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Sample records for bir reactor

  1. Bir Kartagener Sendromu Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    Mıkla, Şerare; Aydın, Ahmet; Birtane, Nügürt; Çam, Halit; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Yılmazer, Sema; Akaslan, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    Bu makalede immobil silya sendromu situs inversus totalis Kartagener sendromu tanısı konulan 4 yaşında erkek hasta sunulmuştur Bronş silyasında ultrastrüktürel incelemesinde iç ve veya dış dynein kollarında tam ya da kısmi defektler saptanmıştır Olgunun bir özelliği de Kartagener sendromunda şimdiye kadar bildirilmemiş olan malrotasyon anomalisine sahip olmasıdır Anahtar kelimeler: İmmobil Silya Sendromu Kartagener Sendromu Malrotasyon

  2. Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    1988-01-01

    This standard applies to the following types of reactors: shunt reactors, current-limiting reactors including neutral-earthing reactors, damping reactors, tuning (filter) reactors, earthing transformers (neutral couplers), arc-suppression reactors, smoothing reactors, with the exception of the following reactors: small reactors with a rating generally less than 2 kvar single-phase and 10 kvar three-phase, reactors for special purposes such as high-frequency line traps or reactors mounted on rolling stock.

  3. The structure of XIAP BIR2: understanding the selectivity of the BIR domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, Christine, E-mail: cmlukacs230@gmail.com; Belunis, Charles; Crowther, Robert; Danho, Waleed; Gao, Lin; Goggin, Barry; Janson, Cheryl A.; Li, Shirley; Remiszewski, Stacy; Schutt, Andrew [Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States); Thakur, Manish K.; Singh, Saroj K.; Swaminathan, Srinivasan; Pandey, Rajat; Tyagi, Rajiv; Gosu, Ramachandraiah; Kamath, Ajith V. [Jubilant Biosys Ltd, Bangalore (India); Kuglstatter, Andreas, E-mail: cmlukacs230@gmail.com [Hoffmann-La Roche, 340 Kingsland Street, Nutley, NJ 07110 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The high-resolution crystal structures of apo and peptide-bound XIAP BIR2 are presented and compared with BIR3 structures to understand their selectivity. This crystal system can be used to determine the structures of BIR2–inhibitor complexes. XIAP, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis family of proteins, is a critical regulator of apoptosis. Inhibition of the BIR domain–caspase interaction is a promising approach towards treating cancer. Previous work has been directed towards inhibiting the BIR3–caspase-9 interaction, which blocks the intrinsic apoptotic pathway; selectively inhibiting the BIR2–caspase-3 interaction would also block the extrinsic pathway. The BIR2 domain of XIAP has successfully been crystallized; peptides and small-molecule inhibitors can be soaked into these crystals, which diffract to high resolution. Here, the BIR2 apo crystal structure and the structures of five BIR2–tetrapeptide complexes are described. The structural flexibility observed on comparing these structures, along with a comparison with XIAP BIR3, affords an understanding of the structural elements that drive selectivity between BIR2 and BIR3 and which can be used to design BIR2-selective inhibitors.

  4. Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  5. Gorlin Goltz sendromu: Bir olgu sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Kestane, Recep; Yurttutan, Mehmet; Şentürk, Mehmet; Koçer, Atilla; Keskin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin Goltz sendromu esas olarak kutanöz bazal hücreli karsinom, çoklu keratokistik odontojenik tümörler ve iskeletsel anomaliler ile karakterize otozomal dominant bir rahatsızlıktır. Gorlin ve Goltz tarafından tanımlanan bu klasik triada ek olarak diğer nörolojik, oftalmolojik, endokrin ve genital bulgular da sendromun özellikleri arasında yer almaktadır. Bu raporda 12 yaşındaki Gorlin Goltz sendromlu erkek hastanın tedavisi ve 1,5 yıllık takibi sunulmuştur. Bu olgu deride herhangi bir lezy...

  6. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  7. BIR 2014 - Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This first “Bibliometric-enhanced Information Retrieval” (BIR 2014) workshop1 aims to engage with the IR community about possible links to bibliometrics and scholarly communication. Bibliometric techniques are not yet widely used to enhance retrieval processes in digital libraries, although...... analysis of co-authorship network, can improve retrieval services for specific communities, as well as for large, cross-domain collections. This workshop aims to raise awareness of the missing link between information retrieval (IR) and bibliometrics / scientometrics and to create a common ground...... for the incorporation of bibliometric-enhanced services into retrieval at the digital library interface. Our interests include information retrieval, information seeking, science modelling, network analysis, and digital libraries. The goal is to apply insights from bibliometrics, scientometrics, and informetrics...

  8. Boeing infrared sensor (BIRS) calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazen, John D.; Scorsone, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing Infrared Sensor (BIRS) Calibration Facility represents a major capital investment in optical and infrared technology. The facility was designed and built for the calibration and testing of the new generation large aperture long wave infrared (LWIR) sensors, seekers, and related technologies. Capability exists to perform both radiometric and goniometric calibrations of large infrared sensors under simulated environmental operating conditions. The system is presently configured for endoatmospheric calibrations with a uniform background field which can be set to simulate the expected mission background levels. During calibration, the sensor under test is also exposed to expected mission temperatures and pressures within the test chamber. Capability exists to convert the facility for exoatmospheric testing. The configuration of the system is described along with hardware elements and changes made to date are addressed.

  9. Lateral agenezisi olan bir hastanın multidisipliner bir yaklaşımla rehabilitasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Hamamcı

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Lateral incisor agenesis is an important cause for the esthetic smile disharmony due to strategic location. These clinical cases besides multidisciplinary are always treated under the strong influence of either the orthodontic or the prosthodontic discipline. The first approach consists of orthodontic mesial replacement of the missing lateral with the existing canine and giving it an incisor shape, whereas the last approach constitutes a conventional fixed-partial-denture treatment or implant supported prostheses for the missing incisors. This clinical report represents the multidisciplinary rehabilitation of a 21-year-old male with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors. After orthodontic therapy and providing the necessary space for the laterals, bilateral implant placement and prosthetic treatment was carried out. Incorporation of zirconium reinforced abutments and all ceramic crowns to the therapy had provided attractive and confident smile for the patient.

    Keywords: Lateral incisor agenesis, orthodontic therapy, single tooth implant therapy, esthetics.

     

    ÖZET

    Lateral diş agenezisi gülümsemedeki stratejik pozisyondan dolayı büyük bir estetik sorun yaratmaktadır. Bu olgularda estetik rehabilitasyon, multidisipliner olmakla birlikte, genelde ya ortodontik ya da protetik tedavi yaklaşımlarının etkisi altında yapılmaktadır. Birinci yaklaşım kanin dişin lateral diş boşluğuna ortodontik tedaviyle getirilip lateral diş formunda restore edilmesinden ibarettir. İkincisi ise lateral diş boşluğunun ortodontik tedaviyle sağlanmasından sonra tek diş implant restorasyonu veya geleneksel köprü protezi ile restore edilmesi şeklindedir. Bu olgu raporunda, çift taraflı üst lateral diş agenezisi olan 21 yaşındaki erkek hastanın multidisipliner yaklaşımla tedavisi anlatılmaktadır. Ortodontik tedavi ile lateral dişler için oluşturulan boşluklara tek di

  10. Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John

    1964-01-01

    This pamphlet describes how reactors work; discusses reactor design; describes research, teaching, and materials testing reactors; production reactors; reactors for electric power generation; reactors for supply heat; reactors for propulsion; reactors for space; reactor safety; and reactors of tomorrow. The appendix discusses characteristics of U.S. civilian power reactor concepts and lists some of the U.S. reactor power projects, with location, type, capacity, owner, and startup date.

  11. Determination of the sequence specificity of XIAP BIR domains by screening a combinatorial peptide library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael C; Wang, Xianxi; Park, Junguk; Liu, Yusen; Pei, Dehua

    2006-12-12

    Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins regulate programmed cell death by inhibiting members of the caspase family of proteases. The X-chromosome-linked IAP (XIAP) contains three baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domains, which bind directly to the N-termini of target proteins including those of caspases-3, -7, and -9. In the present study, we defined the consensus sequences of the motifs that interact with the three BIR domains in an unbiased manner. A combinatorial peptide library containing four random residues at the N-terminus was constructed and screened using BIR domains as probes. We found that the BIR3 domain binds a highly specific motif containing an alanine or valine at the N-terminus (P1 position), an arginine or proline at the P3 position, and a hydrophobic residue (Phe, Ile, and Tyr) at the P4 position. The BIR2-binding motif is less stringent. Although it still requires an N-terminal alanine, it tolerates a wide variety of amino acids at P2-P4 positions. The BIR1 failed to bind to any peptides in the library. SPR analysis of individually synthesized peptides confirmed the library screening results. Database searches with the BIR2- and BIR3-binding consensus sequences revealed a large number of potential target proteins. The combinatorial library method should be readily applicable to other BIR domains or other types of protein modular domains.

  12. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in eukaryotic histone H3

    Science.gov (United States)

    BirA ligase, a prokaryotic ortholog of human holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS), is known to biotinylate proteins. Here, we tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase may also catalyze biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would render recombinant BirA ligase a useful surrogate for HCS in stud...

  13. Prokaryotic BirA ligase biotinylates K4, K9, K18 and K23 in histone H3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Keyna; Sarath, Gautam; Zempleni, Janos

    2008-04-30

    BirA ligase is a prokaryotic ortholog of holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS) that can biotinylate proteins. This study tested the hypothesis that BirA ligase catalyzes the biotinylation of eukaryotic histones. If so, this would mean that recombinant BirA ligase is a useful surrogate for HCS in studies of histone biotinylation. The biological activity of recombinant BirA ligase was confirmed by enzymatic biotinylation of p67. In particular, it was found that BirA ligase biotinylated both calf thymus histone H1 and human bulk histone extracts. Incubation of recombinant BirA ligase with H3-based synthetic peptides showed that lysines 4, 9, 18, and 23 in histone H3 are the targets for the biotinylation by BirA ligase. Modification of the peptides (e.g., serine phosphorylation) affected the subsequent biotinylation by BirA ligase, suggesting crosstalk between modifications. In conclusion, this study suggests that prokaryotic BirA ligase is a promiscuous enzyme and biotinylates eukaryotic histones. Moreover the biotinylation of histones by BirA ligase is consistent with the proposed role of human HCS in chromatin.

  14. bir1 deletion causes malfunction of the spindle assembly checkpoint and apoptosis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun eRen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell division in yeast is a highly regulated and well studied event. Various checkpoints are placed throughout the cell cycle to ensure faithful segregation of sister chromatids. Unexpected events, such as DNA damage or oxidative stress, cause the activation of checkpoint(s and cell cycle arrest. Malfunction of the checkpoints may induce cell death. We previously showed that under oxidative stress, the budding yeast cohesin Mcd1, a homolog of human Rad21, was cleaved by the caspase-like protease Esp1. The cleaved Mcd1 C-terminal fragment was then translocated to mitochondria, causing apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we demonstrated that Bir1 plays an important role in spindle assembly checkpoint and cell death. Similar to H2O2 treatment, deletion of BIR1 using a BIR1-degron strain caused degradation of the securin Pds1, which binds and inactivates Esp1 until metaphase-anaphase transition in a normal cell cycle. BIR1 deletion caused an increase level of ROS and mis-location of Bub1, a major protein for spindle assembly checkpoint. In wild type, Bub1 was located at the kinetochores, but was primarily in the cytoplasm in bir1 deletion strain. When BIR1 was deleted, addition of nocodazole was unable to retain the Bub1 localization on kietochores, further suggesting that Bir1 is required to activate and maintain the spindle assembly checkpoint. Our study suggests that the BIR1 function in cell cycle regulation works in concert with its anti-apoptosis function.

  15. DAO Spectroscopic classification of SN 2016bir in SDSS J131405.16+335510.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balam, D. D.; Graham, M. L.

    2016-04-01

    A noisy spectrum was obtained of SN 2016bir (ATEL #8857) on Apr. 10.36 UT using the 1.82-m Plaskett telescope (National Research Council of Canada) covering the range 405-710 nm (resolution 0.32 nm). Cross-correlation with a template library using SNID (Blondin & Tonry 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) shows 2016bir to most resemble the spectrum of a type-Ib supernova approximately 1 week pre-maximum light.

  16. H Reactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II.It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on...

  17. Hedonik tüketim: Kavramsal bir inceleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Özlem GÜVEN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tüketimin insanlar için vazgeçilmez bir eylem olduğu günümüz küresel dünyasında pek çok araştırma, farklı ya da benzer koşullar altında tüketimi etkileyen faktörlerin nedenleri ile bunların etkilerini ve tüketim eylemini gerçekleştiren tüketicilerin özellikleri bakımından benzerlikleri ve farklılıklarını irdelemektedir. Bu noktada farklı nedenlerle tüketim yapan tüketicilerin - tüketim biçimi dikkate alınarak - farklı kavramsal başlıklar altında toplandığı görülmektedir. Bu tüketim şekillerinden biri olan ve alışveriş eylemini hazza ve mutluluğa giden yol olarak gösteren hedonik tüketim özellikle de alternatif ürün ve marka sayısının arttığı günümüz pazar koşullarında tüketicinin satın alma eylemine ve satın alacağı markaya atfettiği hazza ve mutluluğa yönelik düşlerinin ortaya çıkarılması bakımından incelemeye değer bir kavramdır. Bu çalışmada, kavramsal düzeyde hedonik tüketim eylemi irdelenmeye çalışılmıştır.

  18. Reactor Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Abderrahim, A

    2001-04-01

    The Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis of reactor fuel. This expertise is applied in the Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments by means of neutron and gamma calculations. The activities of the Fuzzy Logic and Intelligent Technologies in Nuclear Science programme cover several domains outside the department. Progress and achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  19. Reactor safeguards

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    1962-01-01

    Reactor Safeguards provides information for all who are interested in the subject of reactor safeguards. Much of the material is descriptive although some sections are written for the engineer or physicist directly concerned with hazards analysis or site selection problems. The book opens with an introductory chapter on radiation hazards, the construction of nuclear reactors, safety issues, and the operation of nuclear reactors. This is followed by separate chapters that discuss radioactive materials, reactor kinetics, control and safety systems, containment, safety features for water reactor

  20. Reactor operation

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, J

    2013-01-01

    Reactor Operation covers the theoretical aspects and design information of nuclear reactors. This book is composed of nine chapters that also consider their control, calibration, and experimentation.The opening chapters present the general problems of reactor operation and the principles of reactor control and operation. The succeeding chapters deal with the instrumentation, start-up, pre-commissioning, and physical experiments of nuclear reactors. The remaining chapters are devoted to the control rod calibrations and temperature coefficient measurements in the reactor. These chapters also exp

  1. Disease-causing mutations in the XIAP BIR2 domain impair NOD2-dependent immune signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Rune Busk; Fiil, Berthe Katrine; Speckmann, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) is an essential ubiquitin ligase for pro-inflammatory signalling downstream of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing (NOD)-1 and -2 pattern recognition receptors. Mutations in XIAP cause X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type-2 (XLP2......), an immunodeficiency associated with a potentially fatal deregulation of the immune system, whose aetiology is not well understood. Here, we identify the XIAP baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR)2 domain as a hotspot for missense mutations in XLP2. We demonstrate that XLP2-BIR2 mutations severely impair NOD1/2-dependent...... immune signalling in primary cells from XLP2 patients and in reconstituted XIAP-deficient cell lines. XLP2-BIR2 mutations abolish the XIAP-RIPK2 interaction resulting in impaired ubiquitylation of RIPK2 and recruitment of linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) to the NOD2-complex. We show...

  2. An immobilized biotin ligase: surface display of Escherichia coli BirA on Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathy, Ranganath; Bajaj, Jitin; Boder, Eric T

    2005-01-01

    The Escherichia coli biotin ligase enzyme BirA has been extensively used in recent years to generate site-specifically biotinylated proteins via a biotin acceptor peptide tag. In the present study, BirA was displayed for the first time on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the Aga1p-Aga2p platform and assayed using a peptide-tagged protein as the substrate. The enzyme is fully functional and resembles the soluble form in many of its properties, but the yeast-displayed enzyme demonstrates stability and reusability on the time scale of weeks. Thus, the yeast-displayed BirA system represents a facile and highly economical alternative for producing site-specifically biotinylated proteins.

  3. Functional definition of BirA suggests a biotin utilization pathway in the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huiyan; Cai, Mingzhu; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Zhencui; Wen, Ronghui; Feng, Youjun

    2016-05-24

    Biotin protein ligase is universal in three domains of life. The paradigm version of BPL is the Escherichia coli BirA that is also a repressor for the biotin biosynthesis pathway. Streptococcus suis, a leading bacterial agent for swine diseases, seems to be an increasingly-important opportunistic human pathogen. Unlike the scenario in E. coli, S. suis lacks the de novo biotin biosynthesis pathway. In contrast, it retains a bioY, a biotin transporter-encoding gene, indicating an alternative survival strategy for S. suis to scavenge biotin from its inhabiting niche. Here we report functional definition of S. suis birA homologue. The in vivo functions of the birA paralogue with only 23.6% identity to the counterpart of E. coli, was judged by its ability to complement the conditional lethal mutants of E. coli birA. The recombinant BirA protein of S. suis was overexpressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity and verified with MS. Both cellulose TLC and MALDI-TOFF-MS assays demonstrated that the S. suis BirA protein catalyzed the biotinylation reaction of its acceptor biotin carboxyl carrier protein. EMSA assays confirmed binding of the bioY gene to the S. suis BirA. The data defined the first example of the bifunctional BirA ligase/repressor in Streptococcus.

  4. birääkijad löövad oma lubaduste hinda kokku / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Isamaa ja Res Publica Liidu ning Reformierakonna võimuläbirääkimised on lõppfaasis, edasistel läbirääkimistel võib võtmerolli tõusta rahandusministeeriumi koostatud tabel, kus on täpsustatud lepingupunktide hind

  5. Struktur Nalar Arab-Islam menurut ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faishol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The project of ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s thoughts has become epistemological critic to traditional frame of Islam-Arab knowledge through analyzing socio-political background on the logic of Arab formulation. According to Al-Jâbirî, the logic of Arabic thought could be devised into three methods: bayâni, ‘irfâni and burhâni. Therefore, the structure of Islam-Arab culture has occurred based on: (1 authoritative texts—because the logic of Arab is exceedingly based on religious texts, (2 authoritative salaf, that is, focused on ‘ulama’s considerations, and (3 authoritative permissivism along with anti-causality (sult}ah at-tajwîz al-lâsababiyyah. Hence, Arabic culture becomes unproductive, poor of concept and theory. As a solution, Al-Jâbirî invites to contextualize the spirit of critic such as rational-empiricism of Ibn H{azm and al-Shât}ibî on fiqh, Ibn Rushd on philosophy, Ibn Khaldûn on sociology, etc. This article will probe specifically about ‘Âbid Al-Jâbirî’s reform thought. Al-Jâbirî’s thinking distinctiveness lies in the epistemological critique conducted on the science that develops in the Arab-Islamic civilization. The epistemological critique becomes a realm of science that not much attention, especially by Muslim thinkers. Al-Jâbirî’s epistemological critique offers to the Muslim world an attempt to reconstruct the building of reason-epistemic knowledge to keep pace and change its Islamic world towards the progress of civilization.

  6. 重组BirA酶的原核表达及其活性鉴定%Expression of Recombinant BirA in Prokaryotic System and Identification of Its Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵爽佳; 鲍如梦; 唐海科; 杨洪鸣; 唐金宝

    2015-01-01

    构建含有rTEV酶切位点的原核表达载体pUC18-His-BirA,利用E coli DH5α表达重组BirA酶,并通过酶切获得不含His标签肽的BirA酶.PCR方式扩增BirA基因片段重组至质粒pUC18,构建原核表达载体pUC18-His-BirA并转化E coli DH5α;采用冻融法释放菌体蛋白,SDS-PAGE分析目的蛋白的存在形式;冻融上清经金属离子亲和色谱纯化获得目的蛋白His-BirA酶,利用rTEV酶切除His标签肽,并采用HABA方法进行BirA酶活鉴定分析.经双酶切验证、基因测序结果表明重组载体构建正确,SDS-PAGE结果显示表达产物可溶部分比例约占50%;利用rTEV酶将标签切除,经HABA测定该酶相对酶活性可达4 365 U/μg.该研究通过构建pUC18-His-BirA质粒表达载体,实现了重组BirA酶较高比例的可溶性表达.表达产物经rTEV酶酶切后具有较高的酶活性,为实现BirA酶的经济、高效制备奠定了一定的实验基础.

  7. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Soo-Bong Kim; Thierry Lasserre; Yifang Wang

    2013-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very ...

  8. Põhja-Korea lahkus tuumaläbirääkimistelt / Jüri Piirisild

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Piirisild, Jüri

    2005-01-01

    Põhja-Korea teatas tuumaprogrammi alaste läbirääkimiste tähtajatust katkestamisest. Analüütikute arvates peaks USA pehmendama oma jäika hoiakut Põhja-Korea suhtes ning püüdma senisest aktiivsemalt leida kriisile lahendust

  9. Kas sugu on läbirääkimistel tähtis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Ülevaade Harvard Business Schooli uudiskirja Working Knowledge 2006. aasta veebruari numbris ilmunud Dina W. Pradel'i, Hannah Riley Bowles'i ja Kathleen L. McGinn'i artiklist inimese soo mõjust läbirääkimistele

  10. birääkijate viis lemmikviga / Max H. Bazerman, Don A Moore

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bazerman, Max H.

    2008-01-01

    Harvardi Ärikooli professorid annavad nõu, mida teha siis, kui jäädakse läbirääkimistel liigselt pidama esimese pakkumise külge, ollakse jäärapäine, minnakse liiale enesekindlusega või keskendutakse liiga kitsale eesmärgile

  11. Güneş Enerjisi Kaynaklı Bir Stirling Motorunun Matlab-Simulink ile Modellenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. Melih AKYOL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sürdürülebilir bir kalkınma için yerli ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının kullanılması gereklidir.Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü (YEGM’nin ölçümlerine göre, ülkemiz günde yeryüzüne düşen ortalama 3600 Wh/m2 ‘lik güneş ışınımı ile önemli bir güneş enerjisi kullanım potansiyeline sahiptir. Bu çalışmada ısı kaynağı olarak güneş enerjisini kullanan beta tipi krank hareket mekanizmalı bir Stirling motoru teorik olarak Matlab-Simulink ortamında modellenmiştir. Hazırlanan model, ülkemizdeki farklı bölgeler için, yılın herhangi bir gününde, yatay veya açılı yüzeylere düşen güneş ışınımı değerlerini tahminleyen bir alt model ile desteklenmiştir. Geliştirilen model ile, Stirling motorunun farklı boyutlandırmaları için güç, çalışma frekansı, verim gibi performans özellikleri hesaplanabilmekte, iş gazının da sıcaklık basınç gibi termodinamik özelliklerinin çevrim boyunca değişimi izlenebilmektedir.

  12. Multifunctional reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Multifunctional reactors are single pieces of equipment in which, besides the reaction, other functions are carried out simultaneously. The other functions can be a heat, mass or momentum transfer operation and even another reaction. Multifunctional reactors are not new, but they have received much

  13. Endometrium clear cell karsinomlu bir olguda achromobacter xylosoxidans'ın sebep olduğu ürosepsis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Achromobacter xylosoxidans, diğer adıyla Alcaligenes xylosoxidans gram negatif, aerob, oksidaz pozitif, nonfermentatif, hareketli, çomak şeklinde bir bakteridir. Doğada, toprak ve suda bulunabilen bir mikroorganizma olup, immün sistemi baskılanmış kişilerde fırsatçı enfeksiyonlara neden olmaktadır.

  14. Tekrarlayan akciğer infeksiyonunun nadir bir nedeni: Kartagener sendromu

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELİKSOY, Mehmet; Güner, Şükrü; ÇALIŞKAN, Burcu; Sancak, Recep; Söğüt, Ayhan

    2013-01-01

    Kartagener sendromu otozomal resesif geçişli sinüzit, bronşektazi, situs inversus ile karakterize bir hastalıktır. Primer silier diskinezili olguların % 50’sini Kartagener sendromu oluşturur. Primer silier diskinezinin temel özellikleri sıklıkla hayatın ilk ayında başlayan üst ve alt solunum sistemi bulgularıdır, ancak tanı gecikir, çünkü bu özellikler diğer pediatrik hastalıklarla karıştırılır. Bu vaka raporunda, Kartagener sendromlu bir olgunun klinik ve radyolojik özelliklerini tartı...

  15. Reactor vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Makkee, M.; Kapteijn, F.; Moulijn, J.A

    1999-01-01

    A reactor vessel (1) comprises a reactor body (2) through which channels (3) are provided whose surface comprises longitudinal inwardly directed parts (4) and is provided with a catalyst (6), as well as buffer bodies (8, 12) connected to the channels (3) on both sides of the reactor body (2) and comprising connections for supplying (9, 10, 11) and discharging (13, 14, 15) via the channels (3) gases and/or liquids entering into a reaction with each other and substances formed upon this reactio...

  16. Comparative study of factors controlling the groundwater occurrence in Bir Kiseiba and Bir El Shab areas, south western desert, Egypt using hydrogeological and geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Risha, U. A.; Al Temamy, A. M. M.

    2016-05-01

    This research presents a clear example of the significant role of basement relief on the formation of aquifers and the impact of geologic structures on groundwater occurrence. A basement relief map was constructed using the depth to basement data acquired from 20 vertical electrical soundings (VESes), 3 land magnetic profiles, and 27 drilled wells tapping the basement rocks in addition to the elevations of the basement outcrops in the area of study. The map shows three basins underlying the area. The geoelectric survey shows that these basins were formed as a result of series of step faults. The largest basin underlies El-Shab area. The medium basin underlies the area of Bir Kiseiba whereas the smallest one underlies Bir Abu El-Hussein area. The Nubian Sandstone aquifer occurs only in El-Shab basin whereas the other basins are filled completely with the confining layer of Kiseiba Formation. The depth to basement in El-Shab basin ranges from 11 m. (ves-20) to 197 m. (ves-1) m.b.g.s. The depth to basement in Kiseiba basin ranges from 20 m. (Bir Kurayim magnetic profile) to 122 m. (ves-13) m.b.g.s. The depth to basement in Abu El-Husein basin ranges from 0 (basement outcrops) to 64 m. (Abu El-Husein magnetic profile) m.b.g.s. The aquifer thickness ranges from 0 m (where the aquitard rests directly on the basement) to 153 m. (El Shab well No. 79). The aquifer is uncoformably overlain by Kiseiba Formation which represents the aquitard layer at Bir El-Shab. The thickness of the aquitard ranges from 0 (in areas covered by the Nubian Sandstone) to 120 m (ves-13). Each of the aquifer and aquitard consist of three layers. Two of the aquitard layers are water-bearing. However, the estimated transmissivity of the aquitard is very low (11.9 m2/d). The groundwater moves vertically into the overlying aquitard at Bir El-Shab and subsequently flows in concentric pattern into the surrounding areas. Faulting controls groundwater occurrence and quality. Some springs lie on the

  17. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  18. Reactor Neutrinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Bong Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments. Short-baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and their interest has been recently revived by the discovery of the reactor antineutrino anomaly, a discrepancy between the reactor neutrino flux state of the art prediction and the measurements at baselines shorter than one kilometer. Middle and long-baseline oscillation experiments at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO provided very recently the most precise determination of the neutrino mixing angle θ13. This paper provides an overview of the upcoming experiments and of the projects under development, including the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy and the possible use of neutrinos for society, for nonproliferation of nuclear materials, and geophysics.

  19. Chemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  20. Reactor Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lasserre, T.; Sobel, H.W.

    2005-01-01

    We review the status and the results of reactor neutrino experiments, that toe the cutting edge of neutrino research. Short baseline experiments have provided the measurement of the reactor neutrino spectrum, and are still searching for important phenomena such as the neutrino magnetic moment. They could open the door to the measurement of coherent neutrino scattering in a near future. Middle and long baseline oscillation experiments at Chooz and KamLAND have played a relevant role in neutrin...

  1. Görme Agnozisi İle Seyreden Bir Oksipital İnfrakt Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    TUNALI, G.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY A CASE WITH VISUAL AGNOSIA DUE TO OCCIPITAL INFARCT In this paper, a case who had visual agnosia, alexia and complex visual halusinations was presented. CT scan showed left occipi¬tal infarct which also involved posterior temporal lobe. The propable mechanism of visual agnosia was discussed in wiev of the literature. ÖZET Bu yazıda görme agnozisi, aleksi ve kompleks görme halüsinasyonları olan bir vaka sunuldu. Bu vakada BT sol tarafta posterior temporal loba da yayılan...

  2. Sonochemical Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  3. Butterfly Species Diversity of Bir-Billing Area of Dhauladhar Range of Western Himalayas in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Chandel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study of butterfly species diversity was carried out in the Bir-Biling area of Dhauladhar Range of the Western Himalayas in Northern India. The study was done since April 2012 to March 2013, throughout the year during the routine field visits to Bir-Billing. A total of 50 butterfly species were recorded from the study areas which belonge to five families i.e. Nymphalidae, Pieridae, Papilionidae, Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae and 39 genera. The Nymphalidae family was the most dominant family in the study area having 32 species and followed by Lycaenidae family with 7 species.

  4. Bir Yüzü Sanat, Bir Yüzü Bilime Dönük Adam: Mehmed Çavuşoğlu

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Durali

    2006-01-01

    bunların ağzından hiç şiir duymadım. Ezberlerinde bir mısra bile yoktur çün— kü,’ diye dert yanar. Prof. Dr. Bali, Çavuşoğlu’nun sınıf arkadaşıdır. Tıpkı Çavuşoğlu gibi, onun da hafızasında yüzlerce şiir vardır. Bunlara, Çavuş-— oğlu’ nunkiler de dahildir. Şimdi İstanbul Kültür ÜniYersiteSinde birlikte görev yapmaktayız. Muhan Hocamız, Çavuşoğlu’nun yukarıdaki şiinni okudııktan sonra genellikle ekler: “Bunu kendisine okuduğumda, yüzüme sevecenlikle baktı, benim bile unuttüğuın bu şiiri ...

  5. Tıbbi Tahminde Alternatif Bir Yaklaşım: Destek Vektör Makineleri

    OpenAIRE

    Özge YILMAZ AKŞEHİRLİ; Ankarali, Handan; Duygu AYDIN; Özge SARAÇLI

    2013-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışma, birçok alanda sıklıkla kullanılan destek vektör makinelerinin (DVM) tıbbi araştırmalarda kullanımına yönelik bir uygulama olarak düşünülmüş ve tıbbi bir çalışma verisi kullanılarak DVM yönteminin veriyi doğru sınıflama başarısını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmamızda, verileri sınıflandırmak veya tahmin yapmak amacıyla kullanılan, eğiticili (supervised) bir makine öğrenmesi yöntemi olan DVM kullanılmıştır. Burada, doğrusal olmayan ilişkiler için iki s...

  6. Dünya Denizcilik Eğitim Faaliyetleriyle İlgili Genel Bir Kıyaslama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feramuz AŞKIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Deniz taşımacılığındaki artan profesyonelleşme gereksinimleri bu alanda hizmet veren personel ve mürettebatın aynı düzeyde eğitim alması ile cevap bulacaktır. Bu da eğitim veren kurum ve üniversitelerin belirli bir standartta eğitim vermesi ile mümkün olacaktır. Burada üzerinde durulması gereken konu eğitim veren kurumların eğitim düzeylerinin alt ve üst noktası arasındaki farkın mümkün mertebede birbirine yakın olması ile belirli bir kalite düzeyinde tutulabilecek olmasıdır. Bunun için eğitim veren kurumların uyması gereken başta STCW Manila kararları gibi uluslararası standartlar olmak üzere, iç mevzuatlar, çeşitli idarelerin önerileri ve kararları, EMSA gibi denetleyici birimlerin üzerinde durmuş olduğu çeşitli standartlar bir dayanak noktası oluşturacaktır. Bu çalışmada yazarlar, farklı düzeylerde eğitim veren örnek eğitim sistemlerinin karşılaştırılması yolu ile bu standartların uygulanması hususunu göz önüne sermeyi hedeflemektedir. Böylece bu bildirinin yazım amacı olan ve standartlarla genel kaideleri belirlenmiş daha kaliteli ve profesyonel eğitim sistemine geçişe katkıda bulunulabilecektir.

  7. ULUSLARIN REKABET ÜSTÜNLÜĞÜ VE ELMAS MODELI ÜZERINE BIR DEĞERLENDIRME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat KOC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde, rekabet kavramı daha çok firma düzeyinde bir kavram olmakla beraber, artık ulusal düzeyde de ele alınmaya başlanmıştır. Rekabet şartlarının değişken bir yapı içerisinde olması ve yaşanan küreselleşme, bir ulusun rekabet üstünlüğünün analiz edilebilmesi açısından yeni yöntemlerin uygulanması gerekliliğini ortaya koymuştur. Bu kapsamda Michael E. Porter, kapsamlı bir araştırma niteliği taşımakta olan, Elmas Modeli (Diamond Model’ni ortaya koymuştur. “Bazı ulusların neden diğerlerine göre belirli sektörlerde daha rekabetçi olduğu” sorusuna yanıt vermeye çalışılan model, belirli bir sektörde ulusal rekabet gücünü belirleyen bazı unsurların birbirleriyle ilişkili olarak incelenmesini öngörmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, ulusların rekabet üstünlüğü sağlamasında Porter’ın literatüre kazandırdığı “Elmas Modeli” yaklaşımının değerlendirilmesi ve modele yönelik eleştirilerin ortaya konulmasıdır.

  8. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  9. D and DR Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The world's second full-scale nuclear reactor was the D Reactor at Hanford which was built in the early 1940's and went operational in December of 1944.D Reactor ran...

  10. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  11. Radyonun Demokratikleştirilmesinde Yeni Bir Olanak: İnternet Radyoculuğu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersoy Soydan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Radyonun yazılı basından sonra geniş kitlelere seslenen en eski kitle iletişim aracı olduğu kabul edilmektedir. Radyo, 1920-1960 yılları arasında da en yaygın kitle iletişim aracı olmuştur. Radyo yayınlarının başlamasıyla birlikte işlevi de sorgulanmaya başlamıştır. Özellikle radyo yayınlarının hükümetin denetiminde olduğu Avrupa ülkelerinde yayın kuruluşları maddi açıdan hükümetlere bağımlı olmuş, bu durum doğal olarak hükümetlerin radyo yayınlarına karışması sonucunu doğurmuştur. Uzun yıllar boyunca Avrupa'da radyoculuk alanında devlet tekeli olduğu için toplumun büyük bir kesimi radyoda kendisine yeterince yer bulamamıştır. Hükümetlerin denetimindeki radyo yayıncılığına karşı muhalefet ve işlevinin değiştirilmesi talebi ise çok geçmeden dillendirilmeye başlamıştır. Örneğin Alman yazar Bertolt Brecht daha 1932 yılında radyonun işlevinin değiştirilerek demokratikleştirilmesi gerektiğini, yani radyoyu bir iletim aygıtı olmaktan çıkarıp, iletişim aygıtına dönüştürmek gerektiğini söylemiştir.1950’li yıllardan sonra televizyonun yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte radyonun insan yaşamındaki yeri kaçınılmaz olarak gerilemiştir. Bunun sonucu olarak ta tüm dünyada “radyo öldü mü?” tartışması yaşanmıştır. Ancak korsan yayınlarla başlayıp devlet tekellerinin yıkılmasıyla sonuçlanan alternatif radyo akımı daha önce radyodan sesini duyuramayan toplulukların seslerini duyurabilmesini ve radyonun demokratikleşerek yeniden gündeme gelmesini sağlamıştır. Radyonun demokratikleştirilmesi tartışması internetin yaygınlaşmasıyla birlikte bir kez daha gündeme gelmiştir. İnternet teknolojisi radyodan sesini duyurmak isteyen herkesin son derece basit ve ucuz bir şekilde dünyanın dört bir tarafına sesini duyurmasını sağlayarak, radyonun daha önce olmadığı kadar demokratikleşmesinin yolunu açmıştır.

  12. Liderlikte post-modern bir paradigma: dönüşümcü liderlik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Eraslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Heraklitos’un “Her şey akıştadır ve hiçbir şey duruşta değildir.” deyişi  ile insanlığın değişimi anlama, algılama ve ona uyum sağlama sürecinin başladığı kabul edilir. Değişim denen bu karmaşık  olgu, günümüzde bütün sosyal sistemlerin yaşama ilişkin kültürlerini ve yönetim biçimlerini hızlı bilgi artışı, hızlı gelişme ve hızlı iletişim ile birlikte derinden etkilemektedir. Bu değişim sürecinin  yükümlülüğü oluşturmak ve bunu başarmak için “liderlik” olgusu önemli bir rol oynamaktadır. Dönüşümü sağlamada geleneksel liderlik anlayışının yeterli olmadığının bilinmesi de, değişimin etkisinin yoğun olarak hissedildiği günümüzde, değişim temelli bir liderlik anlayışının yapılandırılması gerekliliğini ortaya çıkarmıştır. Bu  liderlik anlayışının da "Dönüşümcü Liderlik" olduğu ileri sürülmektedir. Aralıksız devam eden değişim sürecinde, dönüşümcü liderliğin tüm sektörlerde önemi gittikçe artmaktadır. Dönüşümcü liderler, vizyon yaratarak ve bu vizyonu paylaşarak izleyenleri ile sürekli iletişim kuran, güvenilir, saygı duyulan sosyal mimarlardır. Yeni zorlukların yaşanacağı  yeni çağda; "dönüşümcü liderlik"  bu zorlukların aşılmasında en iyi çözüm yolu olarak kabul edilmektedir. Tarihsel sürece baktığımızda ise Dönüşümcü liderliğe verilecek en büyük örneğin Türkiye Cumhuriyetinin Kurucusu M.Kemal Atatürk olduğunu görmekteyiz. Büyük Lider Atatürk dönüşümcü liderliğin  bütün karakteristik özelliklerini taşımaktadır. Yıkılmış bir imparatorluktan, her şeyi ile yeni bir devlet kurarak, yönetsel,sosyal,ekonomik ve kültürel yaşamda köklü bir dönüşüm süreci gerçekleştirmiştir. Atatürk’te Dönüşümcü liderliğin başat özelliklerinden;  Ortak Vizyon Oluşturma ve Paylaşma, Zihinsel Uyarım ve Yaratıcı olma, Karizmatik Etkiye Sahip

  13. Reactor and method of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, John A.

    1976-08-10

    A nuclear reactor having a flattened reactor activity curve across the reactor includes fuel extending over a lesser portion of the fuel channels in the central portion of the reactor than in the remainder of the reactor.

