. Government Districts, Other, Voting districts, fire districts, inspector districts, engineering districts, school zones, recreation leagues, Published in 2014, Not Applicable scale, GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2014. It is...

  14. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  15. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  16. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  17. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  18. Location - Managed Facility - St. Paul District (MVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — St. Paul District - US Army Corps of Engineers Managed Facility locations. District headquarters, Natural Resource, Recreation, Lock and Dam, and Regulatory offices...

  19. Iowa Congressional Districts for 2013-2022

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Congressional district boundaries, enacted April 19, 2011, effective beginning with the elections in 2012 for the 113th U.S. Congress. The districts will remain in...

  20. Crosby Wetland Management District Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge : Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor District, Savanna District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife and Fish Refuge summarizes activities for Winona District, La Crosse District, McGregor...

  2. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock...

  3. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  4. 7 CFR 920.12 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 920.12 Section 920.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Definitions § 920.12 District. District means the applicable one of the following described subdivisions...

  5. School District Cash Management. Program Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Legislative Commission on Expenditure Review, Albany.

    New York State law permits school districts to invest cash not immediately needed for district operation and also specifies the kinds of investments that may be made in order to ensure the safety and liquidity of public funds. This audit examines cash management and investment practices in New York state's financially independent school districts.…

  6. Structure of the Red Dog District, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre P.; McClay, K. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Red Dog district of the western Brooks Range of northern Alaska, which includes the sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag ± Ba deposits at Red Dog, Su-Lik, and Anarraaq, contains one of the world's largest reserves of zinc. This paper presents a new model for the structural development of the area and shows that understanding the structure is crucial for future exploration efforts and new mineral discoveries in the district. In the Red Dog district, a telescoped Late Devonian through Jurassic continental passive margin is exposed in a series of subhorizontally stacked, internally imbricated, and regionally folded thrust sheets. These sheets were emplaced during the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Brookian orogeny and subsequently were uplifted by late tectonic activity in the Tertiary. The thrust sheet stack comprises seven tectonostratigraphically distinct allochthonous sheets, three of which have been subject to regional and detailed structural analysis. The lowermost of these is the Endicott Mountains allochthon, which is overlain by the structurally higher Picnic Creek and Kelly River allochthons. Each individual allochthon is itself internally imbricated into a series of tectonostratigraphically coherent and distinct thrust plates and subplates. This structural style gives rise to duplex development and imbrication at a range of scales, from a few meters to tens of kilometers. The variable mechanical properties of the lithologic units of the ancient passive margin resulted in changes in structural styles and scales of structures across allochthon boundaries. Structural mapping and analysis of the district indicate a dominant northwest to west-northwest direction of regional tectonic transport. Local north to north-northeast transport of thrust sheets is interpreted to reflect the influence of underlying lateral and/or oblique ramps, which may have been controlled by inherited basin margin structures. Some thrust-sheet stacking patterns suggest out

  7. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  8. Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Bauer, Herman L.

    1951-01-01

    The Virgin Valley opal district, Humboldt County, Nevada, is near the Oregon-Nevada border in the Sheldon Game Refuge. Nineteen claims owned by Jack and Toni Crane were examined, sampled, and tested radiometrically for uranium. Numerous discontinuous layers of opal are interbedded with a gently-dipping series of vitric tuff and ash which is at least 300 ft thick. The tuff and ash are capped by a dark, vesicular basalt in the eastern part of the area and by a thin layer of terrace qravels in the area along the west side of Virgin Valley. Silicification of the ash and tuff has produced a rock that ranges from partly opalized rock that resembles silicified shale to completely altered rock that is entirely translucent, and consists of massive, brown and pale-green opal. Carnotite, the only identified uranium mineral, occurs as fracture coatings or fine layers in the opal; in places, no uranium minerals are visible in the radioactive opal. The opal layers are irregular in extent and thickness. The exposed length of the layers ranges from 8 to 1, 200 ft or more, and the thickness of the layers ranges from 0. 1 to 3. 9 ft. The uranium content of each opal layer, and of different parts of the same layer, differs widely. On the east side of Virgin Valley four of the seven observed opal layers, nos. 3, 4, 5, and 7, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 002 to 0. 12 percent. Two samples, taken 5 ft apart across opal layer no. 7, contained 0. 003 and 0. -049 percent uranium. On the west side of the valley only four of the fifteen observed opal layers, nos; 9, , 10, 14, and 15, are more radioactive than the average; and the uranium content ranges from 0. 004 to 0. 047 percent. Material of the highest grade was found in a small discontinuous layer of pale-green opal (no. 4) on the east side of Virgin Valley. The grade of this layer ranged from 0. 027 to 0. 12 percent uranium.

  9. Impact of Climate and Environmental Factors on West Nile Virus Circulation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Ahmadnejad; Vahid Otarod; Amanollah Fathnia; Ali Ahmadabadi; Fallah, Mohammad H.; Alireza Zavareh; Nargess Miandehi; Benoit Durand; Philippe Sabatier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic distribution of West Nile virus (WNV) is heterogeneous in Iran by a high circulation in the southern-western areas. The objective of our study was to determine environmental and climatic factors associ­ated with the risk of WNV equine seropositivity in Iran.Methods: Serological data were obtained from a serosurvey conducted in equine population in 260 districts in Iran. The climate and environmental parameters included in the models were distance to the nearest wetland ...

  10. 78 FR 58049 - Proposed Establishment of the Adelaida District, Creston District, El Pomar District, Paso Robles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... year defines climatic regions. Climatic region I has less than 2,500 GDDs per year; region II, 2,501 to... District.... Valley floor transitioning to mountain slopes; elevations between 1,160 to 2,086 feet... of 11.4 inches; Winkler III climate. Santa Margarita Ranch Valley floor and hillsides;...

  11. The Relationship between Student Achievement, School District Economies of Scale, School District Size, and Student Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement, school district economies of scale, school district size and student socioeconomic status were measured for 131 school districts in the state of Oregon. Data for school districts ranging in size from districts with around 300 students to districts with more than 40,000 students were collected for…

  12. Perspectives from the Bench: Technology in the Pittsburgh Courtroom An Interview with the Honorable Nora Barry Fischer, District Judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Angliss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Judge Nora Barry Fischer has served as a district judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania since 2007, when she was appointed by President George W. Bush. Prior to her service as a district judge, Judge Fischer worked as a legal editor at Callaghan & Company, was a partner in private practice at Meyer Darragh Buckler Bebenek & Eck, and was an equity partner at Pietragallo Bosick & Gordon. Additionally, Judge Fischer worked as a trained mediator and arbitrator in Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Judge Fischer is a Fellow of the American College of Trial Lawyers, an active member of the Executive Women’s Council of Pittsburgh, a past President of the Academy of Trial Lawyers of Allegheny County, and a member of the Pennsylvania Bar Association Commission on Women in the Profession, where she serves on the Mentoring Subcommittee. She received a Bachelor of Arts Degree magna cum laude from Saint Mary’s College, and a JD degree from Notre Dame Law School in 1976.

  13. related Factors of chronic Energy Deficiency at Pregnant Woman in kamoning and Tambelangan Sub District, Sampang District, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Kartika Mahirawati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background:Pregnant woman who suffered Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED has delivered babies with low birth weight and increased the risk for mortality. The objective of this research was to analyze the related factors of CED at pregnant woman. Method:A Cross sectional design was used. A random sample of pregnant women who registered in kohort. has taken 104 people as the samples. Collecting data using questionnaires (quantitative and secondary data obtain through kohort register during 2012–2013 and profile of Dinkes 2012, conducted during 6 (six months 2013 in Puskesmas Kamoning and Tambelangan. The data were analyzed descriptively and statistically using Chi Square test. result: The socio-economic factors: 35.5% mother’s education mostly elementary school graduates. 29.4 % didn’t graduate from elementary school. The majority of their husband (39.2% work as farm worker with income less than 1 million rupiah per month. The maternal factors: the average age between 21 until 34 years old (70.6%. The age of marriage mostly under 17 years old (41.1% and most of them (31.4% have their first pregnancy in the age between 18 until 21 years old. The most pregnant women (54.9% ate 3 times/day. 70.6% pregnant women with CED suffered from anemia; 66.7% of them took irow tablets every day. conclusion:economic factors social conditions associated with the incidence of maternal CED husband is education and maternal work status, whereas maternal factors are gestational age, hemoglobin levels in the blood and consumption of iron pills. recommendation:Areas programme and sectorce, should be involved to reduce the CED prevalence.

  14. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  15. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  16. The Ore-Controlling Factors, Metallogenic Condition and Prospecting in West Part of Tawenchahan Polymetallic ore District,East Kunlun Mountains , Qinghai Province%东昆仑它温查汉铁多金属矿床控矿因素、找矿前景及方向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹德智; 王军; 杨伟毅; 彭中发; 李延庆; 汪成萍; 赵胜楠

    2012-01-01

    south east and west ends of the lots are large areas of abnormal direction of exploration.

  17. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  18. West Java Snack Mapping based on Snack Types, Main Ingredients, and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurani, A. S.; Subekti, S.; Ana

    2016-04-01

    The research was motivated by lack of literature on archipelago snack especially from West Java. It aims to explore the snack types, the processing techniques, and the main ingredients by planning a learning material on archipelago cake especially from West Java. The research methods used are descriptive observations and interviews. The samples were randomly chosen from all regions in West Java. The findings show the identification of traditional snack from West java including: 1. snack types which are similar in all regions as research sample namely: opak, rangginang, nagasari, aliagrem, cuhcur, keripik, semprong, wajit, dodol, kecimpring, combro, tape ketan, and surabi. The typical snack types involve burayot (Garut), simping kaum (Purwakarta), surabi hejo (Karawang), papais cisaat (Subang), Papais moyong, opak bakar (Kuningan), opak oded, ranggesing (Sumedang), gapit, tapel (Cirebon), gulampo, kue aci (Tasikmalaya), wajit cililin, gurilem (West Bandung), and borondong (Bandung District); 2. various processing techniques namely: steaming, boiling, frying, caramelizing, baking, grilling, roaster, sugaring; 3. various main ingredients namely rice, local glutinous rice, rice flour, glutinous rice flour, starch, wheat flour, hunkue flour, cassava, sweet potato, banana, nuts, and corn; 4. snack classification in West Java namely (1) traditional snack, (2) creation-snack, (3) modification-snack, (4) outside influence-snack.

  19. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  20. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  1. District nurse clinics: accountability and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2013-02-01

    The numbers of district nurse clinics are continuing to grow in primary care and they provide timely and more cost effective intervention for patients. The clinics provide exciting opportunities for district nurses but also carry an increased risk of exposure to liability. This article discusses some of the key areas of accountability underpinning the duty of care of district nurses working in nurse-led clinics.

  2. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice

    OpenAIRE

    Green, J.

    2016-01-01

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and ...

  3. School Districts, Walworth County School Districts, Published in 2010, Not Applicable scale, Walworth County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale as of 2010. It is described as 'Walworth County School Districts'. Data by this publisher are often...

  4. Election Districts and Precincts, School Board districts, Published in 2006, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2006. It is described as 'School Board districts'....

  5. Election Districts and Precincts, County Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'County Council districts'....

  6. Election Districts and Precincts, City Council districts, Published in 2005, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2005. It is described as 'City Council districts'....

  7. Election Districts and Precincts, VotingDistricts, Published in 2008, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'VotingDistricts'. Data by this...

  8. Government Districts, Other, ConservancyDistricts, Published in 2000, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Government Districts, Other dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2000. It is described as 'ConservancyDistricts'. Data by this...

  9. School Districts, washoe county school district, Published in 2006, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This School Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is described as 'washoe county school district'....

  10. Cyclone hazard proneness of districts of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Mohapatra

    2015-04-01

    Hazards associated with tropical cyclones (TCs) are long-duration rotatory high velocity winds, very heavy rain, and storm tide. India has a coastline of about 7516 km of which 5400 km is along the mainland. The entire coast is affected by cyclones with varying frequency and intensity. Thus classification of TC hazard proneness of the coastal districts is very essential for planning and preparedness aspects of management of TCs. So, an attempt has been made to classify TC hazard proneness of districts by adopting a hazard criteria based on frequency and intensity of cyclone, wind strength, probable maximum precipitation, and probable maximum storm surge. Ninety-six districts including 72 districts touching the coast and 24 districts not touching the coast, but lying within 100 km from the coast have been classified based on their proneness. Out of 96 districts, 12 are very highly prone, 41 are highly prone, 30 are moderately prone, and the remaining 13 districts are less prone. This classification of coastal districts based on hazard may be considered for all the required purposes including coastal zone management and planning. However, the vulnerability of the place has not been taken into consideration. Therefore, composite cyclone risk of a district, which is the product of hazard and vulnerability, needs to be assessed separately through a detailed study.

  11. 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Werner, Sven; Wiltshire, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the concept of 4th Generation District Heating (4GDH) including the relations to District Cooling and the concepts of smart energy and smart thermal grids. The motive is to identify the future challenges of reaching a future renewable non-fossil heat supply as part...... of the implementation of overall sustainable energy systems. The basic assumption is that district heating and cooling has an important role to play in future sustainable energy systems – including 100 percent renewable energy systems – but the present generation of district heating and cooling technologies will have...

  12. Rehabilitation of district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosson, Peter [AaF-Energikonsult Syd AB (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    Often the choice is between reparation or exchange of a damaged section of the network. If the exchange is based on the wrong assumptions, large sections of undamaged pipelines could be removed. Most important for the district heating company is to decide which strategy to use for the future exchange of the pipelines. Whichever strategy used, it has to based on an assessment of the network and/or assumptions based on that assessment. The question if it is possible extend the life span of the pipelines arises. What is the most economical choice, the exchange or the renovation. (au)

  13. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... Street, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404; phone: (208) 522-2356. Mr. Louis Thiel, Chairman, New Sweden...