  14. Kosovo albaanlaste imelootus hääbub läbirääkimiste kiuste / Triin Oppi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oppi, Triin

    2007-01-01

    Serbia ja Kosovo provintsi esindajate läbirääkimistest Viinis ning ÜRO esindaja Martti Ahtisaari ettepanekust Kosovo suhtes, kus välditakse sõna "iseseisvus". Euroopa Liit üritab Kosovot juhtida iseseisvuse teele, pakkudes Serbiale võimalust mitte anda välja Haagi sõjatribunalile Ratko Mladicit. Vt. samas: Kosovo äärmuslased õhkisid kolm ÜRO sõidukit. Kaart

  15. An Evaluation on Library Cooperation in Turkey Türkiye'de Kütüphanelerarası İşbirliği Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Emin Küçük

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No library in the world has the sufficient budget, space, and professionals to acquire all existing information sources, and to organise and serve the acquired materials. For this reason, libraries cooperate in collection development, cata loguing, providing access to the others' collections and document delivery. Aiming at evaluating the co-operation efforts during the Republican era from the perspective of the historical, organisational and practicable fields of implementation, this paper examines the library co-operation in Turkey. To determine the present situation, the Turkish National Library, General Directorate of Libraries and Publications, National Academic Network and Information Centr, and some special and school libraries in Ankara, Ministry of National Education, university libraries, consortia, and professional associations are examined, and the data gathered from literature and interviews are evaluated. In conclusion, it has been observed that in recent years, co-operation effort has gained momentum, two consortia have emerged to provide access to the electronic information sources, document delivery projects between university libraries have been started, but efforts in some practicable fields of co-operation, such as preparing union catalogues, sharing bibliographic data, and developing authority files have been unsuccessful. It has also been observed that there is lack of co-operation except among university libraries, and that institutions have failed in establishing a "common wisdom" and consequently in developing the skills of planning and organisation. Inadequacy of resources, legislation, and infrastructure, and most importantly the lack of dedication resulted in discontinuity of the ongoing projects and the production of the new ones. Dünyadaki hiç bir kütüphane varolan tüm bilgi kaynaklarını sağlama, düzenleme ve hizmete sunmada yeterli bütçe, bina ve profesyonele sahip değildir. Bu nedenle k

  16. Türkiye’de Leasıng Sözleşmesi ve Bir Uygulama

    OpenAIRE

    Taşabatlı, Gökhan

    2004-01-01

    Leasing ilk kez, 1930’lu yıllarda Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nde ekonomik bunalım sonrası yaşanan finansman güçlüklerini gidermek amacıyla ortaya çıkmış ve II.Dünya Savaşı sonrası diğer Avrupa ülkelerine hızla yayılmaya başlamıştır. Leasing’in Kıta Avrupası ülkelerine yayılması 1960’lı yıllara rastlamaktadır. 1970 sonrası petrol şoku ile beraber birçok firma finansman darboğazı ile karşı karşıya kalmıştır. Bu gelişmeler işletmeleri mülkiyet yerine kullanım olanağı veren leasing müessesesine ...

  17. İşletmelerin Rekabet Stratejilerinin Eşbiçimliliği ve Bir Uygulama

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de faaliyet gösteren işletmelerin stratejilerini neye göre ve nasıl oluşturduklarını ortaya koyarak, kurumsal baskıların örgütsel yapıları, stratejileri ve uygulamaları nasıl etkilediği ve işleri yürütme biçimleri bakımından birbirine benzer örgütleri nasıl ortaya çıkardığını belirlemeye yöneliktir. Örgütlerin varlık nedenlerini ya da işleyiş biçimlerini geçmişte ele alan pek çok çalışmaya karşılık, teknik ve sosyal bir olgu olarak örgütlerin incelenmesinde ortaya çıka...

  18. TRAF2-binding BIR1 domain of c-IAP2/MALT1 fusion protein is essential for activation of NF-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, J B; Samuel, T; Reed, J C

    2009-04-02

    Marginal zone mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) B-cell lymphoma is the most common extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The t(11;18)(q21;q21) translocation occurs frequently in MALT lymphomas and creates a chimeric NF-kappaB-activating protein containing the baculoviral IAP repeat (BIR) domains of c-IAP2 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2) fused with portions of the MALT1 protein. The BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 interacts directly with TRAF2 (TNFalpha-receptor-associated factor-2), but its role in NF-kappaB activation is still unclear. Here, we investigated the role of TRAF2 in c-IAP2/MALT1-induced NF-kappaB activation. We show the BIR1 domain of c-IAP2 is essential for NF-kappaB activation, whereas BIR2 and BIR3 domains are not. Studies of c-IAP2/MALT1 BIR1 mutant (E47A/R48A) that fails to activate NF-kappaB showed loss of TRAF2 binding, but retention of TRAF6 binding, suggesting that interaction of c-IAP2/MALT1 with TRAF6 is insufficient for NF-kappaB induction. In addition, a dominant-negative TRAF2 mutant or downregulation of TRAF2 achieved by small interfering RNA inhibited NF-kappaB activation by c-IAP2/MALT1 showing that TRAF2 is indispensable. Comparisons of the bioactivity of intact c-IAP2/MALT1 oncoprotein and BIR1 E47A/R48A c-IAP2/MALT1 mutant that cannot bind TRAF2 in a lymphoid cell line provided evidence that TRAF2 interaction is critical for c-IAP2/MALT1-mediated increases in the NF-kappaB activity, increased expression of endogenous NF-kappaB target genes (c-FLIP, TRAF1), and resistance to apoptosis.

  19. Reactor Physics Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Raedt, C

    2000-07-01

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies.

  20. Osmanlı Devleti’nde Teknik Bir Yenilik: Skafander Makinesi A Technical Innovation In The Ottoman State: Scaphandre Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan ÖZGÜN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sponge was an important natural source in the Ottoman seas.Sponge divers were gathering sponges different ways and a new methodof sponge hunting began to be applied after the mid-nineteenth century.This method was sponge hunting with the help of scaphandre whichwas called generally “machine” by Ottoman offical records and spongedivers. Scaphandre was consisted of heavy metal helmets thatconnected to a air pump with hose on shipboard, boots and a garmentthat surrounds the whole body. Scaphandre was a costume or devicewhich was designed to remain a sponge hunter undersea longer time.These devices allowed sponge hunters to work at least 1 hour undersea.Thanks to the scaphandre, sponge divers began to hunt more spongesand to gain more profits compared to sponge hunters who don’t use thisdevice. The use of scaphandre in the sponge hunting, as a technicalinnovation in the Ottoman state, led to start a painfull process amongthe sponge hunters. The process of implementation of this method,negative reactions based on social and economic interests occuredamong sponge divers. These reactions firstly began as a little fight butthen they turned into a serious rebellions. In addition, accidents anddiseases were occuring depend on the use of this machine. There wereespecially motor accidents, joint pain, chest pain, speech disorders,dyspnea, visual disturbance, skin complaints among these diseases andaccidents. Some of these accidents resulted in death. Because of thesediseases, accidents and accumulated reactions, Ottoman Statesometimes banned the use of scaphandre. This study examines theproblem of sponge hunting with the use of scaphandre which istechnical innovation in the Ottoman territorial waters. For this study,data and information were collected Ottoman archive documents,commercial reports concerning this period, official statistics and otherpublications. Sünger, Osmanlı denizlerinde önemli bir doğal kaynaktı. Sünger avcıları s

  1. 8051 Mikrodenetleyicili Bir Sumo Robot Tasarımı ve Uygulaması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALBAYRAK

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, 8051 mikrodenetleyici kontrollü bir sumo robotun mekanik tasarımı, kontrol kartı ve yazılımı gerçeklestirilmistir. Robot, yarısma ve egitim amaçlı tasarlandıgı için hücum amaçlı strateji içeren yazılım gelistirilerek yüklenmistir. 8051 mikrodenetleyici içindeki kontrol yazılımı PC 'nin seri portuna baglı mikrodenetleyici programlama kartına takılıp, kolaylıkla güncellenebildigi için yazılım stratejisi her yarısma için degistirilebilir niteliktedir. Microdenetleyici yazılımı μVision Keil derleyicisinde C kodu kullanılarak hazırlanmıstır. Mekanik tasarım asamasında robot dıs yüzeyinin darbelere dayanıklı malzemeden seçilmesine ve tekerleklerin sürtünmesinin fazla (kaymaz olmasına özen gösterilmistir. Robotun gücünü belirlenen agırlık sınırları içinde en fazla hale getirebilmek için 4 ayrı disli DC motor ve 4 amperlik akü kullanılmıstır. Rakip algılama mesafe sensörü ve kontrast sensörü (beyaz algılama seçiminde cevap verme süresi çok az olan sensörler tercih edilmistir.

  2. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Hiroto

    1995-02-07

    A reactor container of the present invention has a structure that the reactor container is entirely at the same temperature as that at the inlet of the reactor and, a hot pool is incorporated therein, and the reactor container has is entirely at the same temperature and has substantially uniform temperature follow-up property transiently. Namely, if the temperature at the inlet of the reactor core changes, the temperature of the entire reactor container changes following this change, but no great temperature gradient is caused in the axial direction and no great heat stresses due to axial temperature distribution is caused. Occurrence of thermal stresses caused by the axial temperature distribution can be suppressed to improve the reliability of the reactor container. In addition, since the laying of the reactor inlet pipelines over the inside of the reactor is eliminated, the reactor container is made compact and the heat shielding structures above the reactor and a protection structure of container walls are simplified. Further, secondary coolants are filled to the outside of the reactor container to simplify the shieldings. The combined effects described above can improve economical property and reliability. (N.H.).

  3. Random Forests Yöntemi ve Sağlık Alanında Bir Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet AKMAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Veri madenciliği, genel olarak tanımlayıcı ve tahmin edici olmak üzere iki ana başlıkta incelenmektedir. Özellikle tıp alanında veri madenciliği daha çok tahmin edici yönüyle kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ağaç tabanlı veri madenciliği yöntemlerinden birisi olan Random Forests (RF yönteminin incelenmesi ve sağlık alanından elde edilen bir veri seti üzerine uygulaması yapılarak sonuçlarının tartışılması amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: RF yönteminde, karar ormanını oluşturan karar ağaçları orijinal veri setinden bootstrap yöntemiyle seçilen farklı örneklerden oluşturulmaktadır. Her karar ağacında veri setindeki tüm değişkenlerden rastgele seçilen az sayıda değişken kullanılmaktadır. Her ağaç bir sınıf için oy vermektedir ve orman sınıflayıcısı bütün ağaçların verdiği oyları toplayarak bir sınıf için son tahminini yapmaktadır. Yöntemin uygulanması amacıyla Diş hekimliği alanından elde edilen bir veri seti kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Toplam 43 tane demografik, dental ve serolojik özelliklere ait veriler kullanılarak RF yöntemi ile %95.4 oranında başarılı bir sınıflandırma yapılmıştır. Bu karar ormanının hata oranı ise %3.33 olarak bulunmuştur. Aynı veri seti için Bagging ve CART yöntemi ile de sınıflama yapılmış ve Bagging yöntemi ile hata oranı %5.4, CART yöntemi ile %8.75 olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç: RF yöntemi ile veri setindeki değişken sayısı ve örnek sayısı ne kadar çok olursa olsun genellikle hata oranı düşük sınıflamalar yapılmaktadır. Hata oranının düşüklüğü ise bir topluluk yöntemi olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Özelikle çok sayıda değişkenin olduğu DNA veri seti gibi binlerce gen arasından önemli olanları tespit etmek için kullanılabilir.

  4. Yeni Medya Gazeteciliğinde Etik Bir Paradigma Belirlemenin Kapsamı ve Sınırları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker ERDOĞAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yeni medya gazeteciliği, çok büyük iletişim potansiyeliyle, modern bir haber toplama ve yayımlama biçimidir ya da pek çok farklı katılımcının bağlanabildiği çevrimiçi (online bir forumdur. Ayrıca, bu biçim ya da forum, dijital ya da çevrimiçi (online gazetecilik olarak adlandırılan, medya profesyonellerine sınırsız kaynaklar ve teknolojik olanaklar sunan internet üzerinde ve internet aracılığıyla gerçekleştirilen internete özgü bir gazetecilik türüne gönderme yapmaktadır. Yeni medya, teknolojik gelişmelerin ve değişimlerin paralelinde gelişim sürecini sürdürmekte, hızlı olduğu kadar da belirli kurallara bağlı kalmadan geliştiği için yeni sorunları beraberinde getirmekte ve bu nedenle, yeni medya gazeteciliğinin etik düzenlemelere acil olarak kavuşturulması gerekmektedir. Yeni medya gazeteciliğindeki etik sorunları ya da ikilemleri, genel olarak, editöryal bağımsızlık, editöryal kontrol eksikliği, enformasyonun yeniden dağıtılması-telif hakları, haber-reklam-ticari enformasyon ilişkisi, çevrimiçi (online içeriğin yayımlanma hızı, ticari baskı, köprülerin (hyperlink kullanımı, doğruluk ve güvenilirlik, kaynaklar, mahremiyet, düzenleme, haber toplama yöntemleri, kaynak şeffaflığı, bloggerlar, yurttaş gazeteciler, profesyonel olmayan gazeteciler, dijital manipülasyon ile nefret söylemi ve saldırgan içerik olmak üzere on sekiz ayrı kategoride sınıflandırmak mümkündür. Bu çalışmada, yeni medya gazeteciliğinde etik bir model önerisinin oluşturulması açısından etik sorunlar iletişim etiği bağlamında değerlendirilerek kuramsal çerçevenin belirlenmesine çalışılmakta ve modern iletişimin vazgeçilmez bir alanı olan yeni medya gazeteciliğinde etik bir paradigma belirlemenin kapsamı ve sınırları tartışılmaktadır.

  5. Light water reactor safety

    CERN Document Server

    Pershagen, B

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the principles and practices of reactor safety as applied to the design, regulation and operation of light water reactors, combining a historical approach with an up-to-date account of the safety, technology and operating experience of both pressurized water reactors and boiling water reactors. The introductory chapters set out the basic facts upon which the safety of light water reactors depend. The central section is devoted to the methods and results of safety analysis. The accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl are reviewed and their implications for light wate

  6. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  7. Metode Pembacaan Turâts Arab-Islam: Perspekti Muhammad ‘Abid al-Jâbirî

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Mukti Ro’uf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The way how turâts (a term only found in contemporary Arabic-Islam or tradition is viewed has been a critical problem. This is because queries about it imply rise and or fall of a civilization. This thesis has at least been proved by facts of history that since the midst 19th century the world of Arabic-Islam thoughts have been moving backward compared to that in the Western-modern thoughts. This research will analyze Muhammad ‘Âbid al-Jâbirî’s thoughts that represented contemporary thinkers. Al-Jâbirî was a muslim intellectual born in Feiji Southeast-Marocco in 1936. His initial acquaintance with philosophical thoughts related to three prominent figures of Karl Marx (1818-1890, Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962, and Louis Althusser (1918-1990. He was grown up in a setting of Maghribi thoughts (Marocco-Andalusia, which was influenced by traditions of French philosophy of Marxian. However, he doubted Marxian approaches in Islamic history context.Abstrak: Cara bagaimana turâts—sebuah terma yang hanya ditemukan dalam tradisi Arab-Islam kontemporer—dipahami telah menjadi suatu problem yang amat mendesak. Hal itu karena pengabaian atasnya akan berimplikasi pada kebangkitan atau kejatuhan suatu peradaban. Tesis itu setidaknya telah dibuktikan oleh kenyataan sejarah bahwa semenjak pertengahan abad XIX pemikiran Arab-Islam mengalami kemunduran dibandingkan dengan pemikiran-pemikiran Barat moderen. Kajian ini akan menganalisis pemikiran Muhammad ‘Âbid al-Jâbirî’s yang merepresentasikan para pemikir kontemporer. Al-Jâbirî adalah seorang intelektual muslim yang terlahir di Feiji, Maroko Tenggara, pada tahun 1936.  Perkenalan awalnya dengan pemikiran filosofis berkaitan dengan tiga figur penting, yaitu Karl Marx (1818-1890, Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962, and Louis Althusser (1918-1990. Dia tumbuh besar dalam latar pemikiran-pemikiran Maghribi (Marocco-Andalusia, yang dipengaruhi oleh tradisi filsafat Perancis yang Marxian. Namun demikian

  8. Örgütsel İmaj Yönetim Sisteminin İncelenmesi ve Bir Uygulama

    OpenAIRE

    Küçükaslan, Aslı

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışma işletmelerin paydaşları tarafından nasıl algılandıklarını ölçmeye çalışmaktadır. Çalışanların, müşterilerin ve işletme sisteminin diğer unsurlarının algılamalarını etkileyen birçok faktör vardır.

  9. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  10. Reactor Vessel Surveillance Program for Advanced Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyeong-Hoon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Lee, Gyu-Mahn; Kim, Jong-Wook; Park, Keun-Bae; Kim, Keung-Koo

    2008-10-15

    This report provides the design requirements of an integral type reactor vessel surveillance program for an integral type reactor in accordance with the requirements of Korean MEST (Ministry of Education, Science and Technology Development) Notice 2008-18. This report covers the requirements for the design of surveillance capsule assemblies including their test specimens, test block materials, handling tools, and monitors of the surveillance capsule neutron fluence and temperature. In addition, this report provides design requirements for the program for irradiation surveillance of reactor vessel materials, a layout of specimens and monitors in the surveillance capsule, procedures of installation and retrieval of the surveillance capsule assemblies, and the layout of the surveillance capsule assemblies in the reactor.

  11. Nef’î Hakkında Bir Bibliyografya Denemesi An Essay Of Bibliography About Nef’i

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Sercan KOŞİK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nef’î who lived in the first half of 17th century was born in Hasankale one of districts of Erzurum. The poet whose real name was Ömer had a life full of struggles but he managed to produce some important works through his life. Nef’î, one of the leading poets of divan poetry was celebrated much at his age and after his death. Such a reputation is originated from the sharpness of his pen, his talent as well as his wit. Nef’î whose usage of praise and satire is extreme is known forhis mastership in using rhythm and rhyme in his poems. While attaching importance to meaning and utterance he tried to use a new language and accomplished that to a great degree. His knowledge of Persian Language and Literature played a considerable role.A lot has been written so far about Nef’î and a great many research exists about his works too. However it is obvious that there will be many works about Nef’î, a productive poet. In this study a classification of Nef’î’s works and scientific studies about him and his works will be presented. Our research focuses to illustrate which part of his works is the center of modern researches and which parts are not. In addition, it is expected that our research will provided useful information to researchers studying Nef’î as a guide for sources regarding him. On yedinci yüzyılın ilk yarısında yaşamış olan Nef’î, Erzurum’un Hasankale ilçesinde doğmuştur. Asıl adı Ömer olan şair, oldukça mücadele dolu bir hayat geçirmiş ve bu hayata aynı zamanda önemli denilebilecek eserler de sığdırabilmeyi başarmıştır. Divan şiirinin önde gelen şairlerden biri olan Nef’î, adından hem yaşadığı dönemde hem de sonrasında çokça söz ettirmiştir. Nef’î’nin böyle bir şöhrete kavuşması onun edebi yeteneği ve kıvrak zekası yanında kaleminin keskin olmasından kaynaklanmaktadır. Övdüğünü çok iyi öven, yerdiğini de çok kötü bir şekilde yeren Nef

  12. Godot Üzerine Bir Karşılaştırma A Comparison On Godot Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ADIYAMAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The top works in world literature are composed by the way of imitation or endorsement (zeyl Samuel Beckett’s absurd theatre “waiting for Godot” is called as incongruous theatres in Turkish Literature. ”Waiting for Godot” which was written by Cahit Atay resembles in many ways when compared about fiction, place, time and characters. In Turkish Literature Ferhan Şensoy also writes about this topic, but Cahit Atay doesn’t change the things about basic fiction. But when looking at the basic difference, Beckett’s work is based on the waiting for Godot, while Atay doesn’t care about the fact of waiting forGodot. For Atay it doesn’t matter you can wait or not, but for BeckettGodot is an important thing to be waited. Godot who is waited to comein any time frightens people. It isn’t clear that who is Godot, what kindof things Godot bring or take away and what kind of character is Godot.For Atay, Godot is figured as a character which carries humanisticfeatures. Even if you can draw the portrait of Godot, Atay’s Godot isalso an abstract character.In the Works which include different facts about places, thecommon place is based on the property of a foreign person. For specialmeaning in two Works which include different cultures and civilizationsplace differs. Atay talks about different thing like concrete?Environment and the matters of our time. About characters, he changesthe names of them but he doesn’t change the mood and the attitudes ofthem. Dünya edebiyatındaki zirve eserler, taklit veya zeyl yoluyla yeniden oluşturulmaktadır. Samuel Beckett’in Godot’yu Beklerken isimli absürt oyunu Türk edebiyatında uyumsuz tiyatro oyunları olarak kaleme alınır. Cahit Atay’ın kaleme aldığı Godot’yu Beklerken kurgu, mekân, zaman ve şahıs kadrosu açısından değerlendirildiğinde birçok unsur bakımından benzerlikler gösterir. Türk edebiyatında Ferhan Şensoy’un da eser verdiği bu alanda, Cahit Atay temel

  13. Tıbbi Tahminde Alternatif Bir Yaklaşım: Destek Vektör Makineleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YILMAZ AKŞEHİRLİ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Bu çalışma, birçok alanda sıklıkla kullanılan destek vektör makinelerinin (DVM tıbbi araştırmalarda kullanımına yönelik bir uygulama olarak düşünülmüş ve tıbbi bir çalışma verisi kullanılarak DVM yönteminin veriyi doğru sınıflama başarısını ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmamızda, verileri sınıflandırmak veya tahmin yapmak amacıyla kullanılan, eğiticili (supervised bir makine öğrenmesi yöntemi olan DVM kullanılmıştır. Burada, doğrusal olmayan ilişkiler için iki sınıflı DVM yönteminin bir uygulaması yapılmıştır. DVM’nin temelini, verilerin bir düzlem veya hiper düzlem ile ayrılarak sınıflandırılması işlemi oluşturmakta ve DVM bu işlemi, iki sınıf arasındaki marjini maksimum yaparak gerçekleştirmektedir. Bu şekilde veri eğitildikten sonra, DVM yeni gelen veriyi doğru sınıflamayı amaçlamaktadır. Tıpta DVM özellikle, kanser morfolojisinde, tedavi başarısının ve ilgili genin belirlenmesinde, çeşitli hastalıkların teşhisinde kullanılmaktadır. Araştırmanın uygulama bölümünde, Zonguldak Karaelmas Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi psikiyatri polikliniğine 1-31 Ocak 2011 tarihleri arasında gece yeme sendromu şikâyetiyle başvuran 433 hastaya ilişkin bilgiler kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Kullanılan 17 değişken için tanımlayıcı istatistikler elde edilmiş ve univariate analizlerden elde edilen sonuçlara göre, GYA, BSQ ve SCL puanları, medeni durum, sigara kullanımı ve psikolojik tanı değişkenlerinin gece yeme sendromu tanısı koymada tek başına etkileri olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Doğrusal olmayan destek vektör makineleri kullanılarak elde edilen sonuçlar incelendiğinde, eğitim ve test verileri için doğruluk ve ROC eğrisi altında kalan alanlara bakılarak, modelin tanı koyma başarısının oldukça iyi derecede olduğu görülmüştür. Sonuç: DVM yöntemi, istatistiksel

  14. SNTP program reactor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Sapyta, Joseph J.

    1993-06-01

    The Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program is evaluating the feasibility of a particle bed reactor for a high-performance nuclear thermal rocket engine. Reactors operating between 500 MW and 2,000 MW will produce engine thrusts ranging from 20,000 pounds to 80,000 pounds. The optimum reactor arrangement depends on the power level desired and the intended application. The key components of the reactor have been developed and are being tested. Flow-to-power matching considerations dominate the thermal-hydraulic design of the reactor. Optimal propellant management during decay heat cooling requires a three-pronged approach. Adequate computational methods exist to perform the neutronics analysis of the reactor core. These methods have been benchmarked to critical experiment data.

  15. Fast Spectrum Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Donald; Tsvetkov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Fast Spectrum Reactors presents a detailed overview of world-wide technology contributing to the development of fast spectrum reactors. With a unique focus on the capabilities of fast spectrum reactors to address nuclear waste transmutation issues, in addition to the well-known capabilities of breeding new fuel, this volume describes how fast spectrum reactors contribute to the wide application of nuclear power systems to serve the global nuclear renaissance while minimizing nuclear proliferation concerns. Readers will find an introduction to the sustainable development of nuclear energy and the role of fast reactors, in addition to an economic analysis of nuclear reactors. A section devoted to neutronics offers the current trends in nuclear design, such as performance parameters and the optimization of advanced power systems. The latest findings on fuel management, partitioning and transmutation include the physics, efficiency and strategies of transmutation, homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling, in addit...

  16. Hybrid reactors. [Fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-09-09

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of /sup 233/U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m/sup -2/, and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid.

  17. Multi purpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raina, V.K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: vkrain@magnum.barc.ernet.in; Sasidharan, K. [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sengupta, Samiran [Research Reactor Design and Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Singh, Tej [Research Reactor Services Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2006-04-15

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor.

  18. INVAP's Research Reactor Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villarino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INVAP, an Argentine company founded more than three decades ago, is today recognized as one of the leaders within the research reactor industry. INVAP has participated in several projects covering a wide range of facilities, designed in accordance with the requirements of our different clients. For complying with these requirements, INVAP developed special skills and capabilities to deal with different fuel assemblies, different core cooling systems, and different reactor layouts. This paper summarizes the general features and utilization of several INVAP research reactor designs, from subcritical and critical assemblies to high-power reactors.

  19. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1997-04-04

    An LMFBR type reactor comprises a plurality of reactor cores in a reactor container. Namely, a plurality of pot containing vessels are disposed in the reactor vessel and a plurality of reactor cores are formed in a state where an integrated-type fuel assembly is each inserted to a pot, and a coolant pipeline is connected to each of the pot containing-vessel to cool the reactor core respectively. When fuels are exchanged, the integrated-type fuel assembly is taken out together with the pot from the reactor vessel in a state where the integrated-type fuel assembly is immersed in the coolants in the pot as it is. Accordingly, coolants are supplied to each of the pot containing-vessel connected with the coolant pipeline and circulate while cooling the integrated-type fuel assembly for every pot. Then, when the fuels are exchanged, the integrated type fuel assembly is taken out to the outside of the reactor together with the pot by taking up the pot from the pot-containing vessel. Then, neutron economy is improved to thereby improve reactor power and the breeding ratio. (N.H.)

  20. Bir İlkokul 4. Sınıf Öğrencisinin Okuma Bozukluğu ve Anlama Güçlüğü: Bir Durum Çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergiz KARDAŞ İŞLER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, okuma güçlüğü çeken bir ilkokul dördüncü sınıf öğrencisinin okuma alanındaki sorunlarının ortaya konulması ve bu sorunların giderilmesine yönelik uygulamalar gerçekleştirilmesidir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda öğrencinin okuma alanındaki sorunlarını çözmeye yönelik “Paragrafın önceden dinlenmesi stratejisi” ve “Eşli okuma stratejisi” kullanılmıştır. Nitel araştırma yaklaşımının kullanıldığı bu araştırma, 2013–2014 eğitim öğretim yılının toplam 13 saatlik sürecini kapsamaktadır. Araştırma, bütüncül tek durum desenli bir durum araştırmasında nitel bir araştırmadır. Gözlemler ve doküman incelemesi veri toplama araçları olarak kullanılmaktadır. Uygulama öncesinde, öğrencinin tekrar ederek, heceleyerek, heceleri ve sözcükleri atlayarak okuduğu, okurken eklemeler yaptığı, yanlış okuduğu ve noktalama işaretlerine dikkat etmeden okuduğu tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen bu veriler doğrultusunda Türkçe ders ve hikâye kitaplarından öğrencinin düzeyine uygun metinler seçilmiştir. Tüm bu çalışmalar ses kaydına alınmıştır. Bu çalışmalar sonucunda okuma ve okuduğunu anlama sorunlarında kullanılan stratejilerle öğrencinin problemleri azalmıştır.

  1. Partiklid jah, jaa ning jajaa naaberpaari järelliikmena müügiläbirääkimistes / Riina Kasterpalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kasterpalu, Riina

    2005-01-01

    Vastavate partiklite funktsionaalsetest ülesannetest, kasutamisest ja tähendustest müügivestlustes telefoni teel peetud müügiläbirääkimisi analüüsides. Järgneb: Keel ja Kirjandus, 2005, nr. 12

  2. Riiklik lepitaja tahab vahepeal läbirääkimistele joone alla tõmmata / Henn Pärn ; interv. Peep Talimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pärn, Henn, 1941-

    2007-01-01

    Riiklik lepitaja Henn Pärn vastab küsimustele tervishoiutöötajate alampalgaläbirääkimiste kohta. Vt. ka Eesti Arstide Liidu ja Eesti Keskastme Tervishoiutöötajate Kutseliidu avalikku pöördumist riikliku lepitaja poole, lk. 4

  3. Yağ dokusu İçeren Nadir Bir Stafne Kemik Kavitesi Olgusu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Şenel

    2012-07-01

    nerilmektedir. Manyetik rezonans görüntüleme (MR, bu kavitelerin içeriği hakkında cerrahlara ayrıntılı bilgi vermektedir. Bu makalede, yağlı içeriğe sahip nadir bir Stafne Kemik Kavitesi olgusu sunulmaktadır. Ayırıcı tanısı, DBT ve MR ile gerçekleştirilmiştir.

  4. Light water reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  5. Space Nuclear Reactor Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David Irvin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    We needed to find a space reactor concept that could be attractive to NASA for flight and proven with a rapid turnaround, low-cost nuclear test. Heat-pipe-cooled reactors coupled to Stirling engines long identified as the easiest path to near-term, low-cost concept.

  6. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2001-04-01

    The activities of the Reactor Materials Research Department of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) fusion, in particular mechanical testing; (2) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (3) nuclear fuel; and (4) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel (RPVS)

  7. Nuclear reactor design

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on core design and methods for design and analysis. It is based on advances made in nuclear power utilization and computational methods over the past 40 years, covering core design of boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors, as well as fast reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. The objectives of this book are to help graduate and advanced undergraduate students to understand core design and analysis, and to serve as a background reference for engineers actively working in light water reactors. Methodologies for core design and analysis, together with physical descriptions, are emphasized. The book also covers coupled thermal hydraulic core calculations, plant dynamics, and safety analysis, allowing readers to understand core design in relation to plant control and safety.

  8. Status of French reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballagny, A. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay (France)

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  9. Sıçan testisinde subakut deltametrin maruziyetinin etkileri: Histopatolojik bir çalışma

    OpenAIRE

    Kılıç, Kubilay Doğan; Çavuşoğlu, Türker; Yiğittürk, Gürkan; Erbaş, Oytun; Çetin, Emel Öykü; Uyanıkgil, Yiğit

    2016-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada bir hayvan modelinde deltametrinin toksisitenin testis histolojisi üzerindeki etkileri değerlendirildi.Gereç ve yöntemler: Ağırlıkları 200-220 gram olan toplam 36 yetişkin erkek Sprague-Dawley albino cinsi sıçan dört gruba ayrıldı. Grup 1 sıçanlara deltametrin 15 mg/kg/gün, grup 2 sıçanlara deltametrin 30 mg/kg/gün, grup 3 sıçanlara deltametrin 60 mg/kg/gün ve grup 4 sıçanlara (kontrol grubu) %0.9 sodyum klorür 1 mL/kg/gün 30 gün boyunca oral gavaj yolu ile verildi.B...

  10. Electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravimetric surveys at the Bi'r Jarbuah gold prospect, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.H.; Showail, A.A.; Bazzari, M.A.; Khoja, J.A.; Hajour, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    Bi'r Jarbuah is a potential gold-bearing site located east of the Ishmas gold district in the southeastern part of the Arabian Shield. Surface rocks are mostly diorite and granodiorite plutons and the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks they have intruded. Extensive thin alluvial deposits cover approximately 40 percent of the area studied. Diorite, granodiorite, aplite porphyry, granite, granite pegmatite, and mafic dikes intrude the plutons and the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Veins of quartz, carbonate materials, and associated carbonate-altered rocks containing limonite and hematite cut all rock types. The veins were extensively mined by ancient people, and recent trenching has revealed small amounts of free gold associated with these veins and adjacent altered country rocks.

  11. Pratique de l’extranéité dans l’écriture d’Abdelkébir Khatibi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Moustir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Promoted to the rank of operational concept in writing, the notion of "foreign professional" means in both fictional and critical work of Abdelkébir Khatibi (1938-2009 this cosmopolitan otherness that reduces identity disparities and cultural differences. Late Khatibi’s fictions, including Un été à Stockholm (1990 and Féerie d’un mutant (2005 represent an ontological extraneous out with all cultural and identity anchors and discourse representations. Op-erating in a global space, and private of a fixed identity and separated cultural roots, the characters of these two fictions embody the thought of foreignness and border crossing practice, at the linguistic and the cultural levels. This fact grows to reflect on what would be writing and deterritorialized identity.

  12. Sezai Karakoç'un Bir Sorusu Üzerine On A Question Of Sezai Karakoç

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat CANER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The voice in Sezai Karakoç’s Hızırla Kırk Saat says that he learned how to break the idols made of rocks from Abraham, but he doesn’t know how to destroy the idols made of words. This voice constitutes a typical 20th century philosopher concerned with pornography. Those philosophers who live in the age of images, and whose minds areblurred by the excessive bombardment of images, generally act as ifthey were iconaclasts in the age of Byzantium. Philosophers and literarywriters of our age are hopeless because of the pornographic patternswhich determine our lives. This hopelessness is driven by volontarismwhen they speak about the future, and/but by determinism when theyspeak about the past. But we should take the historical necessities intoaccount when what’s at stake is a consideration of the future. Thencewe can foresee that pornography will lose its effect on our lives becauseof the historical necessities. As a result of the coexistence of thousandsof images, no image can sufficiently satisfy or provoke the eye. That’swhy iconaclasts are not different from romantic revolutionists whohopefully dream that they can change the world in a moment.Consequently we can say that satisfying the eye is a stage within theprocess of images’ losing their effect on out minds. Sezai Karakoç’un Hızırla Kırk Saat adlı eserindeki ses, mermer putları nasıl devireceğini Hz. İbrahim’den öğrendiğini, buna karşılık, nesnesi olmayan putları, örneğin sözlerle, yani zihinlerde inşa edilen putları nasıl devireceğini bilmediğini, bunu kimsenin öğretmediğini söyler. Sözlerle inşa edilen putların nasıl kırılacağını bilmediğini söyleyen ses, pornografi hakkında yazan tipik bir 20. yüzyıl düşünürü sesidir. İmaj çağının imaj bombardımanı altında zihni bulanan bu düşünürler, genel olarak, Bizans tarihindeki put kırıcıların tavrını benimsemişlerdir. Günümüz felsefe ve edebiyatının günlük ya

  13. Slurry reactor design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. Gas cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-06-01

    Although most of the development work on fast breeder reactors has been devoted to the use of liquid metal cooling, interest has been expressed for a number of years in alternative breeder concepts using other coolants. One of a number of concepts in which interest has been retained is the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR). As presently envisioned, it would operate on the uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycle, similar to that used in the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR), and would use helium gas as the coolant.

  15. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Mitrovski, Svetlana M [Urbana, IL

    2011-03-22

    A microfluidic electrochemical reactor includes an electrode and one or more microfluidic channels on the electrode, where the microfluidic channels are covered with a membrane containing a gas permeable polymer. The distance between the electrode and the membrane is less than 500 micrometers. The microfluidic electrochemical reactor can provide for increased reaction rates in electrochemical reactions using a gaseous reactant, as compared to conventional electrochemical cells. Microfluidic electrochemical reactors can be incorporated into devices for applications such as fuel cells, electrochemical analysis, microfluidic actuation, pH gradient formation.

  16. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  17. Endüstriyel İşletmelerde Franchising Model Önerisi: Hazır Beton Sektöründe Bir Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İpek Kazançoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Endüstriyel pazarda faaliyet gösteren firmaların daha hızlı büyüyerek, yeni pazarlara açılmasında franchising sistemi bir yeni bir satış, dağıtım kanalı olarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu araştırmada amaç,  hazır beton sektöründe faaliyet gösteren bir firmanın franchising sistemini bir iş modeli olarak benimseme kararında dikkat etmesi gereken unsurları ve karşılaşılan zorlukları incelemektedir. Örnek olay çalışması olarak ele alınan çalışmada,  BATIBETON A.Ş. firmasının yedi yöneticiyle BATIBETON markasının franchising uygulamalarına ilişkin görüşlerini öğrenmek amacıyla derinlemesine görüşmeler yapılmıştır. Bu görüşmeler sonucunda, franchising sisteminin hazır beton sektöründe bir model önerisi olarak uygulanıp/uygulanmayacağı değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan görüşmelerden elde edilen bulguların diğer endüstriyel işletmeler içinde geliştirilebilecek bir franchising iş modeli kararında etkili olabilecek faktörlerin anlaşılması yönünden uygulamaya katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  18. Sanayi-î Nefise Mektebinden Üniversiteye Bir Mekânın Tasarım ve Değişimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezih R. Aysel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kuruluşundan, 1927 yılında Fındıklı’da Sultan Abdülmecid’in kızları Cemile ve Münire Sultan için yapılmış olan Çifte Saraydan Osmanlı’nın son meclisi olarak da kullanılan Cemile Sultan Sarayına taşınana değin çok farklı binalarda eğitim yapan Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi Alisi, bu tarihinde ilk kez yerleşik bir düzene geçiyordu. Bu rahatlama 1948 yılına dek sürecek, bir yangın ile Akademi’nin kurmaya çalıştığı düzen bir süreliğine bozulacaktır. 1953 yılında yenilenen Akademi binası, saray yapısının planlama ilkelerini modern mimari ilkeleri ile birleştirmiştir.Bu yazıya konu olan Konferans Salonu, binanın saray döneminde üst sofası’dır. 1954 yenilemesinde de aynı yerde benzer bir anlayışla sergi ve toplantı amaçlı bir salon planlanır. Akademi’nin yükselme devri olarak anılabilecek olan 1960’lı yıllarda salon projelendirilerek çok amaçlı kullanıma yönelik esnek bir çözüm getirilir. Daha sonraları ise mekan ihtiyaçları, derslik sorunları ve bahçeye yapılan yeni toplantı salonunun da etkisiyle Konferans Salonu giderek küçülmeye ve kurum içindeki önemini yitirmeye başlar.Bu yazı, Konferans Salonunun 1927 yılından günümüze kadar uzanan mekansal değişimini, Akademi ortamı ile aktarmaya çalışmaktadır.

  19. Reactor BR2. Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubel, P

    2001-04-01

    The BR2 is a materials testing reactor and is still one of SCK-CEN's important nuclear facilities. After an extensive refurbishment to compensate for the ageing of the installation, the reactor was restarted in April 1997. During the last three years, the availability of the installation was maintained at an average level of 97.6 percent. In the year 2000, the reactor was operated for a total of 104 days at a mean power of 56 MW. In 2000, most irradiation experiments were performed in the CALLISTO PWR loop. The report describes irradiations achieved or under preparation in 2000, including the development of advanced facilities and concept studies for new programmes. An overview of the scientific irradiation programmes as well as of the R and D programme of the BR2 reactor in 2000 is given.

  20. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, A C

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these and their associated uncertainties are crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to-date have been determined by either conversion of measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that makeup the spectra using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to beta-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  1. New reactor type proposed

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Russian scientists at the Research Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering in Moscow are hoping to develop a new reactor that will use lead and bismuth as fuel instead of uranium and plutonium" (1/2 page).

  2. Helias reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidler, C.D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Grieger, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Harmeyer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Kisslinger, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Karulin, N. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maurer, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany); Nuehrenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Rau, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Sapper, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wobig, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The present status of Helias reactor studies is characterised by the identification and investigation of specific issues which result from the particular properties of this type of stellarator. On the technical side these are issues related to the coil system, while physics studies have concentrated on confinement, alpha-particle behaviour and ignition conditions. The usual assumptions have been made in those fields which are common to all toroidal fusion reactors: blanket and shield, refuelling and exhaust, safety and economic aspects. For blanket and shield sufficient space has been provided, a detailed concept will be developed in future. To date more emphasis has been placed on scoping and parameter studies as opposed to fixing a specific set of parameters and providing a detailed point study. One result of the Helias reactor studies is that physical dimensions are on the same order as those of tokamak reactors. However, it should be noticed that this comparison is difficult in view of the large spectrum of tokamak reactors ranging from a small reactor like Aries, to a large device such as SEAFP. The notion that the large aspect ratio of 10 or more in Helias configurations also leads to large reactors is misleading, since the large major radius of 22 m is compensated by the average plasma radius of 1.8 m and the average coil radius of 5 m. The plasma volume of 1400 m{sup 3} is about the same as the ITER reactor and the magnetic energy of the coil system is about the same or even slightly smaller than envisaged in ITER. (orig.)