  14. Analysis of Parental Involvement and Self-Esteem on Secondary School Students in Kieni West Sub-County, Nyeri County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wairimu, Mburu Josephine; Macharia, Susan M.; Muiru, Ann

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between parental involvement and the self-esteem among adolescents in secondary school students in Kieni West District in Nyeri County. It was guided by Self Determination Theory (SDT) by James William and Baumrind Theory of Parenting Styles by Diana Blumberg Baumrind. Some of the gaps identified in the…

  15. Descriptive Analyses of English Language Learner Student Enrollment Data in Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehler, Annette M.; Yin, Chengbin; Donovan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    State administrators in the Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia Region (Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia) are responding to increased enrollment of English language learner (ELL) students in grades K-12, including in school districts that previously did not enroll ELL students or enrolled only a small number of them. ELL…

  16. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong; ZHANG SiWei

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West", an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation, extensive collaboration in argumen-tation and decision-making, and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China's old industrial district remodeling, the paper offers some suggestions.

  17. Solar For Schools: A Case Study in Identifying and Implementing Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Projects in Three California School Districts: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandt, A.

    2011-04-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar America Showcase program seeks to accelerate demand for solar technologies among key end use market sectors. As part of this activity the DOE provides Technical Assistance through its national laboratories to large-scale, high-visibility solar installation projects. The Solar Schools Assessment and Implementation Project (SSAIP) in the San Francisco Bay area was selected for a 2009 DOE Solar American Showcase award. SSAIP was formed through the efforts of the nonprofit Sequoia Foundation and includes three school districts: Berkeley, West Contra Costa, and Oakland Unified School Districts. This paper summarizes the technical assistance efforts that resulted from this technical assistance support. It serves as a case study and reference document detailing the steps and processes that could be used to successfully identify, fund, and implement solar PV projects in school districts across the country.

  18. Maternal mortality in Bijapur district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya A. Thobbi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objectives of this study is to evaluate the incidence of maternal deaths, causes responsible for maternal mortality, direct and indirect factors, and various preventable methods to reduce maternal mortality rate. Background: 95% of maternal deaths occur in Asia and Africa. The need for undertaking this study is to know the maternal mortality rate, analyze the causes and preventable factors of death occurring in the district of Bijapur, Karnataka, India. Methodology: It is a study of 2years from the Records of District Health Office and Institutions on maternal mortality from June 2011 to May 2013 in Bijapur. Results: In two years there were fifty eight maternal deaths and seventy nine thousand five hundred and sixty six live births, hence maternal mortality ratio was seventy three per lakh live births. Eighty two percent of maternal deaths occurred in families who belonged to Below Poverty Line. Prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was 79.3%. Severe anemia (Hemoglobin <7g% seen in 5.1% was the most common indirect cause of death. Forty three percent of the deaths occurred at private setups. Hemorrhage, Septicemia and Preeclampsia & Eclampsia were responsible for 44.82%, 15.51% and 6.89% respectively. Conclusion: Majority of the maternal deaths are preventable if these four delays are avoided: a Delay in identifying the problem. b Delay in seeking care. c Delay in reaching the referral institute. d Delay in getting treatment on reaching the referral institute.

  19. FLYPAPER EFFECTS ANOMALY OF WEST PAPUA CAPITAL PUBLIC EXPENDITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthen Anthon Pentury

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In fiscal decentralization, local governments should be able to provide public service facilities for all communities. This study aims to determine the existence of flypaper effect in the total capital public expenditure and capital expenditure on education, health and infrastructure in districts in West Papua, 2003-2006. Tools of analysis used is panel data regression. The General Allocation Fund (DAU, the Special Allocation Fund (DAK and the Special Autonomy Fund (DOK partially and simultaneously have positive impact on total capital spending and capital expenditure in education, health, and infrastructure. It is also indicated the anomaly of flypaper effect in DAU, DAK, and DOK.Keywords: Flypaper effect, anomaly, fiscal decentralization, capital expendituresJEL classification numbers: H50, H75

  20. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  1. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  2. Roof-Top rainwater harvesting system for official / multistoried building with reference to malda district, WB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Suman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rain water harvesting is received increased attention world wide as an alternative source of water. Roof-top rain water harvesting system is looked upon as one of the most feasible and economical ways of water conservation. With increasing problem of water scarcity, planning and designing roof top rain water harvesting is gaining wider importance to meet ever-increasing water demand, encouraging use of water or more sustainable basis. The rain water harvesting is the simple collection or storing of water for the domestic or the agriculture purpose. The method of rain water harvesting has been into practice since ancient times. The method is simple and cost effective too. Malda district of West Bengal is badly affected by Arsenic contamination in ground water. The present study finds its usefulness in developing awareness towards judicious use of water among masses and efficient ways to harvest roof top rain water resources at institutional / multistoried buildings in Malda district.

  3. AhR transcription serum activity of Inuit´s across Greenlandic districts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Manhai; Deutch, Bente; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2007-01-01

    included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and The study included 357 serum samples from the Greenlandic districts: Nuuk and Sisimiut (South West Coast), Qaanaaq (North Coast) and Tasiilaq (East Coast). The bioaccumulated serum POPs were extracted by ethanol: hexane and clean-up......Background: Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including Human exposure to lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide is ubiquitous....... The individual is exposed to a complex mixture of POPs being life-long beginning during critical developmental windows. Exposure to POPs elicits a number of species- and tissue-specific toxic responses, many of which involve the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The aim of this study was to compare the actual...

  4. The Soil Conservation District Movement in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Thomas Cochran; And Others

    The development of soil conservation districts in Tennessee is the subject of this graduate study. Related literature, existing records, and personal interviews are used to record progress since Tennessee adopted Public Law 46 establishing soil conservation districts in 1939. In 1959 all 95 counties of Tennessee had organized soil conservation…

  5. Superintendent Leadership: Focusing on District Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tanya A.; Adams, Jeffery S.; Smith, Dwayne E.

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a problem-based learning project focusing on superintendent leadership and stakeholder influence of school district culture. Current research findings suggest the importance of superintendent leadership in assessing, influencing, and enhancing school district culture. Multiple scholars wrote literature in the area of…

  6. District Leaders' Framing of Educator Evaluation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woulfin, Sarah L.; Donaldson, Morgaen L.; Gonzales, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Educator evaluation systems have recently undergone scrutiny and reform, and district and school leaders play a key role in interpreting and enacting these systems. This article uses framing theory to understand district leaders' interpretation and advancement of a state's new educator evaluation policy. Research Methods: The article…

  7. 7 CFR 953.11 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 953.11 Section 953.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements.... District No. 3. James City and Nansemond Counties and the cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach in...

  8. Zhengdong New District: A Water City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    ON April 12, 2002, at the Yuda World Trade Building, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, a signing ceremony for the first group of developers to enter Zhengdong New District was in progress. Government officials announced, "In the years to come, Zhengdong New District will be a government focus.

  9. Anti-Leptospira sp. agglutinins in ewes in the Federal District, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Luiza de S; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; Leite, Rômulo C; Moreira, Elvio C; McManus, Concepta M; de Castro, Márcio B

    2011-01-01

    To define the prevalence of anti-Leptospira sp. agglutinins in ewes in the Federal District, Brazil, serum samples from 157 ewes were tested for antibodies against serovars of Leptospira sp. by the microscopic agglutination test. Antibodies were detected in three flocks in a prevalence of 3% (95% CI = 0.4%-5.7%). Considering that sheep and cattle were raised together, the lack of sanitary control could represent a risk to cattle production, which is the most important activity in the Centre-West region of Brazil.

  10. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  11. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  12. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  13. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  14. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  15. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  16. Louisiana State House Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_house_districts_LEGIS_2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State House Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the next...

  17. Louisiana State Senate Districts from LEGIS source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (2004) [la_senate_districts_LEGIS_2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Louisiana State Senate Districts. The district boundaries are the result of legislative acts and redistricting. Reapportionment (redistricting) occurs during the...

  18. The Feasibility of Coffee Industries in West Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Setyo Utomo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of the coffee industry folk as a commercial producer in West Kalimantan. Research conducted descriptive and observation to determine the potential of raw materials, market potential and marketing, availability of technology, and financial feasibility analyzes plant establishment. The results of the study showed that the availability of raw materials such as coffee yields declined every year and its availability on every small community, and not attractive to farmers for commercial cultivation, where plants cannot compete with rubber, palm oil, or other horticultural crops or plantation, so people are reluctant to plant coffee again. Although, the marketing of coffee available on the domestic market, national market and abroad, but the quality of the coffee that is associated with superior taste, aroma, and geography indications is its own advantages, which have not seemed to result from West Kalimantan coffee. Coffee processing technology indicates the readiness of technology for applications, such as the technology to produce coffee of primary and secondary copy. Advice can be given is the cultivation of coffee and wild civet coffee products (Paradoxurus hermaphrodites from Sambas district and fostered intensive note by the local government, in order to have a competitive commercialization opportunities. Local Government should re-establish cultivation techniques and management of coffee farming.

  19. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  20. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  1. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  2. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  3. Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship - The Case of Bardhaman District in West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutta, S.

    2004-01-01

    For a living, most of the rural people in developing countries are primarily dependent on agriculture. If the farmers, who have investible surplus generated from agriculture, are interested in non-farm entrepreneurship then rural economy can find an industrial route of development. With this conside

  4. Asymptomatic leishmaniasis in kala-azar endemic areas of Malda district, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Pabitra; Ganguly, Swagata; Chatterjee, Moytrey; Das, Soumendu Bikash; Kundu, Pratip K.; Guha, Subhasish K.; Ghosh, Tamal K.; Bera, Dilip K.; Basu, Nandita

    2017-01-01

    Asymptomatic leishmaniasis may drive the epidemic and an important challenge to reach the goal of joint Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) elimination initiative taken by three Asian countries. The role of these asymptomatic carriers in disease transmission, prognosis at individual level and rate of transformation to symptomatic VL/Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) needs to be evaluated. Asymptomatic cases were diagnosed by active mass survey in eight tribal villages by detecting antileishmanial antibody using rK39 based rapid diagnostic kits and followed up for three years to observe the pattern of sero-conversion and disease transformation. Out of 2890 total population, 2603 were screened. Antileishmanial antibody was detected in 185 individuals of them 96 had a history of VL/PKDL and 89 without such history. Seventy nine such individuals were classified as asymptomatic leishmaniasis and ten as active VL with a ratio of 7.9:1. Out of 79 asymptomatic cases 2 were lost to follow up as they moved to other places. Amongst asymptomatically infected persons, disease transformation in 8/77 (10.39%) and sero-conversion in 62/77 (80.52%) cases were noted. Seven (9.09%) remained sero-positive even after three years. Progression to clinical disease among asymptomatic individuals was taking place at any time up to three years after the baseline survey. If there are no VL /PKDL cases for two or more years, it does not mean that the area is free from leishmaniasis as symptomatic VL or PKDL may appear even after three years, if there are such asymptomatic cases. So, asymptomatic infected individuals need much attention for VL elimination programme that has been initiated by three adjoining endemic countries. PMID:28187202

  5. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN ONLINE SHOPPING: A STUDY ON ONE HUNDRED CONSUMERS IN NADIA DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Suhas; Roy, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Online shopping has been becoming increasingly popular.  The economics behind online shopping is almost similar to the traditional offline shopping. However, the risks involved in it vary to some extent. The marketing communication and the shopping environment present in online shopping are different. These differences brought in some changes in the attitudes of the traders involved both in online and offline shopping spaces. The objective of the present paper is to primarily review the way i...

  6. A Weather-Based Prediction Model of Malaria Prevalence in Amenfi West District, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, John Aseidu; Lawer, Eric Adjei

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of climatic variables, particularly, rainfall and temperature, on malaria incidence using time series analysis. Our preliminary analysis revealed that malaria incidence in the study area decreased at about 0.35% annually. Also, the month of November recorded approximately 21% more malaria cases than the other months while September had a decreased effect of about 14%. The forecast model developed for this investigation indicated that mean minimum (P = 0.01928) and maximum (P = 0.00321) monthly temperatures lagged at three months were significant predictors of malaria incidence while rainfall was not. Diagnostic tests using Ljung-Box and ARCH-LM tests revealed that the model developed was adequate for forecasting. Forecast values for 2016 to 2020 generated by our model suggest a possible future decline in malaria incidence. This goes to suggest that intervention strategies put in place by some nongovernmental and governmental agencies to combat the disease are effective and thus should be encouraged and routinely monitored to yield more desirable outcomes. PMID:28255497

  7. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: fl

  8. Reactive lesions of oral cavity: A survey of 100 cases in Eluru, West Godavari district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Kashyap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Reactive lesions of the oral cavity are associated with injuries of soft tissue and have high prevalence rates and different involvement patterns in different parts of the world. This study reviews the pathogenesis and analyzes demographic data, histopathological features and compares the clinico-pathologic profiles of the diseases to those previously reported. Materials and Methods:Patient records of the Department of Oral Pathology during one and half year period were reviewed for diagnosis of oral connective tissue reactive hyperplastic lesion. Data including the area involved and the type of lesion were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistical methods and ANOVA test. Results:100 cases (mean age 36 years, male:female ratio 1:2 matched study criterion. The most common affected site was mandibular anterior region and buccal mucosa and the most common lesion was pyogenic granuloma and focal fibrous hyperplasia. All the lesions were more common in the mandible than in the maxilla. PGCG was seen to be equally distributed in males and females. Conclusion: Reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral connective tissue are more common in females and the majority of the lesions occur in gingiva. This study supports previous assertions that PG and FFH may occur on any oral mucosal site with special preference for the mandibular anterior gingiva and buccal mucosa while PGCG and POF occur exclusively on the mandibular gingiva.

  9. Ways Constituency Development Fund Promotes Secondary Education in Laikipia West District, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, Peter Murage

    2013-01-01

    Kenya started providing secondary school education as part of her basic education in 2008 through subsidized secondary education in 2008, but was faced by two major challenges; secondary schools are fewer than primary schools, and secondary education is more costly than primary education. This has made many students especially those from poor…

  10. FOREST MANAGEMENT THROUGH SOCIAL INNOVATION IN RURAL GHANA: THE CASE OF THE WEST GONJA DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kwabena Donkor

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental degradation and its associated socio-economic consequences reflect the wide gap between the goals of sustainability and present resource management practices. The crucial role of bottom-up strategies in managing natural resources is highlighted in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the Millennium Development Goals. Community/grassroots institutions can build on traditional norms to create strategies which will address environmental challenges from the local level. Environmental management is one key challenge facing Africa’s growing population in the quest for sustainable development. Nonetheless, the continent has a sizeable rural population. The research sheds light on how social innovation can enhance grassroots natural resource management and climate adaptation so as to harmonise environment-society relations. Sharing themes with the Post-2015 Development Agenda of the United Nations, and the New Partnership of African Development (NEPAD research is of both local and international significance. Purpose – to develop knowledge on the relationship between social innovations and rural forests livelihoods. Design/methodology/approach – The study uses literature review, interviews and participant observation to assess the subject matter. Findings – Localised knowledge systems and practices –have evolved in rural niches closely tied to resident communities and their associated livelihood patterns. The remoteness of such communities from central authority makes such innovation less apparent and lacking the needed support. Non-technical innovation is not adequately aided by current policy regimes, regulatory, institutional as well as infrastructural frameworks. Hence in the absence of policy intervention, there is the risk of several missed opportunities. Research limitations/implications – language barrier: difficulties in translation from local language to English, distrust of local authorities of outsiders. Practical implications – In the absence of policy intervention, there is the risk of several missed opportunities in benefitting from the vital localised knowledge systems and practices which have evolved in rural niches. Originality/Value – The attributes of social innovation are attuned with solving several of the environmental issues confronting contemporary societies which current systems are not addressing. Keywords: forest management, social innovation, rural livelihoods, indigenous knowledge

  11. Effective team management by district nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2004-12-01

    This article considers the key role played by the district nurse in managing the district nursing team in order to provide high quality health care. It considers how the district nurse can use key managerial roles (interpersonal, informational and decision-making) in order to ensure unity within the team. The importance of shared goals and trust to achieve unity is explored and a strategy for managing conflict is discussed. Finally, the article suggests a set of ground rules which could be used to facilitate effective team working.

  12. Earthquake vulnerability evaluation Faizabad district of Kermanshah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Naderi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper as examplehas been studied Faizabad district of Kermanshah and to reach its main purpose, which is reducing the damagecaused by the earthquake on the Faizabad district is been providedand in subsidiary purposes part the research is tried identify factors influence in vulnerability earthquakes,pay to provide the factors required; All these factors havean impact on reducing earthquake vulnerability. This data using geological data, soil texture, getting satelliteimages and layering over Arc Gis software identified and for long term periods donepredict using relation kernel PSHA also. In determining the level ofenvironmental risk is to use software crisis. Finally, by recognizing the riskzone, solutions for Faizabad district offered.

  13. Land use change and crop rotation analysis of a government well district in Rashda village – Dakhla Oasis, Egypt based on satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kato

    2012-12-01

    The land use change analysis showed that the extension of cultivated land was already completed by the 1980s in the North and South subdistricts, after which it spread toward the West. Because the altitude in the West subdistrict is lower than the wells, irrigation water could be distributed adequately if the condition of the irrigation channel was well maintained. The relationship between the irrigation level and plant production was not favorable in the West compared with other subdistricts. The cultivated area in the West district has been increasing since the 1970s. According to the crop rotation analysis, the different productivity of the subdistricts was caused by several factors, including the land altitude and the distance from the well, as well as other factors such as social relationships in the village.

  14. A preliminary survey on parasitic occurrence in indigenous climbing perch,Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1972) from West Bengal state of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Basudev Mandal; Sourabh Kumar Dubey; Puja Dasgupta; Bijay Kali Mahapatra; Bimal Kinkar Chand

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To describe the parasitic infestations ofAnabas testudineus (A. testudineus) collected from three different fish producing districts of West Bengal state in India. Methods:A total number of 75 specimens ofA. testudineus were collected from different floodplain areas of West Bengal, India. These specimens were examined for parasites using established techniques after measuring basic morphometric parameters. Results: A total 165 individual of 20 parasites (13 ectoparasites and 7 endoparasites) belonging to 7 phyla were recorded from 64 infectedA. testudineus. Among the observed parasites, 8 were protozoan including 3 ciliates; 2 monogenic trematodes, 2 strigeidid trematodes, 1 nematode, 3 crustaceans, 3 myxozoans and 1 echinorhynchus acanthocephalan parasites. The quantitative abundance of parasites were highest in gill (37%) followed by body outer layer (35%) and intestine (28%). District wise quantitative count of parasites in different investigated organ fromA. testudineus revealed that North 24 Parganas is highly infected followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest prevalence (%) and mean abundance of parasitic occurrence was observed in North 24 Parganas followed by West Midnapore and East Midnapore. The highest mean intensity was found at West Midnapore followed by North 24 Parganas and East Midnapore. Conclusions: Especially West Bengal state of India, inland culture and capture fishery mainly rural based and operated by poor farmers. Developing right kind of interventions and management practice can prevent adverse impact of diseases and assist poor farmers for sustainable production.

  15. Chapter F. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Marina District

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    During the earthquake, a total land area of about 4,300 km2 was shaken with seismic intensities that can cause significant damage to structures. The area of the Marina District of San Francisco is only 4.0 km2--less than 0.1 percent of the area most strongly affected by the earthquake--but its significance with respect to engineering, seismology, and planning far outstrips its proportion of shaken terrain and makes it a centerpiece for lessons learned from the earthquake. The Marina District provides perhaps the most comprehensive case history of seismic effects at a specific site developed for any earthquake. The reports assembled in this chapter, which provide an account of these seismic effects, constitute a unique collection of studies on site, as well as infrastructure and societal, response that cover virtually all aspects of the earthquake, ranging from incoming ground waves to the outgoing airwaves used for emergency communication. The Marina District encompasses the area bounded by San Francisco Bay on the north, the Presidio on the west, and Lombard Street and Van Ness Avenue on the south and east, respectively. Nearly all of the earthquake damage in the Marina District, however, occurred within a considerably smaller area of about 0.75 km2, bounded by San Francisco Bay and Baker, Chestnut, and Buchanan Streets. At least five major aspects of earthquake response in the Marina District are covered by the reports in this chapter: (1) dynamic site response, (2) soil liquefaction, (3) lifeline performance, (4) building performance, and (5) emergency services.

  16. Allele frequencies for 15 autosomal STRs in a population sample from the Federal District (Brazil)-a territory that arose from nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Gustavo Barcelos; Santa Rita, Ticiane Henriques; Chianca, Camilla Figueiredo; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; de Souza, Claudia Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    The Federal District (Brazil) was created in 1960 in the Central-West Region of Brazil in a previously unpopulated area. In 2010, this artificially founded district was populated by 2,562,963 inhabitants. In this study, the genetic variations of the 15 Next Generation Multiplex (NGM(TM)) short tandem repeat loci were analyzed. The results indicate that the NGM(TM) is a highly informative genetic system in this population, which is more similar to the southeastern, northeastern, and overall Brazil populations. This conclusion agrees with the population composition reported in the 2010 National Survey Inquiries, in which most of the immigrants were from the northeast and the southeast.

  17. 20 CFR 702.272 - Informal recommendation by district director.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal recommendation by district director... Procedures Discrimination § 702.272 Informal recommendation by district director. (a) If the district... employee accept the district director's recommendation, it will be incorporated in an order and mailed...

  18. 7 CFR 982.31 - Grower districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Hazelnut Control Board § 982.31 Grower districts. (a) For the purpose...

  19. Allegheny County Voting District Boundaries (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  20. Emotional intelligence: district nurses' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah; Jenkins, Emrys; Mabbett, Gaynor

    2010-03-01

    Emotional Intelligence, recognizing and handling ones' own and others' emotions is beginning to figure in nursing literature, with potential to enhance care, teamwork and wellbeing. District nursing is laden with complex and emotional issues yet little research investigates the value of emotional intelligence in district nursing specifically. This qualitative study adopts interpretative phenomenological analysis with five district nurses, (of different grades), to illuminate perceptions and experiences of emotional intelligence. Findings show district nurses perceive emotional intelligence to be an essential part of their role, regardless of grade or position. Despite being a relatively new concept to nurses, each participant perceived relevant attributes as essential to quality care in the home, especially in relation to palliative care. Themes identified include: self awareness, control, assessment, experience, palliative care and leadership. Only some of these are consistent with existing literature and illustrate a need to investigate this interesting area further.

  1. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Senate District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania Senate district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  2. Minnesota Wild and Scenic River Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — District boundaries for wild, scenic, and recreational rivers designated under the Minnesota State Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. Includes portions of the Minnesota...

  3. Allegheny County Voting District (2015) Web Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This webmap demarcates municipal voting districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data...

  4. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2003 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  6. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2002 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  7. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  8. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2001 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  9. Zoning Districts, Zoning, Published in 2002, Freelance.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Zoning Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2002. It is described as 'Zoning'. Data by this publisher are often...

  10. Allegheny County Magisterial Districts Outlines (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset shows the magisterial districts in Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  11. US Forest Service Ranger District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting the boundary that encompasses a Ranger District. This map service provides display, identification, and analysis tools for...

  12. NM Property Tax Districts November 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  13. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  14. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  15. Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Morris Wetland Management District Habitat Management Plan provides a long-term vision and specific guidance on managing habitats for the resources of concern at...

  16. Narrative report 1971 Lostwood Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Waterfowl Production Area District of the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971...

  17. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  18. NM Property Tax Districts December 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  19. Narrative Report Fergus Falls Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Minnesota Wetlands Complex outlines District accomplishments for FY 1974. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  20. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Litchfield Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  1. Leopold Wetland Management District: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This CCP articulates the management direction for the Leopold Wetland Management District for the next 15 years. Through goals, objectives, and strategies, this CCP...

  2. New Mexico Senate Legislative District Boundaries - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains the New Mexico Senate District Boundaries as of July 2006. It is in a vector digital shapefile created to show the voting precinct coverage for...

  3. Windom Wetland Management District : Fiscal Year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2000 fiscal year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  4. Lostwood Wetland Management District: Narrative report: 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  5. Optimising corrosion monitoring in district heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Thorarinsdottir, R.I.; Andersen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A three-year project - financially supported by the Nordic Industrial Fund - on monitoring of corrosion in district heating systems has been initiated with participation of researchers and industrial partners in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The primary objective of the project...... is to improve the quality control in district heating systems by corrosion monitoring. In Danish systems electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), linear polarisation resistance (LPR), high-sensitive electrical resistance (ER) technology, crevice corrosion probes, as well as weight loss coupons...

  6. INDUSTRIAL DISTRICTS AS LOCAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Giancarlo Cor�; Stefano Micelli

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the situation and the lines of development of industrial districts from the point of view of local systems of innovation. First of all, this article points out to the modernity factors of the district model � which are ascribable to the supply chain economy, to entrepreneurial dynamics and to the importance of geography as a competitive resource � through the analysis of recent contributions of economic literature that examined the emerging organizational models in knowled...

  7. District heating substations - design and installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-12-15

    These technical regulations for district heating substations are sector-wide regulations for the Swedish district heating sector, describing the design, installation, use and maintenance of substations. If a district heating substation is to operate in the best possible way, the building's space heating and domestic hot water systems must comply with the requirements in these regulations and with those issued by public authorities. These regulations also describe aspects that must be considered when substations need to be replaced. The use then of correct values for the building energy requirements ensures that the new substation will be properly matched to its duties. These regulations are intended for use by: - those responsible for contacts between the district heating supplier and the customer. - those who own, operate and/or administer a building or facility that is heated by district heating. - those who design, manufacture, purchase, test or install substations. It is recommended that enquiries should refer to the Swedish District Heating Association's technical regulations when specifying requirements. The procurement criteria described in these regulations should be applied when evaluating tenders

  8. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  9. The performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken kept intensively in Cibadak Sukabumi, West Java

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad Gozali Nataamijaya

    2009-01-01

    A study on the performance of Nagrak and Kampung chicken under intensive management system was conducted in Cibadak District of Sukabumi West Java. As many as 200 hens of Nagrak and Kampung, each were placed in individual cages. The birds were given 90 g of diet daily, the diet was the mixture of layer commercial diet and ricebran at equal ratio, drinking water was given ad libitum. Artificial insemination was conducted every three days using semen collected from 20 cockerels of each local bi...

  10. Special Taxing Districts, TaxDistricts-The data set is a polygon feature representing special taxing districts., Published in 1991, Davis County Utah.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1991. It is described as 'TaxDistricts-The data...

  11. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  12. Preliminary investigation on presence of peste des petits ruminants in Dakawa, Mvomero district, Morogoro region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tebogo Kgotlele

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is an acute viral disease of small ruminants characterised by the sudden onset of depression, fever, oculonasal discharges, sores in the mouth, foul-smelling diarrhoea and death. For many years, in Africa, the disease was mainly confined to West and Central Africa but it has now spread southwards to previously PPR-free countries including Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola. The disease was first reported in Tanzania in 2008 when it was confined to the Northern Zone districts bordering Kenya. Presence of the disease has also been confirmed in southern Tanzania especially Mtwara region. Recently, a suspected outbreak of PPR in Dakawa area, Mvomero district, Morogoro region was reported. Clinical samples (lungs, intestines, lymph nodes, whole blood and sera from suspected goats (n = 8 and sheep (n = 1 were submitted to Sokoine University of Agriculture for analysis. Molecular diagnosis by amplification of the nucleoprotein gene and the fusion gene of PPR virus (PPRV using PPRV specific primers was done. Five goats and the sheep were positive for PPRV after performing RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report confirming the presence of PPR in the Mvomero district of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Hence, more efforts should be put in place to prevent the spread of PPR in Tanzania.

  13. Virtual District, Real Improvement: A Retrospective Evaluation of the Chancellor's District, 1996-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenix, Deinya; Siegel, Dorothy; Zaltsman, Ariel; Fruchter, Norm

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the origins, structure, and components of the Chancellor's District, and details the findings about its outcomes for elementary schools. The Chancellor's District initiative ended in July 2003, with the implementation of a system-wide restructuring policy that reorganized the entire New York City school system. The 32…

  14. The Impact of a Multi-Year, Multi-School District K-6 Professional Development Programme Designed to Integrate Science Inquiry and Language Arts on Students' High-Stakes Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shymansky, James A.; Wang, Tzu-Ling; Annetta, Leonard A.; Yore, Larry D.; Everett, Susan A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper is a report of a quasi-experimental study on the impact of a systemic 5-year, K-6 professional development (PD) project on the 'high stakes' achievement test scores of different student groups in rural mid-west school districts in the USA. The PD programme utilized regional summer workshops, district-based leadership teams and distance delivery technologies to help teachers learn science concepts and inquiry teaching strategies associated with a selection of popular science inquiry kits and how to adapt inquiry science lessons in the kits to teach and reinforce skills in the language arts-i.e. to teach more than science when doing inquiry science. Analyses of the school district-level pre-post high-stakes achievement scores of 33 school districts participating in the adaptation of inquiry PD and a comparative group of 23 school districts revealed that both the Grade 3 and Grade 6 student-cohorts in the school districts utilizing adapted science inquiry lessons significantly outscored their student-cohort counterparts in the comparative school districts. The positive school district-level high-stakes test results, which serve as the basis for state and local decision making, suggest that an inquiry adaptation strategy and a combination of regional live workshop and distance delivery technologies with ongoing local leadership and support can serve as a viable PD option for K-6 science.