  3. Future Reactor Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    He, Miao

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ opens a gateway for the next generation experiments to measure the neutrino mass hierarchy and the leptonic CP-violating phase. Future reactor experiments will focus on mass hierarchy determination and the precision measurement of mixing parameters. Mass hierarchy can be determined from the disappearance of reactor electron antineutrinos based on the interference effect of two separated oscillation modes. Relative and absolute measure...

  4. Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Precisely measuring $\\theta_{13}$ is one of the highest priority in neutrino oscillation study. Reactor experiments can cleanly determine $\\theta_{13}$. Past reactor neutrino experiments are reviewed and status of next precision $\\theta_{13}$ experiments are presented. Daya Bay is designed to measure $\\sin^22\\theta_{13}$ to better than 0.01 and Double Chooz and RENO are designed to measure it to 0.02-0.03. All are heading to full operation in 2010. Recent improvements in neutrino moment measu...

  5. Department of Reactor Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risø National Laboratory, Roskilde

    The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included.......The general development of the Department of Reactor Technology at Risø during 1981 is presented, and the activities within the major subject fields are described in some detail. Lists of staff, publications, and computer programs are included....

  6. Moon base reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  7. Süreç Yönetimi Olgunluk Modelleri ve Bir Organizasyonun ve Süreç Yönetimi Olgunluğunun Değerlendirilmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Özveri, Onur; Kabak, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Süreç yönetimi olgunluk modelleri işletmelerin süreç yönetimi olgunluk seviyelerini belirleyen ve bir üst olgunluk aşamasına ulaşmak adına atılması gereken adımlarla ilgili işletme yöneticilerine rehberlik eden modellerdir. Süreç yönetimi olgunluk modelleri açısından işletmenin bulunduğu seviyeye göre bir üst olgunluk seviyesi, süreç yönetimine ilişkin daha başarılı uygulama ve sonuçları ifade etmektedir. Literatürde süreç olgunluğunun değerlendirilmesi amacıyla geliştirilmiş çok ...

  8. Sosyal Öyküler: Otistik Çocuklara Yönelik Bir Sağaltım

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Özdemir

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Sosyal öyküler bir özel eğitim öğretmeni olan Carol Gray (1994 tarafından otizmden etkilenmiş çocukların sosyal durumları daha iyi anlamaları için geliştirilmiş kısa ve bireyselleştirilmiş öykülerdir. Bu öyküler farklı sosyal durumlar ile ilgili sosyal bilgi ve ipuçlarını çocuğun doğru olarak anlamasına yardımcı olur ve sosyal durumun kim, ne, nerede, ve kiminle gibi özel sorularına yönelik olarak bilgi aktarır. Sosyal öyküler rutin durumlarda ortaya çıkan değişiklikleri açıklamak, akademik becerileri öğretmek, uyum becerileri edindirmek, sosyal durumları ürkütücü olmayan bir yolla açıklamak, ve saldırgan ya da takıntılı davranış gibi problem davranışların üstesinden gelmek gibi farklı amaçlar için kullanılabilirler. Bu makalenin amacı otistik çocuklarla özellikle eğitim ortamlarında yaygınlıkla kullanılan sosyal öyküleri tanıtmak ve sosyal öykülerin bir sağaltım tekniği olarak yazım ve uygulama kuralları hakkında bilgi vermektir. Sosyal hikaleyelerin etkililiğinin değerlendirilmesi sürecinin nasıl uygulanacağı da ayrıca bu makalede incelenmiştir. Social Stories are short and individualized stories developed by Carol Gray (1994, a special education teacher, intended for children with autism to understand social situations. Social Stories attempt to help ensure a child’s accurate understanding of social information and social cues for a given setting and gives instruction regarding the who, what, when, where, and why of a social situation. Social stories can be used for a variety of purposes including explaining changes in routines, teaching academic skills, training adaptive skills, describing social situations in a way that is non-intimidating, and dealing with difficult behaviors, including aggression or obsessive behavior. The purpose of this study was to present social stories used commonly by educators and provide information on how to write and

  9. Reactor Safety Planning for Prometheus Project, for Naval Reactors Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Delmolino

    2005-05-06

    The purpose of this letter is to submit to Naval Reactors the initial plan for the Prometheus project Reactor Safety work. The Prometheus project is currently developing plans for cold physics experiments and reactor prototype tests. These tests and facilities may require safety analysis and siting support. In addition to the ground facilities, the flight reactor units will require unique analyses to evaluate the risk to the public from normal operations and credible accident conditions. This letter outlines major safety documents that will be submitted with estimated deliverable dates. Included in this planning is the reactor servicing documentation and shipping analysis that will be submitted to Naval Reactors.

  10. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  11. SIP Tabanlı Telefon Servislerinin IPTV Sistemine Bütünleştirilebilmesi İçin Yeni Bir Protokol Önerisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Yükselten

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, oturum başlatma protokolü (SIP tabanlı çağrı sunucusuyla sağlanan telefon servislerinin IPTV sistemiyle bütünleşmesini sağlayacak yeni bir mimari yapı önerilmiş ve bu amaca yönelik yeni bir protokol (Bağımsız Bildirim Protokolü tasarlanarak geliştirilen mimari yapının avantajları incelenmiştir. Önerilen mimari yapı ve bunu destekleyen protokoller, bildirim mimarisinde arabirim katmanına (middleware olan gereksinimi ortadan kaldırmaktadır. Böylece, bildirim mimari yapısı bir katman azaltılmakta, arabirim katmanına olan bağımlılık sona ermekte, her türlü arabirim katmanı ile bildirim mimarisi kurulabilmektedir. Geliştirilen mimari yapı ve protokolün testleri sonucunda, bildirim bant genişliğinin, mevcut bildirim mimari yapılarındakinin %10’una kadar düştüğü ve önerilen mimari yapının başarılı bir şekilde çalıştığı görülmüştür.

  12. Ortodonti ve periodontoloji işbirliği. Modern biyolojik ortodontide periodontal konular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tancan Uysal

    2011-01-01

    ;">    Ortodontistlerin ve periodontologların yaptıkları klinik tedavilerde periodontoloji ile ortodonti arasındaki ilişkinin biyolojik temellerinin farkında olması gerekmektedir. İki uzmanlık dalı arasındaki uyum, tedavi sonuçlarının olumlu olmasını sağlamaktadır. Bölümler arasında gerçekleştirilen işbirliği ile ortodontik tedavi periodontal sağlığı geliştirdiği gibi periodontal tedavi de ortodontik tedavi sonuçlarını daha da başarılı hale getirebilmektedir. Teknoloji, uzmanlık dalları arasında etkileşimi sağlarken, tedavinin temelini biyoloji oluşturmaktadır. Yeni yüzyılın ortodontisti; bilgili, deneyimli ve sorumluluk sahibi periodontolog ile beraber çalışmalıdır. Ortodontik tedavi görecek hastalar, periodontal riskler, dişeti büyümeleri ve olası alveolar kemik kaybından haberdar edilmelidir. Bu derlemede, aselüler dermal matriks, mine matriks proteinleri, periodontal plastik cerrahi ve yeni bir ortognatik cerrahi alternatifi olan “periodontal olarak hızlandırılmış osteojenik ortodonti” gibi güncel tedaviler ile geleneksel tedaviler tartışılacaktır. Ayrıca aşağıdaki sorulara cevaplar bulunmaya çalışılacaktır; “Ortodontik tedavi periodontal hastalığa sebep olur mu?”, “Periodontal olarak enfekte olan hastalar ortodontik diş hareketleri ile tedavi edilebilir mi?”, “Hastalara ne zaman ve hangi cerrahi yaklaşımlar yapılmaktadır?”, “Hangi tedavi seçenekleri en iyi sonuçları verir ve periodontal dokulara daha az zarar verir?”, “Ne sıklıkla ortodonti hastaları periodontolog tarafından takip edilmelidir?”. Ayrıca periodontal açıdan ortodontik tedavinin endikasyonları, kontrendikasyonları, sınırlamaları, avantaj ve dezavantajları tartışılacaktır.

    Scaleable, High Efficiency Microchannel Sabatier Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Microchannel Sabatier Reactor System (MSRS) consisting of cross connected arrays of isothermal or graded temperature reactors is proposed. The reactor array...

  13. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    OpenAIRE

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-01-01

    Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağla...

  14. Veri Zarflama Analizi Tabanlı Yeni Bir Hibrid İki Gruplu Sınıflandırma Modeli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hasan ÖRKCÜ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada iki gruplu sınıflandırma problemlerinin çözümünde kullanılabilecek yeni bir sınıflandırma modeli geliştirilmiştir. Bu model Veri Zarflama Analizi BCC modeline dayanan Pendharkar ve Troutt (2014 modeli ile Sueyoshi (2004 tarafından önerilen iki aşamalı sınıflandırma modelinin bir karmasıdır. Çalışmanın amacı, BCC modelindeki parçalı doğrusal etkinlik sınırı ve iki aşamalı detaylı inceleme fikri sayesinde iki gruplu sınıflandırma problemlerini ele almaktır. Önerilen yeni yaklaşım Pendharkar ve Troutt (2014’den alınan bir örnek üzerinde ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiş ve ayrıca yapılan simülasyon çalışmasından önerilen yöntemin sınıflandırma performansının diğer iki yöntemden daha iyi olduğu gözlenmiştir.

  15. Hayvan Islahında Güncel Bir Yaklaşım: CRISPR/Cas9 Genom Modifikasyon Sistemi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Bilgi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genom modifikasyonları, verimin arttırılmasında ve hastalıklara karşı direncin kazandırılması konusunda önemli avantajlar sağlama potansiyeli içermektedir. Bireyin zaten sahip olduğu bir genin susturulmasını ya da ifade edilmesini sağlayan gen düzenlenmesi yöntemleri (gene editing çevreyi en az etkileyerek genetik yapının geliştirilmesi konusunda önemli olanaklar sağlamaktadır. Son zamanlarda yeni genetik düzenleme yöntemleri geliştirilmiştir. Bunlar ZFN (Zinc Finger Nuclease’ler, TALEN (Transcription Activator-like Effector Nuclease’ler ve CRISPR/Cas nükleaz sistemleridir. CRISPR/Cas sistemi yabancı genetik materyalleri yok etmek için RNA güdümlü nükleazları kullanan bir mikrobiyal immün sistem olup, bu sistemin günümüzde hayvanlarda basit ve etkili bir gen düzenleme mekanizması olarak kullanılabilme potansiyeli değerlendirilmektedir. Bu derlemede CRISPR/Cas9 sistemi ve hayvan ıslahında kullanılabilirliği özetlenmiştir.

  16. Türkiye’de göç yönetişimi: Kurumsal yapı ve işbirliği

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Göç özünde yer değişikliğini içeren bir hareketliliktir. Bu hareketliliğin sebebi bazen doğal bir afet, bazen savaşlar, bazen ekonomik gerekçeler, bazen zulüm korkusu olabilir. Göç zamanla sınır aşan bir sorun haline gelmiş ve artan uluslararası göç hareketleri göç yönetiminin yeniden şekillenmesini ve küresel göç yönetişimin ortaya çıkmasını sağlamıştır. Uluslararası göç hareketlerinde en fazla etkilenen ülkelerden Türkiye de göç yönetişimine uyum sağlayacak yasal ve kurums...

  17. Internet kullanicilarinin demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorlari tercihleri arasindaki ilişki üzerine bir araştirma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren AYRANCI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Günümüzde milyarlarca insan interneti farklı amaçlar için kullanmaktadır. Web arama motorları internet kullanıcıları arasında, ihtiyaç duyulan bilgiyi bulmak için çok popülerdir. Bu makale, internet kullanıcılarının bazı demografik özellikleri ile önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri arasında bir ilişkinin olup olmadığını anlamak için yapılan bir araştırmayı içermektedir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre demografik özelliklerin çoğu önde gelen web arama motorları tercihleri ile bir takım bağlantılara sahiptir.

  18. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Iida, Masaaki; Moriki, Yasuyuki

    1994-10-18

    A reactor core is divided into a plurality of coolants flowrate regions, and electromagnetic pumps exclusively used for each of the flowrate regions are disposed to distribute coolants flowrates in the reactor core. Further, the flowrate of each of the electromagnetic pumps is automatically controlled depending on signals from a temperature detector disposed at the exit of the reactor core, so that the flowrate of the region can be controlled optimally depending on the burning of reactor core fuels. Then, the electromagnetic pumps disposed for every divided region are controlled respectively, so that the coolants flowrate distribution suitable to each of the regions can be attained. Margin for fuel design is decreased, fuels are used effectively, as well as an operation efficiency can be improved. Moreover, since the electromagnetic pump has less flow resistance compared with a mechanical type pump, and flow resistance of the reactor core flowrate control mechanism is eliminated, greater circulating flowrate can be ensured after occurrence of accident in a natural convection using a buoyancy of coolants utilizable for after-heat removal as a driving force. (N.H.).

  19. Reactor Structural Materials: Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouadi, R

    2000-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on Rector Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels are:(1) to complete the fracture toughness data bank of various reactor pressure vessel steels by using precracked Charpy specimens that were tested statically as well as dynamically; (2) to implement the enhanced surveillance approach in a user-friendly software; (3) to improve the existing reconstitution technology by reducing the input energy (short cycle welding) and modifying the stud geometry. Progress and achievements in 1999 are reported.

  1. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-08-01

    Paper presented at the 29th IECEC in Monterey, CA in August 1994. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their (thermionic reactor) performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling.

  2. Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Lanin, Anatoly

    2013-01-01

    The development of a nuclear rocket engine reactor (NRER ) is presented in this book. The working capacity of an active zone NRER under mechanical and thermal load, intensive neutron fluxes, high energy generation (up to 30 MBT/l) in a working medium (hydrogen) at temperatures up to 3100 K is displayed. Design principles and bearing capacity of reactors area discussed on the basis of simulation experiments and test data of a prototype reactor. Property data of dense constructional, porous thermal insulating and fuel materials like carbide and uranium carbide compounds in the temperatures interval 300 - 3000 K are presented. Technological aspects of strength and thermal strength resistance of materials are considered. The design procedure of possible emergency processes in the NRER is developed and risks for their origination are evaluated. Prospects of the NRER development for pilotless space devices and piloted interplanetary ships are viewed.

  3. Operation of Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    3.1 Annual Report of SPR Operation Chu Shaochu Having overseen by National Nuclear Safety Administration and specialists, the reactor restarted up successfully after Safety renovation on April 16, 1996. In August 1996 the normal operation of SPR was approved by the authorities of Naitonal Nuclear Safety Administration. 1 Operation status In 1996, the reactor operated safely for 40 d and the energy released was about 137.3 MW·d. The operation status of SPR is shown in table 1. The reactor started up to higher power (power more than 1 MW) and lower power (for physics experiments) 4 times and 14 times respectively. Measurement of control rod efficiency and other measurement tasks were 2 times and 5 times respectively.

  4. An Overview of Reactor Concepts, a Survey of Reactor Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    Public Affairs Office and is releasaole to the National Technical Information Services (NTIS). At NTIS, it will be available to the general public...Reactors that use deu- terium (heavy water) as a coolant can use natural uranium as a fuel. The * Canadian reactor, CANDU , utilizes this concept...reactor core at the top and discharged at the Dotton while the reactor is in operation. The discharged fuel can then b inspected to see if it can De used

  5. Oscillatory flow chemical reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavnić Danijela S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global market competition, increase in energy and other production costs, demands for high quality products and reduction of waste are forcing pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and biochemical industries, to search for radical solutions. One of the most effective ways to improve the overall production (cost reduction and better control of reactions is a transition from batch to continuous processes. However, the reactions of interests for the mentioned industry sectors are often slow, thus continuous tubular reactors would be impractically long for flow regimes which provide sufficient heat and mass transfer and narrow residence time distribution. The oscillatory flow reactors (OFR are newer type of tube reactors which can offer solution by providing continuous operation with approximately plug flow pattern, low shear stress rates and enhanced mass and heat transfer. These benefits are the result of very good mixing in OFR achieved by vortex generation. OFR consists of cylindrical tube containing equally spaced orifice baffles. Fluid oscillations are superimposed on a net (laminar flow. Eddies are generated when oscillating fluid collides with baffles and passes through orifices. Generation and propagation of vortices create uniform mixing in each reactor cavity (between baffles, providing an overall flow pattern which is close to plug flow. Oscillations can be created by direct action of a piston or a diaphragm on fluid (or alternatively on baffles. This article provides an overview of oscillatory flow reactor technology, its operating principles and basic design and scale - up characteristics. Further, the article reviews the key research findings in heat and mass transfer, shear stress, residence time distribution in OFR, presenting their advantages over the conventional reactors. Finally, relevant process intensification examples from pharmaceutical, polymer and biofuels industries are presented.

  6. Yenidoğanda Nadir Bir Enterokolit Nedeni: İnek Sütü Entoleransı

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Tufan; Erkan, Tülay; Çokuğraş, Fügen; Göksel, Süha; T.Tümay, Güngör

    1995-01-01

    Otuzsekiz günlük bir kız çocuğu inek sütü içeren hazır mama ile beslenmeye başlandıktan sonra ortaya çıkan kusma kanlı ishal ve karın şişliği nedeniyle getirildi İnce barsak biyopsisinde total villus atrofisi bulunması betalaktoglobulin antikorları pozitifliği ve inek sütü içeren mamanın diyetten çıkarılması ile semptomların kaybolması üzerine enterokolit tablosunun inek sütü entoleransına bağlı olduğu düşünüldü Bu olgu bize yenidoğanlarda kusma ve kanlı ishal varlığında ayırıcı tanıda inek s...

  7. Macaristan Türkolojisi Üzerine Bir Biyo-Biyografi Denemesi An Attempt At A Bioagrapy of Hungarian Turkology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GÜMÜŞKILIÇ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hungary is the place where Turcology studies started in modern terms. For many years Hungarian scientists have been engaged in Turkish studies- as a part of their research of their own roots -. Theyhad great contribution to Turkish language, history, literature,geography, ethnography and music. It may also be supposed thatTurkish Hungarian relations were better than now. However, todayTurkish Hungarian relations have been enjoying a revival again.Considering the closeness of Hungarians and Turks, it is obvious thatthe two nations share some responsibilities in improving their relations.In this article, after organizing the names of all the HungarianTurcologs who have conducted studies on Turks after the foundation ofmodern Turcology in alphabetical order, their articles on Turcologyfromoldest to newest will be presented as well as their career lives.Also the lists of some of the studies on some of the Turcologs will begiven. The Hungarian scientists and their studies mentioned in thisarticle do not encompass all of them. If we include other articles, books,presentations, credits, reviews and the studies of other scientists thatwe haven’t been able to mention here, the number will swell and gobeyond the limits of this article. In the future, we hope that furtherdetailed studies will be conducted on Hungarian Turcology. Through anattempt at biyo biography, we have tried to touch briefly on theimportance Hungarians give to Turks.Undoubtedly in the future, Turkish Hungarian relations andfriendship will further improve with the help of further detailed studies.This article will serve its purpose if we have a tiny contribution. Modern anlamda Türkoloji çalışmalarının başladığı yer Macaristan’dır. Macar bilim adamları yıllar boyu -bir bakıma kendi köklerini de arama çabaları sebebiyle- Türklük bilimiyle uğraştılar. Türk diline, tarihine, kültürüne, edebiyatına, coğrafyasına, etnoğrafyasına, musikîsine b

  8. Correlation of fine needle aspiration cytology with histopathology findings in cases of thyroid lesions in Bir Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PB Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To correlate the findings of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC with the histopathology( HPE of the excised nodule or specimen and to assess the accuracy and efficacy of FNAC in the diagnosis of the thyroid nodules. Materials and methods: This is a prospective study conducted at the Department of Ear Nose Throat (ENT & Head & NecK Surgery( HNS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu from 2nd January 2009 to 29th December 2011. One hundred patients with thyroid nodule were included in the study. Results: Out of 100 patients 77 were females and 23 males. The age ranged from 11-60 years. Statistical analysis of results for Benign Thyroid lesion showed 98.6% sensitivity, 75 % specificity. Likewise, results for Malignant thyroid lesions showed 75 % sensitivity, 98.6 % specificity . Conclusion: FNAC has high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid lesions. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 23-29 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9670

  9. Perspectives on reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Camp, A.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) maintains a technical training center at Chattanooga, Tennessee to provide appropriate training to both new and experienced NRC employees. This document describes a one-week course in reactor, safety concepts. The course consists of five modules: (1) historical perspective; (2) accident sequences; (3) accident progression in the reactor vessel; (4) containment characteristics and design bases; and (5) source terms and offsite consequences. The course text is accompanied by slides and videos during the actual presentation of the course.

  10. Reactor Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Walle, E

    2002-04-01

    The activities of SCK-CEN's Reactor Materials Research Department for 2001 are summarised. The objectives of the department are: (1) to evaluate the integrity and behaviour of structural materials used in nuclear power industry; (2) to conduct research to unravel and understand the parameters that determine the material behaviour under or after irradiation; (3) to contribute to the interpretation, the modelling of the material behaviour and to develop and assess strategies for optimum life management of nuclear power plant components. The programmes within the department are focussed on studies concerning (1) Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC); (2) nuclear fuel; and (3) Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel.

  11. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HFIR at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a light-water cooled and moderated reactor that is the United States’ highest flux reactor-based neutron source. HFIR...

  13. İletişim Çalışmalarında Yeni Bir Mecra: Finansal İletişim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gökgöz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available 1970’li yıllar toplumsal ve politik tarih açısından önemli bir uğrağı temsil eder. Bu yılların başında yaşanan kriz, ekonominin işleyiş süreçlerini, devletin yapısını ve toplumsal alanın tasavvur edilme biçimini büyük ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu dönemde, finansal sermaye, kapitalizm içerisinde bir hegemonik lider olarak ön plana çıkmış; devlet, bir yandan üretimin çekirdeğinden uzak bir yerde konumlandırılırken diğer yandan paranın dolaşım kanallarının rehabilitasyonu işine odaklanmış; insana ilişkin değerler, kültürel mefhumlar ve toplumsal pratikler ise birer değişken olarak ekonomi-politikanın merkezine taşınmıştır. Kültür ile ekonomi arasındaki geleneksel ilişki bozulmuş; bir ekonomi-politikanın başarısı, toplumsal aktörlere temas etme kabiliyeti ile paralel hale gelmiştir. Finansallaşma sürecinde bu temas, iletişim politikaları vasıtasıyla sağlanır; ekonomi-politika ve bundan sorumlu merkezi kurumlarla toplumsal alan arasındaki bağ, iletişim stratejileri üzerinden kurulur; ekonomik alan ile kültürel alan arasındaki boşluk, iletişim kanalları içerisinden taşınan enformasyon marifetiyle doldurulur; insana ilişkin öngörülemezlikler, iletişim süreçleri vasıtasıyla öngörülebilir kılınır. Bu çalışmada, iletişim çalışmaları içerisinde yeni bir mecra olarak çağrılan “finansal iletişim”in farklı temas noktalarına işaret edilecek ve her bir uğrağın finansal iletişim alanına bağlandığı nokta, modeller üzerinden gösterilecektir. 

  14. Reactor operation safety information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The report contains a reactor facility description which includes K, P, and L reactor sites, structures, operating systems, engineered safety systems, support systems, and process and effluent monitoring systems; an accident analysis section which includes cooling system anomalies, radioactive materials releases, and anticipated transients without scram; a summary of onsite doses from design basis accidents; severe accident analysis (reactor core disruption); a description of operating contractor organization and emergency planning; and a summary of reactor safety evolution. (MB)

  15. Thermal Reactor Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  16. Chromatographic and Related Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-07

    special information about effects of surface heteroge- neity in the methanation reaction. Studies of an efficient multicolumn assembly for measuring...of organic basic catalysts such as pyridine and 4-methylpicoline. It was demonstrated that the chromatographic reactor gave special information about...Programmed Reaction to obtain special information about surface heterogeneity in the methanation reaction. Advantages of stopped flow over steady state

  17. Nuclear Reactors and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. [eds.

    1992-01-01

    This publication Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency`s Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on the Energy Science and Technology Database and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to the Energy Science and Technology Database, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user`s needs.

  18. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  19. WATER BOILER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L.D.P.

    1960-11-22

    As its name implies, this reactor utilizes an aqueous solution of a fissionable element salt, and is also conventional in that it contains a heat exchanger cooling coil immersed in the fuel. Its novelty lies in the utilization of a cylindrical reactor vessel to provide a critical region having a large and constant interface with a supernatant vapor region, and the use of a hollow sleeve coolant member suspended from the cover assembly in coaxial relation with the reactor vessel. Cool water is circulated inside this hollow coolant member, and a gap between its outer wall and the reactor vessel is used to carry off radiolytic gases for recombination in an external catalyst chamber. The central passage of the coolant member defines a reflux condenser passage into which the externally recombined gases are returned and condensed. The large and constant interface between fuel solution and vapor region prevents the formation of large bubbles and minimizes the amount of fuel salt carried off by water vapor, thus making possible higher flux densities, specific powers and power densities.

  20. The First Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    On December 2, 1942, in a racquet court underneath the West Stands of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team of scientists led by Enrico Fermi created the first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. This updated and revised story of the first reactor (or "pile") is based on postwar interviews (as told to Corbin…

  1. MULTISTAGE FLUIDIZED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonke, A.A.; Graae, J.E.A.; Levitz, N.M.

    1959-11-01

    A multistage fluidized bed reactor is described in which each of a number of stages is arranged with respect to an associated baffle so that a fluidizing gas flows upward and a granular solid downward through the stages and baffles, whereas the granular solid stopsflowing downward when the flow of fluidizing gas is shut off.

  2. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  3. Modeling Chemical Reactors I: Quiescent Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Michoski, C E; Schmitz, P G

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a fully generalized quiescent chemical reactor system in arbitrary space $\\vdim =1,2$ or 3, with $n\\in\\mathbb{N}$ chemical constituents $\\alpha_{i}$, where the character of the numerical solution is strongly determined by the relative scaling between the local reactivity of species $\\alpha_{i}$ and the local functional diffusivity $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(\\alpha)$ of the reaction mixture. We develop an operator time-splitting predictor multi-corrector RK--LDG scheme, and utilize $hp$-adaptivity relying only on the entropy $\\mathscr{S}_{\\mathfrak{R}}$ of the reactive system $\\mathfrak{R}$. This condition preserves these bounded nonlinear entropy functionals as a necessarily enforced stability condition on the coupled system. We apply this scheme to a number of application problems in chemical kinetics; including a difficult classical problem arising in nonequilibrium thermodynamics known as the Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction where we utilize a concentration-dependent diffusivity tensor $\\mathscr{D}_{ij}(...

  4. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  5. Reactor monitoring using antineutrino detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, N. S.

    2011-08-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactor as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and/or other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway worldwide.

  6. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.

    1980-05-09

    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  7. The International Framework of Information Policies Enformasyon Politikalarına Küresel Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Moore

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of information societies is one of the defining characteristics of the last decade of the twentieth century. Countries all over the world are repositioning themselves to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the information age. They share common objectives although there are significant differences in the motivations underlying the re-positioning and in the mechanisms chosen to implement information society developments. Formal frameworks of policy are being established to steer the development of information societies. There can be few other examples of technological change stimulating formal policy creation in order to bring about social change. This paper surveys the approaches to information policy in various countries all over the world and forecasts future progress with views as to how to ensure that the information society will work for the good of every one. 20. yüzyılın son on yılının belirleyici karakteristiklerinden biri enformasyon toplumlarının ortaya çıkması olmuştur. Dünyanın dört bir yanında ülkeler, enformasyon çağının yarattığı olanaklardan yararlanabilmek için konumlarını gözden geçirmektedirler. Bu ülkelerin hedefleri aynı olmakla birlikte, yönelimlerinin ardındaki motivasyonlar her zaman aynı değildir ve enformasyon toplumu gelişmelerini uygulamaya sokmak için seçtikleri mekanizmalar önemli farklılıklar göstermektedir. Enformasyon toplumuna geçişi harekete geçirmek için resmi politikalar saptanmaktadır. Bunun dışında, teknolojik değişimin, bağlantılı bir toplumsal değişimi sağlamak için resmi politikalar belirlenmesini zorladığı çok ender görülmüştür. Bu bildiride dünyanın çeşitli ülkelerinde enformasyon politikalarına yaklaşımların neler olduğu gözden geçirilmekte, geleceğe yönelik görüşler sunulmakta ve enformasyon toplumunun herkesin yararına gelişmesi için neler yapılması gerektiği konusu işlenmektedir.

  8. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...... against Methanothrix soehngenii or Methanothrix CALS-I in any of the thermophilic biogas reactors examined. Studies using 2-14C-labeled acetate showed that at high concentrations (more than approx. 1 mM) acetate was metabolized via the aceticlastic pathway, transforming the methyl-group of acetate...

  9. Zihin Kuramı ve Dil Arasındaki İlişki: Bir Derleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Keçeli Kaysılı

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diğerlerinin duygularını, düşüncelerini ve isteklerini anlama yani zihin kuramı başarılı bir iletişim için gereklidir. Bu derleme çalışmasında normal gelişen çocuklarda zihin kuramı ve dil ilişkisi ele alınmıştır. Zihin kuramı kazanımını açıklayan teorilerden biri sözdizimi ve zihinsel durum ifade eden eylemlerin, yanlış inancın temsiline olanak sağladığını belirterek bu ilişkiyi incelemektedir. Bu varsayım dil ile zihin kuramı arasındaki ilişkinin doğasını tanımladığı için önemli görülmektedir. Alanyazından derlenen bu çalışmanın çocukların iletişim ve dil gelişimlerini desteklemede, öğretmenlere yol göstereceği düşünülmektedir. Understanding of others’ feelings, thoughts and wishes or a ‘theory of mind’ is essential for competent communication. This study described how language and theory of mind development are related in typically developing children. One of the hypothesis that explains the acquisition of theory of mind, proposed that syntax and mental states verbs provides children to understand representational thoughts like false belief. Because this hypothesis aimed to identify more specifically the nature of this role it is thought to be important. This review of selected literature will help teachers enhance children’s communication and language development.

  10. Ekonomik gerikalmışlık ve ekonomik dengesizlik kavramları üzerine bir deneme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali KARACA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu makalede öncelikle azgelişmişlik kavramı üzerinde durulmuş bu konuda en önde gelen yerli ve yabancı kaynaklar belirlenmiştir. Ardından da bu kaynaklarda yer alan çalışmalar incelenmiş ve özellikle daha güncel tarihli çalışmalarda ele alınan ana ve alt konular üzerinde durulmuştur. Ayrıca azgelişmişlik düzeyini ölçen kriterler ayrıntılı olarak incelenmiştir. Özellikle; Dünya ekonomisine entegrasyon kriterleri, endüstrileşme kriterleri, sosyo-ekonomik kriterler, jeo-politik kriterler başlıklarında detaylı bilgiler verilmiştir. Literatürde ekonomik gerikalmışlık kriterlerini inceleyen çok çeşitli makaleler vardır. Bu makaleler genelde geri kalmışlık yaklaşımlarını genel değerlendirme perspektifinden aktarmaktadırlar. Bu makalede ise ekonomik geri kalmışlık kavramı ekonomik kalkınma iktisadı açısından incelenmiş ve ekonomik dengesizlikler ve kriterleri detaylı bir şekilde verilmiştir.

  11. /ı/ Türkçede Bir Anasesbirim midir? Is The Letter of /ı/ Archiphoneme In Turkish?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ÖZEK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We can mention two letters of /ı/ in world languages. One ofthem is /ı/ (ы vowel called "yeri" in Russian language and the other is/ı/ vowel that is designated with [ï] in alphabet of internationaltranscription and that almost belongs to the Turkish language. The /ı/vowel of the Turkish language is a velarized, narrow, flat velum vowel interms of its characteristic features. It has normal duration. /a/, /i/ and/u/ vowels are generally deemed as cardinal vowels of the Turkishlanguage. According to this common view, eight vowels in the Turkishlanguage derived from these vowels. However, A.N. Baskakov thinksthat /ı/ is an archiphoneme and [i,u,ü] vowels are variants of the /ı/phoneme. This different view has had an influence on issuance of thispaper. It is possible to define the archiphoneme as main voicecontaining characteristics of more than one voice or first known voicesof a language. The archiphonemes are strong voices. They usually retaintheir existences. However, such characteristics are not seen in /ı/phoneme. Following determinations can be considered as evidenceshereof:1. qlıç (~ qılıç [cliç, cliz/kiliç] writings in Codex Cumanicus,2. Front palatalization of the /ı/ vowel in the first syllable (Uigur biş- ~ bış-‘mature, age out ’; Khorezm biş-; Kipchak biş- ~ piş-; Chagatai piş-; ETT piş-; Bashkir,Tatar, Turkmen, Azerbaijani biş-; Kazakh pis-; Uzbek, New Uigur, Gagauz, Trk. piş- Dünya dillerinde iki tane /ı/’dan bahsedilebilir. Bunlardan bir tanesi Rusça “yeri” adı verilen /ı/ (ы ünlüsü, diğeri ise uluslar arası transkripsiyon alfabesinde [ï] işaretiyle gösterilen ve neredeyse tamamen Türkçeye ait olan /ı/ ünlüsüdür. Türkçeye has /ı/ ünlüsü nitelik özellikleri bakımından kalın, dar, düz bir art damak ünlüsüdür. Nicelik bakımından ise normal sürelidir. /a/, /i/ ve /u/ ünlüleri genel olarak Türkçenin temel ünlüleri olarak kabul edilir. Bu yaygın görüşe g

  12. Cronbach’ın Alfası, Tek Boyutluluğun veya Benzeşikliğin (Homojenliğin) Bir Ölçüsü Değildir

    OpenAIRE

    BADEMCİ, Vahit

    2014-01-01

    Güvenirlik, testler veya ölçme araçlarının değil, ölçümlerin bir özelliğidir. Cronbach’ın alfası katsayısı yöntemi, bir test ya da ölçme aracından elde edilen ölçümlerin güvenirliğini kestirme yöntemlerinden biridir. Başka bir ifadeyle, Cronbach’ın alfası, [madde] ölçümler[i] arasındaki iç tutarlılık üzerine temellenmiş bir ölçüm güvenirliğinin kestirilmesidir. Bunun yanı sıra, Cronbach’ın alfası katsayısı, ölçme aracının benzeşikliğinin (homojenliğinin) bir göstergesi olarak alınmamalı veya ...

  13. Malezya’da Din-Devlet İlişkisine Kısa Bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Özay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractStarting from the second half of the 1960s onwards, socio-religious youth movements, which are regarded as the initial element of civil expressions on university campuses, were constructively influential on the perception of the political elites’ understanding of Islam and political evolution of the Islamisation policies in the process in Malaysia. There are opinions that this effect encompassed the efforts of Islamisation particularly in the 1980s. In this process, the task of the state apparatus, as a political power, which managed the religious domain mostly considered belonging to the civil sector, deserves to be scrutinized in relation with at least some influential factors in the near and distant past of the Muslim Malay community. And, it cannot be overseen that the functions of the traditional Malay rulers, say, Sultans, were transferred, to some or larger extent, to the Federal government after the independence. With regard to this, in this article, the present writer will focus on some aspects of the policies of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, who has molded majorily the history of modern Malaysia, regarding his Islamisation policy aligned with the state-religion relationship.ÖzetMalezya’da 1960’lı yılların ikinci yarısından itibaren üniversite kampüslerinde başlayan ve sivilleşmenin bir unsuru olarak telâkki edilen dini-toplumsal hareketlerin İslam’ın ülke siyasi elitince algılanmasında ve pratikte İslamlaştırma adıyla anılabilecek politikalara evrilmesinde önemli etkisi olmuştur. Bu etkinin, özellikle 1980’li yıllarda devlet eliyle İslamlaştırma çabalarına yol açtığı konusunda görüşler bulunmaktadır. Bu süreçte, yani devletin siyasi bir güç olarak sivil alana dahil olan dini çekip çevirme işini üstlenmesinde, özellikle Müslüman Malay toplumunun yakın ve uzak geçmişindeki kimi faktörler dikkate alınmayı hak etmektedir. Bu bağlamda, geleneksel Malay devletlerinde Sultanlar

  14. Tezkire Niteliğinde Bir Şiir Mecmuası A Macmua Of Poem Feature Of Periodical (Tazkirah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur ÖZTÜRK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Connotating compiled, collected, gathered, "majmuas" among betwixt "poem majmuas" are of major sources as for being enjoyed to compose history of Ottoman literature. In general terms, it is appropriate to classify the majmuas in recordinds of selected poems inreference to a certain alphabetical order or poem majmuas. Biographicdetails of a majmua which is retained in Atatürk Kitaplığı, MuallimCevdet Section No: K.479 and distinctive for the era written in has beenworken on. From the scripts in the introduction, partially in the middleand at the end of the majmua, as understood, disconnexion exists.Identity of writer and inking time are precarious. It has been inferedfrom the scripts in the majmua that it has been written in the last 15years of era of Suleyman The Great.Author of the majmua placed famous writers before his day andboth fameless and famous during his day. In general, he presentedshort biographic information before poems, even sometimes madeassessments about poets in this informations. What makes a majmuahere is of biographic information in and poets never mentioned intezkires. Poems chosen for majmua show parallelism with ones in 16.centuriy and have generally characteristics of "berceste" Poets likeHayali Bey, Baki, Ahmed Paşa, Necati Bey, Atayi, Muhibbi, Nazmi arepredominant in these majmuas. The others like Savmi, Hazani Bey,Halisi Bey have no records in majmuas. Bir araya getirilmiş, toplamış manasını taşıyan mecmualar içerisinde şiir mecmuları Osmanlı edebiyatı tarihine kaynaklık etmesi açısından birincil kaynaklar arasında yer almaktadır. Şiir mecmualarına genel olarak bakıldığında bu mecmuaları belli bir harf düzenine göre yazılmış seçme şiirlerden oluşan şiir defterleri veya nazire mecmuası diye adlandırmak yerindedir. Atatürk Kitaplığı Muallim Cevdet Bölümü K.479 numarada yer alan ve yazıldığı dönemin açısından önemli olan bir şiir mecmuasının biyografik bilgileri

  15. MEANS FOR COOLING REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1957-11-01

    A design of a reactor is presented in which the fuel elements may be immersed in a liquid coolant when desired without the necessity of removing them from the reactor structure. The fuel elements, containing the fissionable material are in plate form and are disposed within spaced slots in a moderator material, such as graphite to form the core. Adjacent the core is a tank containing the liquid coolant. The fuel elements are mounted in spaced relationship on a rotatable shaft which is located between the core and the tank so that by rotation of the shaft the fuel elements may be either inserted in the slots in the core to sustain a chain reaction or immersed in the coolant.

  16. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  17. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A. C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we ...

  18. REACTOR MODERATOR STRUCTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstreet, B.L.

    1963-12-31

    A system for maintaining the alignment of moderator block structures in reactors is presented. Integral restraining grids are placed between each layer of blocks in the moderator structure, at the top of the uppermost layer, and at the bottom of the lowermost layer. Slots are provided in the top and bottom surfaces of the moderator blocks so as to provide a keying action with the grids. The grids are maintained in alignment by vertical guiding members disposed about their peripheries. (AEC)

  19. Sıcak Presleme Yöntemi Kullanılarak Kompozit Malzemelerin Üretilebilirliği Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Nas, ,

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Araştırmacılar, endüstriyel malzemelerin dayanım özelliklerini, gün geçtikçe artan endüstriyel beklentileri karşılamak amacıyla, sürekli geliştirme çalışmalarına devam etmektedirler. Bu çalışmaların birçoğu; kompozit malzemelerin (KM geliştirilmesi üzerinedir. Bu malzemeler, günümüzde geleneksel malzemelerden ayrı düşünülemez bir malzeme grubunu oluşturmaktadır. Kompozit; metal, seramik, plastik ve refrakter gibi geleneksel malzeme gruplarına, çoğunlukla fiber, kılcal kristal, pulcuk, parçacık vd., formlarda takviye elemanı ilavesiyle elde edilen karma yapılı bir malzemedir. Kompozit malzemelerin genel üretim yöntemleri, ana fazın hal durumuna bağlı olarak sıvı, katı ve katı~sıvı hal olmak üzere üç ana grupta toplanır. Günümüzde, katı hal üretim tekniklerinden toz metalürjisi (TM kompozitlerin üretiminde yaygın kullanım alanına sahiptir. Bu çalışmada, toz metalürji üretim tekniğinde kullanılan sıcak presleme (SP yönteminin, kompozit malzemelerin üretilebilirliği üzerindeki etkileri değerlendirilmiştir.

  20. BOILER-SUPERHEATED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T.P.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear power reactor of the type in which a liquid moderator-coolant is transformed by nuclear heating into a vapor that may be used to drive a turbo- generator is described. The core of this reactor comprises a plurality of freely suspended tubular fuel elements, called fuel element trains, within which nonboiling pressurized liquid moderator-coolant is preheated and sprayed through orifices in the walls of the trains against the outer walls thereof to be converted into vapor. Passage of the vapor ovcr other unwetted portions of the outside of the fuel elements causes the steam to be superheated. The moderatorcoolant within the fuel elements remains in the liqUid state, and that between the fuel elements remains substantiaily in the vapor state. A unique liquid neutron-absorber control system is used. Advantages expected from the reactor design include reduced fuel element failure, increased stability of operation, direct response to power demand, and circulation of a minimum amount of liquid moderatorcoolant. (A.G.W.)

  1. Mahalli Fıkra Tipine Bir Örnek: Erzurumlu Naim Hoca One Type of Anecdote of Local Example: Hoca Erzurumlu Naim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf KOTAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important types of folk literature satire, in a large geographical area consisting of many thousands of years, products of oral tradition of folk literaturen. These products, although oral edebiyatımız as a kind of took its place in the literature long ago, particularly after the Tanzimat era has gained vitality. This vitality,though no doubt in some quarters that the jokes have suffered tab, inalmost every nation acquires an important social and cultural life.Feeling and thinking, of a nation, intelligence, humor, and mostimportantly the power of judgment to reflect the common opinion is ofgreat importance in terms of paragraphs. One of the important elementsin the formation of these clauses in the clause types. These types, asdescribed in the paragraph is the hero, as well as to express thecommon characteristics of living is important for society. These typeswith almost every region of Anatolia, and they faced a yararlanmaktayızthis narrative. Who live in this very important region in terms ofreflecting the properties of typecasting, giving expressions to represent aparticular feature of the local stage.Erzurum folklore, is a rich resource for Turkish folklore. Althoughthis has been a rich source folklorumuzun on the part of many researchstudies conducted on jokes is almost negligible. Based on theseapproaches, we also provide a contribution to the folklore of Erzurum inboth types of clause in Erzurum, an important place in the memory ofour people who had said Naim Hodja jokes we introduce this valuableanecdotes of people will try to share with you. Halk edebiyatımızın önemli türlerinden biri olan fıkralar, çok geniş bir coğrafi alan içinde oluşan binlerce yıldan beri sözlü gelenekte yaşayan halk edebiyatı ürünleridir. Bu ürünler, sözlü edebiyatımız içerisinde yerini çok öncelerden almış olsa da bir tür olarak edebiyatımızda bilhassa Tanzimat döneminden sonra canlılık kazanmıştır. Bu canl

  2. ‘Play Time’ Filmi ve Modern Mimarlık Kuramlarına İlişkin Eleştirel Bir Deneme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ÖzJacques Tati sineması, gerek dünya sinema tarihinde, gerek de mimarlık (tarihi sinema ilişkisi bağlamında çok önemli bir yere sahiptir. Tati’nin 1967 yılında çektiği ‘Play Time’ filmi de, mimari ve kentsel unsurlar üzerine şekillenir ve dönemine bu çerçevelerden ışık tutan bir filmdir. Bu makalede, Tati’nin ‘Play Time’ filmi üzerinden yapılacak mekânsal analizler doğrultusunda modern mimarlık ve şehircilik kuramları üzerine eleştirel bir bakış getirilmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Bu çerçevede, ilk bölümde Jacques Tati filmlerinin sinema dünyası ve tarihindeki yeri ile ‘Play Time’ filminin sinematografik yapısı incelenecektir. Bundan sonraki kısımlarda filme dair mekansal analiz ve bulgular üzerine değerlendirmeler yapılacak olup; öncelikle modern mimarinin başat unsurlarından olan “prizmatik” kamusal yapılar ve “kutu mekanlar”, sonrasında da filmde yer alan sergi mekânı, mobilya tasarımı bağlamında yabancılaşma metaforu üzerinden ele alınacaktır. Bunu müteakip, filmdeki sembolik mimari ifade araçlarından biri olan “cam”, modern yaşamda ifade ettiği anlam çerçevesinde; konut yaşantısının resmedildiği sahneler de, modern yaşamın konut ve yapı mahremiyetine etkileri üzerinden analiz edilecektir. Son kısımda da, restoran sahnelerinin incelenmesi üzerinden modern tasarım anlayışına dair eleştirel bir inceleme yapılacak ve sonuç kısmıyla makale tamamlanacaktır.     

  3. Eğitimde Özelleştirme Tartışmaları: Kavramsal Bir Analiz Disscussions on Privatization in Education: A conceptual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan YİRCİ

    2013-09-01

    politika alanında önemli düşünce değişimlerin meydana geldiği bir dönem olmuştur. Bu değişimler toplumun hayatında önemli bir yere sahip olan eğitim sisteminde de değişik uygulamaların uygulanıp uygulanamayacağı sorusunu gündeme getirmiştir. Bu çalışma ile ekonomi alanında pek çok ülkede yaygın bir şekilde kullanılan özelleştirme kavramını ele almak, eğitimde özelleştirme ve finansman ilişkisini incelemek, eğitimde özelleştirmenin dünyadaki örneklerine göz atmak amaçlanmıştır. Eğitim insana yatırım yapan ve çıktısı yine insan olan önemli bir hizmet koludur. Devletin iyi eğitimli bireyler yetiştirmesi toplumun kalkınmasını sağlayacaktır. Bireylerin iyi yetiştirilmesi işi eğitim sistemi içinde faaliyet gösteren okulların etkili performanslarına bağlıdır. Bu çalışmada eğitimde özelleştirme uygulamalarının değişik ülkelerde gerçekleşme biçimine, eğitimin finansmanında devletin ve özel sektörün konumuna, eğitimde özelleştirmeyi destekleyenlerin ve karşı çıkanların görüşlerine yer verilmiştir. Eğitim gibi önemli bir konuda özel sektörün etkinliğini artırması devletin yükünü hafifletebilir. Burada dikkat edilecek husus özel kesimin daha fazla eğitim alanında faaliyet göstermesini sağlarken, eğitim kalitesinden ödün vermeden, toplumdaki sosyal adalet duygusunu incitmeden adımlar atabilmektir. Dünyadaki en iyi yüz üniversite sıralamasında özelleştirme uygulamalarının büyük ölçüde uygulandığı Amerika, İngiltere, Japonya gibi ülkelerden pek çok üniversitenin bulunması dikkat çekici bir durumdur. Aynı listeye Türkiye’den hiçbir üniversitenin girememiş olması da eğitim sisteminin yapısında yeniden yapılanmanın ne kadar büyük bir ihtiyaç olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu bağlamda özelleştirme eğitimde ülkemiz okullarının yaşadığı nitelik sorununa alternatif bir çözüm yolu geliştirmeye yardımcı olabilir.

  4. Örgütsel Çekicilik : Bir Ölçek Uyarlama Çalışması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda DURAL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Highhouse vd. (2003 tarafından geliştirilen Örgütsel Çekicilik Ölçeğini (ÖÇÖ Türkçe’ye kazandırmak ve geçerlik ve güvenirlik analizlerini yapmaktır. Ölçek, öncelikle araştırmacılar ve bir dil uzmanı tarafından Türkçe’ye çevrilmiş, ardından ifadeler iki dilli 15 uzmanın görüşüne başvurularak dil ve anlam uygunluğu bakımından değerlendirilmiştir. Öneriler doğrultusunda son şeklini alan Türkçe form iki aşamada uygulanmıştır. İlk aşamada, test-tekrar test güvenirliğini sınamak amacıyla ölçek iki hafta ara ile 50 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Test tekrar-test güvenirlik katsayısı birincil değerlendirme için 0,85, ikincil değerlendirme için 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Uygulamanın ikinci aşamasında anket 257 öğrenciye uygulanarak ölçeğin iç tutarlılık katsayısı 0,89 olarak bulunmuştur. Yapılan analizler sonucunda ÖÇÖ’nün özgün ölçekte olduğu gibi üç faktörlü bir yapı gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Hiçbir madde atılmadan 15 madde ile üç boyutu ölçen geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçek elde edilmiştir.

  5. Nuclear research reactors in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Anna Paula Leite; Mesquita, Amir Zacarias, E-mail: aplc@cdtn.b, E-mail: amir@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The rising concerns about global warming and energy security have spurred a revival of interest in nuclear energy, giving birth to a 'nuclear power renaissance' in several countries in the world. Particularly in Brazil, in the recent years, the nuclear power renaissance can be seen in the actions that comprise its nuclear program, summarily the increase of the investments in nuclear research institutes and the government target to design and build the Brazilian Multipurpose research Reactor (BMR). In the last 50 years, Brazilian research reactors have been used for training, for producing radioisotopes to meet demands in industry and nuclear medicine, for miscellaneous irradiation services and for academic research. Moreover, the research reactors are used as laboratories to develop technologies in power reactors, which are evaluated today at around 450 worldwide. In this application, those reactors become more viable in relation to power reactors by the lowest cost, by the operation at low temperatures and, furthermore, by lower demand for nuclear fuel. In Brazil, four research reactors were installed: the IEA-R1 and the MB-01 reactors, both at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas Nucleares (IPEN, Sao Paulo); the Argonauta, at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN, Rio de Janeiro) and the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor, at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN, Belo Horizonte). The present paper intends to enumerate the characteristics of these reactors, their utilization and current academic research. Therefore, through this paper, we intend to collaborate on the BMR project. (author)

  6. Geniş Bir Skalp Defektinin Onarımında Doku Genişleticilerin İntraoperatif Mükerrer Kullanımı Olgu Sunumu

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Canser Y.; Gürlek, Ali; Çoban, Y.Kenan; Alaybeyoğlu, Nezih; Aydoğan, Hakan; Ersöz, Ayşe

    2003-01-01

    Doku genişletme uygulamaları günümüzde skalp rekonstrüksiyonunda sık tercih edilen bir yöntemdir. Bu teknik 1950 li yılların sonlarında Argenta ve Manders tarafından skalp defektlerinin onarımı için kullanılmıştır. Geniş saçlı deri defektlerinin, normal saçla kapanmasına olanak sağladığı ve vücudun başka bir yerinde donör alan morbiditesi oluşturmadığı için son derecede önemli ve efektif bir tedavi yöntemidir. Bu makalede, patoz yaralanmasına bağlı çok geniş skalp defektinin d...

  7. Thermionic Reactor Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock, Alfred

    1994-06-01

    During the 1960's and early 70's the author performed extensive design studies, analyses, and tests aimed at thermionic reactor concepts that differed significantly from those pursued by other investigators. Those studies, like most others under Atomic Energy Commission (AEC and DOE) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) sponsorship, were terminated in the early 1970's. Some of this work was previously published, but much of it was never made available in the open literature. U.S. interest in thermionic reactors resumed in the early 80's, and was greatly intensified by reports about Soviet ground and flight tests in the late 80's. This recent interest resulted in renewed U.S. thermionic reactor development programs, primarily under Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. Since most current investigators have not had an opportunity to study all of the author's previous work, a review of the highlights of that work may be of value to them. The present paper describes some of the author's conceptual designs and their rationale, and the special analytical techniques developed to analyze their performance. The basic designs, first published in 1963, are based on single-cell converters, either double-ended diodes extending over the full height of the reactor core or single-ended diodes extending over half the core height. In that respect they are similar to the thermionic fuel elements employed in the Topaz-2 reactor subsequently developed in the Soviet Union, copies of which were recently imported by the U.S. As in the Topaz-2 case, electrically heated steady-state performance tests of the converters are possible before fueling. Where the author's concepts differed from the later Topaz-2 design was in the relative location of the emitter and the collector. Placing the fueled emitter on the outside of the cylindrical diodes permits much higher axial conductances to reduce ohmic

  8. Turning points in reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  9. Fast reactor programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Chellapandi; P R Vasudeva Rao; Prabhat Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Role of fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the Indian context has been discussed with appropriate justification. The FBR programme since 1985 till 2030 is highlighted focussing on the current status and future direction of fast breeder test reactor (FBTR), prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) and FBR-1 and 2. Design and technological challenges of PFBR and design and safety targets with means to achieve the same are the major highlights of this paper.

  10. Acceptability of reactors in space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1981-04-01

    Reactors are the key to our future expansion into space. However, there has been some confusion in the public as to whether they are a safe and acceptable technology for use in space. The answer to these questions is explored. The US position is that when reactors are the preferred technical choice, that they can be used safely. In fact, it dies not appear that reactors add measurably to the risk associated with the Space Transportation System.

  11. Spiral-shaped disinfection reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2015-08-20

    This disclosure includes disinfection reactors and processes for the disinfection of water. Some disinfection reactors include a body that defines an inlet, an outlet, and a spiral flow path between the inlet and the outlet, in which the body is configured to receive water and a disinfectant at the inlet such that the water is exposed to the disinfectant as the water flows through the spiral flow path. Also disclosed are processes for disinfecting water in such disinfection reactors.

  12. Hydrogen Production in Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M; Uenosono, C.

    1993-01-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated.

  13. Neutrino Oscillation Studies with Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Petr; Zhang, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective, and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavors are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  14. FAST NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, A.H.

    1957-12-01

    This patent relates to a reactor and process for carrying out a controlled fast neutron chain reaction. A cubical reactive mass, weighing at least 920 metric tons, of uranium metal containing predominantly U/sup 238/ and having a U/sup 235/ content of at least 7.63% is assembled and the maximum neutron reproduction ratio is limited to not substantially over 1.01 by insertion and removal of a varying amount of boron, the reactive mass being substantially freed of moderator.

  15. Biparticle fluidized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    1993-12-14

    A fluidized bed reactor system which utilizes a fluid phase, a retained fluidized primary particulate phase, and a migratory second particulate phase is described. The primary particulate phase is a particle such as a gel bead containing an immobilized biocatalyst. The secondary particulate phase, continuously introduced and removed in either cocurrent or countercurrent mode, acts in a secondary role such as a sorbent to continuously remove a product or by-product constituent from the fluid phase. Introduction and removal of the sorbent phase is accomplished through the use of feed screw mechanisms and multivane slurry valves. 3 figures.

  16. MÜSLÜMAN TÜRK KÜLTÜRÜNDE İNANÇ GELİŞİMİ (Bir Model Denemesi)

    OpenAIRE

    Yapıcı, Asım

    2016-01-01

    Bu makaleMüslüman-Türk toplumunda inanç gelişiminin nasıl gerçekleştiğini araştırmakistemektedir. Çünkü insanı sadece Batılı paradigma, kuram ve modellerleanlamaya çalışmak Doğulu bilinci ve Doğu insanının öznelliğini yok saymaanlamına gelmektedir. Bu durum, gerek Müslüman gerekse Hıristiyan bir çevrededoğup büyüyen bir kişinin inanç gelişiminin aynı ya da benzer süreçlerdengeçerek şekillendiği iddiasına dayanmaktadır. Kuşkusuz Doğulu ve Batılıbireylerin dini gelişim süreçlerinde bazı hususla...

  17. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Order DOE 5480.6, Safety of Department of Energy-Owned Nuclear Reactors, establishes reactor safety requirements to assure that reactors are sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that adequately protects health and safety and is in accordance with uniform standards, guides, and codes which are consistent with those applied to comparable licensed reactors. This document identifies nuclear safety criteria applied to NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) licensed reactors. The titles of the chapters and sections of USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.70, Standard Format and Content of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants, Rev. 3, are used as the format for compiling the NRC criteria applied to the various areas of nuclear safety addressed in a safety analysis report for a nuclear reactor. In each section the criteria are compiled in four groups: (1) Code of Federal Regulations, (2) US NRC Regulatory Guides, SRP Branch Technical Positions and Appendices, (3) Codes and Standards, and (4) Supplemental Information. The degree of application of these criteria to a DOE-owned reactor, consistent with their application to comparable licensed reactors, must be determined by the DOE and DOE contractor.

  18. Kitle İletişiminde Çağdaş Söylen Üretimi: Kuramsal Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birol Demircan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Söylenler, iktidarın uygulamalarının rasyonelleştirilmesi ve meşrulaştırılması ile toplumsal bir iletişim gerçekleşmesine hala kaynaklık etmektedir. Bu amaçla çalışmada, kitle iletişimi ile dolayımlanan söylenler aracılığıyla yaratılan karizmatik otoriter öznelerin oluşturulma süreci üzerinde durulmuştur. Kitle iletişimin sahte doğallığı ile toplumun gerçekliğini çarpıttığı iddiası bu çalışmanın incelemek istediği temel sorundur. Bu doğrultuda, kitle iletişim ve mitoloji arasında kavramsal ilişki kurarak mitolojinin meşrulaştırma işlevinin izlerini kitle iletişim süreçlerinde aranmıştır. Kitle iletişim araçları ile dolayımlanan iletişim biçimleri ile söylenlerin oluşturulduğunu ve bu söylenlerin iktidar ilişkileri içerisinde bir meşrulaştırma işlevini yerine getirdiği savunulmuştur. Bu savunu doğrultusunda, kullanılan propaganda teknikleri ile özellikle politik liderlerin kahramanlaştırılmasında etkin bir söylen kullanımının varlığı amaçlı örneklem yöntemi ile seçilen örnekler üzerinden tartışılmıştır. Böylelikle, medya ve söylen üretimi arasındaki bağ kurulmak istenmiştir.  Özellikle, kahramanlık mitinin haber dilinde ideolojik belirlenimle üretilmesi sürecinde örtük bir çabanın varlığı tespit edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, kitle iletişimi ile dolayımlanan söylenler aracılığıyla yaratılan karizmatik otoritenin dönemsel iktidar ilişkileri içersinde en çok rıza gösterilen sistemik bir efsane insan haline geldiği açıklanmıştır.

  19. A new method of social marketing: Community based social marketingYeni bir sosyal pazarlama yöntemi: “Toplumsal tabanlı sosyal pazarlama”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Çelik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Especially in developed and developing countries, social marketing practises is used which is an innovative approach for the problems that require social change. Community based social marketing as a new method of social merketing, can be defined as making analysis and planning, implementing and the assessment of the programmes which are all designed to affect the behaviors of the target group to be made voluntarily in order to increase the welfare of the community of the individuals and the community that they exist in. “Community based social marketing” approach aims to create a positive behavior by starting up the behavioral change tools and eliminating the barriers in front of the target groups in order to have a positive attitude for a sustainable future. Community based social marketing tools and techniques provide provides a very important event that organize the behavior change, regardless of collecting knowledge in the area of conventional commercial marketing. The main purpose of the article within the framework of this information is to explain what ‘community based social marketing’ is and show how effective it is on the positive behavior change of the communities. For this purpose, a detailed literature review has been conducted and relevant concepts and examples have been examined.   Özet Özellikle gelişmiş ve gelişmekte olan ülkelerde sosyal değişim gerektiren problemler için yenilikçi bir yaklaşım olan sosyal pazarlama uygulamaları kullanılmaktadır. Yeni bir sosyal pazarlama yöntemi olan “Toplumsal Tabanlı Sosyal Pazarlama” ise bireylerin ve içinde bulundukları toplumun refahını arttırmak için, hedef kitlenin gönüllü olarak yapacakları davranışları etkilemek üzere tasarlanan programların analizi, planlanması, uygulanması ve değerlendirilmesi için pazarlama teknolojilerine başvurulması olarak tanımlanabilir. “Toplumsal Tabanlı Sosyal Pazarlama” (TTSP yaklaşımı, s

  20. Reactor Physics Analysis Models for a CANDU Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok

    2007-10-15

    Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor physics analysis is typically performed in three steps. At first, macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice is produced by modeling the reference fuel channel. Secondly macroscopic cross-sections of reactivity devices in the reactor are generated. The macroscopic cross-sections of a reactivity device are calculated as incremental cross-sections by subtracting macroscopic cross-sections of a three-dimensional lattice without reactivity device from those of a three-dimensional lattice with a reactivity device. Using the macroscopic cross-sections of the reference lattice and incremental cross-sections of the reactivity devices, reactor physics calculations are performed. This report summarizes input data of typical CANDU reactor physics codes, which can be utilized for the future CANDU reactor physics analysis.

  1. Brookhaven leak reactor to close

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    The DOE has announced that the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven is to close for good. Though the news was not unexpected researchers were angry the decision had been taken before the review to assess the impact of reopening the reactor had been concluded (1 page).

  2. Thermochemical reactor systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Wojciech; Davidson, Jane Holloway; Chase, Thomas Richard

    2016-11-29

    Thermochemical reactor systems that may be used to produce a fuel, and methods of using the thermochemical reactor systems, utilizing a reactive cylindrical element, an optional energy transfer cylindrical element, an inlet gas management system, and an outlet gas management system.

  3. Chemical-vapor-deposition reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, S.

    1979-01-01

    Reactor utilizes multiple stacked trays compactly arranged in paths of horizontally channeled reactant gas streams. Design allows faster and more efficient deposits of film on substrates, and reduces gas and energy consumption. Lack of dead spots that trap reactive gases reduces reactor purge time.

  4. Antineutrino Monitoring of Thorium Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Akindele, Oluwatomi A; Norman, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Various groups have demonstrated that antineutrino monitoring can be successful in assessing the plutonium content in water-cooled nuclear reactors for nonproliferation applications. New reactor designs and concepts incorporate nontraditional fuels types and chemistry. Understanding how these properties affect the antineutrino emission from a reactor can extend the applicability of antineutrino monitoring.Thorium molten salt reactors (MSR) breed U-233, that if diverted constitute an IAEA direct use material. The antineutrino spectrum from the fission of U-233 has been determined, the feasibility of detecting the diversion of a significant quantity, 8 kg of U-233, within the IAEA timeliness goal of 30 days has been evaluated. The antineutrino emission from a thorium reactor operating under normal conditions is compared to a diversion scenario at a 25 meter standoff by evaluating the daily antineutrino count rate and the energy spectrum of the detected antineutrinos. It was found that the diversion of a signifi...

  5. Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivek V Ranade

    2014-03-01

    Catalytic reactions are ubiquitous in chemical and allied industries. A homogeneous or heterogeneous catalyst which provides an alternative route of reaction with lower activation energy and better control on selectivity can make substantial impact on process viability and economics. Extensive studies have been conducted to establish sound basis for design and engineering of reactors for practising such catalytic reactions and for realizing improvements in reactor performance. In this article, application of recent (and not so recent) developments in engineering reactors for catalytic reactions is discussed. Some examples where performance enhancement was realized by catalyst design, appropriate choice of reactor, better injection and dispersion strategies and recent advances in process intensification/ multifunctional reactors are discussed to illustrate the approach.

  6. Unsteady processes in catalytic reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matros, Yu.Sh.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a realization has occurred that reaction and reactor dynamics must be considered when designing and operating catalytic reactors. In this book, the author has focussed on both the processes occurring on individual porous-catalyst particles as well as the phenomena displayed by collections of these particles in fixed-bed reactors. The major topics discussed include the effects of unsteady-state heat and mass transfer, the influence of inhomogeneities and stagnant regions in fixed beds, and reactor operation during forced cycling of operating conditions. Despite the title of the book, attention is also paid to the determination of the number and stability of fixed-bed steady states, with the aim of describing the possibility of controlling reactors at unstable steady states. However, this development is somewhat dated, given the recent literature on multiplicity phenomena and process control.

  7. A model of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, A.S.; Thompson, B.R.

    1988-09-01

    The analytical model of nuclear reactor transients, incorporating both mechanical and nuclear effects, simulates reactor kinetics. Linear analysis shows the stability borderline for small power perturbations. In a stable system, initial power disturbances die out with time. With an unstable combination of nuclear and mechanical characteristics, initial disturbances persist and may increase with time. With large instability, oscillations of great magnitude occur. Stability requirements set limits on the power density at which particular reactors can operate. The limiting power density depends largely on the product of two terms: the fraction of delayed neutrons and the frictional damping of vibratory motion in reactor core components. As the fraction of delayed neutrons is essentially fixed, mechanical damping largely determines the maximum power density. A computer program, based on the analytical model, calculates and plots reactor power as a nonlinear function of time in response to assigned values of mechanical and nuclear characteristics.

  8. Metallic fuels for advanced reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack, W. J.; Porter, D. L.; Chang, Y. I.; Hayes, S. L.; Meyer, M. K.; Burkes, D. E.; Lee, C. B.; Mizuno, T.; Delage, F.; Somers, J.

    2009-07-01

    In the framework of the Generation IV Sodium Fast Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Project has conducted an evaluation of the available fuel systems supporting future sodium cooled fast reactors. This paper presents an evaluation of metallic alloy fuels. Early US fast reactor developers originally favored metal alloy fuel due to its high fissile density and compatibility with sodium. The goal of fast reactor fuel development programs is to develop and qualify a nuclear fuel system that performs all of the functions of a conventional fast spectrum nuclear fuel while destroying recycled actinides. This will provide a mechanism for closure of the nuclear fuel cycle. Metal fuels are candidates for this application, based on documented performance of metallic fast reactor fuels and the early results of tests currently being conducted in US and international transmutation fuel development programs.

  9. Seyyid Vehbi'nin Divanında Yer Almayan Bir Kasidesi The Kaside That Doesn’t Take Place In Divan Of Seyyid Vehbi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haluk GÖKALP

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Perodicals include kinds of poems. In addition they comprise artistic and cultural accumulation when they were written. Pastiche collections give knowledge abaut pastiche tradition and interactions between poets. Poem notebooks which can collect diffrent subjects contribute to history of literatüre. So, pastiche collections or other collections are one of the main source of classical poetry. Contributions of periodicals to classical school of poetry investigating, may be collected with three groups. Firsh of all, periodicals reflect the plcasure of poem when they were written and poems which were approued can be determined. Second one, they contribute to recognition of poets who weren’t mentioned in history of literature. Third one, investigetors can benefit from periodicals for poems which weren’t mentioned in poet’s divan which include their poems. By this way, investigators can collect all poems of poet. İn this study, we evalvated the contributions of periodicals to classical poetry investigators. And than we are going to publish Seyyid Vehbi’s kaside in “Sıhhatname ve Sur-ı Hıtana Müteallik Kasaid” which was found from Topkapı Palace Library. With this study, Seyyid Vehbi’s poem which weren’t mentioned in other 31 copy is going to be presented to investigator’s advantage. Şiir mecmuaları çeşitli şiirleri derlemekle birlikte yazıldığı devrin sanat ve kültür birikimini de bir araya getirirler. Nazire mecmuaları nazire geleneğini ve şairler arası etkileşimi örnekleriyle gözler önüne sererken, farklı konular etrafında toplanan ya da -tamamen okuyucunun zevkine göre gelişigüzel toplanan- şiir defterleri edebiyat tarihini bir bütünlük içinde görmemize olumlu katkılar sağlar. Bu nedenle nazire mecmuaları ya da diğer şiir mecmuaları, divan şiiri araştırmalarının başlıca kaynaklarındandır. Genel olarak baktığımızda mecmuaların divan edebiyatı araştırmalarına katk

  10. Võidukas läbirääkija Vladimir Panov : Keskerakonna koalitsioonis püsides tagan veehinna stabiilsuse 2010 aastani / Vladimir Panov ; interv. Allan Alaküla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Panov, Vladimir, 1941-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Stolitsa 30.august lk.3. AS Tallinna Vesi ja Tallinna linn leppisid kokku uues tariifi muutmise struktuuris järgmisteks aastateks. Tallinna abilinnapea Vladimir Panov vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad läbirääkimisi Tallinna Vee ja Tallinna linna vahel

  11. Neutrino Experiments at Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reines, F.; Gurr, H. S.; Jenkins, T. L.; Munsee, J. H.

    1968-09-09

    A description is given of the electron-antineutrino program using a large fission reactor. A search has been made for a neutral weak interaction via the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> p + n + electron antineutrino), the reaction (electron antineutrino + d .> n + n + e{sup +}) has now been detected, and an effort is underway to observe the elastic scattering reaction (electron antineutrino + e{sup -} .> electron antineutrino + e{sup -}) as well as to measure more precisely the reaction (electron antineutrino + p .> n + e{sup+}). The upper limit on the elastic scattering reaction which we have obtained with our large composite NaI, plastic, liquid scintillation detector is now about 50 times the predicted value.

  12. Neutronic Reactor Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico; Zinn, Walter H.

    The argument of the present Patent is a radiation shield suitable for protection of personnel from both gamma rays and neutrons. Such a shield from dangerous radiations is achieved to the best by the combined action of a neutron slowing material (a moderator) and a neutron absorbing material. Hydrogen is particularly effective for this shield since it is a good absorber of slow neutrons and a good moderator of fast neutrons. The neutrons slowed down by hydrogen may, then, be absorbed by other materials such as boron, cadmium, gadolinium, samarium or steel. Steel is particularly convenient for the purpose, given its effectiveness in absorbing also the gamma rays from the reactor (both primary gamma rays and secondary ones produced by the moderation of neutrons). In particular, in the present Patent a shield is described, made of alternate layers of steel and Masonite (an hydrolized ligno-cellulose material). The object of the present Patent is not discussed in any other published paper.

  13. Licensed reactor nuclear safety criteria applicable to DOE reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This document is a compilation and source list of nuclear safety criteria that the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) applies to licensed reactors; it can be used by DOE and DOE contractors to identify NRC criteria to be evaluated for application to the DOE reactors under their cognizance. The criteria listed are those that are applied to the areas of nuclear safety addressed in the safety analysis report of a licensed reactor. They are derived from federal regulations, USNRC regulatory guides, Standard Review Plan (SRP) branch technical positions and appendices, and industry codes and standards.

  14. İki Spor Kulübünün Hisse Senedi Getirileri Üzerine Bir İnceleme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz PARLAK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Futbol, günümüz dünyasında bir eğlence unsuru olmaktan çıkarak endüstri kolu haline gelmiştir. Bu sporun Türkiye’deki en önemli temsilcileri olan Fenerbahçe ve Galatasaray’ın arasındaki rekabet hem takım düzeyinde sahada hem de şirket düzeyinde borsada yaşanmaktadır. Çalışmanın amacı bu iki futbol takımının yaptıkları karşılaşmalarda aldıkları sonuçların borsada işlem gören hisselerine ait fiyatlara etkisini incelemektir. Takımların kendi sonuçlarının yanı sıra rakibinin aldığı sonuçların da şirketin hisse senedi getirisine etki edip etmediği araştırılmıştır. Kullanılan üç günlük olay etüdü analizi ile maç sonuçlarına ait beklentilerin maçtan bir gün önce, maç sonuçlarının ise maçtan bir gün sonra kümülatif anormal getiri yarattığını göstermiştir. Kümülatif anormal getirinin rakibin elde ettiği sonuçlara göre farklılık göstermediği saptanmıştır.

  15. Çocuklar İçin Felsefe Eğitimi Üzerine Nitel Bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Akkocaoğlu Çayır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Çocuklar için felsefe çocukların, bir metin, öykü ya da örnek olaydan yola çıkarak bilgi, doğru, gerçek, güzel, adalet gibi felsefi kavramları bir yetişkin rehberliğinde tartışmalarıdır. Bu araştırma çocuklar için felsefe eğitiminin, ilkokul üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerini bilişsel, duyuşsal ve sosyal alanlarda nasıl etkilediğini tespit etmek amacıyla on dört hafta toplam yirmi sekiz saat sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. Çocuklarla felsefe yapmak üzere hazırlanan ders planları iki ayrı sınıfta, kırk sekiz öğrenciye, iki öğretmen tarafından uygulanmıştır. Süreç sonunda öğrencilerde bilişsel alanda, felsefe, felsefe soruları ve filozofların özelliklerini anlama, kavramlar arası ilişki kurma, kavramları günlük hayatla ilişkilendirme, düşünme hatalarını kavrama, düşünmeye yönelme, farklı açılardan düşünme gibi değişimler gözlemlenmiştir. Duyuşsal alanda ise filozoflardan, felsefeden hoşlanma ve kavramlara yönelik farkındalıklar söz konusu olmuştur. Sosyal alanda ise öğrencilerin sorun çözme ve birbirlerini tanımaları noktasında değişimler yaşanmıştır. Çocuklar için felsefe, okul öncesinden liseye kadar farklı yaş düzeylerindeki pek çok dersin programlarıyla bütünleştirilebilir ya da ayrı bir ders olarak okutulabilir.

  16. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-12-31

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  17. Reactor service life extension program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, G.R.; Sindelar, R.L.; Ondrejcin, R.S.; Baumann, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    A review of the Savannah River Site production reactor systems was initiated in 1980 and led to implementation of the Reactor Materials Program in 1984 to assess reactor safety and reactor service life. The program evaluated performance of the reactor tanks, primary coolant piping, and thermal shields, components of welded construction that were fabricated from Type 304 stainless steel. The structural integrity analysis of the primary coolant system has shown that the pressure boundary is not susceptible to gross rupture, including a double ended guillotine break or equivalent large area bank. Residual service life is potentially limited by two material degradation modes, irradiation damage and intergranular stress corrosion cracking. Analysis of the structural integrity of the tanks and piping has shown that continued safe operation of the reactors for several additional decades is not limited by the material performance of the primary coolant system. Although irradiation damage has not degraded material behavior to an unacceptable level, past experience has revealed serious difficulties with repair welding on irradiated stainless steel. Stress corrosion can be mitigated by newly identified limits on impurity concentrations in the coolant water and by stress mitigation of weld residual stresses. Work continues in several areas: the effects of helium on mechanical behavior of irradiated stainless steel; improved weld methods for piping and the reactor tanks; and a surveillance program to track irradiation effects on the tank walls.

  18. Assessment of torsatrons as reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, J.F. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Painter, S.L. (Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia))

    1992-12-01

    Stellarators have significant operational advantages over tokamaks as ignited steady-state reactors because stellarators have no dangerous disruptions and no need for continuous current drive or power recirculated to the plasma, both easing the first wall, blanket, and shield design; less severe constraints on the plasma parameters and profiles; and better access for maintenance. This study shows that a reactor based on the torsatron configuration (a stellarator variant) could also have up to double the mass utilization efficiency (MUE) and a significantly lower cost of electricity (COE) than a conventional tokamak reactor (ARIES-I) for a range of assumptions. Torsatron reactors can have much smaller coil systems than tokamak reactors because the coils are closer to the plasma and they have a smaller cross section (higher average current density because of the lower magnetic field). The reactor optimization approach and the costing and component models are those used in the current stage of the ARIES-I tokamak reactor study. Typical reactor parameters for a 1-GW(e) Compact Torsatron reactor example are major radius R[sub 0] = 6.6-8.8 m, on-axis magnetic field B[sup 0] = 4.8-7.5 T, B[sub max] (on coils) = 16 T, MUE 140-210 kW(e)/tonne, and COE (in constant 1990 dollars) = 67-79 mill/kW(e)h. The results are relatively sensitive to assumptions on the level of confinement improvement and the blanket thickness under the inboard half of the helical windings but relatively insensitive to other assumptions.

  19. Yüzde tabanlı String Eşleme Problemi için yeni bir donanım modülü tasarımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Şahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bir verinin bir dizgi içerisinde veya bir gen yapısının bir DNA gen dizilimi içerisinde arama işleminin gerçekleştirilmesi için çeşitli algoritmalar kullanılmaktadır. Kullanılan bu algoritmalardan bazıları bize mutlak eşleşme olmadığı durumlarda olumsuz dönüt vermekte, bazıları ise “bunu mu arıyorsunuz” diye alternatifler sunmaktadır. Her iki algoritma da genel amaçlı PC’lerde saniyeler süren işlemler sonucunda bize dönüt verebilmektedir. Bu çalışmada bize hem mutlak eşleşmeyi hem de hedef dizgi içinde yüzdelik eşleşme oranlarının gerçekleştiği konumu veren FPGA çiplerine yönelik yüksek performanslı bir donanım modülü tasarlanmıştır. Geliştirilen modülün veri işleme hızı farklı PC’lerle karşılaştırılmış ve 2300 kata kadar daha hızlı arama gerçekleştirdiği karşılaştırma sonuçlarından elde edilen veriler ile doğrulanmıştır.

  20. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and an Application: The Selection of a Library Director as a Leader Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci (AHS ve Bir Uygulama: Lider bir Kütüphane Müdürü Seçimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The librarians have to take various decisions to deal with the problems met in library and information centers. Before having made the decisions, the librarians should firstly define the problem with all details. If the librarians have clear information about the relevant problem, they can easily define and solve it. But the problems met by librarians in library and information centers sometimes may have a complex and an unclear structure. The librarians need a powerful method to deal with such a problem having a complex and an unclear structure. This method may be Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The main purpose of this study is to explain how to use the AHP. Furthermore, in this study it is also explained how to select a library director as a leader. Kütüphane ve bilgi merkezlerinde karşılaşılan problemlerin üstesinden gelmek için kütüphaneciler, çeşitli kararlar almak zorundadır. Karar vermek için kütüphanecilerin öncelikle problemi tanımlaması gerekir. Kütüphanecilerin problemle ilgili net verilere sahip olmaları söz konusu problemin tanımlanmasını ve çözümünü kolaylaştırır. Fakat kütüphanecilerin kütüphane ve bilgi merkezlerinde karşılaştıkları sorunlara ilişkin veriler bazen karmaşık ve belirsiz bir yapıda olabilir. Kütüphanecilerin karmaşık ve belirsiz bir yapıya sahip bu tür problemlerin üstesinden gelmeleri için güçlü bir yöntemden yararlanması gerekir. Bu yöntem, Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci (AHS olabilir. Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, AHS yönteminden nasıl yararlanılacağını açıklamaktır. Araştırmamızda ayrıca AHS yöntemiyle lider bir kütüphane müdürünün nasıl seçileceği de açıklanmıştır.

  1. Concept for LEU Burst Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-07

    Design and performance of a proposed LEU burst reactor are sketched. Salient conclusions reached are the following: size would be ~1,500 kg or greater, depending on the size of the central cavity; internal stresses during burst require split rings for relief; the reactor would likely require multiple control and safety rods for fine control; the energy spectrum would be comparable to that of HEU machines; and burst yields and steady-state power levels will be significantly greater in an LEU reactor.

  2. Nuclear reactor downcomer flow deflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmore, Charles B. (Greensburg, PA); Altman, David A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singleton, Norman R. (Murrysville, PA)

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear reactor having a coolant flow deflector secured to a reactor core barrel in line with a coolant inlet nozzle. The flow deflector redirects incoming coolant down an annulus between the core barrel and the reactor vessel. The deflector has a main body with a front side facing the fluid inlet nozzle and a rear side facing the core barrel. The rear side of the main body has at least one protrusion secured to the core barrel so that a gap exists between the rear side of the main body adjacent the protrusion and the core barrel. Preferably, the protrusion is a relief that circumscribes the rear side of the main body.