  15. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  16. Solar heat storages in district heating networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellehauge, K. (Ellehauge og Kildemoes, AArhus (DK)); Engberg Pedersen, T. (COWI A/S, Kgs. Lyngby (DK))

    2007-07-15

    This report gives information on the work carried out and the results obtained in Denmark on storages for large solar heating plants in district heating networks. Especially in Denmark the share of district heating has increased to a large percentage. In 1981 around 33% of all dwellings in DK were connected to a district heating network, while the percentage in 2006 was about 60% (in total 1.5 mio. dwellings). In the report storage types for short term storage and long term storages are described. Short term storages are done as steel tanks and is well established technology widely used in district heating networks. Long term storages are experimental and used in connection with solar heating. A number of solar heating plants have been established with either short term or long term storages showing economy competitive with normal energy sources. Since, in the majority of the Danish district heating networks the heat is produced in co-generation plants, i.e. plants producing both electricity and heat for the network, special attention has been put on the use of solar energy in combination with co-generation. Part of this report describes that in the liberalized electricity market central solar heating plants can also be advantageous in combination with co-generation plants. (au)

  17. Research Use by Leaders in Canadian School Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Cooper

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger study, investigates the ways research is used by leaders in Canadian schools and districts, an area in which there is relatively little empirical evidence. The paper analyzes survey results from 188 education leaders in 11 school districts across Canada about school and district practices related to the use of research. Results indicate a growing awareness in districts of the importance of research use, reported district capacity, and many kinds of support available for research-related activities; however, actual research use remains modest. Districts appear to have relatively weak processes and systems for finding, sharing, and using relevant research.

  18. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  19. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  20. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  1. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  2. Performance analysis of hybrid district heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikulandric, Robert; Krajačić, Goran; Khavin, Gennadii

    2013-01-01

    District heating system could contribute to more efficient heat generation through cogeneration power plants or waste heat utilization facilities and to increase of renewable energy sources share in total energy consumption. In the most developed EU countries, renewable energy sources have been...... more extensively used in district heating systems either separately or as a supplement to traditional fossil fuels in order to achieve national energy policy objectives. However, they are still facing problems such as high intermittences, high energy production costs and low load factors as well...... as problems related to transportation, storage and environmental impacts of biomass and waste utilisation. Implementation of heat storages in district heating systems could contribute to integration of intermittent energy sources. Hybridisation of heat production facility combines two or more different energy...

  3. Toward 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend; Dalla Rosa, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, district heating (DH) has a key role in the national strategic energy planning. However, tighter legislation on new and future buildings requires much less heating demand which subsequently causes relative high network heat loss. This will make current DH system uneconomical...... comparing with other local heat generation units. The design and operation of DH systems therefore needs to be re-examined, part of the solution being low operational temperature. The 3-years IEA DHC Annex X project ‘Towards 4th Generation District Heating: Experience and Potential of Low......-Temperature District Heating (LTDH)’ aims to document experiences gained in mature DH countries with low temperature systems serving highly energyefficient new buildings and existing buildings. The potential to supply DHW at temperature close to 50oC without the risk of Legionella was investigated. Information...

  4. Enhancing assertiveness in district nurse specialist practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julie

    2016-08-02

    District nurse (DN) care delivery has undergone substantial change in recent years due to changing demographics and service delivery demands that have called for a move of care delivery from secondary to primary care. The title District Nurse is recorded with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) on completion of the Specialist Practice Qualification in District Nursing (SPQ DN), which purports to be a 'transformational' course that prepares future caseload holders to manage their team and prioritise care delivery effectively. This article explores the need for assertiveness skills in this role in response to Australian research, and outlines the pedagogic interventions implemented during the SPQ DN course to enhance this skill. Assertiveness scores were monitored for the duration of the course and demonstrated a significant increase-a topic that is now the subject of a future, funded study.

  5. Odonates of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    OpenAIRE

    M. Suhirtha Muhil; Pramod, P

    2017-01-01

    Odonates were surveyed in Coimbatore District from September 2012 to January 2016.  The survey sites covered three major rivers—the Noyyal, Bhavani and Aliyar.  Aquatic habitats such as forest streams, riverine sites, irrigational tanks and paddy fields were surveyed in the study.  A total of 70 species of odonates were recorded in the survey, which brings the list of odonates in Coimbatore to 87 species.  Eighteen species are first time records to the district.  In this paper, we catalogue o...

  6. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  7. Corrosion Fatigue in District Heating Water Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maahn, Ernst Emanuel

    1996-01-01

    Three candidate materials for construction of buffer tanks for district heating water have been tested for corrosion fatigue properties in a district heating water environment. The investigation included Slow Strain Rate Testing of plain tensile specimens, crack initiation testing by corrosion...... fatigue of plain tensile specimens and crack growth rate determination for Compact Tensile Specimens under corrosion fatigue conditions. The three materials are equal with respect to stress corrosion sensibility and crack initiation. Crack growth rate is increased with a factor of 4-6 relative to an inert...

  8. Odonates of Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Suhirtha Muhil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Odonates were surveyed in Coimbatore District from September 2012 to January 2016.  The survey sites covered three major rivers—the Noyyal, Bhavani and Aliyar.  Aquatic habitats such as forest streams, riverine sites, irrigational tanks and paddy fields were surveyed in the study.  A total of 70 species of odonates were recorded in the survey, which brings the list of odonates in Coimbatore to 87 species.  Eighteen species are first time records to the district.  In this paper, we catalogue odonates and their distribution from the present survey and pre-existing records. 

  9. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  10. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  11. [Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by...

  13. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by...

  15. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins by...

  16. Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  17. Crosby Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  18. [Devils Lake Wetland Management District narrative report: 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1976 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief...

  19. Crosby Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Crosby Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  20. Lostwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  1. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. Landfills - MO 2006 Solid Waste Management Districts (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set contains boundaries and contact information for Missouri Solid Waste Management districts and regions. The districts were created by statute to foster...

  3. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. [Narrative report for calendar year 1978 : Waubay Wetland Management District

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  7. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  8. [Benson Wetlands Management District Annual narrative report: 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins by...

  9. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  11. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic......, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  13. Renewal strategies for old industrial areas in the post-industrial age——Take "Zurich-West" in Switzerland as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and analyses the renewal planning of "Zurich-West" ,an old industrial area. It points out that systematic and comprehensive target orientation,extensive collaboration in argumentation and decision-making,and the design ideas of coexistence and integration are the key to its success. Considering the status quo of China’s old industrial district remodeling,the paper offers some suggestions.

  14. Demand side management for smart district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Big, Oovidiu; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    The influence on the district heating network design and operation by using the energy storage capability inside the building is studied on different types of buildings under Danish climate. The building envelope has significant role in buildings energy consumption but also in building time const...

  15. 7 CFR 930.6 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District. 930.6 Section 930.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  16. 7 CFR 947.32 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 947.32 Section 947.32 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... consideration to (1) the relative importance of new areas of production, (2) changes in the relative position...

  17. 7 CFR 958.27 - Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Districts. 958.27 Section 958.27 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... representation, the committee shall give consideration to: (1) The relative importance of new producing...

  18. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  19. The Micropolitics of School District Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Lars G.; Blase, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study of school district educational reform in the United States adds to the knowledge base of macropolitics of federal, state and local governing bodies and private sector agencies in formulating educational policies: It also contributes to our understanding the microplitics of policy implementation. Middle managers' political…

  20. Are School Districts State Actors (Alter Egos)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagley, David L.; Oldaker, Lawrence Lee

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the eleventh amendment was to protect the states from the federal government by limiting the power of the federal courts. Reviews litigation regarding whether a local school district is cloaked with the state's eleventh amendment immunity. (86 references) (MLF)

  1. School Districts as Partners in Research Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    When researchers are focused on improving teaching-and-learning domains that match the school district's strategic plan, not only focusing on their own research agenda, they yield powerful results that can be useful for guiding processes of improving student learning.

  2. Districts Add Web Courses for Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    More and more school districts, as well as for-profit companies and nonprofit organizations, are offering Internet-based summer classes in core subjects, such as algebra and reading, and electives such as creative writing. In this article, the author discusses the growth of enrollment in online education for summer. The logistical ease of…

  3. Energy Management. A Guide for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Association of School Boards, Winneconne.

    A successful energy management program in a single school or a school district requires an energy audit or survey. The audit identifies how much energy is being consumed, as well as where it is going. Furthermore, it shows opportunities for energy conservation. The walk-through energy conservation survey is the method that has the best prospect…

  4. Urban Districts Compare Notes on Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2009-01-01

    Urban school systems are large businesses, charged with running a wide range of noninstructional functions that typically do not garner them much national notice. Now, thanks to the work of a coalition of big-city districts, their leaders are gathering data on how those operations are run, in the hope of improving their business practices. The…

  5. Why Do School District Budget Referenda Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Ehrenberg, Randy A.; Smith, Christopher L.; Zhang, Liang

    2004-01-01

    Our article analyzes historical data for New York State on the percentage of school board budget proposals that are defeated each year and panel data that we have collected on budget vote success for individual school districts in the state. We find that changes in state aid have little impact on budget vote success. Defeating a budget in one year…

  6. Inventory of Endangered Plants, Saint Louis District,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    MISSOURIRVR lIIN .. .Jee . j ..- .. ,,,....VER ,RONDAL t7S - .I" D1ŕC / LITLE OCKDISTRICT \\/ SA T "PTRK DIVISIONEI O PER .......... tKENTUAKY tQ*StJ tim ...on September 10, 1937, by B. C. Tharp , that may prove to be this species. The Cass County station is within the boundaries of the St. Louis District

  7. Election Districts and Precincts, Supervisory Districts for County, Published in unknown, Not Applicable scale, Trempealeau County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described...

  8. Election Districts and Precincts, Supervisory Districts, Published in 2009, Not Applicable scale, Dunn County, WI.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  9. Judicial Districts, Oregon District 2, Published in 2015, Not Applicable scale, Cherocreek Nation.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Judicial Districts dataset, published at Not Applicable scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2015. It is described as...

  10. Is Industrial Districts Logistics suitable for Industrial Parks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of logistics for industrial districts, highlighting the current status and defining a logistics model supporting the relationships between providers and users of logistic services within the local context of an industrial district. A comparison with industrial parks, with reference to Romanian ones, allows identifying the potential of adaptation for industrial district logistic models to industrial parks.

  11. Teachers Matter. Yes. Schools Matter. Yes. Districts Matter--Really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenoweth, Karin

    2015-01-01

    School districts shape the conditions in which schools operate and as such can support or undermine school success and thus student success. All of which is to say that school districts matter. This article looks at the success of two districts whose low-income and minority students beat the odds in academic achievement. Lessons from these…

  12. Teacher Trust in District Administration: A Promising Line of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Miskell, Ryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We set out in this study to establish a foundation for a line of inquiry around teacher trust in district administration by (1) describing the role of trust in capacity building, (2) conceptualizing trust in district administration, (3) developing a scale to measure teacher trust in district administration, and (4) testing the…

  13. Site-Based Budgeting: A New Age of District Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The effects of linking school districts' funding directly to the students they serve and providing local school districts and communities with more control over how that money is spent could ripple through the entire K-12 system, from the state Capitol to the classroom. For district leaders anxious to improve their schools and better support…

  14. Tight Focus on Instruction Wins Texas District Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2009-01-01

    It took a while for four-time finalist Aldine, Texas, to win the Broad Prize for Urban Education. But it took even longer to craft the system that ultimately put the district over the top. Educators in Aldine district have been working for more than a decade to refine their "managed instruction" system. Reviewers examined how the school district,…

  15. A District Approach to Countering Afghanistan’s Insurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Foust , “District Development Teams are a Go!” Registan,net, August 11, 2009, http://www.registan.net/index.php/2009/08/11/district-development-teams-are...Tribal Hierarchy and Dictionary of Afghanistan. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Foreign Military Studies Office, February 2007. Foust , Joshua. “District

  16. A Model for Determining School District Cash Flow Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembowski, Frederick L.

    This paper discusses a model to optimize cash management in school districts. A brief discussion of the cash flow pattern of school districts is followed by an analysis of the constraints faced by the school districts in their investment planning process. A linear programming model used to optimize net interest earnings on investments is developed…

  17. Inventory Control of Fixed Assets by School District Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul E.

    By July 1, 1966, each school district in New York State was required to install a system of property accounting. This pamphlet provides a suggested method of property accounting to assist school districts in meeting this requirement. In addition, suggestions are made to help the districts record the information needed for fire insurance purposes.…

  18. Election Districts and Precincts, Voting districts provided to us from Johnson County Election office., Published in 2007, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Election Districts and Precincts dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Voting districts provided to us...

  19. Tax Area Boundaries, TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries, Published in 2010, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Tax Area Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'TaxDistrictBoundary - tax district boundries'....

  20. Narrative report for calendar year 1972 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1972. The report begins by giving a...

  1. Narrative report for calendar year 1971 [Devils Lake Wetland Management District, North Dakota Easement Refuge District No. 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the calendar year of 1971. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. DIAGNOSING SAFETY DEVELOPMENT IN PASVALYS DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odeta Želvytė

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to analyse and evaluate the activities of Pasvalys municipality in terms of safety development in the district. Methodology - Document analysis and empirical qualitative study. Semi-structural interviews were conducted with representatives of the main institutions ensuring safety in Pasvalys district. 12 interviews were completed with experts from the Police Headquarters, Pasvalys municipality, Fire and Rescue Board, Wards, Ministry of Internal Affairs. Findings – while going deeper into the problem itself on theoretical level, it was established that equally important roles are played both by local societies and local institutions. After having analyzed the activities of Pasvalys district in terms of residents’ safety it was found, that institutions involved in safety issues interact in analyzing risk factors and the main risk groups, collaboration between institutions is efficient. Statistic data shows the movements towards positive changes in some safety areas. Such change can be understood as a reflection of effectiveness of safety measures. There are some areas where the municipality could put more efforts. The Concept of Safe Municipality is not fully implemented. There is lack of motivation in collaboration between nongovernmental organizations. Establishment of volunteer organizations is not encouraged within municipality. District lacks youth centers. Here is not enough information spread for public about the results of activity in safety field. Research limitations/implications –in this research paper there are mentioned different preventative measures, programs, analyses, but, alas, they do not allow to evaluate the real effectiveness of all those measures, as safety situation depends not only on preventative steps made, but also on physical safety measures. For example, educational work can be hardly measured, since it is very challenging and requiring other studies to evaluate how an individual masters the given

  3. School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlmann, Vernon C.; Chaudhari, Ramesh B.

    A first draft of a School District-Census Geo-Reference File for Illinois for 1980 has been completed. In this file each census enumeration district or block group is matched with the appropriate school district or districts. Companion files have also been developed for community college districts, area vocational education districts, and for a…

  4. Factors associated with West Nile virus disease fatalities in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; West, Keith; Townsend, Hugh

    2007-11-01

    In 2003, the occurrence and location of horses with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection were identified in the southern portion of Saskatchewan with the help of veterinarians, owners, and the regional laboratory. A total of 133 clinical cases were reported between July 30 and September 19, 2003; however, postseason surveillance suggests that the number of cases was underestimated. The case fatality rate was 43.8% (95% CI 35.2, 52.4). Factors associated with fatality in clinical cases included sex, week of onset of clinical signs, and coat color. Reported clinical cases clustered within regional health authority districts, suggesting regional differences in geographic factors, potentially including climate and mosquito control, that could contribute to the risk of disease. However, most of the variation in the risk of fatality in clinical cases is explained at the individual level rather than the Regional Health Authority level, which suggests the outcome of clinical disease is primarily determined by characteristics of, or management factors affecting, the individual horse.

  5. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRAIN AMONG WOMEN POTATO CULTIVATORS IN WEST BENGAL, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amitava; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Mahata, Hiranmoy; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Dhara, Prakash C

    2015-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate physiological strain among women cultivators engaged in potato cultivation. The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 150 women participants in different districts of West Bengal State, India. The physiological strain was evaluated by working heart rate, blood lactate and oxygen consumption. The average working heart rate was 109.97 ± 9.94 beats/min when all tasks were considered together. According to the working heart rate, oxygen consumption and energy cost, the potato cultivation job was categorized as a moderate work category. Whereas, according to cardiovascular stress index (CSI), all tasks of potato cultivation were categorized into a stressful category. The more experienced workers were more productive than their less experienced counterparts, and this increased productivity appeared to be a combination of greater efficiency and greater physical exertion. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that work pace and work experience had significant association with all the indices of physiological strain. Work pace had strongest significant impact on these indices even after controlling the effect of age, work experience and efficiency. It was concluded that during performing potato cultivation tasks the workers had a great extent of physiological strain.

  6. Circles of Leadership: Oregon District Redefines Coaching Roles to Find a Balance between School and District Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Amy D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how an Oregon district redefines coaching roles to find a balance between school and district goals. As director of improvement for North Clackamas School District in Milwaukie, Oregon, near Portland, the author's role of coaching the coach was new, and the coaches welcomed the immediate feedback. Through the…

  7. Special Taxing Districts, Lyon County Cemetery Districts, Library Districts, Recreation Districts, Watershed Districts. ., Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Special Taxing Districts dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  8. Spatiotemporal Evolution of Ebola Virus Disease at Sub-National Level during the 2014 West Africa Epidemic: Model Scrutiny and Data Meagreness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Santermans

    Full Text Available The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has infected at least 27,443 individuals and killed 11,207, based on data until 24 June, 2015, released by the World Health Organization (WHO. This outbreak has been characterised by extensive geographic spread across the affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, and by localized hotspots within these countries. The rapid recognition and quantitative assessment of localised areas of higher transmission can inform the optimal deployment of public health resources.A variety of mathematical models have been used to estimate the evolution of this epidemic, and some have pointed out the importance of the spatial heterogeneity apparent from incidence maps. However, little is known about the district-level transmission. Given that many response decisions are taken at sub-national level, the current study aimed to investigate the spatial heterogeneity by using a different modelling framework, built on publicly available data at district level. Furthermore, we assessed whether this model could quantify the effect of intervention measures and provide predictions at a local level to guide public health action. We used a two-stage modelling approach: a a flexible spatiotemporal growth model across all affected districts and b a deterministic SEIR compartmental model per district whenever deemed appropriate.Our estimates show substantial differences in the evolution of the outbreak in the various regions of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, illustrating the importance of monitoring the outbreak at district level. We also provide an estimate of the time-dependent district-specific effective reproduction number, as a quantitative measure to compare transmission between different districts and give input for informed decisions on control measures and resource allocation. Prediction and assessing the impact of control measures proved to be difficult without more accurate data. In conclusion, this study provides us a

  9. West Nile virus and the climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  10. Characteristics of Joint Use Agreements in School Districts in the United States: Findings From the School Health Policies and Practices Study, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Arthur M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Joint use or shared use of public school facilities provides community access to facilities for varied purposes. We examined a nationally representative sample of school districts in the United States to identify characteristics associated with having a formal joint use agreement (JUA) and with the kinds of uses to which JUAs apply. Methods We analyzed data from the 2012 School Health Policies and Practices Study. The response rate for the module containing questions about formal JUAs was 60.1% (N = 630). We used multivariate logistic regression models to examine the adjusted odds of having a formal JUA and χ2 analyses to examine differences in district characteristics associated with the uses of the JUA. Results Among the 61.6% of school districts with a formal JUA, more than 80% had an agreement for the use of indoor and outdoor recreation facilities; other uses also were identified. JUAs were more common in urban than rural areas, in large than small school districts, and in the West compared with the Midwest, South, and Northeast. Conclusion In many districts, school facilities appear to be an untapped resource for community members. Formal JUAs provide an opportunity for shared use while addressing issues of liability, cost, and logistics. PMID:25880769

  11. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaswati Bandyopadhyay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity.

  12. Pod Borer of Peanut and Potential Entomopathogenic Fungi for its Control in West Sumatera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reflinaldon Reflinaldon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pod borer (Etiella zinckenella is a serious pest on peanuts in West Sumatera since the last four years. The larvae lived and bored on pods under soil surfaces and it is often undetected.  E. zinckenella is very limited reporting as a pest on peanuts especially in Indonesia. We described about pod borer attacking in West Sumatera and as alternative strategic control using entomopathogenic fungi bicontrol agents is  safety and more efective and it will be promoted for controlling of  larvae in pods under soil. The objective of this research were to determine severity of damage of pod borer with survey and  observation methods , and to find out potential entomopathogenic fungi  by in both of baiting and  dilution method. The severity of attacking of pod borer on groundnut was 14 to 70%. Five group of fungi i.e: Metharizium sp, Aspergillus sp, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Paecillomyces were isolated from soil of groundnut’s rhizosphere in  several districts of West Sumatera and they were able to infected of Tribolium molitor 8-30%.

  13. THE EVOLUTION OF TOURISM IN THE NORTH – WEST DEVELOPMENT REGION (DURING 2009 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borma Afrodita

    2013-07-01

    insse.ro/cms/rw/pages/index.ro.do in order to gather representative data on the evolution of national tourism for the 2009 – 2011, in each districts of North-West. The first part of the paper presents the foreign visitors who come to Romania, hence the largest number of foreign visitors and how it evolved from 2009 to 2011 the number of foreign tourists in Romania.The second part deals with the existing tourism potential in the North-West region and the opportunities offered by the region. The three part deals with the main touristic indicators in the six counties of North-West and the differences between them. The analysis is based on the comparison of main tourism indicators showing the tourist activity in the development regions of Romania, namely: the number of arrivals, number of nights and existing tourist capacity. The last part presents the steps that should be followed to overcome the losses caused by the crisis of 2008-2009 and to ensure a positive growth of the indicators analyzed.

  14. Barriers to quality patient care in rural district hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Eygelaar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently barriers exist in delivering quality health care. This study aimed to investigate such barriers in the eight rural district hospitals of the West Coast Winelands Region, three type A and five type B hospitals. A quantitative descriptive design was applied which included the total population of nursing staff (n = 340 working at the time of data collection. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed with a response rate of 82%.Reliability of the instrument was verified using the Cronbach alpha coefficient and a pilot study. The validity, specifically construct and content validity, were assured by means of an extensive literature review, pilot study and use of experts. Ethics approval was obtained from the relevant stakeholders.Results showed that 272 participants (97% disagreed that provision of staff was adequate, with staff above 40 years of age more likely to disagree (p = <0.01. A statistically significant association was shown between availability of doctors and staff not being able to cope with emergencies (p = <0.01. Most participants (n =212; 76% indicated that they were not receiving continuing education, with the registered nurses more likely to disagree (χ² test, p = 0.02. Participants in both hospital types A (n = 131; 82% and B (n = 108; 91% also disagreed that provision of equipment and consumables was adequate.The research showed that inadequacies relating to human resources, professional development, consumables and equipment influenced the quality of patient care. Urgent attention should be given to the problems identified to ensure quality of patient care in rural hospitals.

  15. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan.

  16. Social Participation of Turkish and Arabic Immigrants in the Neighborhood: Case Study of Moabit West, Berlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen UZAR

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Social participation of immigrants in district activities and local planning processes is given significance in Germany. It has become an important issue with the introduction of Neighborhood Management concept in the 1990s. This concept deals with districts which have a considerable percentage of low-income, unemployed, low-educated,immigrant population and social help beneficiaries. Immigrants are usually seen as the cause of the problems in those areas by the authorities since they are not integrated into the host societyand to the other immigrant groups. Since the 1990s, they have started to be seen as potential solution to the problems by means of an active social participation in their neighborhood. Desired level of social participation, however, has not been reached due to a number of reasons although there are a few immigrants who take part in social, cultural and planning activities in their district.The aim of this article is to outline the reasons of low participation rates, motivations of the participant immigrants and the forms of participation among Turkish and Arabic immigrantsin a neighborhood of Berlin, Moabit West, based on in-dept interviews made with both nonparticipant and participant immigrants and with some immigrant associations. The field research was carried out in June 2005, within the framework of the project ‘Immigrants in the City’. The reasons of low participation which were found as a result of this research study are language deficiency, different cultural understandings of participation, looking for concrete results of participatory actions and lack of information. The participant immigrants are motivated to solve the problems in the district and to change it, to increase integration of the immigrant youth into the society and of the immigrants, to the established society. Lastly, participant immigrants usually take part in street festivals and youth social work, and in immigrant associations instead of

  17. Food as a reward in the classroom: school district policies are associated with practices in US public elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Chriqui, Jamie F; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-09-01

    The use of food as a reward for good student behavior or academic performance is discouraged by many national organizations, yet this practice continues to occur in schools. Our multiyear cross-sectional study examined the use of food as a reward in elementary schools and evaluated the association between district policies and school practices. School data were gathered during the 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010 school years via mail-back surveys (N=2,069) from respondents at nationally representative samples of US public elementary schools (1,525 unique schools, 544 of which also participated for a second year). During every year, the corresponding district policy for each school was gathered and coded for provisions pertaining to the use of food as a reward. School practices did not change over time and as of the 2009-2010 school year, respondents in 42.1% and 40.7% of schools, respectively, indicated that food was not used as a reward for academic performance or for good student behavior. In multivariate logistic regression analyses controlling for school characteristics and year, having a district policy that prohibited the use of food as a reward was significantly associated with school respondents reporting that food was not used as a reward for academic performance (P<0.05) or for good student behavior (P<0.05). School-level respondents in the West and the Midwest were less likely to report that food was not used as a reward than were respondents in the South and Northeast. As of 2009-2010, only 11.9% of the districts in our study prohibited the use of food as a reward. Strengthening district policies may reduce the use of food rewards in elementary schools.

  18. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  19. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  20. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  1. Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163495.html Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks Dry environment ... found that epidemics were larger during years of drought. There were also bigger outbreaks in areas that ...

  2. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  3. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  6. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  9. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  10. District heating in energetic and environmental politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Associazione Italiana di Riscaldamento Urbano

    1989-05-01

    A review is made of what was said at the Third Bi-annual Convention (Reggio Emilia, 24-25/11/88) of AIRU (the Italian Association for District Heating). In general, the seven papers presented dealt with the following points: the technology of primary energy supply, thermal energy production, energy distribution to users, environmental engineering and socio-economic factors. Emphasis was given to the themes: district heating in Italy within the framework of the 1988 National Energy Plan and the impact on energy marketing due to the future free trade system planned for the E.E.C. in 1992. A critical analysis is made of: forecasts of primary energy demand for the year 2000, plans for the reduction of dependency on foreign supplied petroleum, the promotion of the increased use of natural gas and methane and overall energy conservation measures as called for by the National Energy Plan.

  11. Sustainability Profile for Urban Districts in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    successful in the Netherlands. The developer of DPL, IVAM Environmental Research, is consultant for the project.      The concept of DPL is that the tool ".. assesses in a clear and transparent way the spatial plan for a district on sustainability, based on the information from the urban plan. It so helps...... urban designers to creatively improve the sustainable performance of a district" (Kortman et al, 2001). Compared to other tools for assessing urban sustainability, DPL represents a simple and flexible approach. The idea is to use a limited number of indicators based on already collected data. Once...... and argue for the choice of model in relation to general experiences on using tools for assessment of urban sustainability, and describe the chosen indicators. The experiences and results derived from the profiles so far will be discussed, as well as strengths, weaknesses and possible improvements...

  12. Corrosion Rate Monitoring in District Heating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Nielsen, Lars Vendelbo; Andersen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Quality control in district heating systems to keep uniform corrosion rates low and localized corrosion minimal is based on water quality control. Side-stream units equipped with carbon steel probes for online monitoring were mounted in district heating plants to investigate which techniques would...... be applicable, and if on-line monitoring could improve the quality control. Water quality monitoring was applied as well as corrosion rate monitoring with linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), electrical resistance (ER) technique, mass loss and a crevice corrosion...... cell for localized corrosion risk estimation. Important variations in corrosion rate due to changes in make-up water quality were detected with the continuous monitoring provided by ER and crevice cell, while LPR gave unreliable corrosion rates. The acquisition time of two-three days for EIS...