  3. Safety of VVER-440 reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Slugen, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Safety of VVER-440 Reactors endeavours to promote an increase in the safety of VVER-440 nuclear reactors via the improvement of fission products limitation systems and the implementation of special non-destructive spectroscopic methods for materials testing. All theoretical and experimental studies performed the by author over the last 25 years have been undertaken with the aim of improving VVER-440 defence in depth, which is one of the most important principle for ensuring safety in nuclear power plants. Safety of VVER-440 Reactors is focused on the barrier system through which the safety pri

  4. Random processes in nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M M R

    1974-01-01

    Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors describes the problems that a nuclear engineer may meet which involve random fluctuations and sets out in detail how they may be interpreted in terms of various models of the reactor system. Chapters set out to discuss topics on the origins of random processes and sources; the general technique to zero-power problems and bring out the basic effect of fission, and fluctuations in the lifetime of neutrons, on the measured response; the interpretation of power reactor noise; and associated problems connected with mechanical, hydraulic and thermal noise sources

  5. Fuel Fabrication and Nuclear Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-02

    The uranium from the enrichment plant is still in the form of UF6. UF6 is not suitable for use in a reactor due to its highly corrosive chemistry as well as its phase diagram. UF6 is converted into UO2 fuel pellets, which are in turn placed in fuel rods and assemblies. Reactor designs are variable in moderators, coolants, fuel, performance etc.The dream of energy ‘too-cheap to meter’ is no more, and now the nuclear power industry is pushing ahead with advanced reactor designs.

  6. Tedarik zinciri yönetiminde scor modelin dcor ve ccor model ile genişletilmesi ve mobilya sektöründe bir uygulama

    OpenAIRE

    TORUL, Yağmur; Kalender, Fatma Yeşim

    2014-01-01

    Bugüne kadar geliştirilen analitik ve sayısal modeller tedarik zincirini bir bütün olarak ele almakta yetersiz kalmıştır. 1996 yılında Tedarik Zinciri Konseyi tedarik zinciri yönetimi için endüstriler arası standart olarak Tedarik Zinciri İşletim Referans Modelini (SCOR) geliştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada 2005 yılında geliştirilen Costumer Chain Operation Reference Model (CCOR) ve Design Chain Operation Reference Model (DCOR) kullanılarak SCOR modelinin kapsamı nasıl genişletildiği anlatılmıştır. D...

  7. Nuclear reactor PBMR and cogeneration; Reactor nuclear PBMR y cogeneracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G., E-mail: ramon.ramirez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In recent years the nuclear reactor designs for the electricity generation have increased their costs, so that at the moment costs are managed of around the 5000 US D for installed kw, reason for which a big nuclear plant requires of investments of the order of billions of dollars, the designed reactors as modular of low power seek to lighten the initial investment of a big reactor dividing the power in parts and dividing in modules the components to lower the production costs, this way it can begin to build a module and finished this to build other, differing the long term investment, getting less risk therefore in the investment. On the other hand the reactors of low power can be very useful in regions where is difficult to have access to the electric net being able to take advantage of the thermal energy of the reactor to feed other processes like the water desalination or the vapor generation for the processes industry like the petrochemical, or even more the possible hydrogen production to be used as fuel. In this work the possibility to generate vapor of high quality for the petrochemical industry is described using a spheres bed reactor of high temperature. (Author)

  8. FASTER test reactor preconceptual design report summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, Steven [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-02-29

    The FASTER reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  9. ADAPTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM OF INDUSTRIAL REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav K. Mayevski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mathematical model of an industrial chemical reactor for production of synthetic rubber. During reactor operation the model parameters vary considerably. To create a control algorithm performed transformation of mathematical model of the reactor in order to obtain a dependency that can be used to determine the model parameters are changing during reactor operation.

  10. FASTER Test Reactor Preconceptual Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Belch, H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brunett, A. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jin, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mohamed, W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Passerini, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sumner, T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vilim, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hayes, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The FASTER test reactor plant is a sodium-cooled fast spectrum test reactor that provides high levels of fast and thermal neutron flux for scientific research and development. The 120MWe FASTER reactor plant has a superheated steam power conversion system which provides electrical power to a local grid allowing for recovery of operating costs for the reactor plant.

  11. Breeder Reactors, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Walter, III; Turner, Stanley E.

    The theory of breeder reactors in relationship to a discussion of fission is presented. Different kinds of reactors are characterized by the cooling fluids used, such as liquid metal, gas, and molten salt. The historical development of breeder reactors over the past twenty-five years includes specific examples of reactors. The location and a brief…

  12. Evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, G.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1982-03-09

    We discuss the evolution of the tandem mirror reactor concept from the original conceptual reactor design (1977) through the first application of the thermal barrier concept to a reactor design (1979) to the beginning of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (1982).

  13. Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP)-like protein lacks a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain and attenuates cell death in plant and animal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woe Yeon; Lee, Sun Yong; Jung, Young Jun; Chae, Ho Byoung; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Shin, Mi Rim; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Jin Ho; Kang, Chang Ho; Chi, Yong Hun; Ahn, Il Pyung; Yun, Dae Jin; Lee, Kyun Oh; Kim, Young-Myeong; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2011-12-09

    A novel Arabidopsis thaliana inhibitor of apoptosis was identified by sequence homology to other known inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Arabidopsis IAP-like protein (AtILP) contained a C-terminal RING finger domain but lacked a baculovirus IAP repeat (BIR) domain, which is essential for anti-apoptotic activity in other IAP family members. The expression of AtILP in HeLa cells conferred resistance against tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α/ActD-induced apoptosis through the inactivation of caspase activity. In contrast to the C-terminal RING domain of AtILP, which did not inhibit the activity of caspase-3, the N-terminal region, despite displaying no homology to known BIR domains, potently inhibited the activity of caspase-3 in vitro and blocked TNF-α/ActD-induced apoptosis. The anti-apoptotic activity of the AtILP N-terminal domain observed in plants was reproduced in an animal system. Transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing AtILP exhibited anti-apoptotic activity when challenged with the fungal toxin fumonisin B1, an agent that induces apoptosis-like cell death in plants. In AtIPL transgenic plants, suppression of cell death was accompanied by inhibition of caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of AtILP also attenuated effector protein-induced cell death and increased the growth of an avirulent bacterial pathogen. The current results demonstrated the existence of a novel plant IAP-like protein that prevents caspase activation in Arabidopsis and showed that a plant anti-apoptosis gene functions similarly in plant and animal systems.

  14. ULUSLARARASI PORTFÖY YÖNETIMINDE REJIM GEÇIŞKEN KARAR DESTEK MODELLERI: GELIŞMEKTE OLAN MENKUL KIYMET PIYASALARI ÜZERINE BIR UYGULAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir TUNA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu makale, portföy yatırımlarında bir karar destek sistemi olarak rejim geçişken modellerin ne şekilde kullanılabileceğini gelişmekte olan hisse senedi piyasalarına ait zaman serilerini ve Gauss yazılım programını kullanarak incelemektedir. Yönetim bilişim sistemlerinde, model riskinin minimize edilmesi, karar destek siteminin uygulanacağı problemin net olarak tanımlanması ve bu problemin çözümünde kullanılacak modelin doğru seçilmesi ile mümkündür. Ekonometrik testlerin sonuçları, Ukrayna hariç, gelişmekte olan ekonomilerde hisse senetleri piyasalarında 09/01/2004-13/09/2007 tarihleri arasında, ABD hisse senedi piyasaları ile karşılaştırıldığında kalıcı bir volatilitenin gözlemlendiğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu kapsamda, Türkiye, Rusya, Ukrayna, Brezilya, Lübnan, ABD (Dow Jones Industrial Average ve MSCI (Morgan Stanley Composite Index hisse senedi piyasalarında rejim geçişkenliği ekonometrik olarak karşılaştırmalı incelenmiştir.

  15. Memet Baydur Tiyatrosu ve Dramatik Bir Pazarlık Oyunu: Kamyon Memet Baydur Theatre A Dramatic Bargain Play: The Lorry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal EROL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Memet Baydur (1951-2001 is a playwright who appointed hisplace in Modern Turkish Theatre with 23 of his plays written in thesocial realist approach, in the last 20 years of his life. His plays coverthe 1980’s. Baydur reflected on the events and facts experiencedduring this historical period, writing his plays through a critic’s eye.Baydur’s plays tell us about the class conflict in society through theinner world conflict of social classes and life conditions of people whocame from different classes. These conditions create the main points ofhis plays, not the events themselves. These texts, each of which wereperformed in private and state theatres, question some problematicrealities about humans and society.The Lorry (1990, is his 9thplay after his first play Lemon (1982. Itfocuses on the difficult working conditions of a certain part of societyduring that era. This work evokes sadness in the controversialeconomical relations. It is the raw story of people who are bored withdespair, lacking alternatives, shown through needy immigrant peasantsin tough life conditions. It is the drama of the New World’s peonsyearning to live like a human, who put their lives in danger to maintainhis family and put their strength in bargain. In this aspect, The Lorry, is“a bargain play, a bargain of life” in Baydur’s words. The work aims todemonstrate the social realities while adding some conventional senseof humor, instead of just saying the social realities as they are.In this work, document searching method has been used. Thepurpose of this paper is to introduce Memet Baydur Theatre in generalterms and to analyze The Lorry in terms of subject, fiction, time,characters and theme and to determine its scientific value. Memet Baydur (1951-2001, ömrünün son yirmi yılında sosyal gerçekçi sanat anlayışı çizgisinde yazdığı 23 oyunla çağdaş Türk tiyatrosundaki yerini tayin eden bir yazardır. Onun tiyatro oyunları, dönem olarak 1980

  16. An archaeological data assessment of Persian ethnicity in LydiaLydia’da Pers etnisitesine ait arkeolojik bir veri değerlendirmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kalkan

    2014-04-01

    ğerlendirilmektedir.Gömü hediyesi olarak iki lekythos, bir bronz Akhaimenid kâsenin saptandığı buluntu grubunun bu bölgede geç dönemde varlığından haberdar olduğumuz Pers etnisitesi açısından anlamı sorgulanmaktadır. 2014 yılında Ödemiş Müze Müdürlüğü tarafından yapılan Beydağ tümülüs kazılarında da parçalar halindeki benzer bir lahitle birlikte ele geçirilmiş  Akhaimenid kâseler bu alanda olası bir Anahita bağlantılı ölü kült geleneğinin araştırılmasını gerektirmiştir. Benzer bir durumun Nif Dağı araştırmalarında da ortaya çıkmış olması ve kontekstlerden gömü beraberinde bu kase tipinin ele geçmesi ön görümüzü güçlendirmektedir. Bölgedeki Hellenistik ve Roma Dönemlerinde var olan Pers etnisitesinin yazıt, sikke ve antik kaynaklardaki kanıtları bilinmektedir. Bunun  yanı sıra materyal kültür açısından  burada konu edilen yeni izlerin gömü geleneklerinde  takip edilebilmesi, Pers etkisinin başka bir yansıması olarak önem taşımaktadır. Anahita inancının Akhaimenid dönemden Roma dönemine kadar sürmüş olan popülerliği, burada sadece “Lydialı İranlılar” değil tüm yerli ve Romalı nüfus üzerinde etki yaratmış görünmektedir. Ancak Pers nüfusunun mevcudiyeti büyük ölçüde Anahita inanç ve kült pratikleri ile ilişkilidir. Bu nedenle Akhaimenid kültürünün en bilinen kültik formu phialelerin ise zaman zaman gömüler beraberinde ele geçiyor olmasının Hellenistik Dönemde özellikle Pers etnisitesinin belirlenmesinde güçlü bir arkeolojik veri olduğu göz önünde tutulmalıdır.

  17. Jules Horowitz Reactor, basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Y.; Bouilloux, Y.; Chantoin, P.; Guigon, B.; Bravo, X.; Germain, C.; Rommens, M.; Tremodeux, P

    2003-07-01

    Since the shutdown of the SILOE reactor in 1997, the OSIRIS reactor has ensured the needs regarding technological irradiation at CEA including those of its industrial partners and customers. The Jules Horowitz Reactor will replace it. It has the ambition to provide the necessary nuclear data and maintain a fission research capacity in Europe after 2010. This capacity should be service-oriented. It will be established in Cadarache. The Jules Horowitz reactor will also: - represent a significant step in term of performances and experimental capabilities, - be designed with a high flexibility, in order to satisfy the current demand from European industry, research and be able to accommodate future requirements, - reach a high level of safety, according to the best current practice. This paper will present the main functionalities and the design options resulting from the 'preliminary design' studies. (authors)

  18. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  19. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase 1 effort was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) Reactor concept. Unlike...

  20. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  1. Unique features of space reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    Space reactors are designed to meet a unique set of requirements; they must be sufficiently compact to be launched in a rocket to their operational location, operate for many years without maintenance and servicing, operate in extreme environments, and reject heat by radiation to space. To meet these restrictions, operating temperatures are much greater than in terrestrial power plants, and the reactors tend to have a fast neutron spectrum. Currently, a new generation of space reactor power plants is being developed. The major effort is in the SP-100 program, where the power plant is being designed for seven years of full power, and no maintenance operation at a reactor outlet operating temperature of 1350 K.

  2. Thermal Analysis for Mobile Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Mobile reactor design in the paper is consisted of two grades of thermal electric conversion. The first grade is the thermionic conversion inside the core and the second grade is thermocouple conversion

  3. Teaching About Nature's Nuclear Reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring nuclear reactors existed in uranium deposits on Earth long before Enrico Fermi built the first man-made nuclear reactor beneath Staggs Field in 1942. In the story of their discovery, there are important lessons to be learned about scientific inquiry and scientific discovery. Now, there is evidence to suggest that the Earth's magnetic field and Jupiter's atmospheric turbulence are driven by planetary-scale nuclear reactors. The subject of planetocentric nuclear fission reactors can be a jumping off point for stimulating classroom discussions about the nature and implications of planetary energy sources and about the geomagnetic field. But more importantly, the subject can help to bring into focus the importance of discussing, debating, and challenging current thinking in a variety of areas.

  4. Advanced Carbothermal Electric Reactor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to develop the Advanced Carbothermal Electric (ACE) reactor to efficiently extract oxygen from lunar regolith. Unlike state-of-the-art carbothermal...

  5. Solid State Reactor Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, G.T.

    2004-03-10

    The Solid State Reactor (SSR) is an advanced reactor concept designed to take advantage of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) recently developed graphite foam that has enhanced heat transfer characteristics and excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, to provide an inherently safe, self-regulated, source of heat for power and other potential applications. This work was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) program (Project No. 99-064) from August 1999 through September 30, 2002. The initial concept of utilizing the graphite foam as a basis for developing an advanced reactor concept envisioned that a suite of reactor configurations and power levels could be developed for several different applications. The initial focus was looking at the reactor as a heat source that was scalable, independent of any heat removal/power conversion process. These applications might include conventional power generation, isotope production and destruction (actinides), and hydrogen production. Having conducted the initial research on the graphite foam and having performed the scoping parametric analyses from neutronics and thermal-hydraulic perspectives, it was necessary to focus on a particular application that would (1) demonstrate the viability of the overall concept and (2) require a reasonably structured design analysis process that would synthesize those important parameters that influence the concept the most as part of a feasible, working reactor system. Thus, the application targeted for this concept was supplying power for remote/harsh environments and a design that was easily deployable, simplistic from an operational standpoint, and utilized the new graphite foam. Specifically, a 500-kW(t) reactor concept was pursued that is naturally load following, inherently safe, optimized via neutronic studies to achieve near-zero reactivity change with burnup, and proliferation resistant. These four major areas

  6. Microchannel Reactors for ISRU Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Susana; Makel, Darby B.; Blizman, Brandon; Ward, Benjamin J.

    2005-02-01

    Affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local resources and the waste products which are formed in manned spacecraft and surface bases. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) will require component technologies which provide optimal size, weight, volume, and power efficiency. Microchannel reactors enable the efficient chemical processing of in situ resources. The reactors can be designed for the processes that generate the most benefit for each mission. For instance, propellants (methane) can be produced from carbon dioxide from the Mars atmosphere using the Sabatier reaction and ethylene can be produced from the partial oxidation of methane. A system that synthesizes ethylene could be the precursor for systems to synthesize ethanol and polyethylene. Ethanol can be used as a nutrient for Astrobiology experiments, as well as the production of nutrients for human crew (e.g. sugars). Polyethylene can be used in the construction of habitats, tools, and replacement parts. This paper will present recent developments in miniature chemical reactors using advanced Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and microchannel technology to support ISRU of Mars and lunar missions. Among other applications, the technology has been demonstrated for the Sabatier process and for the partial oxidation of methane. Microchannel reactors were developed based on ceramic substrates as well as metal substrates. In both types of reactors, multiple layers coated with catalytic material are bonded, forming a monolithic structure. Such reactors are readily scalable with the incorporation of extra layers. In addition, this reactor structure minimizes pressure drop and catalyst settling, which are common problems in conventional packed bed reactors.

  7. Reactor antineutrinos and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-11-01

    Short-baseline reactor neutrino experiments successfully measured the neutrino parameters they set out to measure, but they also identified a shape distortion in the 5-7 MeV range as well as a reduction from the predicted value of the flux. Nuclear physics input into the calculations of reactor antineutrino spectra needs to be better refined if this anomaly is to be interpreted as due to sterile neutrino states.

  8. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  9. Novel Catalytic Membrane Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart Nemser, PhD

    2010-10-01

    There are many industrial catalytic organic reversible reactions with amines or alcohols that have water as one of the products. Many of these reactions are homogeneously catalyzed. In all cases removal of water facilitates the reaction and produces more of the desired chemical product. By shifting the reaction to right we produce more chemical product with little or no additional capital investment. Many of these reactions can also relate to bioprocesses. Given the large number of water-organic compound separations achievable and the ability of the Compact Membrane Systems, Inc. (CMS) perfluoro membranes to withstand these harsh operating conditions, this is an ideal demonstration system for the water-of-reaction removal using a membrane reactor. Enhanced reaction synthesis is consistent with the DOE objective to lower the energy intensity of U.S. industry 25% by 2017 in accord with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and to improve the United States manufacturing competitiveness. The objective of this program is to develop the platform technology for enhancing homogeneous catalytic chemical syntheses.

  10. LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwashige, Kengo

    1996-06-21

    In an LMFBR type reactor, partitions are disposed to a coolant channel at positions lower than the free liquid level, and the width of the partitions is adapted to have a predetermined condition. Namely, when low temperature fluid overflowing the wall of the coolant channel, flows down and collided against the free liquid surface in the coolant channel, since the dropping speed thereof is reduced abruptly, large pressure waves are caused by kinetic force of the low temperature fluid. However, if appropriate numbers of partitions having an appropriate shape are formed, the dropping speed of the low temperature fluid is moderated to reduce the pressure waves. In addition, since the pressure waves are dispersed to the circumferential and lateral directions of the coolant flow channel respectively, the propagation of the pressure waves can be prevented effectively. Further, when the flow of the low temperature fluid is changed to the circumferential direction, for example, by earthquakes, since the partitions act as members resisting against the circumferential change of the low temperature fluid, the change of the direction can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  11. Calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra in TEXONO

    CERN Document Server

    Chen Dong Liang; Mao Ze Pu; Wong, T H

    2002-01-01

    In the low energy reactor antineutrino physics experiments, either for the researches of antineutrino oscillation and antineutrino reactions, or for the measurement of abnormal magnetic moment of antineutrino, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino must be described accurately. The method of calculation of reactor antineutrino spectra was discussed in detail. Furthermore, based on the actual circumstances of NP2 reactors and the arrangement of detectors, the flux and the spectra of reactor antineutrino in TEXONO were worked out

  12. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  13. Eskişehir Devlet Demir Yolları Yerleşkesi Lojman Konutları Plan Tipolojileri Üzerine bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Üstün

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sanayi yapıları yalnızca makineleri barındıran binalar değil, yeni bir yaşam tarzının ve kültürünün topluma tanıtılmasının ve yayılmasının araçlarıdırlar. Sanayi yapıları, modern sanayinin ortaya çıkardığı sınıfsal yapıdan başlayarak, işyeri ilişkilerine uzanan toplumsal dönüşümlerin ortak mekânı olarak kabul edilebilir (Doğan, 2009:77. Bu kapsamda, İngiltere, Almanya ve ABD’de endüstri devrimi ile birlikte artan üretim mekânları ile yaygınlık kazanan, sanayi yapıları kurucuları, çalışanlardan daha etkin bir biçimde yararlanmak ve daha verimli şartlar sunma kaygısı ile Company Town’ları (Şirket Kentlerini oluşturmuşlardır.Sanayileşme, Batıda olduğu gibi Modern Türkiye’nin kurucu öğelerinden olmuş, bir yandan toplumu dönüştürüp farklılaştırırken, diğer yandan toplumu örgütlemenin ve onun iç dinamiklerine müdahale etmenin bir aracı olarak kullanılmıştır.  Aynı zamanda sanayi kuruluşları ile konut kurguları, kentin konut kültürünün anlaşılmasında önemli bir veri teşkil etmiştir. Bu kapsamda ele alınan, Eskişehir Devlet Demir Yolları (Tülomsaş Yerleşkesi; günümüz endüstriyel mirasının fonksiyonel ve mekânsal bağlamda öncü örneklerindendir. Eskişehir kenti için bir prototip olma özelliği taşıyan yerleşke; çalışanlarının çalışma dışında, barınma, sosyal, kültürel ve eğitime yönelik gereksinimlerini karşılayan mikro ölçekli bir kent modeli ortaya koyan ilk yapılanmalardan biri olma özelliği taşımaktadır. Eskişehir kenti için özellikle inşa edildiği dönemde ve sonrasında önemli bir ekonomik ve sosyal dinamik oluşturmuştur.Makale kapsamında; Batıda 1800’lü yıllarda ortaya çıkan Türkiye’de ise Cumhuriyetin ilanı ile örneklerini veren Şirket Kentlerinin gelişimi özetlenerek Eskişehir’de bir şirket kenti Company Town örneği olan Devlet Demir Yolları (T

  14. Estetik Bir Öğe Olarak Sinemada Ses Tasarımı Ve Örnek Bir Film Çözümlemesi Sound Design As An Aesthetical Element In Cinema And An Example Of A Film Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa SÖZEN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the image itself, even in a film having the simplest story, does not provide enough message. Due to a spesific aesthetic predication of audio phonemena, the films, right from the beginning, started to be shown in accompany with sound. The soundelement in cinematography which produces the semantic expression asa parlance by means of images and sounds has its own ways of use.The sound universe of cinematography is composed of dialogs, effectsand music each having different ontologies. In today’s cinematography,all these three elements were given in. For all that, in some filmsproduced for certain aesthetic considerations and in limited numbersthe usage of effects and music are avoided. Looking at the elementsmaking up the universe of sound in a film from the perspective ofessential functions it is seen that the dialogs are used to provideinformation, effects to create a real spatial and temporal feeling, andmusic to conceive the ambiance required by narrative. By doing so,matching the sounds in harmony with images is achieved and so theenhancement of the narrative’s reality illusion is expected. Somedirectors on the other hand, by pushing the sound out of its basicfunctions, rendering images and sounds contrary oppose this approachgo in search of producing different and new meanings. This studyinvestigates the how the sound universe design of the film “Deli DeliOlma” directed by Murat Saracoğlu, as an aesthetic element ismanipulated. In analysis, sound universe has been assesed either bystructural or dramatic functional dimensions. En basit öyküye sahip bir filmde bile sadece görüntülerin yeteri kadar ileti sağlamadığı bilinen bir gerçekliktir. Ses olgusunun kendine özgü estetik bir yükleme sahip oluşundan ötürü, sinemanın ilk anlarından itibaren filmler ses eşliğinde gösterilmeye başlanmıştır. Bir dil olarak anlamsal ifadeyi görüntü ve sesler aracılığıyla üreten sinemada ses

  15. Innovative hybrid biological reactors using membranes; Reactores biologico hibrido innovadores utilizando membranas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.; Esteban-Garcia, A. L.; Florio, L. de; Rodriguez-Hernandez, L.; Tejero, I.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present two lines of research on hybrid reactors including the use of membranes, although with different functions: RBPM, biofilm reactors and membranes filtration RBSOM, supported biofilm reactors and oxygen membranes. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Establishment of licensing process for development reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Jong Chull; Yune, Young Gill; Kim, Woong Sik (and others)

    2006-02-15

    A study on licensing processes for development reactors has been performed to prepare the licensing of development reactors developed in Korea. The contents and results of the study are summarized as follows. The licensing processes for nuclear reactors in Korea, U.S.A., Japan, France, U.K., Canada, and IAEA were surveyed and analyzed to obtain technical bases necessary for establishing licensing processes applicable to development reactors in Korea. Based on the technical bases obtained the above analysis, the purpose, power output, and design characteristics of development reactors were analyzed in detail. The analysis results suggested that development reactors should be classified as a new reactor category (called as 'development reactor') separated from the current reactor categories such as the research reactor and the power reactor. Therefore, it is proposed to establish a new reactor category classified as 'development reactor' for the development reactors. And licensing processes, including licensing technical requirements, licensing document requirements, and other regulatory requirements, were also proposed for the development reactors. In order to institutionalize the licensing processes developed in this study, it is necessary to revise the current laws. Therefore, draft provisions of Atomic Energy Act, Enforcement Decree of the Atomic Energy Act, and Enforcement Regulation of the Atomic Energy Act have been developed for the preparation of the future legalization of the licensing processes proposed for the development reactors. Conclusively, a proposal of licensing processes and draft provisions of laws have been developed for the development reactors. The results proposed in this study can be applied directly to the licensing of the future development reactors. Furthermore, they will also contribute to establishing successfully the licensing processes of the development reactors.

  17. Mevlana’nın Menkıbeleri Üzerine Folklorik Bir İnceleme A Folkloric Analysis on the Legends of Mevlana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay KARAMAN

    2012-09-01

    article these topics are determined in Menâkıbu’l-Ârifîn to analysis: Places, occupations, belongings, manner of dressing, food and drinks, custom and traditions, medical treatments. Arapça bir kelime olan menkabe sözlükte övünülecek güzel iş, davranış anlamına gelmektedir. Çoğulu menâkıb olan kelime bu anlamıyla ilk defa, IX. yüzyıldan itibaren yazılıp derlenmeye başlayan hadis külliyatlarında Hz. Peygamber ve ashabının faziletlerini anlatmak için kullanılmıştır. Bundan başka tarihî şahsiyetlerin hal tercümeleri, önemli kişilerin övülecek işleri ve hatta bazı mukaddes şehirlerin tasvirinden ibaret yazılara da menâkıb denilmiştir. Başlangıçta, Hz. Peygamber ve sahabelerinin üstün ahlâkını ve yaşantılarını anlatmak üzere oluşturulan menâkıbnâmeler daha sonraları tasavvuf ve tarikat erbabının hayatlarını da konu edinmişlerdir. Türk menâkıbnâme edebiyatının bilinen ilk örneği Karahanlı dönemine ait Tezkire-i Satuk Buğra Han isimli eserdir. Tezkire-i Satuk Buğra Han’la başlayan Türk menâkıbnâme edebiyatı, göçlerle Anadolu’ya gelip yerleşen Müslüman Türkler arasında hızlı bir biçimde yayılmaya devam etmiştir. Yazar kendi toplumunun bir üyesi olduğu için doğal olarak eser de kendi çağının sosyal, kültürel ekonomik, politik yaşamına ayna olacaktır. Velilerin olağanüstü hayat hikâyelerini anlatan menâkıbnâmeler bu sebepten dolayı; özellikle tarih, kültür, halkbilimi ve edebiyat için çok önemli bilgi kaynaklarıdır. Menkıbeler üzerinde yapılacak dikkatli çalışmalar sonucunda çok zengin bir bilgi kaynağına ulaşmak mümkün olacaktır. Türkiye’de menâkıbnâmelerin bilimsel çalışmalarda kullanılmasına dikkat çeken ilk isim Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar adlı eseriyle Fuad Köprülü’dür. Bu çalışmada Mevlana ve diğer Mevlevi büyüklerinin menkıbelerini anlatan bir menâkıbnâme olan Men

  18. Repairing liner of the reactor; Reparacion del liner del reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2001-07-15

    Due to the corrosion problems of the aluminum coating of the reactor pool, a periodic inspections program by ultrasound to evaluate the advance grade and the corrosion speed was settled down. This inspections have shown the necessity to repair some areas, in those that the slimming is significant, of not making it can arrive to the water escape of the reactor pool. The objective of the repair is to place patches of plates of 1/4 inch aluminum thickness in the areas of the reactor 'liner', in those that it has been detected by ultrasound a smaller thickness or similar to 3 mm. To carry out this the fuels are move (of the core and those that are decaying) to a temporary storage, the structure of the core is confined in a tank that this placed inside the pool of the reactor, a shield is placed in the thermal column and it is completely extracted the water for to leave uncover the 'liner' of the reactor. (Author)

  19. Reactor Simulator Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Webster, Kenny L.; Pearson, Boise Jon

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator test loop (RxSim) was design & built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing was to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V since the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This paper summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump (ALIP) tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz. Keywords: fission, space power, nuclear, liquid metal, NaK.

  20. İki Lazer Demeti İle Zamana-Bağlı Etkileşim Altındaki Üç-Düzeyli Bir Tuzaklanmış İyonun Kuantum Dinamiği ve Kuantum Dolaşıklığı

    OpenAIRE

    Deveci, Bekir

    2013-01-01

    Bir üniter transformasyon kullanılan sunumunda iki lazer demeti ile etkileşen üç düzeyli bir iyonun zamana bağlı hamiltonyeni hesaplandı. Kullanılan üniter transformasyon metot titreşen fonon geçişleri için sunumunun bir dönüşümüdür. Grafiklerdeki beli bir zaman periyodunda Lamb-Dicke rejimine ulaştıktan sonra olasılık genlikleri için analitik sonuçlarımız tamdı. Bu işlemden sonra iyon-fonon sisteminde meydana gelen kuantum dolaşıklık incelendi. Zamandan bağımsız daha önceden yapılmış b...

  1. Reactivity determination in accelerator driven reactors using reactor noise analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ljiljana 1

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Feynman-alpha and Rossi-alpha methods are used in traditional nuclear reactors to determine the subcritical reactivity of a system. The methods are based on the measurement of the mean value, variance and the covariance of detector counts for different measurement times. Such methods attracted renewed attention recently with the advent of the so-called accelerator driven reactors (ADS proposed some time ago. The ADS systems, intended to be used either in energy generation or transuranium transmutation, will use a subcritical core with a strong spallation source. A spallation source has statistical properties that are different from those traditionally used by radioactive sources. In such reactors the monitoring of the subcritical reactivity is very important, and a statistical method, such as the Feynman-alpha method, is capable of resolving this problem.

  2. II.Abdülhamid Döneminde Zirai Eğitime Bir Bakış An Outlook on Agricultural Education in The Reign of Abdulhamid II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür YILDIZ

    2012-12-01

    ülhamid’in saltanatı uzun ve sıkıntılarla dolu bir siyasi yaşamın yansıması olarak görülmektedir. Padişah büyük siyasi sorunlarla uğraşırken ülkenin kalkınması ve modernleşmesi için de çaba harcamıştır.II. Abdülhamid eğitimle yakından ilgilenen bir padişahtır. Yönetimde kaldığı süre içinde eğitimin her alanında yenilikler yaptığı bilinmektedir. Padişah II. Abdülhamid’in şehzadeliği döneminde ziraat işleriyle meşgul olması ve çiftlik sahibi olarak servet elde etmesi ziraat eğitimiyle de doğrudan ilgilenmesine neden olmuştur.Osmanlı Devleti’nin çeşitli vilayetlerinde ziraat mektebi açmak suretiyle Sultan II. Abdülhamid bu konudaki hassasiyetini göstermiştir. İstanbul, Selanik ve Bursa’da açtırdığı ziraat okulları modern tarımın gelişmesinde etkili olmuştur.Ziraat mekteplerine öğrenci seçimi, sınavlarda merkezi sınav uygulanması hatta merkezi sınavdan sonra da öğrencilerin okul öğretmenleri tarafından tekrar bir sınava tabi tutulmaları da dönemin eğitim anlayışı hakkında ipuçları vermektedir.Öğrencilere ödül verilerek eğitimin özendirilmesi, sınavların çok sıkı kuralarla göre yapılması, eğitimin uygulamalı olması, öğretmenlerin de özenle seçilmesi ziraat eğitimine verilen önem ve değeri ortaya koymaktadır.1884 tarihli nizamname ve diğer arşiv belgeleri ışığında hazırlanan araştırmanın giriş bölümünde; II. Abdülhamid döneminde eğitim anlayışına kısa bir şekilde yer verilmiştir. Birinci bölümde; II. Abdülhamid döneminde ziraat meselesine bakış, ziraat mekteplerinin teşkili ve mekteplere öğrenci seçim usullerine değinilmiştir. İkinci bölümde; ziraat okullarında talim ve tedris hakkında bilgi verilmiş, üçüncü bölümde; ziraat mekteplerinin idaresi ve mektepte çalışan diğer memurlar hakkında bilgi verilerek II. Abdülhamid döneminde ziraat eğitimi hakkında bir değerlendirme yapılmaya çalışılmıştır.

  3. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  4. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

  5. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruo Miyadera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.

  6. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  7. Yükseköğretim öğrencilerinin işlevsel yazma becerilerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik bir eylem araştırması

    OpenAIRE

    Nohutçu, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Bireylerin üniversitelere gitme sebeplerine bakıldığında ilk sırada herhangi bir devlet kurumunda ya da özel kurum ve kuruluşlarda iş sahibi olabilmek amacı yer almaktadır. Her yıl ülkemizin farklı yerlerinden binlerce öğrenci bu amacına ulaşabilmek için üniversitelere girmektedir. Bu öğrencilerin günlük ve meslek hayatlarında onlara katkı sağlayacak olan işlevsel yazma türlerinden resmi yazışma türlerini iyi bir şekilde bilmeleri gerekmektedir. Bu amaçla hangi bölüm olursa olsun her üniversi...

  8. Sosyolojinin Peşinde Geçen Bir Ömür: Prof. Dr. Sami ŞENER ile Söyleşi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Doğan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sosyoloji Bölümünün temel problemlerine çözüm önerileri üretmeye çalışan 3. Ulusal Sosyoloji Çalıştayı bu sene Karabük Üniversitesi Sosyoloji Bölümü tarafından düzenlendi. Çalıştayın oturum başkanlarından Sakarya Üniversitesi Bölüm Başkanı Prof. Dr Sami Şener’e, Türkiye’deki sosyoloji çalışmalarına bakışı ile sosyolojinin temel problemlerini teşhis etme ve çözüm yolları üretme konusundaki düşüncelerinin neler olduğu konusunda sorular sorduk. Sosyoloji eğitiminin kalitesini yükseltebilmek için neler yapılabileceği üzerinde konuşan ŞENER hoca: “Türk üniversitelerinde eğitim alan sosyoloji öğrencilerinin, hem pratik bir çalışma ve iş üretme yeteneğine nasıl sahip olacakları ve hem de hükümetin karşı karşıya geldiği sosyal problemlerin çözümünde neden sosyologlardan daha fazla yararlanılmadığının gün yüzüne çıkarılması için bu çalıştayların yapılması gerekmektedir” dedi. Bu konuda önemli adımlardan birini atan Prof Dr. Sami ŞENER hocamız Türkiye’deki sosyologları birleştirici bir faaliyet içerisine girerek SOSYODER’i (Sosyologlar Derneğini kurmuştur. Dernek yakın bir tarihte kurulmasına rağmen ŞENER hocanın ve çok sayıda değerli akademisyenin destekleri ile Türkiye’de sesini duyurmayı başarmıştır. The 3rd National Sociology Workshop, which tries to find answers to major problems of the Sociology Department, has been held this year by the department of sociology at Karabuk University. Some questions have been addressed to Prof. Dr. Sami Şener, the head of the department of Sociology at Sakarya University, concerning his point of view on sociology, together with identifying the basic problems in the field of sociology and then determining the ways of solutions. Having proposed the way to increase the efficiency of the quality of sociology education, Prof. Dr. Sami Sener has said: “The sociology students that

  9. A problem peculiar to women: Mental health in menopauseKadına özgü bir sorun: Menopozda ruh sağlığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükran Ertekin Pınar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause ranked among reproductive health is one of the issues that requires special consideration because of the position of women. In terms of the elimination of inequalities in gender-related health, it is important to investigate this issue in a holistic approach. Today with the increasing length of life, the time that spent in menopause period is increasing too. Accepted physiological event menopause leads to changes in physiological, mental, social and sexual ways. Changes in the levels of reproductive hormones lead to menstrual cycle disruption, vasomotor symptoms, sleep disorders and mood changes. As menopause period develops with pathological events which threaten life, impair quality of life and affect marriage relationship, it is an important period needs to be addressed by health professionals. In this context, identifying mental problems gone through in menopause period is important in terms of holistic approach. Women in menopause periods should be addressed in the biopsychosocial and cultural integrity and health professionals should determine women who are at risk of mental problems at an early stage and should provide support in a mental aspect.   Özet Üreme sağlığı içinde yer alan menopoz, kadınların konumlarından dolayı özel yaklaşım gerektiren konulardan biridir. Cinsiyete bağlı sağlıkta eşitsizlik durumunun ortadan kaldırması açısından bütüncül yaklaşım içerisinde bu konunun araştırılmış olması önemlidir. Günümüzde yaşam süresinin uzaması ile birlikte menopoz döneminde geçirilen süre de artmaktadır. Fizyolojik bir olay olarak kabul edilen menopoz kadında fizyolojik, mental, sosyal ve cinsel yönden birçok değişimler yaşanmasına neden olmaktadır. Üreme hormonlarının düzeylerindeki değişiklikler sonucu adet döngüsünde bozulma, vazomotor belirtiler, uyku bozuklukları, duygu durum değişiklikleri görülebilmektedir. Menopoz dönemi yaşamı tehdit edici, ya

  10. Üstün Yetenekli Dijital Yerlilerin Sosyal Medya Kullanımları Üzerine Nitel Bir Çalışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Şamil Köroğlu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ağ neslinin yeni medya teknolojilerine ilişkin algısına ve teknolojiyi kullanma motivasyonuna ilişkin yapılan nicel çalışmalar dijital antropoloji alanına ilgi duyanlar için ufuk açıcı niteliktedir. Ağ neslinin özellikli bir grubunu teşkil eden üstün yetenekli dijital yerliler ise interneti ve mobil iletişim teknolojilerini bir dil gibi kullanabilen, içerik üretimi ve paylaşımı konusunda katılımcı, bilgi edinme, eğlenme ve sosyalleşme amacıyla birincil kaynak olarak sanal ortamı gören üstün yetenekli çocuklardır. Üstün yetenekli dijital yerlilerin sosyal medya kullanım motivasyonlarını Kullanımlar ve Doyumlar Yaklaşımı ile inceleyen bu çalışma, betimsel nitelikli tarama modelinde bir araştırmadır. Araştırma grubu, 2012-2013 eğitim yılında İstanbul Bilim ve Sanat Merkezi, Beşiktaş Bilim ve Sanat Merkezi ve Beyazıt Ford Otosan İlköğretim Okulu’nda öğrenim gören 401 üstün yetenekli öğrencidir. Grupta yer alan üstün yeteneklilerin 231’i (%57,6 9–11; 148’i (%36,9 12–14; 22’si (%5,5 ise 15–17 yaş grubundadır. Araştırmaya katılan üstün yeteneklilerin 247’si erkek (%61,6; 154’ü (%38,4 kız öğrencilerden oluşmaktadır. Çalışmada üstün yetenekli dijital yerlilerin sosyal medya kullanım sıklıkları; internet kullanım amaçları ile sosyal medya kullanım amaçları ve sık kullandıkları sosyal medya sitelerinin hangileri olduğu incelenmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen bulgular üstün yetenekli dijital yerlilerin sosyal medya kullanım sıklığının akranlarına oranla Türkiye ortalamasının altında kaldığını; internet kullanım amaçlarıyla sosyal medya kullanım amaçlarının örtüştüğünü, ayrıca YouTube, Facebook ve Twitter’ın üstün yetenekli dijital yerlilerin en sık kullandıkları sosyal medya siteleri olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

  11. Plasma reactor waste management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Robert O., Jr.; Rindt, John R.; Ness, Sumitra R.