  13. West Nile virus and the climate

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional “spillover” to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public h...

  14. District nurses: relationships in nurse prescribing.

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Although nurse prescribing has been established in the UK for approximately 8 years, little is known about the effect this additional role is having on those who are involved in its processes. This article reports on the early phrases of an ethnographic study which is aiming to discover how prescribing is altering the ways in which district nurses relate to general practitioners, pharmacists, other community nurses, patients and carers during the experience of nurse prescribing. Using qualita...

  15. Districts Dumping At-Large Races

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Luis Carlos Ayala treks up and down hilly driveways in a local neighborhood on a recent weeknight, going door to door to deliver his short campaign spiel and a flier. Even though the 18,650-student Pasadena Unified district serves a locale of more than 202,300 residents, Mr. Ayala aims to reach voters in an area of only 28,900 for this race, as a…

  16. Biomass district energy in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maker, T. [Energy Efficiency Associates, Calais, VT (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The advantages of district heating plants, fueled by sustainably produced biomass are reviewed, and numerous successful examples in Canada and the United States are described. Canadian systems include the Trigen PEI system in Charlottetown, systems in the First Nations communities of Ouje-Bougoumou and Grassy Narrows, and systems serving public facilities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. In the United States, District Energy St. Paul has recently announced a 25 MW CHP plant fired with municipal tree thinnings and other wood wastes. There are two large state office complexes in Vermont that have been fired with sawmill residues and whole-tree chips for the last 15 years. There are also mini-district heating systems serving small communities, or just a few buildings, that have been pioneered in Vermont, Prince Edward Island and elsewhere. Other systems described include biomass thermal energy plants developed in Vermont (`the Vermont Model`) to serve public schools, a 300 KW waste wood boiler developed by a PEI manufacturer and installed in several multi-building settings on farms and greenhouses, and the hand-fired high efficiency cordwood boiler produced by a Minnesota firm that have been used in a number of multi-building applications in native American villages in Alaska. It has been estimated that compared to building energy retrofits and efficiency improvements which might reduce fossil fuel consumption by 10 to 30 per cent, connecting buildings to a biomass-fired district energy system can reduce fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emissions by as much as 80 to 90 per cent. 12 refs.

  17. Birds of Osmanabad District of Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Narwade

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Marathwada region of Maharashtra has not yet been explored thoroughly with reference to its biodiversity, especially the avifauna. Through this paper we would like to draw attention towards the least known avifauna of the Osmanabad district in the North-eastern part of Maharashtra known as Marathwada. Surveys were carried out at various places such as Yedshi grassland, Terna lake and Masla village in the district. A total of 165 bird species were recorded which include 8 threatened species. Of the 165 species, 109 were resident, 15 local migratory and 41 migratory. Seasonal variation was observed in the species count at different habitats. We observed that the habitat from the study area is rapidly changing due to the ongoing lake linking programme of Godavari Marathwada Irrigation Development Corporation (GMIDC. Therefore we feel that this document will be helpful in the future systematic study of the population, habitat use, as well as the effect of this lake linking project on the avifauna of the district.

  18. Procedures for selecting and buying district heating equipment. Sofia district heating. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The aim of this Final Report, prepared for the project `Procedures for Selecting and Buying DistRict Heating Equipment - Sofia District Heating Company`, is to establish an overview of the activities accomplished, the outputs delivered and the general experience gained as a result of the project. The main objective of the project is to enable Sofia District Heating Company to prepare specifications and tender documents, identify possible suppliers, evaluate offers, etc. in connection with purchase of district heating equipment. This objective has been reached by using rehabilitation of sub-stations as an example requested by Sofia DH. The project was originally planned to be finalized end of 1995, but due to the extensions of the scope of work, the project has been prolonged until end 1997. The following main activities were accomplished: Preparation of a detailed work plan; Collection of background information; Discussion and advice about technical specifications and tender documents for sub-station rehabilitation; Input to terms of reference for a master plan study; Input to technical specification for heat meters; Collection of ideas for topics and examples related to dissemination of information to consumers about matters related to district heating consumption. (EG)

  19. West Kowloon Reclamation Concept Plan Competition%西九龙填海区概念规划竞赛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    In April 2001,the Govemment launched the West Kowllon Reclamation Concept Plan Competition to invite conceptral proposals for the development of a prominent 40-hectare waterfront site at the southern tip of the West Kowloon Reclamation into am integrated arts,cultural and entertainment district.The objective of the Competition is ,through the development,to enhance Hong Kong's positions as Asia's premiere centre of arts,culture and entertainment and create a new look for Victoria Harbour.The Competition attracted 161 entries,of which 71 were from Hong Kong and 90 were from elsewhere,covering some 30conntries.Adjudication of the Competition entries was made by a 10-member panel of Jury,chaired by Lord Rothschild.

  20. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  1. Analysis of Micro Thermal Environment for Residential District Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-jie; QI Jing; JIN Wen

    2009-01-01

    This paper focused on residential district planning process. Using GIS and SketehUp software, a common digital relief map model of a residential district was created, and the air distribution (both velocity and temperature) within this residential district was established by CFD simulation. So, the velocity and tempera-ture of the air at any location within the residential district, as well as the worse flow area and overheat area can be clearly presented. An index of micro thermal environment for the air distribution evaluation was established.Depending on a certain residential district planning model, from the air parameters of the micro environment at any location within the residential district, such as air velocity and air temperature, the index of micro thermal environment was obtained by certain principles and data processing process. By this index, the residential dis-trict planning scheme was evaluated corresponding to the thermal characteristics of the residential district. If this index is not good enough or unsatisfied, the residential district planning idea and process can be changed or im-proved accordingly in order to get a better thermal characteristics of the residential district judged by the estab-lished evaluation index system.

  2. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  3. Groundwater vulnerability in the District of Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouame, Agnes; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Tacher, Laurent

    2014-05-01

    The District of Abidjan, located on the coastal sedimentary basin south of Côte d'Ivoire (West Africa) covers an area of 2,1 km2. This sedimentary basin is composed of continuous groundwater aquifers in Quaternary, Tertiary and Upper Cretaceous rocks. Our study focuses on the unconfined Quaternary groundwater called the Continental Terminal which formations are composed mainly of lenticular stratification of coarse sands, clays, ferruginous sandstone and iron ore. This Continental Terminal aquifer is the main source of drinking water for the city of Abidjan. Indeed, the city of Abidjan is facing various pollution problems such as illegal dumping of household waste, waste oils garages, domestic and industrial wastewater, gas stations, public discharge Akouédo and the spill of approximately 500 tons of toxic waste from the ship "Probo Koala" the night of 19 August 2006. These toxic wastes have killed more than 10 people and several infections. The infiltration of these contaminants under the influence of rainwater in the basement is a serious threat to groundwater from the District of Abidjan especially as the rains are very strong in this part of the country. What would be the fate of pollutants such as organochlorines, hydrogen sulfide, sulfides and hydrocarbons contained in toxic waste, knowing that this aquifer is the main source of supply of drinking water to the city of Abidjan? It therefore seems necessary to study the vulnerability of groundwater of Abidjan District. The overall objective of this study is to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by organochlorines, sulfides, hydrogen sulfide and hydrocarbons. This project is to develop groundwater flow and contaminant transport models such as organochlorines models, hydrogen sulfide and sulfides with two digital codes, Visual Modflow and Feflow. Then several scenarios with different pollutants are finally made to realize maps of groundwater vulnerability from Abidjan to these contaminants.

  4. On Universal Telecommunication Service and West China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the relationship between universal telecommunication service and West China development. It, firstly, introduces our country's demands for universal telecommunication service; secondly, analyses the demand of West China development for the universal telecommunication service; thirdly, depicts the development status of telecommunication industry of the west region; fourthly, points out the significance of universal telecommunication service to the west area; and lastly, brings forward the connotation of universal telecommunication service of west area.

  5. Understanding the organisational culture of district health services: Mahalapye and Ngamiland health districts of Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oathokwa Nkomazana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana has a shortage of health care workers, especially in primary healthcare. Retention and high performance of employees are closely linked to job satisfaction and motivation, which are both highest where employees’ personal values and goals are realised.Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate employees’ personal values, and the current and desired organisational culture of the district health services as experienced by the primary health care workers.Setting: The study was conducted in the Ngamiland and Mahalapye health districts.Method: This was a cross sectional survey. The participants were asked to select 10 values that best described their personal, current organisational and desired organisational values from a predetermined list.Results: Sixty and 67 health care workers completed the survey in Mahalapye and Ngamiland districts, respectively. The top 10 prevalent organisational values experienced in both districts were: teamwork, patient satisfaction, blame, confusion, job insecurity, not sharing information and manipulation. When all the current values were assessed, 32% (Mahalapye and 36% (Ngamiland selected by health care workers were potentially limiting organisational effectiveness. The organisational values desired by health care workers in both districts were: transparency, professional growth, staff recognition, shared decision-making, accountability, productivity, leadership development and teamwork.Conclusions: The experience of the primary health care workers in the two health districts were overwhelmingly negative, which is likely to contribute to low levels of motivation, job satisfaction, productivity and high attrition rates. There is therefore urgent need for organisational transformation with a focus on staff experience and leadership development.

  6. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  7. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  8. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  9. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  10. [Management and organization of ambulatory medical care in a district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, K; Keune, H G; Miethe, D; Ringel, M; Szkibik, B

    1990-01-01

    An analysis is given of the management and organization of out-patient medical care in 15 districts and of the District Physician's responsibilities as well as the profile of a District Health Department. Compared to the situation of a decade ago, substantial changes in the territorial health organization have occurred (decentralization, formation of care areas, affiliation of small health facilities to bigger ones). The District Physician's scope of responsibility is increasingly determined by activities within the framework of the District Council, the proportion of organizational work has increased. In order to be able to fulfill his tasks the District Physician needs the support of a special Health Department. Skeleton regulations for out-patient medical care are necessary.

  11. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  12. Naval District Washington -- Anacostia Annex Building Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    variation of Art Deco ) style that was prevalent in naval architecture at the time. Figure 59. The east side of Building 92 (old operations...which was constructed in 1942. Building 92 (old operations building) was designed by the Bureau of Yards and Docks in 1942 in the Government Deco (a...Government Deco style. ERDC/CERL SR-09-12 52 Figure 60. The west side of Building 93 (Bachelors Officers’ Quarters) which was constructed in 1942

  13. Geological setting of the Paleoproterozoic Rosebel gold district, Guiana Shield, Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoust, Caroline; Voicu, Gabriel; Brisson, Harold; Gauthier, Michel

    2011-10-01

    The Rosebel gold district is hosted in a Paleoproterozoic greenstone belt of the Guiana Shield and has many characteristics that enable classification of the ores as an orogenic gold deposit. Host rocks have undergone several phases of deformation. However, gold deposition occurred late in the structural history of the belt, and is considered part of a late regional metallogenic event with respect to the geotectonic evolution of the Guiana Shield. Economic gold mineralization is hosted in felsic to mafic volcanic rocks and two sedimentary successions that are differentiated into turbiditic and arenitic depositional packages. The detailed lithostratigraphic characterization and the geochemistry enable the correlation of the local rock types with the Paramaka, the Armina, and the Rosebel formations respectively. The Rosebel district comprises eight discrete gold deposits distributed along two major structures. The northernmost structure is a sub-vertical WNW-ESE shear zone that preserves evidence of dextral strike-slip followed by normal faulting. The southern structure is an east-west reverse fault along which gold deposits are mainly hosted in the footwall. Gold mineralization is associated with quartz vein arrays developed along pre-existing structural heterogeneities, such as stratigraphic contacts and fold hinges. Four main sets of veins are recognized in the district: shear veins, north-south tension veins, stacks of north-dipping tension veins, and anticline-hosted tension veins. Mineralized quartz veins are typically associated with a wallrock alteration assemblage comprising sericite, chlorite, carbonate, tourmaline, pyrite, pyrrhotite, and plagioclase. The presence of a WNW-ESE dextral strike-slip structure, an east-west reverse fault, and north-south tension veins are consistent with the formation of a Riedel system during a simple shear event. All vein sets cut deformed sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a pull-apart basin, which together with their

  14. Kaliningrad regional district heating network 2004-2006. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report concerns: Kaliningrad Regional District Heating Network project which was implemented from 2004 to 2006. The task of the project was to establish and operate an association for district heating companies in the region in order to transfer and distribute district heating know-how to the sector and through activities strengthen the sector. The long term aim was to contribute to establishment of an association to continue as a real association for the heat supply companies in the region. (au)

  15. Outcomes of West Nile encephalitis patients after 1 year of West Nile encephalitis outbreak in Kerala, India: A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Anukumar; Thekkekara, Romy Jose; Tandale, Babasheb V

    2016-11-01

    We reported an acute encephalitis syndrome outbreak in Alappuzha district in Kerala, India during the year 2011. The etiology was confirmed to be West Nile virus lineage 1. Many encephalitis patients from this outbreak exhibited neurological sequelae post recovery. This study was aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of West Nile encephalitis confirmed case-patients after 1 year of acute illness. Forty West Nile virus confirmed encephalitis patients were selected from the 2011 outbreak was included in this study. Out of 40 cases, only 30 survived after 12 months. Among these 30 recovered case-patients, 27 (90%) consented for clinical follow-up and 23 (73.67%) of them consented for assessment of cognitive impairment and deposition of blood sample for antibody testing. The most common symptom observed in these patients was fatigue (25.93%). Other symptoms included dizziness (7.4%), decreased sense of hearing (7.4%) and decreased sense of smell (7.4%). Reduced power in limbs was found in 33.33% of the cases. Most of the patients (23.1%) were dependent on others for normal daily living activities. The patients also had probable risk of poor cognition (29.41%) and dementia (57.14%). None of the patients were positive for WNV specific IgM at 12 months post onset of disease. The study concluded that the long-term sequelae were noticed in WNV positive patients. Prevention effort should be focused on the elderly (≥60 years old) people who have a higher risk of severe sequelae. The state health authorities should create awareness among people in order to prevent the transmission of disease. J. Med. Virol. 88:1856-1861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cenozoic basin development and its indication of plateau growth in the Xunhua-Guide district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Xunhua, Guide and Tongren Basins are linked with the Laji Mountain and the northern West Qinling thrust belts in the Xunhua-Guide district. Basin depositional stratigraphy consists of the Oligocene Xining Group, the uppermost Oligocene-Pliocene Guide Group and the Lower Pleistocene. They are divided into three basin phases by unconformities. Basin phase 1 is composed of the Xining Group, and Basin phase 2 of the Zharang, Xiadongshan, Herjia and Ganjia Conglomerate Formations in the Guide Group, and Basin phase 3 of the Gonghe Formation and the Lower Pleistocene. Three basin phases all develop lacustrine deposits at their lower parts, and alluvial-braided channel plain depositional systems at upper parts, which constitute a coarsening-upward and progradational sequence. Basin deposition, paleocurrent and provenance analyses represent that large lacustrine basin across the Laji Mountain was developed and sourced from the West Qinling thrust belt during the stage of the Xining Group (Basin phase 1), and point-dispersed alluvial fan-braided channel plain deposition systems were developed beside the thrust and uplifted Laji Mountain and sourced from it, as thrusting migrated northwards during the stage of the Guide Group (Basin phase 2). Evolution of basin-mountain system in the study area significantly indicates the growth process of the distal Tibetan Plateau. The result shows that the Tibetan Plateau expanded to the northern West-Qinling at Oligocene (29―21.4 Ma) by means of northward folded-and-thrust thickening and uplifting and frontal foreland basin filling, and across the study area to North Qilian and Liupan Mountain at the Miocene-Pliocene (20.8―2.6 Ma) by means of two-sided basement-involved-thrust thickening and uplifting and broken foreland basin filling, and the distant end of Tibetan Plateau behaved as regional erosion and intermontane basin aggradational filling during the Pliocene and early Pleistocene (2.6―1.7 Ma).

  17. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  18. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  19. The Need for District Support for School Reform: What the Researchers Say. Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Deborah

    This article focuses on the school district's role in implementing Comprehensive School Reform (CSR). Research shows that effective district support for CSR varies from district to district. This is due, in part, to the fact that many prior models bypassed the district, operating under the belief that reform would be more effective if it targeted…

  20. Haidian District:Beijing’s ‘Smart Reservoir’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Located in the northwest of Beijing,Haidian District has residents from all 56 ethnic groups in China, making it the most ethnically diverse area of Beijing. In June 1954, Haidian, the name of an administrative district, officially appeared on the map. Over the last 20 years, the area has developed from an outskirt of the city into a modern district with science and technology,educa- tion and culture as its core industries. Zhongguancun is a very famous place in Haidian District,which is renowned as the"Silicon

  1. 2012 Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) Lidar: Lake Manatee

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Information System (GIS). Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) regularly uses digital topographic information to support regulatory, land...

  2. Government Districts, Other - Montana Administrative Boundary Web Mapping Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Montana Administrative Boundaries Map Service includes the following boundaries: State, County, Incorporated City/Town, Reservation, School Districts, Tax Increment...

  3. VISION 2020 at the district level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babar Qureshi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background to VISION 2020 at the district level There is an African saying. The question is: “How do you eat an elephant?”. The answer is: “One mouthful at a time, slowly, with a lot of help from your friends”. There is much that we can learn from this wisdom and apply to VISION 2020. The question is: “How do you overcome the seemingly insurmountable problem of global blindness?” The answer is: “Piece by piece, in digestible portions, step by step, and working together as a team”.

  4. The coolest power in the district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-04-01

    Gas turbines for both power generation and for cooling have been successfully installed at Kuala Lumpur Airport. The system provides 40 MWe through two gas turbines and 80 MWth through nine steam absorption chillers. The three basic elements to the plant are (i) cogeneration plant, (ii) district cooling plant and (iii) auxiliary plant; all are described briefly. Phase 1 has been completed; phase 2, due for completion in 2012 will consist of 1 x 20 MWe turbine, 1 x 40 t/h HRSG, 1 x 25 t/h auxiliary boiler, 5 x 8.8 MWt steam chillers and three additional cooling tower cells. (UK)

  5. Demand side management for smart district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Big, Oovidiu; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    constant. The results show that by the extensive renovation the energy consumption and the peak load could be reduced with more than 55% for two heating systems: radiant floor heating and radiators convective heating. Light renovation case has the peak load and energy consumption decreased with values...... between 25% and 35%. By making the light renovation, the heating system needs a minimum supply water temperature of 58ºC in order to cover the thermal comfort. Through extensive renovation, the supply water temperature could be reduced to 50ºC which makes it possible to transform the District Heating...

  6. Human and cattle population changes in deltaic West Bengal, India between 1977-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odend' hal, S.

    1988-03-01

    In 1967-1970, 3.81 km/sup 2/ of a densely populated deltaic area of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India was intensively studied. This same area was resurveyed in 1977 and 1987. From 1977-1987, the human population has increased 10.1%, while the number of households has increased 25%. The total number of children below 10 years of age has diminished. The cattle have increased 26.5%. The number of working-age male cattle has dropped significantly with reliance, primarily on hand tractor power for field cultivation. The number of female cattle has increased substantially. Artificial insemination and the use of temperate breeds of bulls have had an obvious impact. Improvements in the general environment were observed.

  7. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, James [West Chester Univ., West Chester (PA)

    2016-08-05

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution's carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems are changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE's efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  8. Design and Implementation of Geothermal Energy Systems at West Chester University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuprak, Greg [West Chester Univ. of Pennsylvania, PA (United States)

    2016-11-02

    West Chester University has launched a comprehensive transformation of its campus heating and cooling systems from traditional fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) to geothermal. This change will significantly decrease the institution’s carbon footprint and serve as a national model for green campus efforts. The institution has designed a phased series of projects to build a district geo-exchange system with shared well fields, central pumping station and distribution piping to provide the geo-exchange water to campus buildings as their internal building HVAC systems is changed to be able to use the geo-exchange water. This project addresses the US Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) goal to invest in clean energy technologies that strengthen the economy, protect the environment, and reduce dependence on foreign oil. In addition, this project advances EERE’s efforts to establish geothermal energy as an economically competitive contributor to the US energy supply.

  9. Diversity of Nuclear Polyhedrosis Viruses on Lepidopteran Pests on Cruciferae in West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidrayani Hidrayani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear Poyhedrosis Virus (NPV is one of biological control agents that can be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management to support  sustainable agriculture. A study was conducted to determine the diversity of  NPV on lepidopteran pests on cruciferae in West Sumatera. Larvae of Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, Plutella xylostella, dan Crocidolomia binotalis were collected from cabbages, cauliflowers, broccoli, shallot, and leaf onion in three cruciferae production  districts and then they were brought to laboratory for the observation of NPV infection.  The results showed that there were only three larvae of Spodoptera exigua got infected by NPV called SeNPV. No other larvae of  lepidopteran species collected were infected.  Propagation of the SeNPV obtained  was done but the pathogenisity was low with the mortality 12%.  It could be due to the low concentration of its polyhedra.

  10. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense......, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...

  11. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the

  12. Local socioeconomic changes and public fiscal implications of coal development in Wayne County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, J. E.; Mosena, P. W.; Stenehjem, E. J.

    1978-09-01

    This report attempts to characterize the economic and societal effects likely to accompany increased coal mining in and around Wayne County, West Virginia. The study concludes that population growth and increased demands for public services, with the exceptions of requirements for new roads, water, and sewer services, will be minimal as a result of the two new 2-million-tons-per-year deep mines planned for the area. The study estimates that both the County and the school district will experience positive new fiscal balances; i.e., more incremental annual revenue than additional mine-related annual expenditures. However, the town of Wayne is expected to experience a negative fiscal balance throughout the period of mine production. The study and its findings are each unique in several ways. First, the findings are somewhat unique in that major impacts (rapid population in-migration, shortages in housing and public services, and fiscal imbalances) are not projected to occur. In the heart of the coal mining district of Southern West Virginia similar levels of new mining may well have much different results. In areas, for example, where there are greater shortages of developable land, less adequate public and private infrastructure, and/or fewer available trained workers, the coal-related impacts would be dramatically different than those found for Wayne County. A second unique feature of this study concerns the manner in which it was originated and conducted. This study presents estimates of impacts for Wayne County and its associated jurisdictions which represent the combined knowledge and expertise of all parties involved: the citizens ofWayne County, the County Commission, the Advisory Board, the representatives from the Governor's Office, and the Argonne staff.

  13. The production performance of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahyudin

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The production performance of Holstein-Friesian cows in West Java was evaluated in two areas, Cisarua district (Bogor and Tanjungsari district (Sumedang. In Cisarua the evaluation was made on 175 cows with different stage of lactation (2 - 11 months. Feed offered, both forage and concentrate, milk production and chess girth were measured from each animal for 24 h only. Date of calving, date of service and stage of pregnancy were recorded by interviewing the farmers . In Tanjungsari the study was conducted on 102 postpartum cows . Milk production and chess girth were measured at the beginning of the study and then once a month (morning and afternoon milking for 3 months. Milk production was 3,700 1 and 3,400 1 per lactation with declining rate of 0 .03 and 0 .05 1/d for Cisarua and Tanjungsari area respectively. The ratio of concentrate : forage consumption was 1 and 1 .4 in Cisarua and in Tanjungsari respectively, and the ratio was reduced as milk production declined . The efficiency of conversion of feed ME to milk yield was approximately the same (0.12 1/MJ in both location . The proportion of cows lost weight in Cisarua during the first three months was lower (46 % as compared to that in Sumedang (77 %. Approximately 68 % of the population have conception rate (CR > 50 % , the remaining should be culled, 24 % have low CR and 8 % have days open > 150 days . From 61 cows observed, 71 % and 21% have a projected calving interval of 12 months and 13 - 14 months respectively . It can be concluded that milk production and reproduction efficiency of Holstein'cows in West Java are considered low.

  14. Burden of podoconiosis in poor rural communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getahun Alemu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is an environmental lymphoedema affecting people living and working barefoot on irritant red clay soil. Podoconiosis is relatively well described in southern Ethiopia, but remains neglected in other parts of the Ethiopian highlands. This study aimed to assess the burden of podoconiosis in rural communities in western Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulliso woreda (district, west Ethiopia. A household survey in the 26 rural kebeles (villages of this district was conducted to identify podoconiosis patients and to measure disease prevalence. A more detailed study was done in six randomly selected kebeles to describe clinical features of the disease, patients' experiences of foot hygiene, and shoe wearing practice. 1,935 cases of podoconiosis were registered, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. The prevalence was higher in those aged 15-64 years (5.2% and in females than males (prevalence ratio 2.6∶1. 90.3% of patients were in the 15-64 year age group. In the detailed study, 335 cases were interviewed and their feet assessed. The majority of patients were farmers, uneducated, and poor. Two-third of patients developed the disease before the age of thirty. Almost all patients (97.0% had experienced adenolymphangitis (ALA - red, hot legs, swollen and painful groin at least once during the previous year. Patients experienced an average of 5.5 ALA episodes annually, each of average 4.4 days, thus 24 working days were lost annually. The incidence of ALA in podoconiosis patients was higher than that reported for filariasis in other countries. Shoe wearing was limited mainly due to financial problems. CONCLUSIONS: We have documented high podoconiosis prevalence, frequent adenolymphangitis and high disease-related morbidity in west Ethiopia. Interventions must be developed to prevent, treat and control podoconiosis, one of the core neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia.

  15. Hygiene, sanitation and the soil transmitted helminths (STH infection among elementary school students in West Lombok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Soeyoko Sri Sumarni

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The prevalenses of soil transmitted helminths (STH infection in Lombok are relatively high. It isclosley associated with poor environmetal hygiene, non healthy sanitation status, poverty andimproper health services. The highest prevalences is normally observed in elementary school children.The aim of this study was to evalaute the relationship between hygiene, sanitation and STH infectionamong elementary school children in West Lombok. An observational study with cross-sectionaldesign was performed involving 197 elementary school children in Terong Tawah Village, LabuapiSub District, West Lombok District and 197 children in Ampenan, Mataram City as control. Thestool specimen of the children were collected and processed using Kato-Katz technique. Hygieneand sanitation of each subject that consisted nail hygiene, hand washing, using footwear, latrine,clean water availability, house floor, soil around the house were taken by questionnaire and directobservation. The result showed that the prevalences of STH among elementary school children inTerong Tawah (81.7% was higher than that in Ampenan (12.7%.Trichuris trichiura was thepredominant helminth both in Terong Tawah (36.0% and Ampenan (7.0% followed by A.lumbricoides (20.4% in Terong Tawah and 4.5% in Ampenan. The mix infections between T.trichiura and A. lumbricoides among the children in Terong Tawah (24.4% and Ampenan (1.0%were also found. A significant relationship between hygiene and sanitaion i.e. nail cleaniness, washinghands, contaminated soil around the house and STH infection among elementary school children inTerong Tawah and Ampenan (p<0.05. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship betweenpersonal hygiene, environmental sanitation and STH infections among elementary school children.

  16. Prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Khader

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the point prevalence of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD on dialysis in the West Bank, Palestine. As part of this study, the following parameters were studied: District, gender, age and presumed cause. This cross-sectional study was undertaken during the period 26-30 December 2010 at all dialysis units in the West Bank, and included all cases of ESRD on dialysis. The total prevalence of patients with ESRD on dialysis during the study period was 240.3 per million population (PMP. The highest prevalence was seen in Jericho city. There were 57.7% males and 42.4% females in the study. The majority of patients (62.3% were living in villages, while 28.8% were living in cities and 8.9% were living in refugee camps. Most of the patients (45% were aged between 45 and 64 years. The vast majority of patients were either diabetic (22.5% or hypertensive (11.1% or both at the same time (10.6%. There were a considerable number of patients in whom the cause was undetermined (27.6%. The majority of recorded cases of congenital causes were from the Hebron, Jenin and Tubas districts. The prevalence of ESRD noted in our study is comparable with other regional countries but far below the rate recorded in industrialized countries. In the Palestinian territories, there is a general lack of national statistics and surveys, particularly in the public health section. Increased efforts and awareness should be focused on the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension as they are the main causes of ESRD. There should also be an additional enhancement and implementation of strategies for the registration of data in order to conduct periodic comparisons and analytical studies to improve the management and quality of life of ESRD patients.