    1992-01-01

    The University of North Dakota is developing a plasma reactor system for use in closed-loop processing that includes biological, materials, manufacturing, and waste processing. Direct-current, high-frequency, or microwave discharges will be used to produce plasmas for the treatment of materials. The plasma reactors offer several advantages over other systems, including low operating temperatures, low operating pressures, mechanical simplicity, and relatively safe operation. Human fecal material, sunflowers, oats, soybeans, and plastic were oxidized in a batch plasma reactor. Over 98 percent of the organic material was converted to gaseous products. The solids were then analyzed and a large amount of water and acid-soluble materials were detected. These materials could possibly be used as nutrients for biological systems.

  12. Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Chavez-Mercado; Jaime B. Morales-Sandoval; Benjamin E. Zayas-Perez

    1998-12-31

    The Nuclear Reactor Engineering Analysis Laboratory (NREAL) is a sophisticated computer system with state-of-the-art analytical tools and technology for analysis of light water reactors. Multiple application software tools can be activated to carry out different analyses and studies such as nuclear fuel reload evaluation, safety operation margin measurement, transient and severe accident analysis, nuclear reactor instability, operator training, normal and emergency procedures optimization, and human factors engineering studies. An advanced graphic interface, driven through touch-sensitive screens, provides the means to interact with specialized software and nuclear codes. The interface allows the visualization and control of all observable variables in a nuclear power plant (NPP), as well as a selected set of nonobservable or not directly controllable variables from conventional control panels.

  13. Utilisation of thorium in reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, K.; Shivakumar, V.; Saha, D.

    2008-12-01

    India's nuclear programme envisages a large-scale utilisation of thorium, as it has limited deposits of uranium but vast deposits of thorium. The large-scale utilisation of thorium requires the adoption of closed fuel cycle. The stable nature of thoria and the radiological issues associated with thoria poses challenges in the adoption of a closed fuel cycle. A thorium fuel based Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) is being planned to provide impetus to development of technologies for the closed thorium fuel cycle. Thoria fuel has been loaded in Indian reactors and test irradiations have been carried out with (Th-Pu) MOX fuel. Irradiated thorium assemblies have been reprocessed and the separated 233U fuel has been used for test reactor KAMINI. The paper highlights the Indian experience with the use of thorium and brings out various issues associated with the thorium cycle.

  14. A tubular focused sonochemistry reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuangPing; LIANG ZhaoFeng; LI ZhengZhong; ZHANG YiHui

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new sonochemistry reactor, which consists of a cylindrical tube with a certain length and piezoelectric transducers at tube's end with the longitudinal vibration. The tube can effectively transform the longitudinal vibration into the radial vibration and thereby generates ultrasound. Furthermore, ultrasound can be focused to form high-intensity ultrasonic field inside tube. The reactor boasts of simple structure and its whole vessel wall can radiate ultrasound so that the electroacoustic transfer efficiency is high. The focused ultrasonic field provides good condition for sonochemical reaction. The length of the reactor can be up to 2 meters, and liquids can pass through it continuously, so it can be widely applied in liquid processing such as sonochemistry.

  15. A compact Tokamak transmutation reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuLi-Jian; XiaoBing-Jia

    1997-01-01

    The low aspect ration tokamak is proposed for the driver of a transmutation reactor.The main parameters of the reactor core,neutronic analysis of the blanket are given>the neutron wall loading can be lowered from the magnitude order of 1 MW/m2 to 0.5MW/m2 which is much easier to reach in the near future,and the transmutation efficiency (fission/absorption ratio)is raised further.The blanket power density is about 200MW/m3 which is not difficult to deal with.The key components such as diverter and center conductor post are also designed and compared with conventional TOkamak,Finally,by comparison with the other drivers such as FBR,PWR and accelerator,it can be anticipated that the low aspect ratio transmutation reactor would be one way of fusion energy applications in the near future.

  16. Investigation of KW reactor incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturges, D G [USAEC Hanford Operations Office, Richland, WA (United States); Hauff, T W; Greager, O H [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    1955-02-11

    The new KW reactor was placed in operation on January 4, 1955, and had been running at relatively low power levels for only 17 hours when it was shut down because of a process tube water leak which appeared to be associated with a slug rupture. After several days of unrewarding effort to remove the slugs and tube by customary methods, it developed that considerable melting of the tube and slugs had taken place. It was then evident that removal of the stuck mass and repairs to the damaged tube channel would require unusual measures that were certain to extend the reactor outage for several weeks. This report documents the work and findings of the Committee which investigated the KW reactor incident. Its content represents unanimous agreement among the three Committee members.

  17. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  18. PITR: Princeton Ignition Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The principal objectives of the PITR - Princeton Ignition Test Reactor - are to demonstrate the attainment of thermonuclear ignition in deuterium-tritium, and to develop optimal start-up techniques for plasma heating and current induction, in order to determine the most favorable means of reducing the size and cost of tokamak power reactors. This report describes the status of the plasma and engineering design features of the PITR. The PITR geometry is chosen to provide the highest MHD-stable values of beta in a D-shaped plasma, as well as ease of access for remote handling and neutral-beam injection.

  19. Analysis of Adiabatic Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erald Gjonaj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of acetic anhydride is reacted with excess water in an adiabatic batch reactor to form an exothermic reaction. The concentration of acetic anhydride and the temperature inside the adiabatic batch reactor are calculated with an initial temperature of 20°C, an initial temperature of 30°C, and with a cooling jacket maintaining the temperature at a constant of 20°C. The graphs of the three different scenarios show that the highest temperatures will cause the reaction to occur faster.

  20. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  1. Reactor shutdown delays medical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A longer-than-expected maintenance shutdown of the Canadian nuclear reactor that produces North America's entire supply of molybdenum-99 - from which the radioactive isotopes technetium-99 and iodine-131 are made - caused delays to the diagnosis and treatment of thousands of seriously ill patients last month. Technetium-99 is a key component of nuclear-medicine scans, while iodine-131 is used to treat cancer and other diseases of the thyroid. Production eventually resumed, but only after the Canadian government had overruled the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), which was still concerned about the reactor's safety.

  2. Maksimum Yagıslar için Süreden Bagımsız Bir Bölgesel Model Yaklasımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Levend AŞIKOĞLU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, Ege Bölgesi örneginde belli tekerrürlü standart süreli yıllık maksimum yagıs (SSMY tahmininde kullanılabilecek, Lognormal tabanlı bir bölgesel model gelistirilmistir. Bölgesel modellerin temel amacı, proje alanına yakın birkaç istasyondaki noktasal veri ve bilgilerin proje alanına aktarılması ile ortaya çıkacak sakıncaları en aza indirmektir. Ayrıca, bölgesel modeller yardımıyla plüvyografsız istasyon bulunan veya hiç istasyon bulunmayan proje alanlarına da bilgi aktarma olanagı mevcuttur. Çalısmada, Lognormal dagılım fonksiyonunun tanımlanması için gerekli olan degiskenlik katsayısının yagıs süresinden bagımsız oldugu belirlenmis, tüm bölge için süreden bagımsız bir "bölgesel degiskenlik katsayısı" kullanılmıstır. Bölgesel degiskenlik katsayısının kullanımıyla gelistirilen "boyutsuz bölgesel tekerrür egrisi", proje alanında ortalama yagıs yüksekligi bilinen her noktada verilen tekerrüre karsılık gelecek yagıs yüksekliginin hesaplanmasını saglayacaktır. Böylelikle bölgede daha etkin boyutsuz yagıs tahminleri yapılabilmesine imkan verecektir. Bu model, yagıs ölçüm istasyonlarının standart süreli yagısları Lognormal frekans dagılım modeline uyan bölgelerde, bölgesel model kurma açısından büyük kolaylıklar getirecektir.

  3. Kitap İncelemesi: Thomas Piketty'nin 21. YY'da Eşitsizlik Dinamiklerini Bir Kıt'a Avrupası Bakış Açısından Değerlendirmesi

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Piketty’nin, “21.yy’da Sermaye” başlıklı kitabı dünya ekonomi literatüründe çok ses getirdi. Uzun zamandan beri Anglosakson hâkimiyetinde olan ekonomi literatüründe bir Kıt’a Avrupası bakış açısının ses getirmesi dikkat çekicidir. Yazarın Fransız olması ve ağırlıklı olarak Fransız ekolünden gelmesi kitabı ayrıcalıklı kılan bir nedendir. Fransız ekolünden gelen bir akademisyen olarak kitabı orijinal dili olan Fransızca okuma ayrıcalığına sahip oldum. Bu yazı, “Thomas Piketty, Le Capital...

  4. Research Methods Used in Library and Information Science Theses: An Evaluation Kütüphanecilik ve Bilgi Bilim Tezlerinde Kullanılan Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri : Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Serap Kurbanoğlu

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A literature analysis and an evaluation are made on the findings of researches which examine the research methods employed in library science and information science dissertations. The data suggest some changes regarding to research methods used in library science dissertations. Separate examinations of library science dissertations and information science dissertations suggest that there are differences as much assimilarities between these sister disciplines. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda yapılan araştırmaların bulguları üzerine bir literatür çalışması ve bir değerlendirme yapılmıştır. Bulgular kütüphanecilik tezlerinde kullanılan araştırma yöntemleri konusunda zaman içinde bir çeşitlenme olduğunu göstermektedir. Kütüphanecilik ve bilgi bilim tezleri üzerinde ayrı ayrı yürütülen incelemeler ise bu iki kardeş disiplin arasında benzerlikler kadar farklılıklar da olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır.

  5. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed Prometheus Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to JPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-04-28

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory.

  6. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  7. Reactor Antineutrino Signals at Morton and Boulby

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the distance from which an antineutrino detector is capable of monitoring the operation of a registered reactor, or discovering a clandestine reactor, strengthens the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty. This report presents calculations of reactor antineutrino interactions, from quasi-elastic neutrino-proton scattering and elastic neutrino-electron scattering, in a water-based detector operated >10 km from a commercial power reactor. It separately calculates signal from the proximal reactor and background from all other registered reactors. The main results are interaction rates and kinetic energy distributions of charged leptons scattered from quasi-elastic and elastic processes. Comparing signal and background distributions evaluates reactor monitoring capability. Scaling the results to detectors of different sizes, target media, and standoff distances is straightforward. Calculations are for two examples of a commercial reactor (P_th~3 GW) operating nearby (L~20 km) an underground facil...

  8. Transmutation of actinides in power reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergelson, B R; Gerasimov, A S; Tikhomirov, G V

    2005-01-01

    Power reactors can be used for partial short-term transmutation of radwaste. This transmutation is beneficial in terms of subsequent storage conditions for spent fuel in long-term storage facilities. CANDU-type reactors can transmute the main minor actinides from two or three reactors of the VVER-1000 type. A VVER-1000-type reactor can operate in a self-service mode with transmutation of its own actinides.

  9. Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-02-01

    The Laminar Entrained Flow Reactor (LEFR) is a modular, lab scale, single-user reactor for the study of catalytic fast pyrolysis (CFP). This system can be employed to study a variety of reactor conditions for both in situ and ex situ CFP.

  10. Some new viewpoints in reactor noise analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗征培; 李富; 等

    1996-01-01

    It is propsed that the linearity criterion and order criterion via frequency spectrum features without any limitation of the model's phase can be used in reactor noise analysis.The time constant,natural frequency as well as the recovered transfer function of reactors can bhe obtained via the analyzable model based on reactor noise.

  11. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  12. Heavy Water Reactor; Reacteurs a eau lourde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, St.; HOpwood, J.; Meneley, D. [Energie Atomique du Canada (Canada)

    2000-04-01

    This document deals with the Heavy Water Reactor (HWR) technology and especially the Candu (Canada Deuterium Uranium) reactor. This reactors type offers many advantages that promote them for the future. General concepts, a description of the Candu nuclear power plants, the safety systems, the fuel cycle and economical and environmental aspects are included. (A.L.B.)

  13. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  14. Etkin bir yönetim için vizyoner liderliğin önemi: Hatay'daki kamu kurumları üzerinde bir uygulama/Importance Of Vısıonary Leadershıp For An Actıve Admınıstratıon: An Applıcaton In Publıc Instıtutıons In Hatay

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Yakup BULUT; uygun, serdar vural

    2014-01-01

    Özet Liderlik, insanlık tarihi kadar eski bir kavram olmakla beraber, bu konudaki çalışmaların sanayi devrimi sonrasında hız kazandığı görülmektedir. Günümüze kadar bu konuda birçok araştırmalar yapılmış, ulaşılan bulgular yorumlanmış ve kavramla ilgili çeşitli teoriler ortaya atılmıştır. Değişen yönetim anlayışları, beraberinde yeni yönetici ve lider tiplemelerini de getirmiştir. Vizyoner liderlik, diğer yönetim tiplemelerinden farklı olarak, son dönemde ortaya çıkan yeni bir anlayıştır. Bu ...

  15. Nuclear Reactors and Technology; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Reactors and Technology (NRT) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on nuclear reactors and technology, including all aspects of power reactors, components and accessories, fuel elements, control systems, and materials. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Energy Technology Data Exchange or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NRT and other citations to information on nuclear reactors back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval on EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  16. A Simple Tubular Reactor Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R.; Cayrol, Bertrand

    1981-01-01

    Using the hydrolysis of crystal violet dye by sodium hydroxide as an example, the theory, apparatus, and procedure for a laboratory demonstration of tubular reactor behavior are described. The reaction presented can occur at room temperature and features a color change to reinforce measured results. (WB)

  17. Silica-Immobilized Enzyme Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    immobilized artificial membrane chromatography and lysophospholipid micellar electrokinetic chromatography . J. Chromatogr. A 1998, 810, 95-103. 50...Journal of Liquid Chromatography and Related Technologies. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Airbase...immobilized enzyme reactors (IMERs) can also be integrated directly to further analytical methods such as liquid chromatography or mass spectrometry.[6] In

  18. British high flux beam reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egelstaff, P A

    1970-10-24

    The neutron scattering technique has become an accepted method for the study of condensed matter. Because of the great scientific and technical value of neutron experiments and the growing body of users, several proposals have been made during the past decade for a nuclear reactor devoted primarily to this technique. This article reviews the reasons for and history behind these proposals.

  19. Nuclear reactors and fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN) of IPEN produces nuclear fuel for the continuous operation of the IEA-R1 research reactor of IPEN. The serial production started in 1988, when the first nuclear fuel element was delivered for IEA-R1. In 2011, CCN proudly presents the 100{sup th} nuclear fuel element produced. Besides routine production, development of new technologies is also a permanent concern at CCN. In 2005, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} were replaced by U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-based fuels, and the research of U Mo is currently under investigation. Additionally, the Brazilian Multipurpose Research Reactor (RMB), whose project will rely on the CCN for supplying fuel and uranium targets. Evolving from an annual production from 10 to 70 nuclear fuel elements, plus a thousand uranium targets, is a huge and challenging task. To accomplish it, a new and modern Nuclear Fuel Factory is being concluded, and it will provide not only structure for scaling up, but also a safer and greener production. The Nuclear Engineering Center has shown, along several years, expertise in the field of nuclear, energy systems and correlated areas. Due to the experience obtained during decades in research and technological development at Brazilian Nuclear Program, personnel has been trained and started to actively participate in design of the main system that will compose the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) which will make Brazil self-sufficient in production of radiopharmaceuticals. The institution has participated in the monitoring and technical support concerning the safety, licensing and modernization of the research reactors IPEN/MB-01 and IEA-R1. Along the last two decades, numerous specialized services of engineering for the Brazilian nuclear power plants Angra 1 and Angra 2 have been carried out. The contribution in service, research, training, and teaching in addition to the development of many related technologies applied to nuclear engineering and correlated areas enable the institution to

  20. ClIfford Geertz’e Göre Kültürel Bir Sistem Olarak Din Religion as a Cultural System by Clifford Geertz

    OpenAIRE

    HASANOV, BEHRAM

    2015-01-01

    ÖZETBu makale Clifford Geertz’in, dini kültürel bir sistem olarak incelemek üzere geliştirdiğikendi tanım ve metotlarına dayanan görüşlerini ele almaktadır. Makale Geertz’inyorumlayıcı yaklaşımını ve kültürü yorumlama yöntemi üzerine yoğunlaşmaktadır.Çalışma aynı zamanda Geertz’in dine nasıl yaklaştığını ve dinle toplumsal hayatı nasılilişkilendirdiğini incelemektedir. Makalede Geertz’in düşüncelerinin ve metodolojisininönemi ve dini yorumlamada başarısız olduğu noktalar da genel hatlarıyla b...

  1. Çocuk Kitaplarına Yeni Bir Yaklaşım: İnternet'te Resimli Çocuk Kitapları (e-books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mübeccel Gönen

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Elektronik kitaplar (e-books yurtdışında oldukça yaygın bir biçimde kullanılmakta ve kullanıcı sayısı da giderek artmaktadır. İnternette yer alan bu kitaplar, her yaştaki insanın ilgi alanına hizmet edecek kadar çok ve çeşitlidir. Bu tür kitaplara internette yer alan kütüphanelerden, yayınevlerinden ve yazarlardan ulaşılmaktadır. Çocuk edebiyatı ile ilgili sitelerden de her konuda resimli çocuk kitaplarına ulaşılabilir. İnternette Türkçe resimli çocuk kitapları ve çocuk edebiyatı ile ilgili sitelere rastlanmamaktadır. Ancak elektronik çocuk kitaplarına yabancı sitelerden ulaşılabilir ve bazı sitelerden ücretsiz olarak da temin edilebilir. Bu yeni uygulama ile ülkemizde bulunan yayınevleri ve yazarların, iletişim ve bilgi teknolojisinden yararlanarak daha fazla aileye, okul ve çocuğa hizmet götürebileceği düşünülmektedir.

  2. Heterogeneous Recycling in Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forget, Benoit; Pope, Michael; Piet, Steven J.; Driscoll, Michael

    2012-07-30

    Current sodium fast reactor (SFR) designs have avoided the use of depleted uranium blankets over concerns of creating weapons grade plutonium. While reducing proliferation risks, this restrains the reactor design space considerably. This project will analyze various blanket and transmutation target configurations that could broaden the design space while still addressing the non-proliferation issues. The blanket designs will be assessed based on the transmutation efficiency of key minor actinide (MA) isotopes and also on mitigation of associated proliferation risks. This study will also evaluate SFR core performance under different scenarios in which depleted uranium blankets are modified to include minor actinides with or without moderators (e.g. BeO, MgO, B4C, and hydrides). This will be done in an effort to increase the sustainability of the reactor and increase its power density while still offering a proliferation resistant design with the capability of burning MA waste produced from light water reactors (LWRs). Researchers will also analyze the use of recycled (as opposed to depleted) uranium in the blankets. The various designs will compare MA transmutation efficiency, plutonium breeding characteristics, proliferation risk, shutdown margins and reactivity coefficients with a current reference sodium fast reactor design employing homogeneous recycling. The team will also evaluate the out-of-core accumulation and/or burn-down rates of MAs and plutonium isotopes on a cycle-by-cycle basis. This cycle-by-cycle information will be produced in a format readily usable by the fuel cycle systems analysis code, VISION, for assessment of the sustainability of the deployment scenarios.

  3. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [CERCA, Romans (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Aix en Provence (France)

    2000-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor are presented. Safety criteria are explained. Finally, merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel are discussed. (author)

  4. “Miskînlik” Dairesinde “Devreden” Bir Derviş: Yûnus Emre An Ascetic “Turning” in Circle of “Slothfulness”:Yunus Emre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül AKDEMİR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available “Slothful” is a word which we come across its negative concept from past to present. Therefore, the aforementioned a word finds its place as a “contrast” point in life and language. In the first place that the negative associations “slothful” word, a different viewpoint than the one that would allow a positive nature appears to be perceived and evaluated. This difference in understanding, however, pointed out that the word “inactivity/ stasis” with regards to which one aspect of physical or mental condition of people is very closely related. The physical aspect of fact, when seen in relation to a negative value with a “slothful” word, is the psychological aspects of peeling off a positive value when negative value is loaded.But in the Poetry of Yunus Emre, though we come across the word, “slothful” with its literal meaning, it goes beyond of this and exceeds its meaning indeed. The aforementioned word comes up to another dimension as its meaning and value with these kinds of usages.In this work, the underlying meaning and value of the word, “slothful” which has negative connotation values when it's considered superficially are questioned. While doing this, we base on the poems of Yunus Emre, who often characterizes himself as “slothful” in his poems, and put emphasis on possible relevance and relations between his real and mystical identity and the aforementioned word. “Miskîn” kelimesi, geçmişten günümüze kadar uzanan çizgide olumsuz bir kavram alanına sahip bir kelime olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Buna bağlı olarak da söz konusu kelime, dilde ve yaşamda kendisine ancak “karşıt” bir noktada yer bulabilmektedir.İlk planda olumsuz çağrışımlar yapan “miskîn” kelimesi, daha farklı bir bakış açısından bakıldığında ise olumlu olarak algılanmaya ve değerlendirilmeye imkân verecek bir mahiyette karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Algılayıştaki bu farklılık, söz konusu

  5. Neutrino Mixing Discriminates Geo-reactor Models

    CERN Document Server

    Dye, S T

    2009-01-01

    Geo-reactor models suggest the existence of natural nuclear reactors at different deep-earth locations with loosely defined output power. Reactor fission products undergo beta decay with the emission of electron antineutrinos, which routinely escape the earth. Neutrino mixing distorts the energy spectrum of the electron antineutrinos. Characteristics of the distorted spectrum observed at the earth's surface could specify the location of a geo-reactor, discriminating the models and facilitating more precise power measurement. The existence of a geo-reactor with known position could enable a precision measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameter delta-mass-squared.

  6. Reactor monitoring and safeguards using antineutrino detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, N S

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors have served as the antineutrino source for many fundamental physics experiments. The techniques developed by these experiments make it possible to use these very weakly interacting particles for a practical purpose. The large flux of antineutrinos that leaves a reactor carries information about two quantities of interest for safeguards: the reactor power and fissile inventory. Measurements made with antineutrino detectors could therefore offer an alternative means for verifying the power history and fissile inventory of a reactors, as part of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other reactor safeguards regimes. Several efforts to develop this monitoring technique are underway across the globe.

  7. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, several configurational approaches and concept improvement schemes were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These configurations include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator-snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each of these configurations have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties. Results indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  8. Detection of antineutrinos for reactor monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong Duk [Center for Underground Physics, Institute of Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Reactor neutrinos have been detected in the past 50 years by various detectors for different purposes. Beginning in the 1980s, neutrino physicists have tried to use neutrinos to monitor reactors and develop an optimized detector for nuclear safeguards. Recently, motivated by neutrino oscillation physics, the technology and scale of reactor neutrino detection have progressed considerably. In this review, I will give an overview of the detection technology for reactor neutrinos, and describe the issues related to further improvements in optimized detectors for reactor monitoring.

  9. CFD Simulation on Ethylene Furnace Reactor Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Different mathematical models for ethylene furnace reactor tubes were reviewed. On the basis of these models a new mathematical simulation approach for reactor tubes based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was presented. This approach took the flow, heat transfer, mass transfer and thermal cracking reactions in the reactor tubes into consideration. The coupled reactor model was solved with the SIMPLE algorithm. Some detailed information about the flow field, temperature field and concentration distribution in the reactor tubes was obtained, revealing the basic characteristics of the hydrodynamic phenomena and reaction behavior in the reactor tubes. The CFD approach provides the necessary information for conclusive decisions regarding the production optimization, the design and improvement of reactor tubes, and the new techniques implementation.

  10. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  11. Reactor pulse repeatability studies at the annular core research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePriest, K.R. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Trinh, T.Q. [Nuclear Facility Operations, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 0614, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States); Luker, S. M. [Applied Nuclear Technologies, Sandia National Laboratories, Mail Stop 1146, Post Office Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1146 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) at Sandia National Laboratories is a water-moderated pool-type reactor designed for testing many types of objects in the pulse and steady-state mode of operations. Personnel at Sandia began working to improve the repeatability of pulse operations for experimenters in the facility. The ACRR has a unique UO{sub 2}-BeO fuel that makes the task of producing repeatable pulses difficult with the current operating procedure. The ACRR produces a significant quantity of photoneutrons through the {sup 9}Be({gamma}, n){sup 8}Be reaction in the fuel elements. The photoneutrons are the result of the gammas produced during fission and in fission product decay, so their production is very much dependent on the reactor power history and changes throughout the day/week of experiments in the facility. Because the photoneutrons interfere with the delayed-critical measurements required for accurate pulse reactivity prediction, a new operating procedure was created. The photoneutron effects at delayed critical are minimized when using the modified procedure. In addition, the pulse element removal time is standardized for all pulse operations with the modified procedure, and this produces less variation in reactivity removal times. (authors)

  12. In-reactor performance of pressure tubes in CANDU reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, D. K.; Coleman, C. E.; Griffiths, M.; Bickel, G. A.; Theaker, J. R.; Muir, I.; Bahurmuz, A. A.; Lawrence, S. St.; Resta Levi, M.

    2008-12-01

    The pressure tubes in CANDU reactors have been operating for times up to about 25 years. The in-reactor performance of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes has been evaluated by sampling and periodic inspection. This paper describes the behaviour and discusses the factors controlling the behaviour of these components in currently operating CANDU reactors. The mechanical properties (such as ultimate tensile strength, UTS, and fracture toughness), and delayed-hydride-cracking properties (crack growth rate Vc, and threshold stress intensity factor, KIH) change with irradiation; the former reach a limiting value at a fluence of Pressure tubes exhibit elongation and diametral expansion. The deformation behaviour is a function of operating conditions and material properties that vary from tube-to-tube and as a function of axial location. Semi-empirical predictive models have been developed to describe the deformation response of average tubes as a function of operating conditions. For corrosion and, more importantly deuterium pickup, semi-empirical predictive models have also been developed to represent the behaviour of an average tube. The effect of material variability on corrosion behaviour is less well defined compared with other properties. Improvements in manufacturing have increased fracture resistance by minimising trace elements, especially H and Cl, and reduced variability by tightening controls on forming parameters, especially hot-working temperatures.

  13. Spinoza’da İnsan Doğası-Siyaset İlişkisi Üzerine Bir Deneme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yıldız

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ÖzetBu makalenin başlıca amacı, siyaset ile insan doğası arasındaki ilişkiye dikkat çekmektir. Bu konu ile ilgili görüşlerini incelediğimiz Spinoza, insan doğasına en uygun yönetim biçiminin demokrasi olduğunu ileri sürdüğü gibi bunun ontolojik ve epistemolojik temellerini de ortaya koyar. Ontolojik temelde insan, doğanın bir parçası olduğu ölçüde kendi doğasından kaynaklanan her şeyi yapmaya hakkı vardır. Epistemolojik temelde ise insan, doğanın bilgisine sahip olduğu ölçüde var olan doğasını ikinci bir doğaya ulaştıracak siyasal bir örgütlenmeye ihtiyaç duyar. Sonuç olarak Spinoza siyaseti olabildiğince nesnel bir zeminde ele almaya çalışarak evrensel bir siyaset kuramı geliştirir. Siyasal alanda aşılması gereken yol, anlama yetisinin yetkinleşmesiyle hem bireysel hem de toplumsal düzlemde insan doğasının ikinci bir doğaya ulaşmasıdır. AbstractThe main purpose of this article is to point to the relationship between politics and human nature. In this regard, as Spinoza pronounces the most appropriate regime to the human nature as democracy, he presents ontological and epistemological basics of this. Human beings, in the ontological basis, are allowed to do anything they desire in the nature as long as they stay a part of the nature. As to in the epistemological basis, human beings are in need of a political organization that will convey its nature to the second nature, to a degree where they possess an acknowledge of the nature. To sum up, Spinoza tries to exhibit a universal ethical and political theory by taking human nature on the objective ground. The way that must be overcome in the political structure is the attainment of the human nature to a second nature where both individual and societal level by maturation of the understanding.RésuméLe but principal de cet article est d’attirer l’attention sur la relation entre la politique et la nature de l’homme. A cet

  14. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  15. Nuclear reactor alignment plate configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altman, David A; Forsyth, David R; Smith, Richard E; Singleton, Norman R

    2014-01-28

    An alignment plate that is attached to a core barrel of a pressurized water reactor and fits within slots within a top plate of a lower core shroud and upper core plate to maintain lateral alignment of the reactor internals. The alignment plate is connected to the core barrel through two vertically-spaced dowel pins that extend from the outside surface of the core barrel through a reinforcement pad and into corresponding holes in the alignment plate. Additionally, threaded fasteners are inserted around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad and into the alignment plate to further secure the alignment plate to the core barrel. A fillet weld also is deposited around the perimeter of the reinforcement pad. To accomodate thermal growth between the alignment plate and the core barrel, a gap is left above, below and at both sides of one of the dowel pins in the alignment plate holes through with the dowel pins pass.

  16. Transport simulation for EBT reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.; Uckan, N.A.; Jaeger, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Transport simulation and modeling studies for the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) reactor are carried out by using zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-and-one-half-dimensional (1 1/2-D) transport calculations. The time-dependent 0-D model is used for global analysis, whereas the 1 1/2-D radial transport code is used for accurate determination of density, temperature, and ambipolar potential profiles and of the role of these profiles in reactor plasma performance. Analysis with the 1 1/2-D transport code shows that profile effects near the outer edge of the hot electron ring lead to enhanced confinement by at least a factor of 2 to 5 beyond the simple scaling that is obtained from the global analysis. The radial profiles of core plasma density and temperatures (or core pressure) obtained from 1 1/2-D transport calculations are found to be similar to those theoretically required for stability.

  17. Gas-liquid autoxidation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Paludetto, R.; Carra, S.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure for the simulation of autoxidation gas-liquid reactors has been developed based both on mathematical models and laboratory experiments. It has been shown that the complex radical chain mechanism of the autoxidation process can be simulated through two global parallel reactions, whose rates are obtained by assuming pseudo-steady-state concentration values for all the radical species involved. Using ethylbenzene autoxidation as a model reaction, an experimental analysis has been performed in order to estimate all the kinetic parameters of the model. The effect of the interaction between gas-liquid mass-transfer phenomena and the complex kinetic mechanism on the overall performance of an autoxidation reactor has been examined in detail within the framework of the liquid film model.

  18. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  19. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  20. The ARIES tokamak reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    The ARIES study is a community effort to develop several visions of tokamaks as fusion power reactors. The aims are to determine the potential economics, safety, and environmental features of a range of possible tokamak reactors, and to identify physics and technology areas with the highest leverage for achieving the best tokamak reactor. Three ARIES visions are planned, each having a different degree of extrapolation from the present data base in physics and technology. The ARIES-I design assumes a minimum extrapolation from current tokamak physics (e.g., 1st stability) and incorporates technological advances that can be available in the next 20 to 30 years. ARIES-II is a DT-burning tokamak which would operate at a higher beta in the 2nd MHD stability regime. It employs both potential advances in the physics and expected advances in technology and engineering. ARIES-II will examine the potential of the tokamak and the D{sup 3}He fuel cycle. This report is a collection of 14 papers on the results of the ARIES study which were presented at the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (October 2-6, 1989, Knoxville, TN). This collection describes the ARIES research effort, with emphasis on the ARIES-I design, summarizing the major results, the key technical issues, and the central conclusions.

  1. Actinide transmutation in nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bultman, J.H.

    1995-01-17

    An optimization method is developed to maximize the burning capability of the ALMR while complying with all constraints imposed on the design for reliability and safety. This method leads to a maximal transuranics enrichment, which is being limited by constraints on reactivity. The enrichment can be raised by using the neutrons less efficiently by increasing leakage from the fuel. With the developed optimization method, a metallic and an oxide fueled ALMR were optimized. Both reactors perform equally well considering the burning of transuranics. However, metallic fuel has a much higher heat conductivity coefficient, which in general leads to better safety characteristics. In search of a more effective waste transmuter, a modified Molten Salt Reactor was designed. A MSR operates on a liquid fuel salt which makes continuous refueling possible, eliminating the issue of the burnup reactivity loss. Also, a prompt negative reactivity feedback is possible for an overmoderated reactor design, even when the Doppler coefficient is positive, due to the fuel expansion with fuel temperature increase. Furthermore, the molten salt fuel can be reprocessed based on a reduction process which is not sensitive to the short-lived spontaneously fissioning actinides. (orig./HP).

  2. Assessment of the thorium fuel cycle in power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasten, P.R.; Homan, F.J.; Allen, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to evaluate the role of thorium fuel cycles in power reactors. Three thermal reactor systems were considered: Light Water Reactors (LWRs); High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs); and Heavy Water Reactors (HWRs) of the Canadian Deuterium Uranium Reactor (CANDU) type; most of the effort was on these systems. A summary comparing thorium and uranium fuel cycles in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) was also compiled.

  3. Investigation of molten salt fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Konomura, Mamoru [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    On survey research for practicability strategy of fast reactor (FR) (phase 1), to extract future practicability image candidates of FR from wide options, in addition to their survey and investigation objects of not only solid fuel reactors of conventional research object but also molten salt reactor as a flowing fuel reactor, investigation on concept of molten salt FR plant was carried out. As a part of the first step of the survey research for practicability strategy, a basic concept on plant centered at nuclear reactor facility using chloride molten salt reactor capable of carrying out U-Pu cycle was examined, to perform a base construction to evaluate economical potential for a practical FBR. As a result, a result could be obtained that because of inferior fuel inventory and heat transmission to those in Na cooling reactor in present knowledge, mass of reactor vessel and intermediate heat exchanger were to widely increased to expect reduction of power generation unit price even on considering cheapness of its fuel cycle cost. Therefore, at present step further investigation on concept design of the chloride molten salt reactor plant system is too early in time, and it is at a condition where basic and elementary researches aiming at upgrading of economical efficiency such as wide reduction of fuel inventory, a measure expectable for remarkable rationalization effect of reprocessing system integrating a reactor to a processing facility, and so on. (G.K.)

  4. Gözleme Dayalı Çalışmalarda Eğilim Skoru (Propensity Score ve Tıp Bilimleri'nde Bir Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Çiğdem KASPAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Gözlemsel çalışmalarda ve/veya retrospektif çalışmalarda, araştırmacının olgu ve kontrol gruplarındaki birimleri rastlantısal olarak gruplara atama işleminde kontrolü yoktur. Bu nedenle, olgu-kontrol gruplarına düşen bireylerin ortak değişkenlerinde bazı farklılıklar gözlemlenebilir ve bu farklılıklarda tedavi etkisinin yanlı (biased tahminlerine neden olabilmektedir. Bir dengeleme skoru olarak tanımlayabileceğimiz eğilim skoru (ES, tedavinin gözlenen ortak değişkenlere göre koşullu olasılığı olarak ifade edilir. ES tahmin ettikten sonra eşleştirme, tabakalara ayırma ve regresyon düzeltmesi yöntemleriyle yeniden örnekleme yapılarak retrospektif gözlemsel çalışmalarda örneklemedeki yanlılığın azaltılmasında, prospektif çalışmalardaki gibi kesinliğin artmasında, kanıt seviyesi bakımından göreli düşük olan olgu-kontrol çalışmalarının, prospektif bir çalışmanın kanıt seviyesine çıkartılması ve bazı ortak değişkenlerin etkilerini ortaya koymak amacıyla kullanılır. Çalışmamızda ES öncesi ve sonrası örneklem için olgu ve kontrol bireylerine lojistik regresyon uygulanarak risk faktörlerinin anlamlılıklarındaki farkları ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Çalışmamızda, göğüs cerrahisi ameliyatı geçirmiş n=478 hasta kullanılmıştır. Ameliyat sonrası delirium tanısı alan ve almayan hastalara ait, 24 risk faktörüne lojistik regresyon uygulanmış ve sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. ES lojistik regresyon ile hesaplanmış, tabakalara ayırma yöntemi kullanılarak oluşan yeni örneğe istatistik analiz uygulanmış ve değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular: ES ile oluşturulmuş yeni örneklemdeki olgu ve kontrol grupları hemen hemen aynı karakteristiklere sahip olmuş ve yanlılık azalmıştır. Sonuç: ES öncesi ve sonrası örneklem için olgu ve kontrol bireylerine uygulanan lojistik regresyon sonucunda risk fakt

  5. Petrogenesis of Bir Madi Gabbro-Diorite and Tonalite-Granodiorite Intrusions in Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Implications for Tectono-Magmatic Processes at the Neoproterozoic Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. OBEID

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic rocks of the Bir Madi area, south eastern desert, comprise a Metagabbro-Diorite Complex (GDC and a Tonalite-Granodiorite Suite (TGrS. The GDC has a weak tonalitic to strong calc-alkaline character and is made up of olivine gabbro, hornblende gabbro, diorite and monzodiorite. The olivine gabbro is characterized by abun-dance of augite and labradorite with pseudomorphic serpentine. The hornblende gabbro is mainly composed of horn-blende, labradorite, andesine and minor amounts of quartz with or without augite. The diorite consists essentially of andesine, hornblende, biotite and quartz. The GDC is compositionally broad, with a wide range of SiO2 (46-57 % and pronounced enrichment in the LILE (Ba and Sr relative to the HFSE (Nb, Y and Zr. The GDC rocks exhibit petrological and geochemical characteristics of arc-related mafic magmas, derived possibly from partial melting of a mantle wedge above an early Pan-African subduction zone of the Neoproterozoic Shield. The tonalite and granodiorite have a calc-alkaline affinity and show the geochemical signatures of I-type granitoids. The TGrS contains amphibolite enclaves and foliated gabbroic xenoliths. Based on the field evidence and geochemical data, the GDC and TGrS are not related to a single magma type through fractional crystallization. The presence of microgranular amphibolite enclaves in the tonalitic rocks suggest against their generation by partial melting of a mantle-derived basaltic source. The tonalitic magma originated from partial melting of an amphibolitic lower crust by anatexis process at a volcanic arc regime during construction of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. Fractional crystallization of K-feldspar and biotite gave more developed granodiorite variety from the tonalitic magma. The gabbroic xenoliths are similar in the chemical composition to the investigated metagabbros. They are incompletely digested segments from the adjacent metagabbro rocks incorporated into the

  6. Information Requirements of Landscape Architects Çağdaş Bir Mesleğin Belge-Bilgi Gereksinimi: Peyzaj Mimarlığı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Akkan

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Text of a speech given on 1 April 1993 during the Library Week . Difficulties faced by landcape architects, who do research work, in access to information have been expressed as lack of guidance on how and where to find information; limited open hours or not being able to take photocopies even if the service is open beyond office hours; lack of a thesaurus for landscape architecture to choose the right terms for an online literature search; insufficiency of the number of periodicals available in the country; lack of copying facilities for nonbook materials such as plans, slides, engravings, sound and video cassettes. Konuşmada, peyzaj mimarlarının bilgi edinme konusunda karşılaştıkları sorunlar, hangi bilginin nerede bulunduğunu saptamada karşılaşılan güçlükler, yöneltici rehber kaynakların eksikliği; kütüphane ve bilgi merkezlerinin açık olduğu saatlerin resmi çalışma saaatleri ile çakışması ya da bu saatlerin dışında açık olsalar bile fotokopi alınamaması, çevrimiçi yayın taraması yaptırabilmek için doğru anahtar sözcükleri seçmek için bir gömünün olmayışı; konuyla ilgili yeterli sayıda dergi bulunmaması; kitap dışı materyallere erişim ve kopya almada karşılaşılan güçlükler olarak dile getirilmiştir.

  7. İşitme Engelli Bir Çocuğun Okuma Yazma Becerilerinin Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı İle Desteklenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pelin Karasu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı; dinleme, konuşma, okuma ve yazma becerilerinin bir arada kullanılması ve okuma materyallerinin öğrencilerin deneyimleriyle oluşturulması temeline dayanmaktadır. Bu araştırmanın amacı, işitme engelli bir çocuğun okuma yazma becerilerinin gelişiminin Dil Deneyim Yaklaşımı ile desteklenme sürecinin incelenmesidir. Araştırma, bu amaç doğrultusunda, eylem araştırması şeklinde desenlenmiştir. Araştırmanın katılımcıları; araştırmacı öğretmen, geçerlik komitesi üyeleri, ilkokul 2. sınıfa devam eden işitme engelli bir öğrenci ve sınıf öğretmenidir. Araştırma verileri; araştırmacı günlüğü, belgeler, görüşmeler, uygulama planları, uygulama videoteyp kayıtları ve formel olmayan değerlendirmeler kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Araştırma bulguları, sürecin iki evrede gerçekleştiğini göstermektedir. Bu evreler; sıralı kartlardaki olayların sözlü ve yazılı dille paylaşılması ile kelime bankası ve sözdizimi etkinliğidir. Araştırma sonuçları; dil deneyim uygulamalarının sözlü dilin gelişmesi için fırsatlar sağladığını, sözel ipuçlarının kullanılmasına, düşüncelerin sözlü ve yazılı dille ifade edilmesine olanak verdiğini, sözcük dağarcığı ve sözdizimine ilişkin ihtiyaçların belirlenmesini sağlayarak öğrencinin düzeyine uygun etkinliklerin hazırlanmasına fırsat sağladığını göstermektedir.Anahtar Sözcükler: Dil deneyim yaklaşımı, okuma yazma becerileri, işitme engelli çocuk Supporting a Hearing Impaired Child’s Literacy Development With Language Experience Approach Abstract Language Experience Approach (LEA emphasizes the synergy among listening, speaking, reading and writing skills and suggests considering learners’ experiences while preparing reading materials. The aim of the current study is to investigate LEA’s supportive role in a hearing impaired child’s literacy development. In

  8. Akademisyen Ücretlerine İlişkin Karşılaştırmalı Bir Analiz A Comparative Analysis Concerned With Academic Salaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmi SÜNGÜ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is proved fact through scientific studies that the pay has adirect influence on productivity and job satisfaction at the same time.The pay gained as a result of the performance is considered asinterrelated both with the increase in the productivity and improvementin the quality of the service. It is vital for the organizational justice thatpeople who have similar statues and who are performing similar tasksshould receive balanced payments. However, the diversity of the publicservices, redundancy of people and formal institutions providing publicservices make it hard to guarantee a fair payment policy. It is observedas a result of comparative studies that academicians are one of theseoccupational groups who are profoundly affected by the injustice in thepayments. In order to remove the injustice in the formal officers’incomes and attain the defined goals for the 100th anniversary of thefoundation of the Republic within the scope of 2023 vision, talentedindividuals must be encouraged to become academicians. When acomparison made between public officials on the national basis, it isrealized that academic staff working at public universities are not ableto benefit from yearly increases as much as the other public officers andit leads for the fresh academicians to move away from academicprofession. As for the international point of view, it is stated that thepayments that the Turkish academicians get are below the average incomparison to their colleagues. In this study, current situation ofmonthly income of the academicians working at public universities inTurkey and it’s the yearly increases in the payment in time arementioned, national comparisons are made between differentprofessions together with international comparisons betweenacademicians from different countries. Ücretin verimlilik ve iş doyumuna etkisi yapılan akademik çalışmalarda ortaya konulmuş bir gerçektir. Çalışanın verimliliğinin artırılması ve

  9. Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Bao-Guo; Gu, Ji-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The supercritical, reactor core melting and nuclear fuel leaking accidents have troubled fission reactors for decades, and greatly limit their extensive applications. Now these troubles are still open. Here we first show a possible perfect reactor, Molten-Salt Depleted-Uranium Reactor which is no above accident trouble. We found this reactor could be realized in practical applications in terms of all of the scientific principle, principle of operation, technology, and engineering. Our results demonstrate how these reactors can possess and realize extraordinary excellent characteristics, no prompt critical, long-term safe and stable operation with negative feedback, closed uranium-plutonium cycle chain within the vessel, normal operation only with depleted-uranium, and depleted-uranium high burnup in reality, to realize with fission nuclear energy sufficiently satisfying humanity long-term energy resource needs, as well as thoroughly solve the challenges of nuclear criticality safety, uranium resource insuffic...

  10. Performance of a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henquin, E.R. [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina); Bisang, J.M., E-mail: jbisang@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Programa de Electroquimica Aplicada e Ingenieria Electroquimica (PRELINE), Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, S3000AOM Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: > For this reactor configuration the current distribution is uniform. > For this reactor configuration with bipolar connection the leakage current is small. > The mass-transfer conditions are closely uniform along the electrode. > The fluidodynamic behaviour can be represented by the dispersion model. > This reactor represents a suitable device for laboratory trials. - Abstract: This paper reports on a multipurpose research electrochemical reactor with an innovative design feature, which is based on a filter press arrangement with inclined segmented electrodes and under a modular assembly. Under bipolar connection, the fraction of leakage current is lower than 4%, depending on the bipolar Wagner number, and the current distribution is closely uniform. When a turbulence promoter is used, the local mass-transfer coefficient shows a variation of {+-}10% with respect to its mean value. The fluidodynamics of the reactor responds to the dispersion model with a Peclet number higher than 10. It is concluded that this reactor is convenient for laboratory research.

  11. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  12. Introduction to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Tyror, J G; Grant, P J

    2013-01-01

    An Introduction to the Neutron Kinetics of Nuclear Power Reactors introduces the reader to the neutron kinetics of nuclear power reactors. Topics covered include the neutron physics of reactor kinetics, feedback effects, water-moderated reactors, fast reactors, and methods of plant control. The reactor transients following faults are also discussed, along with the use of computers in the study of power reactor kinetics. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the reactor physics characteristics of a nuclear power reactor and their influence on system design and

  13. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartun, Ingrid

    2005-07-01

    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by

  14. Plasma spark discharge reactor and durable electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young I.; Cho, Daniel J.; Fridman, Alexander; Kim, Hyoungsup

    2017-01-10

    A plasma spark discharge reactor for treating water. The plasma spark discharge reactor comprises a HV electrode with a head and ground electrode that surrounds at least a portion of the HV electrode. A passage for gas may pass through the reactor to a location proximate to the head to provide controlled formation of gas bubbles in order to facilitate the plasma spark discharge in a liquid environment.

  15. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  16. Reactor Bolshoi Moshchnosti Kalani; Reacteurs RBMK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastien, D. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-01-01

    The Reactor Bolshoi Molshchnosti Kalani (RBMK) are pressure tubes reactor, boiling light water cooled. Exported since 1990 from the ex-USSR, they are today in three independent countries: Russian, Ukraine and Lithuania. Since this date, data exchange with the occident allowed the better knowledge of this reactor type. The design, the technical description (core, fuel, primary system), the safety and the improvement since Chernobyl are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  17. NASA Reactor Facility Hazards Summary. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration proposes to build a nuclear research reactor which will be located in the Plum Brook Ordnance Works near Sandusky, Ohio. The purpose of this report is to inform the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in regard to the design Lq of the reactor facility, the characteristics of the site, and the hazards of operation at this location. The purpose of this research reactor is to make pumped loop studies of aircraft reactor fuel elements and other reactor components, radiation effects studies on aircraft reactor materials and equipment, shielding studies, and nuclear and solid state physics experiments. The reactor is light water cooled and moderated of the MTR-type with a primary beryllium reflector and a secondary water reflector. The core initially will be a 3 by 9 array of MTR-type fuel elements and is designed for operation up to a power of 60 megawatts. The reactor facility is described in general terms. This is followed by a discussion of the nuclear characteristics and performance of the reactor. Then details of the reactor control system are discussed. A summary of the site characteristics is then presented followed by a discussion of the larger type of experiments which may eventually be operated in this facility. The considerations for normal operation are concluded with a proposed method of handling fuel elements and radioactive wastes. The potential hazards involved with failures or malfunctions of this facility are considered in some detail. These are examined first from the standpoint of preventing them or minimizing their effects and second from the standpoint of what effect they might have on the reactor facility staff and the surrounding population. The most essential feature of the design for location at the proposed site is containment of the maximum credible accident.

  18. Heat for industry from nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Novikov, V.M.

    Two factors which incline nations toward the use of heat from nuclear reactors for industrial use are: 1) exhaustion of cheap fossil fuel resources, and 2) ecological problems associated both with extraction of fossil fuel from the earth and with its combustion. In addition to the usual problems that beset nuclear reactors, special problems associated with using heat from nuclear reactors in various industries are explored.

  19. D-D tokamak reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, K.E. Jr.; Baker, C.C.; Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.; Finn, P.A.; Jung, J.; Mattas, R.F.; Misra, B.; Smith, D.L.; Stevens, H.C.

    1980-11-01

    A tokamak D-D reactor design, utilizing the advantages of a deuterium-fueled reactor but with parameters not unnecessarily extended from existing D-T designs, is presented. Studies leading to the choice of a design and initial studies of the design are described. The studies are in the areas of plasma engineering, first-wall/blanket/shield design, magnet design, and tritium/fuel/vacuum requirements. Conclusions concerning D-D tokamak reactors are stated.

  20. Initiating Events for Multi-Reactor Plant Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhlheim, Michael David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Flanagan, George F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Poore, III, Willis P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Inherent in the design of modular reactors is the increased likelihood of events that initiate at a single reactor affecting another reactor. Because of the increased level of interactions between reactors, it is apparent that the Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) for modular reactor designs need to specifically address the increased interactions and dependencies.

  1. High Performance Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pioneer Astronautics proposes a technology program for the development of an innovative photocatalytic oxidation reactor for the removal and mineralization of...

  2. Savannah River Site reactor safety assessment. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, N.D.; Brandyberry, M.D. [eds.] [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Baker, W.H.; Brandyberry, M.D.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Woody, N.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1991-02-28

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactor risk assessment. Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide timely information to the US Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other Site programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  3. History of fast reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittel, J.H.; Frost, B.R.T. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Mustelier, J.P. (COGEMA, Velizy-Villacoublay (France))

    1992-01-01

    Most of the first generation of fast reactors that were operated at significant power levels employed solid metal fuels. They were constructed in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1950s and included Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR)-I and -II operated by Argonne National Laboratory, United States, the Enrico Fermi Reactor operated by the Atomic Power Development Associates, United States and DFR operated by the U.K. Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA). Their paper tracer pre-development of fast reactor fuel from these early days through the 1980s including ceramic fuels.

  4. Advanced nuclear reactor types and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, V. [ed.; Feinberg, O.; Morozov, A. [Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute`, Moscow (Russian Federation); Devell, L. [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1995-07-01

    The document is a comprehensive world-wide catalogue of concepts and designs of advanced fission reactor types and fuel cycle technologies. Two parts have been prepared: Part 1 Reactors for Power Production and Part 2 Heating and Other Reactor Applications. Part 3, which will cover advanced waste management technology, reprocessing and disposal for different nuclear fission options is planned for compilation during 1995. The catalogue was prepared according to a special format which briefly presents the project title, technical approach, development status, application of the technology, reactor type, power output, and organization which developed these designs. Part 1 and 2 cover water cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, gas-cooled reactors and molten salt reactors. Subcritical accelerator-driven systems are also considered. Various reactor applications as power production, heat generation, ship propulsion, space power sources and transmutation of such waste are included. Each project is described within a few pages with the main features of an actual design using a table with main technical data and figure as well as references for additional information. Each chapter starts with an introduction which briefly describes main trends and approaches in this field. Explanations of terms and abbreviations are provided in a glossary.

  5. Supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the latest reactor concepts, single pass core and experimental findings in thermal hydraulics, materials, corrosion, and water chemistry. It highlights research on supercritical-pressure light water cooled reactors (SCWRs), one of the Generation IV reactors that are studied around the world. This book includes cladding material development and experimental findings on heat transfer, corrosion and water chemistry. The work presented here will help readers to understand the fundamental elements of reactor design and analysis methods, thermal hydraulics, materials and water

  6. Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coats, Richard Lee; Dahl, James J.; Parma, Edward J., Jr.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the Sandia National Laboratories Medical Isotope Reactor and hot cell facility concepts. The reactor proposed is designed to be capable of producing 100% of the U.S. demand for the medical isotope {sup 99}Mo. The concept is novel in that the fuel for the reactor and the targets for the {sup 99}Mo production are the same. There is no driver core required. The fuel pins that are in the reactor core are processed on a 7 to 21 day irradiation cycle. The fuel is low enriched uranium oxide enriched to less than 20% {sup 235}U. The fuel pins are approximately 1 cm in diameter and 30 to 40 cm in height, clad with Zircaloy (zirconium alloy). Approximately 90 to 150 fuel pins are arranged in the core in a water pool {approx}30 ft deep. The reactor power level is 1 to 2 MW. The reactor concept is a simple design that is passively safe and maintains negative reactivity coefficients. The total radionuclide inventory in the reactor core is minimized since the fuel/target pins are removed and processed after 7 to 21 days. The fuel fabrication, reactor design and operation, and {sup 99}Mo production processing use well-developed technologies that minimize the technological and licensing risks. There are no impediments that prevent this type of reactor, along with its collocated hot cell facility, from being designed, fabricated, and licensed today.

  7. NCSU reactor sharing program. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, P.B.

    1997-01-10

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities. This report is the Final Technical Report for the DOE award reference number DE-FG05-95NE38136 which covers the period September 30, 1995 through September 30, 1996.

  8. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  9. Advances in light water reactor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Takehiko; Ishiwatari, Yuki; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    ""Advances in Light Water Reactor Technologies"" focuses on the design and analysis of advanced nuclear power reactors. This volume provides readers with thorough descriptions of the general characteristics of various advanced light water reactors currently being developed worldwide. Safety, design, development and maintenance of these reactors is the main focus, with key technologies like full MOX core design, next-generation digital I&C systems and seismic design and evaluation described at length. This book is ideal for researchers and engineers working in nuclear power that are interested

  10. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  11. Phosphorus removal in aerated stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghigliazza, R.; Lodi, A.; Rovatti, M. [Inst. of Chemical and Process Engineering ``G.B. Bonino``, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    1999-03-01

    The possibility to obtain biological phosphorus removal in strictly aerobic conditions has been investigated. Experiments, carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), show the feasibility to obtain phosphorus removal without the anaerobic phase. Reactor performance in terms of phosphorus abatement kept always higher then 65% depending on adopted sludge retention time (SRT). In fact increasing SRT from 5 days to 8 days phosphorus removal and reactor performance increase but overcoming this SRT value a decreasing in reactor efficiency was recorded. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  12. Sodium fast reactors with closed fuel cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, Baldev; Vasudeva Rao, PR 0

    2015-01-01

    Sodium Fast Reactors with Closed Fuel Cycle delivers a detailed discussion of an important technology that is being harnessed for commercial energy production in many parts of the world. Presenting the state of the art of sodium-cooled fast reactors with closed fuel cycles, this book:Offers in-depth coverage of reactor physics, materials, design, safety analysis, validations, engineering, construction, and commissioning aspectsFeatures a special chapter on allied sciences to highlight advanced reactor core materials, specialized manufacturing technologies, chemical sensors, in-service inspecti

  13. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection instrumentation....

  14. Neutron imaging on the VR-1 reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crha, J.; Sklenka, L.; Soltes, J.

    2016-09-01

    Training reactor VR-1 is a low power research reactor with maximal thermal power of 1 kW. The reactor is operated by the Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Due to its low power it suits as a tool for education of university students and training of professionals. In 2015, as part of student research project, neutron imaging was introduced as another type of reactor utilization. The low available neutron flux and the limiting spatial and construction capabilities of the reactor's radial channel led to the development of a special filter/collimator insertion inside the channel and choosing a nonstandard approach by placing a neutron imaging plate inside the channel. The paper describes preliminary experiments carried out on the VR-1 reactor which led to first radiographic images. It seems, that due to the reactor construction and low reactor power, the neutron imaging technique on the VR-1 reactor is feasible mainly for demonstration or educational and training purposes.

  15. Microchannel Methanation Reactors Using Nanofabricated Catalysts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Makel Engineering, Inc. (MEI) and the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) propose to develop and demonstrate a microchannel methanation reactor based on...

  16. Nanostructured Catalytic Reactors for Air Purification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase II project proposes the development of lightweight compact nanostructured catalytic reactors for air purification from toxic gaseous organic...

  17. Continuous steroid biotransformations in microchannel reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco P C; Fernandes, Pedro; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Znidaršič-Plazl, Polona; Plazl, Igor

    2012-01-15

    The use of microchannel reactor based technologies within the scope of bioprocesses as process intensification and production platforms is gaining momentum. Such trend can be ascribed a particular set of characteristics of microchannel reactors, namely the enhanced mass and heat transfer, combined with easier handling and smaller volumes required, as compared to traditional reactors. In the present work, a continuous production process of 4-cholesten-3-one by the enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol without the formation of any by-product was assessed. The production was carried out within Y-shaped microchannel reactors in an aqueous-organic two-phase system. Substrate was delivered from the organic phase to aqueous phase containing cholesterol oxidase and the product formed partitions back to the organic phase. The aqueous phase was then forced through a plug-flow reactor, containing immobilized catalase. This step aimed at the reduction of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product during cholesterol oxidation, to avoid cholesterol oxidase deactivation due to said by-product. This setup was compared with traditional reactors and modes of operation. The results showed that microchannel reactor geometry outperformed traditional stirred tank and plug-flow reactors reaching similar conversion yields at reduced residence time. Coupling the plug-flow reactor containing catalase enabled aqueous phase reuse with maintenance of 30% catalytic activity of cholesterol oxidase while eliminating hydrogen peroxide. A final production of 36 m of cholestenone was reached after 300 hours of operation.

  18. Kök hücrede gen transferi ile istenen bir genin aktivasyonu veya susturulması uygulamalarının rejeneratif tıpta kullanımı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Dilşad Çoban

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available İnsan kök hücresi kendine benzeyen hücreler oluşturabilen ve farklılaşma potansiyeline sahip özellikte hücrelerdir. Embriyonik kök hücreler farlı hücre tiplerine dönüşebildiği için kök hücre biyolojisinde ve rejeneratif tıpta paha biçilmez bir araçtır. Yeni gelişen gen teknolojileri ile ökaryot hücreye gen aktarımı mümkündür. Bu teknolojiler ile hücrede istenilen genlerin aktiflenmesi veya susturulması olasıdır. Uygun ortam sağlandığında normalde kapalı olan bazı genlerin aktif formlarının hücre çekirdeğine aktarılması ile farklanmış bir insan hücresinden indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücreler elde edilmektedir. Bilindiği gibi, “small interference RNA” ve “micro RNA” lar hücrede gen fonksiyonlarını düzenlerler. Bu moleküller ökaryot hücrede gen susturulması amacı ile genellikle viral ve viral olmayan metodlar ile aktarılarak kullanılırlar. Gen susturulması teknolojisi, embriyonik kök hücre veya indüklenmiş pluripotent kök hücrelerin istenilen yönde örneğin bir nöron, pankreas veya kalp hücresi yönünde farklanmasında önemli bir araçtır. Tüm bu gelişmeler bize doku mühendisliği alanında hasta bazlı rejeneratif tıp uygulamalarının yapılabileceğini, kişiye özgü doku ve organ temininin mümkün olabileceğini göstermektedir.

  19. Homojen Karışımlı Sıkıştırma Ateşlemeli (HCCI bir motorun tek-bölgeli modelleme yöntemi kullanılarak analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halit Yaşar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available HCCI motorların modellenmesinde sıfır-boyutlu modeller yaygın olarak kullanılmaktadır. Bu modeller tek veya çok bölge içerebilirler. Bununla birlikte, en basit yaklaşım yanmış ve yanmamış gazı içeren tek bölge yaklaşımıdır. Bu tip sıfır-boyutlu modellerde yanma olayı Wiebe fonksiyonu ile modellenmektedir. Bu makalede, HCCI prensibine göre çalışan tek silindirli bir Ricardo Hydra motoru tek bölge yaklaşımı kullanılarak modellenmiştir. Analiz çalışmalarında SPICE (Simulated Petrol Internal Combustion Engine yazılımının modifiye edilmiş bir versiyonu olan TRICE yazılımı kullanılmıştır. Yanma analizlerinde, HCCI yanma modellerinde standart Wiebe fonksiyonu kullanımının maksimum silindir basıncının yüksek olarak tahmin edilmesi sonucunu doğurması nedeniyle, standart Wiebe fonksiyonunun modifiye edilmiş bir şekli olan Double-Wiebe fonksiyonu kullanılmıştır. Analizler, n-Heptan-Toluen karışımı için üç hava fazlalık katsayısı değerinde gerçekleştirilmiş ve elde edilen sonuçlar bir Avrupa Komisyonu Marie Curie destek programı (FP-6 projesi kapsamında Shell Araştırma Merkezine ait motor test laboratuvarında ölçülen deneysel verilerle karşılaştırılmıştır.

  20. Service Quality Research as a Marketing Tool for a University Library Üniversite Kütüphanesinde Bir Pazarlama Aracı Olarak Hizmet Kalitesi Araştırması

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    In this study the attitudes of library users were solicited using SERVQUAL, a marketing research technique. As the management spent all its resources for the development of the library, the impact of this policy on the service quality has been measured. At this stage the evaluation of faculty with regard to those items on the questionnaire dealing with quality of service has been tested statistically and the results evaluated accordingly. Bu çalışma için bir pazarlama araştırması tekniği olan...

  1. Supplier Selection within the Process of Analytical Hierarchy in a Business Bir Üretim İşletmesinde Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci İle Tedarikçi Seçimi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kezban KAPAR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most critical activities in today's competitive businessworld. Selecting the supplier is a very difficult task to carry out. For determining the bestsupplier selection while assessing all the cases to choose the best approach, the AnalyticalHierarchy Process (AHP is used.AHP is a method used for systematic comparison, evaluation and selection of theoptions via determining the strengths and weaknesses of options. In this study, AHP methodwas utilized in the supplier selection and Expert Choice 11.5 was used while utilizing AHPmethod. The suppliers' superiorities were determined by Expert Choice and they werecompared systematically.Tedarikçi seçimi, günümüz rekabetçi iş dünyasında en kritik faaliyetlerden biridir. Birtedarikçi seçiminde en iyi olanı seçmek zor bir iştir. En iyi tedarikçi seçiminin belirlenmesiiçin çok amaçlı karar verme tekniklerinden birisi olan ve alternatif tedarikçilerdeğerlendirilerek bütün durumlar içinden en iyi olanı seçebilen Analitik Hiyerarşi Süreci(AHS, tedarikçi seçiminde yaygın olarak kullanılan bir yöntemdir.AHS, seçim aşamasında seçeneklerin üstünlüklerinin belirlenmesi ve sistematik olarakkarşılaştırılıp değerlendirilmesini sağlayan bir yöntemdir. Bu çalışmada, bir işletmenintedarikçi seçiminde AHS yönteminden yararlanılmış ve AHS yönteminin kullanılmasındaExpert Choice 11.5 programı kullanılmıştır. Expert Choice ile tedarikçilerin üstünlükleribelirlenmiştir ve sistematik olarak karşılaştırılmıştır.

  2. Reactors for nuclear electric propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J.A. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion is the key to space exploitation and power is the key to propulsion. This paper examines the role of nuclear fission reactors as the primary power source for high specific impulse electric propulsion systems for space missions of the 1980s and 1990s. Particular mission applications include transfer to and a reusable orbital transfer vehicle from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit, outer planet exploration and reconnaissance missions, and as a versatile space tug supporting lunar resource development. Nuclear electric propulsion is examined as an indispensable component in space activities of the next two decades.

  3. Biodegradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The fuel oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) was first introduced in the 1970’s to improve gasoline combustion efficiency and reduce emission of harmful gases. However, it has caused groundwater contamination in Denmark and in many locations worldwide through accidental releases from leaking...... such as ammonium or benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene (BTEX) oxidizers, which can be present together in a single system. The competition resulted in reduced and/or delayed degradation of MTBE when there were limitations of oxygen or space in the reactor. The fraction of biologically active (BA) MTBE...

  4. Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi / An Overview towards the Existence Struggle in Religious and Cultural Pluralism: Malaysia Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saim Kayadibi

    2016-11-01

    Dini ve Kültürel Çoğulculukta Varoluş Mücadelesine Bir Bakış: Malezya Tecrübesi Öz Malezya sosyo-kültürel yapısı itibari ile çok dinli, çok dilli ve çok kültürlü toplumların barış ve huzur içerisinde yaşayabilme özelliğini göstermesinden dolayı birçok ülkeye örnek oluşturabilecek nadide birlikteliklerden biridir. Bu çok kültürlülük, çok dinlilik ve çok dillilik özelliklerini bir zenginlik olarak görüp, birlikte güçlü bir toplum oluşturabilmenin çabası içerisindedir. Birçok sahada, örneğin İslam Ekonomisi ve Bankacılığı, Helal Gıda, modern bir devlette İslam Hukuku kurallarının uygulanabilme özelliğinde öncü rol oynayabilen, hatta merkez ülke olma yarışında ciddi çalışmaları vardır. Tarihi tecrübe açısından Malezya, konum itibariyle ciddi işgallerin merkezi olmuş, birçok sömürge devletinin izlerini atabilmenin, sömürge psikolojisinden kurtulabilmenin, yaralarını sarabilmenin mücadelesini veren bir ülkedir. Geçmişte sömürge ülkelerinden kalan acı hatıraya rağmen Osmanlı devletinden gördüğü kardeş ve dost yardımlar hafızasının derinliklerinde sağlam izler bırakmıştır. Şimdi ise farklı etnik yapısını huzur ve barış içerisinde birlikte götürebilmenin mücadelesini veren ve diğer ülkelere de örnek oluşturabilecek model bir yapıya sahiptir. Bunun yanında Malezya’yı Türkiye ile karşılaştırmaya çalışmak yanlış sonuçlar doğurabilir. Sömürge geçmişi olmayan, gayr-i Müslim nüfusu neredeyse yok denecek kadar az olan Türkiye’nin Malezya ile kıyaslanması düşünülemez. Bu makalemizde çok dinli toplumlarda Müslümanlar incelenirken Malezya örnek olarak alınacak, onların yaşamları, tarihi ve sosyal evreleri, dini hayatın yaşanmasında sorunların olup olmadığı, milli bir bilinç oluşturmak için nasıl bir strateji geliştirildiği, topyekûn bir bakış açısı ile problemlerin neler olduğu ve ne tür

  5. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

    2001-02-01

    Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

  6. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  7. K-East and K-West Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hanford's "sister reactors", the K-East and the K-West Reactors, were built side-by-side in the early 1950's. The two reactors went operational within four months of...

  8. A new MTR fuel for a new MTR reactor: UMo for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guigon, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire DEN, Reacteur Jules Horowitz, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Vacelet, H. [Compagnie pour l' Etude et la Realisation de Combustibles Atomiques, CERCA, Etablissement de Romans, 26 (France); Dornbusch, D. [Technicatome, Service d' Architecture Generale, 13 - Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2003-07-01

    Within some years, the Jules Horowitz Reactor will be the only working experimental reactor (material and fuel testing reactor) in France. It will have to provide facilities for a wide range of needs: from activation analysis to power reactor fuel qualification. In this paper will be presented the main characteristics of the Jules Horowitz Reactor: its total power, neutron flux, fuel element... Safety criteria will be explained. Finally merits and disadvantages of UMo compared to the standard U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuel will be discussed. (authors)

  9. Annual report on JEN-1 reactor; Informe periodico del Reactor JEN-1 correspondiente al ano 1971

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, J.

    1972-07-01

    In the annual report on the JEN-1 reactor the main features of the reactor operations and maintenance are described. The reactor has been critical for 1831 hours, what means 65,8% of the total working time. Maintenance and pool water contamination have occupied the rest of the time. The maintenance schedule is shown in detail according to three subjects. The main failures and reactor scrams are also described. The daily maximum values of the water activity are given so as the activity of the air in the reactor hall. (Author)

  10. Torus mandibularis varlığında kısmi dişsiz bir hastanın protetik rehabilitasyonu: olgu sunumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Dogan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The torus mandibularis is the one of the most common intraoral exostoses. It is often bilateral, occurs at the canin to premolar region on the lingual aspect of the mandible. It has been reported that the factors such as genetic and environmental factors, masticator hiperfunction, nutrition, race and ethnic groups might play role in occurence of them. Such type of bony protuberances may present many challenges when fabricating a removable partial or complete

    dentures. In this case report, after a general knowledge about mandibular tori, the prosthetic rehabilitation of a partially edentulous patient had bilaterally mandibular tori has been presented.

    ÖZET

    Torus mandibularis ağız içinde en sık görülen eksostoz türlerinden biridir. Genellikle, mandibulanın lingual yüzeyinde, kanin ve premolar bölgesinde yerleşim göstermesiyle karakterizedir. Etyolojisinde kalıtım, çevresel faktörler, artmış çiğneme fonksiyonu, beslenme, ırk ve etnik grup farklılıklarının etkili olduğu düşünülmektedir. Bu tür kemik büyümeleri hareketli parsiyel veya tam protez yapımında güçlüklere neden olabilir. Bu olgu sunumunda kısmi dişsiz ve çift taraflı mandibular torusa sahip bir hastanın protetik tedavisi bildirilmiş ve toruslar hakkında genel bilgi verilmiştir.

    Anahtar sözcükler: Torus mandibularis, kısmi dişsiz hasta

  11. Selective purge for hydrogenation reactor recycle loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard W.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2001-01-01

    Processes and apparatus for providing improved contaminant removal and hydrogen recovery in hydrogenation reactors, particularly in refineries and petrochemical plants. The improved contaminant removal is achieved by selective purging, by passing gases in the hydrogenation reactor recycle loop or purge stream across membranes selective in favor of the contaminant over hydrogen.

  12. Radiochemical problems of fusion reactors. 1. Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M.B.A.

    1984-02-01

    A list of fusion reactor candidate materials is given, for use in connection with blanket structure, breeding, moderation, neutron multiplication, cooling, magnetic field generation, electrical insulation and radiation shielding. The phenomena being studied for each group of materials are indicated. Suitable irradiation test facilities are discussed under the headings (1) accelerator-based neutron sources, (2) fission reactors, and (3) ion accelerators.

  13. Advanced tokamak concepts and reactor designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, A. A. M.

    2000-01-01

    From a discussion of fusion reactor designs based on today's well-established experience gained in the operation of large tokamaks, it is concluded that such reactors are economically not attractive. The physics involved in the various options for concept improvement is described, some examples

  14. Startup of an industrial adiabatic tubular reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijs, J.W.; Berg, van den H.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dynamic behaviour of an adiabatic tubular plant reactor during the startup is demonstrated, together with the impact of a feed-pump failure of one of the reactants. A dynamic model of the reactor system is presented, and the system response is calculated as a function of experimentally-determine

  15. Rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a rotor for a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor, said rotor comprising a rotor body having a longitudinal centre axis, and at least one pivotally mounted blade being adapted to pivot around a pivot axis under rotation of the rotor body around the longitudinal centre axis....... Moreover, the present invention relates to a pyrolysis centrifuge reactor applying such a rotor....

  16. Helix reactor: great potential for flow chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, P.; Runstraat, A. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Goetheer, E.L.V.

    2009-01-01

    The Helix reactor is highly suited for precise reaction control based on good hydrodynamics. The hydrodynamics are controlled by the Dean vortices, which create excellent heat transfer properties, approach plug flow and avoid turbulence. The flexibility of this reactor has been demonstrated using a

  17. The Design of a Nuclear Reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this largely pedagogical article is toemploy pre-college physics to arrive at an understanding of a system as complex as a nuclear reactor. We focus on three key issues: the fuelpin, the moderator, and lastly the dimensions ofthe nuclear reactor.

  18. Design of an organic simplified nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvan, Koroush [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States); Forrest, Eric [Primary Standards Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  19. Technical features of the MR reactor decommissioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary technical design for the dismantling of the MR reactor. The goal of the design is the removal of reactor components allowing the re-use of the building for a different nuclear related purpose. The sequence of segmentation procedures is established. Considerations on the size reduction and tooling are presented.

  20. The First Reactor, 40th Anniversary (rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allardice, Corbin; Trapnell, Edward R; Fermi, Enrico; Fermi, Laura; Williams, Robert C

    1982-12-01

    This booklet, an updated version of the original booklet describing the first nuclear reactor, was written in honor of the 40th anniversary of the first reactor or "pile". It is based on firsthand accounts told to Corbin Allardice and Edward R. Trapnell, and includes recollections of Enrico and Laura Fermi.

  1. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  2. Parametric sensitivity and runaway in tubular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbidelli, M.; Varma, A.

    1982-09-01

    Parametric sensitivity of tubular reactors is analyzed to provide critical values of the heat of reaction and heat transfer parameters defining runaway and stable operations for all positive-order exothermic reactions with finite activation energies, and for all reactor inlet temperatures. Evaluation of the critical values does not involve any trial and error.

  3. Microbial degradation of MTBE in reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2007-01-01

    , toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes, may reduce the removal rates of MTBE, or prevent its removal in reactors. With mathematical modelling, the long startup time required for some MTBE degrading reactors could be predicted. Long startup times of up to 200 days were due to the low maximum growth rate...

  4. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Shirvan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attractive alternative to advanced reactor designs being considered. The advent of high temperature fluids, along with advances in hydrocracking and reforming technologies driven by the oil and gas industries, make the organic concept even more viable today. We present a simple, cost-effective, and safe small modular nuclear reactor for offshore underwater deployment. The core is moderated by graphite, zirconium hydride, and organic fluid while cooled by the organic fluid. The organic coolant enables operation near atmospheric pressure and use of plain carbon steel for the reactor tank and primary coolant piping system. The core is designed to mitigate the coolant degradation seen in early organic reactors. Overall, the design provides a power density of 40 kW/L, while reducing the reactor hull size by 40% compared with a pressurized water reactor while significantly reducing capital plant costs.

  5. Verification of Remote Inspection Techniques for Reactor Internal Structures of Liquid Metal Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Lee, Jae Han

    2007-02-15

    The reactor internal structures and components of a liquid metal reactor (LMR) are submerged in hot sodium of reactor vessel. The division 3 of ASME code section XI specifies the visual inspection as major in-service inspection (ISI) methods of reactor internal structures and components. Reactor internals of LMR can not be visually examined due to opaque liquid sodium. The under-sodium viewing techniques using an ultrasonic wave should be applied for the visual inspection of reactor internals. Recently, an ultrasonic waveguide sensor with a strip plate has been developed for an application to the under-sodium inspection. In this study, visualization technique, ranging technique and monitoring technique have been suggested for the remote inspection of reactor internals by using the waveguide sensor. The feasibility of these remote inspection techniques using ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been evaluated by an experimental verification.

  6. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; M, Wan Munirah W. [Department of Mathematical Science, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Shamsuddin, Mustaffa [Institute of Ibnu Sina, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Abdullah, M. Adib [Swinburne University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Computing and Science, Jalan Simpang Tiga, 93350 Kuching, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  7. State space modeling of reactor core in a pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashaari, A.; Ahmad, T.; Shamsuddin, Mustaffa; M, Wan Munirah W.; Abdullah, M. Adib

    2014-07-01

    The power control system of a nuclear reactor is the key system that ensures a safe operation for a nuclear power plant. However, a mathematical model of a nuclear power plant is in the form of nonlinear process and time dependent that give very hard to be described. One of the important components of a Pressurized Water Reactor is the Reactor core. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of power produced from a reactor core using temperature of the moderator as an input. Mathematical representation of the state space model of the reactor core control system is presented and analyzed in this paper. The data and parameters are taken from a real time VVER-type Pressurized Water Reactor and will be verified using Matlab and Simulink. Based on the simulation conducted, the results show that the temperature of the moderator plays an important role in determining the power of reactor core.

  8. Precision spectroscopy with reactor anti-neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, P; Huber, Patrick; Schwetz, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    In this work we present an accurate parameterization of the anti-neutrino flux produced by the isotopes 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu in nuclear reactors. We determine the coefficients of this parameterization, as well as their covariance matrix, by performing a fit to spectra inferred from experimentally measured beta spectra. Subsequently we show that flux shape uncertainties play only a minor role in the KamLAND experiment, however, we find that future reactor neutrino experiments to measure the mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are sensitive to the fine details of the reactor neutrino spectra. Finally, we investigate the possibility to determine the isotopic composition in nuclear reactors through an anti-neutrino measurement. We find that with a 3 month exposure of a one ton detector the isotope fractions and the thermal reactor power can be determined at a few percent accuracy, which may open the possibility of an application for safeguard or non-proliferation objectives.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  10. Reactor assessments of advanced bumpy torus configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, N.A.; Owen, L.W.; Spong, D.A.; Miller, R.L.; Ard, W.B.; Pipkins, J.F.; Schmitt, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Recently, several innovative approaches were introduced for enhancing the performance of the basic ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) concept and for improving its reactor potential. These include planar racetrack and square geometries, Andreoletti coil systems, and bumpy torus-stellarator hybrids (which include twisted racetrack and helical axis stellarator - snakey torus). Preliminary evaluations of reactor implications of each approach have been carried out based on magnetics (vacuum) calculations, transport and scaling relationships, and stability properties deduced from provisional configurations that implement the approach but are not necessarily optimized. Further optimization is needed in all cases to evaluate the full potential of each approach. Results of these studies indicate favorable reactor projections with a significant reduction in reactor physical size as compared to conventional EBT reactor designs carried out in the past.

  11. Reactivity control assembly for nuclear reactor. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, L.R.

    1982-03-17

    This invention, which resulted from a contact with the United States Department of Energy, relates to a control mechanism for a nuclear reactor and, more particularly, to an assembly for selectively shifting different numbers of reactivity modifying rods into and out of the core of a nuclear reactor. It has been proposed heretofore to control the reactivity of a breeder reactor by varying the depth of insertion of control rods (e.g., rods containing a fertile material such as ThO/sub 2/) in the core of the reactor, thereby varying the amount of neutron-thermalizing coolant and the amount of neutron-capturing material in the core. This invention relates to a mechanism which can advantageously be used in this type of reactor control system.

  12. Power Control Method for Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baang, Dane; Suh, Yongsuk; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Considering safety-oriented design concept and other control environment, we developed a simple controller that provides limiting function of power change- rate as well as fine tracking performance. The design result has been well-proven via simulation and actual application to a TRIGA-II type research reactor. The proposed controller is designed to track the PDM(Power Demand) from operator input as long as maintaining the power change rate lower than a certain value for stable reactor operation. A power control method for a TRIGA-II type research reactor has been designed, simulated, and applied to actual reactor. The control performance during commissioning test shows that the proposed controller provides fine control performance for various changes in reference values (PDM), even though there is large measurement noise from neutron detectors. The overshoot at low power level is acceptable in a sense of reactor operation.