  17. Ten years of orangutan-related wildlife crime investigation in West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Cathryn; Rahman, Edi; Knott, Cheryl

    2016-12-13

    Poaching for the pet trade is considered one of the main threats to orangutan survival, especially to the Bornean species (Pongo pygmaeus). However, there have been few attempts to quantify the number of individuals taken from the wild or to evaluate the drivers of the trade. Most orangutan poaching is thought to be opportunistic in nature, occurring in conjunction with deforestation for large-scale agriculture. Using data from our long-term wildlife crime field investigation program collected from 2004 to 2014, we evaluated the prevalence of orangutan poaching and its spatial distribution in and around Gunung Palung National Park, in the regencies (districts) of Ketapang and Kayong Utara, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over the project period, investigators uncovered 145 cases of orangutans being illegally held captive for the pet trade. There was a significant correlation between the extent of oil palm and the number of cases reported from each sub-district in the landscape, supporting the widely held hypothesis that orangutan poaching is opportunistic, and we found no evidence of orangutan trading rings (i.e., international traders) targeting Gunung Palung National Park. Over the past decade, there only has been one prosecution of orangutan trading in West Kalimantan, and weak law enforcement by Indonesian authorities remains the most significant challenge in addressing wildlife trade. We offer four recommendations to address this, including that Indonesia dedicate at least $3 million more to addressing orangutan poaching and trade in Kalimantan and that the country's wildlife protection laws be revised and strengthened, with the new laws socialized to a wide audience, including government officials and all aspects of civil society. As oil palm begins to expand into Africa, this study also may help predict how this will affect gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos, encouraging proactive conservation action.

  18. Ground-water resources of the Houston district, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Walter N.; Rose, N.A.; Guyton, William F.

    1944-01-01

    This report covers the current phase of an investigation of the supply of ground water available for the Houston district and adjacent region, Texas,- that has been in progress during the past 10 years. The field operations included routine inventories of pumpage, measurements of water levels in observation wells and collection of other hydrologic data, pumping tests on 21 city-owned wells to determine coefficients of permeability and storage, and the drilling of 13 deep test wells in unexplored parts of the district. Considerable attention has been given to studies of the location of areas or beds of sand that contain salt water. The ground water occurs in beds of sand, sandstone, and gravel of Miocene, Pliocene, and Pleistocene age. These formations crop out in belts that dip southeastward from their outcrop areas and are encountered by wells at progressively greater depths toward the southeast. The beds throughout the section are lithologically similar, and there is little agreement among geologists as to their correlation. -In this investigation, however, the sediments, penetrated by the wells are separated into six zones, chiefly on the basis of electrical logs. Most of the water occurs in zone 3, which ranges in thickness from 800 to 1,200 feet. Large quantities of ground water are pumped in three areas in the Houston district, as follows: The Houston tromping area, which includes Houston and the areas immediately adjacent; the Pasadena pumping area, which includes the industrial section extending along the ship channel from the Houston city limits eastward to Deer Park; and the Katy pumping area, an irregular-shaped area of several hundred square miles, which is roughly centered around the town of Katy, 30 miles west of Houston. In 1930 the total combined withdrawal of ground water in the Houston and Pasadena pumping areas averaged about 50 million gallons a day. It declined somewhat during 1932 and 1933 and then gradually increased, until in 1935 the total

  19. Radiological study of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Alajerami, Yasser; Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Bt Basri, Nor Afifah

    2013-04-01

    A potential site has been selected for a nuclear power plant (NPP) in Mersing District of Malaysia. This study aims at providing the base line data of this district for the first time, in line with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for NPP sitting criteria. The mean dose rate, mean population weighted dose rate and annual effective dose are found to be 140 nGy h-1, 0.836 mSv y-1 and 0.857 mSv, respectively. A hyper Purity Germanium Detector (HPGe) is used in determining the activity concentrations of 232Th, 226Ra and 40K. The activity concentration ranges from 16±1 to 410±15 Bq kg-1 for 232Th, 17±1 to 271±8 Bq kg-1 for 226Ra and 13±3 to 1434±57 Bq kg-1 for 40K. In addition, a Low Background Alpha Beta Series 5 XLB Automatic was used in the determination of gross alpha and gross beta activity. The result ranges from 202±50 to 2325±466 Bq kg-1 for gross alpha and 164±17 to 2447±103 Bq kg-1 for gross beta. Contour maps were produced for isodose, activity concentration of 232Th, 226Ra, 40K, gross alpha and gross beta for the study area. The results are compared with UNSCEAR (2000).

  20. Role of Social Protection Unit District Cilacap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of security and peace, order and protection of the people especially those who are within the settlement is the duty and responsibility of member units of community protection (Satlinmas, and what happens when members Satlinmas in carrying out its duties and functions not supported by the human resources of adequate quality and quantity , so the expectations and desires of the community to get security and peace, order and public protection are not met in full and result in (Satlinmas presence cannot be felt by the community. The method used in this study using qualitative research with descriptive analysis, the data obtained through documentation, observation, and interviews, sample locations were selected based on purposive sample of Cilacap, Cilacap is a district that has accommodated the institutional Linmas the organizational structure of Civil Service Police Unit and a barometer for other regions in the implementation of the enforcement of local regulations. The purpose of the study wanted to know how far Satlinmas can act in accordance with its duties and functions. Research results that Satlinmas role in organizing disaster management, the handling of security, peace and order, protection of the public at the district level are generally already be implemented, but at the neighbourhood level and harmonious citizens tasks and functions are yet to be implemented optimally.

  1. Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Entre Rios mining district produces a large volume of amethyst geodes in underground mines and is part of the world class deposits in the Paraná volcanic province of South America. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. At the base of the stratigraphy, beginning at the Chapecó river bed, two basalt flows are Esmeralda, low-Ti type. The third flow in the sequence is a rhyodacite, Chapecó type, Guarapuava subtype. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties. The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault-block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. This important structural characterization of the mining district will have significant consequences in the search for new amethyst geode deposits and in the understanding of the evolution of the Paraná volcanic province.

  2. 77 FR 70425 - Tarrant Regional Water District; Notice of Application for Amendment of Exemption and Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tarrant Regional Water District; Notice of Application for Amendment of.... Applicant: Tarrant Regional Water District. e. Name of Project: Arlington Outlet Hydroelectric Project. f..., a flow control facility in Tarrant Regional Water District's water distribution system located...

  3. 77 FR 2975 - Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Roosevelt Water Conservation District; Notice of Termination of Exemption by.... Exemptee: Roosevelt Water Conservation District. e. Name and Location of Project: The Roosevelt Water.... Michael Leonard, General Manager, Roosevelt Water Conservation District, 2344 S. Higley Road, Gilbert,...

  4. [[The apothecaries of the district of Les Halles in Paris in the 17th century. Molière's ancestors in Les Halles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warolin, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Les Halles were created by King Louis VI at the begining of the 12th century as a central market for food and trade. Apothecaries conducted their trade there from that time. In the 17th century, eleven apothecaries were established in this district, bordered on the south by the rue Saint-Honoré, on the east by the rue Saint-Denis, on the west by the rue de la Tonnellerie, and the north by the rue Montmartre. Their biographies have been analysed, and the data that has been collected has enabled their précise location to be fixed on a map of 1700. Molière's ancestors, both maternal (the Cressé family) and paternal (the Pocquelin's), lived in this district. Details of their relationships with their apothecary neighbours have been revealed.

  5. Bionomics of Anopheles spp. (Diptera: Culicidae) in a malaria endemic region of Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoops, Craig A; Rusmiarto, Saptoro; Susapto, Dwiko; Munif, Amurl; Andris, Heri; Barbara, Kathryn A; Sukowati, Supratman

    2009-12-01

    A 15-month bionomic study of Anopheles species was conducted in two ecologically distinct villages (coastal and upland) of Sukabumi District, West Java, Indonesia from June 2006 to September 2007. Mosquitoes were captured using human-landing collections at both sites. During the study, a total of 17,100 Anopheles mosquitoes comprising 13 Anopheles species were caught: 9,151 at the coastal site and 7,949 at the upland site. Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles maculatus, and Anopheles vagus were the predominant species caught at the coastal site, and Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles barbirostris, and An. maculatus predominated in the upland site. Overall, species were exophagic at both sites, but there was variation between species. Anopheles aconitus was endophagic at the coastal site, exophagic at the upland site, collected most often in April 2007 and had a peak landing time between 22:00 and 23:00. Anopheles sundaicus was only collected at the coastal site, exophagic, collected most often in October 2006, and had a peak landing time between 19:00 and 20:00. Potential malaria vector species such An. aconitus, An. maculatus, and An. sundaicus were present throughout the year. None of the 7,770 Anopheles tested using CSP-ELISA were positive for malaria, although the risk for malaria outbreaks in Sukabumi district remains high.

  6. A District Wellness Policy: The Gap between Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the gap between a federally-mandated wellness policy and its practice in U.S. schools. To address the problem of childhood obesity, the United States government requires school districts to develop a District Wellness Policy (DWP) that promotes a healthy school environment, healthy food choices, nutrition education, and…

  7. Encouraging Districts and Charters to Link Arms to Solve Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robin J.

    2017-01-01

    Charter schools and school districts have been at odds since the first charter school law passed in 1991. Districts resent the competition and subsequent funding loss for traditional schools. Charters resent the lack of access to facilities and other resources and attempts to infringe on their autonomy. Yet a fast-growing number of school…

  8. 40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false District of Columbia. 81.309 Section 81.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Capitol Street S.E., District Line (Southern Avenue S.E.), Eastern Shore of Potomac River and...

  9. 20 CFR 422.5 - District offices and branch offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 422.5 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Organization and Functions of the Social Security Administration § 422.5 District offices and branch offices. There are over 700 social security district offices and branch offices located in the principal cities...

  10. Cultural Norming in Schools in "Healthy" and "Unhealthy" Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jon C.; Pritchard, Ruie J.; Gunderson, Betsey H.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines processes that personnel go through to assimilate the cultural norms of their schools. These processes are compared according to the teaching and learning environments of healthy, high achieving school districts and unhealthy, low achieving school districts. Specifically, this paper examines the "basket of crabs" effect, a…

  11. Into the Second Century: Memphis Engineer District, 1976-1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    channel improve- ments, including strengthening the main stem levees. The 1928 act adopted the plan proposed by Major General Edgar Jadwin, Chief of...Fish Commis- sion, Memphis Engineer District, St. Francis Pumping Station File, December 8, 1976. 4Major Rovert A. Morin , Jr., Acting District Engineer

  12. Attributes for Measuring Equity and Excellence in District Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMoulin, Donald F.; Guyton, John W.

    In the quest for excellence, school districts have a variety of indicators or attributes available by which to gauge their progress. This model, used By the Equity and Excellence Research school districts in Mississippi, monitors achievement in relation to educational excellence. Team members established a list of attributes and various means of…

  13. Cross-District Collaboration: Curriculum and Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Deborah J.; Cloud, Nancy; Morris, Patricia; Motta, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Secondary English as a second language (ESL) curricula that address four levels of ESL proficiency and prepare students for the English language arts (ELA) curricula and state-mandated ELA tests are not common. A curriculum jointly developed by two districts is even rarer. Yet two urban districts in Rhode Island undertook such a curriculum…

  14. Model based monitoring of traffic noise in an urban district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F. van der; Graafland, F.; Wessels, P.; Segers, A.; Salomons, E.

    2014-01-01

    Noise control for an urban district starts by understanding the actual noise situation. A correct understanding is needed to take appropriate and cost efficient measures. For a noise burdened urban district, surrounded by road and rail traffic, the traffic noise as well as the annoyance has been mea

  15. Smart energy systems and 4th generation district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    District heating and cooling are here to stay, but the district heating technology has to change. It has to adjust to the requirements of a future smart energy development. Therefore, research is essential, but not only research in university laboratories. Demonstration projects and innovation...

  16. From Zero Energy Buildings to Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Ben; Kutscher, Chuck; Macumber, Dan; Schott, Marjorie; Pless, Shanti; Livingood, Bill; Van Geet, Otto

    2016-08-26

    Some U.S. cities are planning advanced districts that have goals for zero energy, water, waste, and/or greenhouse gas emissions. From an energy perspective, zero energy districts present unique opportunities to cost-effectively achieve high levels of energy efficiency and renewable energy penetration across a collection of buildings that may be infeasible at the individual building scale. These high levels of performance are accomplished through district energy systems that harness renewable and wasted energy at large scales and flexible building loads that coordinate with variable renewable energy supply. Unfortunately, stakeholders face a lack of documented processes, tools, and best practices to assist them in achieving zero energy districts. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is partnering on two new district projects in Denver: the National Western Center and the Sun Valley Neighborhood. We are working closely with project stakeholders in their zero energy master planning efforts to develop the resources needed to resolve barriers and create replicable processes to support future zero energy district efforts across the United States. Initial results of these efforts include the identification and description of key zero energy district design principles (maximizing building efficiency, solar potential, renewable thermal energy, and load control), economic drivers, and master planning principles. The work has also resulted in NREL making initial enhancements to the U.S. Department of Energy's open source building energy modeling platform (OpenStudio and EnergyPlus) with the long-term goal of supporting the design and optimization of energy districts.

  17. An Evaluation of Decentralization in a Large School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    In October 1975, the School Board of the Los Angeles Unified School District appointed a Citizen's Committee to conduct an appraisal of the management of the school district. This Citizen's Management Review Committee (CMRC) organized itself into five subcommittees: Management, Policy, Personnel, Budget, and Decentralization. The Decentralization…

  18. District Composite Report: Sabine Parish. 2002-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Up to six years of data (the current year and the five previous years where available) are presented in Louisiana's District Composite Reports. Each year, this report is updated by adding the most current year?s data and deleting the data that are more than six years old. Incorporating longitudinal data in the District Composite Report enables…

  19. Near Death Experience: Treating a Financially Ill School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman

    1994-01-01

    After Proposition 13 passed in California, a series of 19 major bills imposed fiscal limits on the K-12 school system. One action is assigning a fiscal advisor to assume control in a district in financial distress. Lists the symptoms of a financially ill school district and highlights 24 items of a recovery plan. (MLF)

  20. A Study of Terrorism Emergency Preparedness Policies in School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umoh, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The threat of terrorism is a concern in public facilities including schools. This study focused on school districts in a southwestern state. Terrorism emergency preparedness policies are well-documented as measures to protect students and staff in school districts from terrorism threats and vulnerabilities. However, those threats and…