  13. Nisâ Sûresi 65. Âyete Dair Abdülmecîd-i Sîvâsî’nin (971/1049-1563/1639 Bilinmeyen Bir Risalesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mehmet çiçek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmanlı dönemi tefsir geleneğine dair yapılan çalışmalar, henüz beklenilen ve hedeflenen noktadan uzak görünmektedir. Bu makale, bir nebze de olsa mevcut duruma işaret etme ve “bilinmeyeni” ortaya çıkarma hedefini gütmektedir.  Abdülmecid-i Sivasi’ye ait Nisa suresi 65. Ayete dair risaleyi ele aldığımız bu makalede eser hakkında bilgi vermeye çalıştık. Değerlendirmelerimizi ise metod ve içerik olmak üzere iki açıdan ele aldık. Risale, söz konusu Nisâ suresi 60 ila 65. ayetlerin münafıklar hakkında indirildiğine dikkat çekmektedir. Ayrıca Zübeyr b. Avvam’ın sebeb-i nüzûlle ilgili rivâyetine bir cevap vermeyi hedeflemiştir, diyebiliriz. Buna ilaveten risalenin Bedir ehlinin üstünlüğüne dair hassasiyeti dikkate aldığı söylenebilir.

  14. Kara Bela Münasebetiyle Eleştirilen Bir Ekol: Namık Kemal A Literary School Criticized on Merits of “Kara Bela” (“Misfortune”: Namık Kemal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer GÜLŞEN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most notable writers of Turkish literature, Namık Kemal was rather a school unto himself, owing to his pursuits in the creation of a New literature, his works and critical essays. Several prominent figures assembled around him, sharing his thoughts, and also defending him ardently. More often than not praised, he was sometimes criticized bitterly. Introducing Western literary forms to a nascent universe, he assigned importance to theater. For him, it isentertainment – but a most useful distraction. “Mukaddime-i Celal” isthe preface of the title “Celalettin Harzemşah.” This prelude wascomposed with an allusion to Victor Hugo’s Cromwell foreword. In this,his views on drama are markedly captivating. He penned his play “KaraBela” (“Misfortune” while in exile in Famagusta. Publishedposthumously, it was purported, however, to be rather a tenuous piece.“Kara Bela” was criticized in “Tenkidat-ı Edebiye – Namık Kemal - KaraBela Münasebetiyle” (“A Literary Critique – On Merits of Namık Kemal’s‘Misfortune’,” written in 1911 by Şahabettin Süleyman, among theillustrious portraits of the Fecr-i Âti (“Pending Twilight” period. Heportrays Namık Kemal as a crony of the commoners. Thereafter, headjudges that its plotline fails to align with real life. Remarkably, hechooses the less formal reference of “Kemal,” who has prevailed in theliterary realm long before his debut. Criticized in this article for hisartistic stature, Namık Kemal will be assessed with the Author-BasedCritical Approach. Evidently, this method places the artist at the core ofthe critique. Türk edebiyatının önemli sanatkârlarından biri olan Namık Kemal, yeni bir edebiyatın oluşmasında ve tanınmasında gösterdiği gayretlerle, eserleriyle, eleştirileriyle, âdeta bir ekol olmuştur. İsminin etrafında birçok isim toplanmış, düşüncelerini paylaşıp, onu savunmuşlardır. Çoğu zaman övülen Namık Kemal

  15. Osmanlı Ordusunda Venezuelalı Bir Gezgin Şövalye: Rafael de Nogales Méndez A Venezuelian Knight Errant In The Ottoman Army: Rafael de Nogales Méndez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Güngör ŞAHİN

    2013-09-01

    ör Porfirio Diaz'ın emrinde görevli bir atlı sınır muhafızıyken, yıllar sonra Diaz karşıtı isyancı kuvvetlere katılan bir devrimci, Uzakdoğu'da gizli ajan, Guatemala’da suikast timi üyesi, ülkesinde yıllarca bir asi, yaşamının son döneminde ise bir devlet görevlisi olmuştur. Şiarının "iyi bir savaş görürsen, savaşmak için ona gönüllü yazıl,"1 olduğunu belirten Nogales, bir asker, savaşçı, gezgin, maceraperest ve yazardı. Kendisini "bir dünya vatandaşı ve bir gezgin şövalye"2 olarak tanımlıyordu. Tabiri caizse, o, 20. yüzyılın Don Kişot'u idi.Bu çalışmada, Nogales'in anılarını aktardığı kitaplarında yer alan bilgilerden hareketle yaşam öyküsü irdelenirken, yazarın dönemin tarihi olaylarına dair anlatıları özgün kaynaklarla mukayeseli olarak incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla çok sayıda resmi kaynak ve hatırat gözden geçirilmiş, arşiv araştırması yapılmıştır. Öte yandan bu alanda literatüre yeni bilgi ve belge kazandırmak, çalışmanın amaçları arasında yer almaktadır.

  16. Service Quality Research as a Marketing Tool for a University Library Üniversite Kütüphanesinde Bir Pazarlama Aracı Olarak Hizmet Kalitesi Araştırması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekine Karakaş

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the attitudes of library users were solicited using SERVQUAL, a marketing research technique. As the management spent all its resources for the development of the library, the impact of this policy on the service quality has been measured. At this stage the evaluation of faculty with regard to those items on the questionnaire dealing with quality of service has been tested statistically and the results evaluated accordingly. Bu çalışma için bir pazarlama araştırması tekniği olan SERVQUAL yöntemi ile kütüphane kullanıcılarını? izlenimleri alınmıştır. Bir fakülte yönetiminin kaynaklarını çoğunlukla kütüphaneye yöneltmesi ile gelinen aşamada, öğretim elemanlarının hizmet kalitesi ile ilgili maddeleri nasıl derecelendirdikleri istatiksel olarak test edilmiş, alınan sonuçlar değerlendirilmiştir.

  17. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  18. Fast Spectrum Molten Salt Reactor Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehin, Jess C [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Patton, Bruce W [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    During 2010, fast-spectrum molten-salt reactors (FS-MSRs) were selected as a transformational reactor concept for light-water reactor (LWR)-derived heavy actinide disposition by the Department of Energy-Nuclear Energy Advanced Reactor Concepts (ARC) program and were the subject of a preliminary scoping investigation. Much of the reactor description information presented in this report derives from the preliminary studies performed for the ARC project. This report, however, has a somewhat broader scope-providing a conceptual overview of the characteristics and design options for FS-MSRs. It does not present in-depth evaluation of any FS-MSR particular characteristic, but instead provides an overview of all of the major reactor system technologies and characteristics, including the technology developments since the end of major molten salt reactor (MSR) development efforts in the 1970s. This report first presents a historical overview of the FS-MSR technology and describes the innovative characteristics of an FS-MSR. Next, it provides an overview of possible reactor configurations. The following design features/options and performance considerations are described including: (1) reactor salt options-both chloride and fluoride salts; (2) the impact of changing the carrier salt and actinide concentration on conversion ratio; (3) the conversion ratio; (4) an overview of the fuel salt chemical processing; (5) potential power cycles and hydrogen production options; and (6) overview of the performance characteristics of FS-MSRs, including general comparative metrics with LWRs. The conceptual-level evaluation includes resource sustainability, proliferation resistance, economics, and safety. The report concludes with a description of the work necessary to begin more detailed evaluation of FS-MSRs as a realistic reactor and fuel cycle option.

  19. Radiation protection at new reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brissaud, A. [EDF INDUSTRY, Basic Design Department, EDF-SEPTEN, VILLEURBANNE Cedex (France)

    2000-05-01

    The theoritical knowledge and the feedback of operating experience concerning radiations in reactors is now considerable. It is available to the designer in the form of predictive softwares and data bases. Thus, it is possible to include the radiation protection component throughout all the design process. In France, the existing reactors have not been designed with quantified radiation protection targets, although considerable efforts have been made to reduce sources of radiation illustrated by the decrease of the average dose rates (typically a factor 5 between the first 900 MWe and the last 1300 MWe units). The EDF ALARA PROJECT has demonstrated that good practises, radiation protection awareness, careful work organization had a strong impact on operation and maintenance work volume. A decrease of the average collective dose by a factor 2 has been achieved without noticeable modifications of the units. In the case of new nuclear facilities projects (reactor, intermediate storage facility,...), or special operations (such as steam generator replacement), quantified radiation protection targets are included in terms of collective and average individual doses within the frame of a general optimization scheme. The target values by themselves are less important than the application of an optimization process throughout the design. This is because the optimization process requires to address all the components of the dose, particularly the work volume for operation and maintenance. A careful study of this parameter contributes to the economy of the project (suppression of unecessary tasks, time-saving ergonomy of work sites). This optimization process is currently applied to the design of the EPR. General radiation protection provisions have been addressed during the basic design phase by applying general rules aiming at the reduction of sources and dose rates. The basic design optimization phase has mainly dealt with the possibility to access the containment at full

  20. The research reactors their contribution to the reactors physics; Les reacteurs de recherche leur apport sur la physique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barral, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Zaetta, A. [CEA/Cadarache, Direction des Reacteurs Nucleaires, DRN, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Johner, J. [CEA/Cadarache, Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (DRFC), 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Mathoniere, G. [CEA/Saclay, DEN, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    The 19 october 2000, the french society of nuclear energy organized a day on the research reactors. This associated report of the technical session, reactors physics, is presented in two parts. The first part deals with the annual meeting and groups general papers on the pressurized water reactors, the fast neutrons reactors and the fusion reactors industry. The second part presents more technical papers about the research programs, critical models, irradiation reactors (OSIRIS and Jules Horowitz) and computing tools. (A.L.B.)

  1. PCCF flow analysis -- DR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1961-04-26

    This report contains an analysis of PCCF tube flow and Panellit pressure relations at DR reactor. Supply curves are presented at front header pressures from 480 to 600 psig using cold water and the standard 0.236 inch orifice with taper down stream and the pigtail valve (plug or ball) open. Demand curves are presented for slug column lengths of 200 inches to 400 inches using 1.44 inch O.D. solid poison pieces (either Al or Pb-Cd) and cold water with a rear header pressure of 50 psig. Figure 1 is a graph of Panellit pressure vs. flow with the above supply and demand curves and clearly shows the effect of front header pressure and charge length on flow.

  2. Coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Swanson, Mercedes; Menger, Fredric M.

    2012-10-01

    Coacervates are colloidal systems that are comprised of two immiscible aqueous layers, the colloid-rich layer, so-called coacervate, and the colloid-poor layer, so-called equilibrium liquid. Although immiscible, the two phases are both water-rich. Coacervates are important for prebiotic chemistry, but also have various practical applications, notably as transport vehicles of personal care products and pharmaceuticals. Our objectives are to explore the potential of coacervates as prebiotic chemical reactors. Since the reaction medium in coacervates is water, this creates a challenge, since most organic reactants are not water-soluble. To overcome this challenge we are utilizing recent Green Chemistry examples of the organic reactions in water, such as the Passerini reaction. We have investigated this reaction in two coacervate systems, and report here our preliminary results.

  3. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  4. Dynamic analysis of process reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadle, L.J.; Lawson, L.O.; Noel, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    The approach and methodology of conducting a dynamic analysis is presented in this poster session in order to describe how this type of analysis can be used to evaluate the operation and control of process reactors. Dynamic analysis of the PyGas{trademark} gasification process is used to illustrate the utility of this approach. PyGas{trademark} is the gasifier being developed for the Gasification Product Improvement Facility (GPIF) by Jacobs-Siffine Engineering and Riley Stoker. In the first step of the analysis, process models are used to calculate the steady-state conditions and associated sensitivities for the process. For the PyGas{trademark} gasifier, the process models are non-linear mechanistic models of the jetting fluidized-bed pyrolyzer and the fixed-bed gasifier. These process sensitivities are key input, in the form of gain parameters or transfer functions, to the dynamic engineering models.

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wilde, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large United States Department of Energy installation on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The SRS contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, varied wetlands including Carolina Bays, the Savannah River swamp system, and impoundment related and riparian wetlands, and the aquatic habitats of several stream systems, two large cooling reservoirs, and the Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a large variety of plants and animals including many commercially or recreational valuable species and several rare, threatened or endangered species. This volume describes the major habitats and their biota found on the SRS, and discuss the impacts of continued operation of the K, L, and P production reactors.

  6. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  7. Bir Olgu Nedeniyle Deskuamatif Gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Baloş, Köksal; ARPAK, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu yazıda Deskuamatif gingivitis ve bu tanı konan hcsta gözden geçirilmiştir. Tedavi olarak gingivektomi işleminin etkinliği ortaya konmuştur.SUMMARYIn this article, desquamative gingivitis and an interesting a case have been reported. The effect of gingivectomy procedure has been demostrated.

  8. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  9. The Swedish Zero Power Reactor R0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landergaard, Olof; Cavallin, Kaj; Jonsson, Georg

    1961-05-15

    The reactor R0 is a critical facility built for heavy water and natural uranium or fuel of low enrichment,, The first criticality was achieved September 25, 1959. During a first period of more than two years the R0 will be operated as a bare reactor in order to simplify interpretation of results. The reactor tank is 3. 2 m high and 2. 25 m in diameter. The fuel suspension system is quite flexible in order to facilitate fuel exchange and lattice variations. The temperature of the water can be varied between about 10 and 90 C by means of a heater and a cooler placed in the external circulating system. The instrumentation of the reactor has to meet the safety requirements not only during operation but also during rearrangements of the core in the shut-down state. Therefore, the shut-down state is always defined by a certain low 'safe' moderator level in the reactor tank. A number of safety rods are normally kept above the moderator ready for action. For manual or automatic control of the reactor power a specially designed piston pump is needed, by which the moderator level is varied. The pump speed is controlled from the reactor power error by means of a Ward-Leonard system. Moderator level measurement is made by means of a water gauge with an accuracy of {+-} 0. 1 mm.

  10. Facility for a Low Power Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalker, R. G.

    1949-09-14

    Preliminary investigation indicates that a reactor facility with ample research provisions for use by University or other interested groups, featuring safety in design, can be economically constructed in the Los Angeles area. The complete installation, including an underground gas-tight reactor building, with associated storage and experiment assembly building, administration offices, two general laboratory buildings, hot latoratory and lodge, can be constructed for approxinately $1,500,000. This does not include the cost of the reactor itself or of its auxiliary equipment,

  11. Pyrometric fuel particle measurements in pressurised reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Joutsenoja, T. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    A fiberoptic two-colour pyrometric technique for fuel particle temperature and size measurement is modified and applied to three pressurized reactors of different type in Finland, Germany and France. A modification of the pyrometric method for simultaneous in situ measurement of the temperature and size of individual pulverized coal particles at the pressurized entrained flow reactor in Jyvaeskylae was developed and several series of measurements were made. In Orleans a fiberoptic pyrometric device was installed to a pressurised thermogravimetric reactor and the two-colour temperatures of fuel samples were measured. Some results of these measurements are presented. The project belongs to EU`s Joule 2 extension research programme. (author)

  12. Oxidation performance of graphite material in reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaowei LUO; Xinli YU; Suyuan YU

    2008-01-01

    Graphite is used as a structural material and moderator for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR). When a reactor is in operation, graphite oxida-tion influences the safety and operation of the reactor because of the impurities in the coolant and/or the acci-dent conditions, such as water ingress and air ingress. In this paper, the graphite oxidation process is introduced, factors influencing graphite oxidation are analyzed and discussed, and some new directions for further study are pointed out.

  13. Sistemas de salvaguardia en reactores EPR

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    En este documento se describe brevemente el funcionamiento de los diversos sistemas de una planta nuclear operada con un reactor de tipo PWR. Más concretamente, el proyecto se centra en una descripción exhaustiva de los sistemas de salvaguardia y seguridad que regulan el funcionamiento de un reactor de tipo EPR, así como la central nuclear que contiene a dicho reactor. El proceso ha consistido en clasificar y resumir los distintos sistemas que operan en dicha planta, estudiando sus caracterís...

  14. Packed fluidized bed blanket for fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A packed fluidized bed blanket for a fusion reactor providing for efficient radiation absorption for energy recovery, efficient neutron absorption for nuclear transformations, ease of blanket removal, processing and replacement, and on-line fueling/refueling. The blanket of the reactor contains a bed of stationary particles during reactor operation, cooled by a radial flow of coolant. During fueling/refueling, an axial flow is introduced into the bed in stages at various axial locations to fluidize the bed. When desired, the fluidization flow can be used to remove particles from the blanket.

  15. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    measurements are reviewed in detail. In the sequel, possible manipulated variables, such as the hydraulic retention time, the organic loading rate, the sludge retention time, temperature, pH and alkalinity are evaluated with respect to the two main reactor types: high-rate and low-rate. Finally, the different......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  16. Transients in reactors for power systems compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Hamid, Haziah

    This thesis describes new models and investigations into switching transient phenomena related to the shunt reactors and the Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network (MSCDN) operations used for reactive power control in the transmission system. Shunt reactors and MSCDN are similar in that they have reactors. A shunt reactor is connected parallel to the compensated lines to absorb the leading current, whereas the MSCDN is a version of a capacitor bank designed as a C-type filter for use in the harmonic-rich environment. In this work, models have been developed and transient overvoltages due to shunt reactor deenergisation were estimated analytically using MathCad, a mathematical program. Computer simulations used the ATP/EMTP program to reproduce both single-phase and three-phase shunt reactor switching at 275 kV operational substations. The effect of the reactor switching on the circuit breaker grading capacitor was also examined by considering various switching conditions.. The main original achievement of this thesis is the clarification of failure mechanisms occurring in the air-core filter reactor due to MSCDN switching operations. The simulation of the MSCDN energisation was conducted using the ATP/EMTP program in the presence of surge arresters. The outcome of this simulation shows that extremely fast transients were established across the air-core filter reactor. This identified transient event has led to the development of a detailed air-core reactor model, which accounts for the inter-turn RLC parameters as well as the stray capacitances-to-ground. These parameters are incorporated into the transient simulation circuit, from which the current and voltage distribution across the winding were derived using electric field and equivalent circuit modelling. Analysis of the results has revealed that there are substantial dielectric stresses imposed on the winding insulation that can be attributed to a combination of three factors. (i) First, the

  17. Assessing Pretreatment Reactor Scaling Through Empirical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischeske, James J.; Crawford, Nathan C.; Kuhn, Erik; Nagle, Nicholas J.; Schell, Daniel J.; Tucker, Melvin P.; McMillan, James D.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2016-12-01

    Pretreatment is a critical step in the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. Due to the complexity of the physicochemical transformations involved, predictively scaling up technology from bench- to pilot-scale is difficult. This study examines how pretreatment effectiveness under nominally similar reaction conditions is influenced by pretreatment reactor design and scale using four different pretreatment reaction systems ranging from a 3 g batch reactor to a 10 dry-ton/d continuous reactor. The reactor systems examined were an Automated Solvent Extractor (ASE), Steam Explosion Reactor (SER), ZipperClave(R) reactor (ZCR), and Large Continuous Horizontal-Screw Reactor (LHR). To our knowledge, this is the first such study performed on pretreatment reactors across a range of reaction conditions (time and temperature) and at different reactor scales. The comparative pretreatment performance results obtained for each reactor system were used to develop response surface models for total xylose yield after pretreatment and total sugar yield after pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Near- and very-near-optimal regions were defined as the set of conditions that the model identified as producing yields within one and two standard deviations of the optimum yield. Optimal conditions identified in the smallest-scale system (the ASE) were within the near-optimal region of the largest scale reactor system evaluated. A reaction severity factor modeling approach was shown to inadequately describe the optimal conditions in the ASE, incorrectly identifying a large set of sub-optimal conditions (as defined by the RSM) as optimal. The maximum total sugar yields for the ASE and LHR were 95%, while 89% was the optimum observed in the ZipperClave. The optimum condition identified using the automated and less costly to operate ASE system was within the very-near-optimal space for the total xylose yield of both the ZCR and the LHR, and was

  18. Milli Kütüphane 2727 Numaralı Mecmû’a’da Kayıtlı Manzum Bir Melheme A Melheme Written In Verse Registered In The Periodical No:2727 In The National Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALKAN

    2012-12-01

    slam sonrası edebiyatımızda fal ile ilgili eserler görülmektedir.İnsanın geleceğe dair merakını gidermek için kullandığı olaylardan bazıları da Ay veya Güneş tutulması, yeni ay görünmesi, yıldız kayması, şiddetli yağmur veya dolu yağması ya da rüzgâr esmesi, gök kuşağı, şimşek, yıldırım ve deprem gibi bir takım tabiat olaylarıdır. Başka bir deyişle merak hissi, insana tabiat olaylarını kullandırarak gelecekten haber verme konusunda farklı bir yöntem oluşturtmuştur ki buna “melheme” adı verilmektedir. Arap, Fars ve Türk edebiyatında birçok örneği bulunan melhemeler, eski eserlerimiz arasında önemli bir yekün oluşturmaktadır.Bu melhemelerden biri de Milli Kütüphane 2727 numaralı mecmûada kayıtlı olan manzum bir metindir. Bu metinde ayın hangi burçta olduğunu çıkarma yöntemi ile ayın bulunduğu burca göre yapılması uygun olan ya da olmayan işler anlatılmıştır.İlgili metni konu alan bu çalışmamızda fal ve melhemelerle ilgili bilgi verildikten sonra adı geçen mecmuada kayıtlı bu manzum metin incelenmiş, transkribe edilmiş, ayrıca metinde geçen kelimeleri içeren bir sözlük de yazıya eklenmiştir.

  19. Şeyhülislam Yahya Takipçisi Bir Şair: Yümnî ve Divanı A Poet, The Follower Of Şeyhulislam Yahya: Yumni and His Divan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus KAPLAN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous poets who trained in the tradition of Divan Literature and with no definitein formation in there source sand in their own works about their lives. The information about many of them is limited with aliases that they used only in their own poem sand some information given about their lives and peirods they lived in those poem sand estimates on the basis of these. One of the poets whose life is known today is limited with the information about some poems of his divan is Yümni. For now, we have a single writing copy of Yümni Divan. In this copy, there is no information about the poet's life, such as. date and place of the his birth, his family, education and so on. However, some information can be reached about the perod he lived via his written eulogies and ghazals. In these verse forms, the poet’s mentioning and praising about Sultan IV. Murat and Şeyhülislam Yahya Efendi shows that he lived in the same period with them. This information that gives clues about the lives of Yümni’s period is now the most important information at hand. Following the example of Seyhülislam Yahya Yümni in literary terms, Yümni wrote the vast majority of his poems in the style of amorous and rindane. He took place the idea of the transience of the world and the need of using of blessings of the world in his poems and like many concil poets, he criticized the rude religious people. The poet has succeeded in expressing these feelings in a plain language and friendly manner. In this study, some evaluation and estimates were made about the life and period of Yümni with the help of his Divan and focused on the properties of form and content of this Divan. Divan edebiyatı geleneğinde yetişmiş, kaynaklarda ve kendi eserlerinde hayatları hakkında kesin bilgilere sahip olunamayan sayısız şair bulunmaktadır. Birçoğu hakkındaki bilgiler, sadece kendi yazdıkları şiirlerde kullandıkları mahlasları ile yine bu şiirlerde hayatlar

  20. Passive compact molten salt reactor (PCMSR), modular thermal breeder reactor with totally passive safety system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harto, Andang Widi [Engineering Physics Department, Faculty of Engineering, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia)

    2012-06-06

    Design Study Passive Compact Molten Salt Reactor (PCMSR) with totally passive safety system has been performed. The term of Compact in the PCMSR name means that the reactor system is designed to have relatively small volume per unit power output by using modular and integral concept. In term of modular, the reactor system consists of three modules, i.e. reactor module, turbine module and fuel management module. The reactor module is an integral design that consists of reactor, primary and intermediate heat exchangers and passive post shutdown cooling system. The turbine module is an integral design of a multi heating, multi cooling, regenerative gas turbine. The fuel management module consists of all equipments related to fuel preparation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive handling. The preliminary calculations show that the PCMSR has negative temperature and void reactivity coefficient, passive shutdown characteristic related to fuel pump failure and possibility of using natural circulation for post shutdown cooling system.

  1. Advanced research reactor fuel development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Kyu; Pak, H. D.; Kim, K. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    The fabrication technology of the U{sub 3}Si fuel dispersed in aluminum for the localization of HANARO driver fuel has been launches. The increase of production yield of LEU metal, the establishment of measurement method of homogeneity, and electron beam welding process were performed. Irradiation test under normal operation condition, had been carried out and any clues of the fuel assembly breakdown was not detected. The 2nd test fuel assembly has been irradiated at HANARO reactor since 17th June 1999. The quality assurance system has been re-established and the eddy current test technique has been developed. The irradiation test for U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersed fuels at HANARO reactor has been carried out in order to compare the in-pile performance of between the two types of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} fuels, prepared by both the atomization and comminution processes. KAERI has also conducted all safety-related works such as the design and the fabrication of irradiation rig, the analysis of irradiation behavior, thermal hydraulic characteristics, stress analysis for irradiation rig, and thermal analysis fuel plate, for the mini-plate prepared by international research cooperation being irradiated safely at HANARO. Pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test were performed. The characterization on powders of U-(5.4 {approx} 10 wt%) Mo alloy depending on Mo content prepared by rotating disk centrifugal atomization process was carried out in order to investigate the phase stability of the atomized U-Mo alloy system. The {gamma}-U phase stability and the thermal compatibility of atomized U-16at.%Mo and U-14at.%Mo-2at.%X(: Ru, Os) dispersion fuel meats at an elevated temperature have been investigated. The volume increases of U-Mo compatibility specimens were almost the same as or smaller than those of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. However the atomized alloy fuel exhibited a better irradiation performance than the comminuted alloy. The RERTR-3 irradiation test of nano

  2. Hydrodynamics of multi-phase packed bed micro-reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Márquez Luzardo, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Why to use packed bed micro-reactors for catalyst testing? Miniaturized packed bed reactors have a large surface-to-volume ratio at the reactor and particle level that favors the heat- and mass-transfer processes at all scales (intra-particle, inter-phase and inter-particle or reactor level). If the

  3. Progress of China Experimental Fast Reactor in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    1 Background Fast reactor is the reactor which realized the chain fission with fast neutron.As an optional type of generation Ⅳ reactor,fast reactor has three characters:1) It can change 238U to 239Pu and raise the uranium resource utilization

  4. Uncertainties in the Anti-neutrino Production at Nuclear Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Djurcic, Z.(Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439, U.S.A.); Detwiler, J. A.; Piepke, A.; Foster Jr., V. R.; Miller, L.; Gratta, G.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-neutrino emission rates from nuclear reactors are determined from thermal power measurements and fission rate calculations. The uncertainties in these quantities for commercial power plants and their impact on the calculated interaction rates in electron anti-neutrino detectors is examined. We discuss reactor-to-reactor correlations between the leading uncertainties and their relevance to reactor anti-neutrino experiments.

  5. Tarih Ders Kitaplarında “Öteki” Kurgusu: 1930’lı Yıllar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercan Yıldırım

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available People in every historical period through the similarities and differences with others, have had an identity. This identity is the most important function of holding on daily life and social values has been to facilitate adaptation. In this process actually looking to find sameness "that be different from others" is restricted to its assumptions. Needed a robust and consistent identification of these differences creates a field. Here the individual, to define itself is not what is based on what is not. In it usually collects almost all negative values on the "other" is needed. Bu çalışma Doç. Dr. Ahmet Şimşek’in danışmanlığında hazırlanan ve Marmara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Tarih Eğitimi Bilim Dalında doktora tezi olarak kabul edilen “II. Meşruitiyetten Günümüze Lise Tarih Ders Kitaplarında Türk Kimliğinin İnşası” başlıklı çalışmanın bir kısmından üretilmiştir. * Selçuk Ecza 50. Yıl Ortaokulu, İstanbul, Türkiye, E-posta: tercan_y@hotmail.comThe nation-state of history teaching in the social memory that you want to include the value of all kinds, positive and negative judgments about the others quite planned and programmed image is transferred to the students liked the way citizens are targeted. In this study, high school history textbooks in the 1930s "other" how fiction and which is considered to have been built for the purpose. The method of the research based on qualitative content and document analysis. The "other" category “Ottoman past”, “internal and external enemies” over the main themes were examined. Related findings of Ottoman past are based upon the sub-themes such as emphasis on Turkishness, the sultans' personal characteristics, betrayal rhetoric, caliphate, ulema class, the quality of education, corrupted layout, freedom of women. Related findings with the category of internal enemies were examined upon the Sultan and Istanbul Government, retrogressives

  6. Ex-vessel Steam Explosion Analysis for Pressurized Water Reactor and Boiling Water Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Leskovar; Mitja Uršič

    2016-01-01

    A steam explosion may occur during a severe accident, when the molten core comes into contact with water. The pressurized water reactor and boiling water reactor ex-vessel steam explosion study, which was carried out with the multicomponent three-dimensional Eulerian fuel–coolant interaction code under the conditions of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications project reactor exercise, is presented and discussed. In ...

  7. Bir Kriz İletişimi Yönetimi Vaka Analizi: Kaybolan Malezya Havayolları MH370 Sefer Sayılı Uçağı

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci ÇINARLI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Kriz iletişimi yönetiminde kriz ile ilgili olguların tespit edilmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu olgular kriz çeşidinin sınıflandırılmasına ve dolayısıyla da etkili ‘kriz tepki stratejilerinin’ uygulanmasına olanak verir. Bu makalede, Malezya Havayollarının MH370 sefer sayılı uçağının kriz yönetim süreci bir vaka analizi olarak değerlendirilmiştir. Uçak, içindeki 227 yolcu ve 12 mürettebat ile 8 Mart 2014 tarihinde kaybolmuş ve çok-uluslu arama-kurtarma çalışmalarına rağmen sonuç elde edilememiştir. Bu amaçla, Timothy W. Coombs’un  ‘kriz yönetiminin üç evresi’ söz konusu vakanın kriz yönetimi sürecine uygulanmıştır. Bu bağlamda, söz konusu krizin yönetilmesinde kullanılan ‘kriz tepki stratejileri’ Coombs’un ‘Durumsal Kriz İletişimi Kuramı’ (SCCT dâhilinde değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca Malezya Havayollarının (ve en büyük hissedarı Malezya hükümetinin kriz iletişimi yönetimi uygulamaları ve araçları da analiz edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, alışılagelenin çok üzerinde bir süre boyunca olgulara ulaşamamanın bir enformasyon vakumu oluşturarak spekülasyonları ve söylentileri içine çektiği ortaya konulmuştur.

  8. Optimization of a sequence of reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    1991-01-01

    Concerns the optimal production of sulphuric acid in a sequence of reactors. Using a suitable approximation to the objective function, this problem can easily be solved using the maximum principle. A numerical example documents the applicability of the suggested approach...

  9. The Bifurcation Behavior of CO Coupling Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐艳; 马新宾; 许根慧

    2005-01-01

    The bifurcation behavior of the CO coupling reactor was examined based on the one-dimensional pseudohomogeneous axial dispersion dynamic model. The method of finite difference was used for solving the boundary value problem; the continuation technique and the direct method were applied to determine the bifurcation diagram.The effects of dimensionless adiabatic temperature rise, Damkoehler number, activation energy, heat transfer coefficient and feed ratio on the bifurcation behavior were investigated. It was shown that there existed static bifurcation and the oscillations did not occur in the reactor. The result also revealed that the reactor exhibited at most 1-3-1 multiplilicity patterns within the range of practical possible parameters and the measures, such as weakening the axial dispersion of reactor, enhancing heat transfer, decreasing the concentration of ethyl nitrite, were efficient for avoiding the possible risk of multiple steady states.

  10. Heat pipe reactors for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, D. R.; Ranken, W. A.; Salmi, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    A family of heat pipe reactors design concepts has been developed to provide heat to a variety of electrical conversion systems. Three power plants are described that span the power range 1-500 kWe and operate in the temperature range 1200-1700 K. The reactors are fast, compact, heat-pipe cooled, high-temperature nuclear reactors fueled with fully enriched refractory fuels, UC-ZrC or UO2. Each fuel element is cooled by an axially located molybdenum heat pipe containing either sodium or lithium vapor. Virtues of the reactor designs are the avoidance of single-point failure mechanisms, the relatively high operating temperature, and the expected long lifetimes of the fuel element components.

  11. Reactor Antineutrinos: From Confusion to Clarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Dan

    2016-09-01

    Antineutrinos emitted by nuclear reactors have been a powerful tool for particle physics, demonstrating the existence of these weakly-interacting particles as well as their flavor oscillation. Despite these successes, our understanding of the total flux and energy spectra of reactor antineutrinos has been fraught with problems. I will give a brief overview of the unexpected developments in this field, and discuss upcoming measurements of antineutrinos, beta decays, and nuclear fission which are relevant to these questions. These measurements are expected to clarify many currently murky issues, including the hypothetical oscillation of reactor antineutrinos to sterile states. The results should also provide a unique perspective into the nuclear physics of fission reactors. DOE OHEP DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  12. Chemical reactor modeling multiphase reactive flows

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, Hugo A

    2014-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Modeling closes the gap between Chemical Reaction Engineering and Fluid Mechanics.  The second edition consists of two volumes: Volume 1: Fundamentals. Volume 2: Chemical Engineering Applications In volume 1 most of the fundamental theory is presented. A few numerical model simulation application examples are given to elucidate the link between theory and applications. In volume 2 the chemical reactor equipment to be modeled are described. Several engineering models are introduced and discussed. A survey of the frequently used numerical methods, algorithms and schemes is provided. A few practical engineering applications of the modeling tools are presented and discussed. The working principles of several experimental techniques employed in order to get data for model validation are outlined. The monograph is based on lectures regularly taught in the fourth and fifth years graduate courses in transport phenomena and chemical reactor modeling, and in a post graduate course in modern reactor m...

  13. µ-reactors for Heterogeneous Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Robert

    catalyst surface area by reacting off an adsorbed layer of oxygen with CO. This procedure can be performed at temperatures low enough that sintering of Pt nanoparticles is not an issue. Some results from the reactors are presented. In particular an unexpected oscillation phenomenon of CO-oxidation on Pt...... nanoparticles are presented in detail. The sensitivity of the reactors are currently being investigated with CO oxidation on Pt thin films as a test reaction, and the results so far are presented. We have at this point shown that we are able to reach full conversion with a catalyst area of 38 µm2 with a turn......This thesis is the summary of my work on the µ-reactor platform. The concept of µ-reactors is presented and some of the experimental challenges are outlined. The various experimental issues regarding the platform are discussed and the actual implementation of three generations of the setup...

  14. Corrosion Minimization for Research Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Gerard Hofman

    2005-06-01

    Existing university research reactors are being converted to use low-enriched uranium fue to eliminate the use of highly-enriched uranium. These conversions require increases in fuel loading that will result in the use of elements with more fuel plates, resulting in a net decrease in the water annulus between fuel plates. The proposed decrease in the water annulus raises questions about the requirements and stability of the surface hydroxide on the aluminum fuel cladding and the potential for runaway corrosion resulting in fuel over-temperature incidents. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), as regulator for these university reactors, must ensure that proposed fuel modifications will not result in any increased risk or hazard to the reactor operators or the public. This document reviews the characteristics and behavior of aluminum hydroxides, analyzes the drivers for fuel plate corrosion, reviews relevant historical incidents, and provides recommendations on fuel design, surface treatment, and reactor operational practices to avoid corrosion issues.

  15. Interactions of Pellet with Reactor Relevant Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGLilin; DENGBaiquan; YANJiancheng

    2003-01-01

    Extended algorithm has been developed for ablation rate calculations of Li, Be, B impurity pellets and five combinations of solid isotopic hydrogenic H2, HD, D2, DT, T2 pellets. Numerical calculations have been performed for reactor relevant plasma.

  16. Autonomous Control of Space Nuclear Reactors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Nuclear reactors to support future lunar and Mars robotic and manned missions impose new and innovative technological requirements for their control and protection...

  17. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frances M. Marshall; Jeff Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is a large test reactor for providing the capability for studying the effects of intense neutron and gamma radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water, high flux test reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material irradiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. This paper highlights the ATR NSUF research program and the associated educational initiatives.

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: SPOUTED BED REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Spouted Bed Reactor (SBR) technology utilizes the unique attributes of the "spouting " fluidization regime, which can provide heat transfer rates comparable to traditional fluid beds, while providing robust circulation of highly heterogeneous solids, concurrent with very agg...

  19. Molten salt reactors - safety options galore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gat, U. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Safety features and attributes of molten salt reactors (MSR) are described. The unique features of fluid fuel reactors of on-line continuous processing and the ability for so-called external cooling result in simple and safe designs with low excess reactivity, low fission product inventory, and small source term. These, in turn, make a criticality accident unlikely and reduce the severity of a loss of coolant to where they are no longer severe accidents. A melt down is not an accident for a reactor that uses molten fuel. The molten salts are stable, non-reactive and efficient heat transfer media that operate at high temperatures at low pressures and are highly compatible with selected structural materials. All these features reduce the accident plethora. Freeze valves can be used for added safety. An ultimate safe reactor (U.S.R) is described with safety features that are passive, inherent and non-tamperable (PINT).

  20. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor : Effect of Fuel Salt Flow on Reactor Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; MITACHI, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fue...

  1. Development of technology for next generation reactor - Development of next generation reactor in Korea -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kyun; Chang, Moon Heuy; Hwang, Yung Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The project, development of next generation reactor, aims overall related technology development and obtainment of related license in 2001. The development direction is to determine the reactor type and to build up the design concept in 1994. For development trend analysis of foreign next generation reactor, level-1 PSA, fuel cycle analysis and computer code development are performed on System 80+ and AP 600. Especially for design characteristics analysis and volume upgrade of AP 600, nuclear fuel and reactor core design analysis, coolant circuit design analysis, mechanical structure design analysis and safety analysis etc. are performed. (Author).

  2. A fast and flexible reactor physics model for simulating neutron spectra and depletion in fast reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recktenwald, Geoff; Deinert, Mark

    2010-03-01

    Determining the time dependent concentration of isotopes within a nuclear reactor core is central to the analysis of nuclear fuel cycles. We present a fast, flexible tool for determining the time dependent neutron spectrum within fast reactors. The code (VBUDS: visualization, burnup, depletion and spectra) uses a two region, multigroup collision probability model to simulate the energy dependent neutron flux and tracks the buildup and burnout of 24 actinides, as well as fission products. While originally developed for LWR simulations, the model is shown to produce fast reactor spectra that show high degree of fidelity to available fast reactor benchmarks.

  3. Developments and Tendencies in Fission Reactor Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, E. O.; Fuji-Ie, Y.

    This chapter describes, in two parts, new-generation nuclear energy systems that are required to be in harmony with nature and to make full use of nuclear resources. The issues of transmutation and containment of radioactive waste will also be addressed. After a short introduction to the first part, Sect. 58.1.2 will detail the requirements these systems must satisfy on the basic premise of peaceful use of nuclear energy. The expected designs themselves are described in Sect. 58.1.3. The subsequent sections discuss various types of advanced reactor systems. Section 58.1.4 deals with the light water reactor (LWR) whose performance is still expected to improve, which would extend its application in the future. The supercritical-water-cooled reactor (SCWR) will also be shortly discussed. Section 58.1.5 is mainly on the high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which offers efficient and multipurpose use of nuclear energy. The gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR) is also included. Section 58.1.6 focuses on the sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) as a promising concept for advanced nuclear reactors, which may help both to achieve expansion of energy sources and environmental protection thus contributing to the sustainable development of mankind. The molten-salt reactor (MSR) is shortly described in Sect. 58.1.7. The second part of the chapter deals with reactor systems of a new generation, which are now found at the research and development (R&D) stage and in the medium term of 20-30 years can shape up as reliable, economically efficient, and environmentally friendly energy sources. They are viewed as technologies of cardinal importance, capable of resolving the problems of fuel resources, minimizing the quantities of generated radioactive waste and the environmental impacts, and strengthening the regime of nonproliferation of the materials suitable for nuclear weapons production. Particular attention has been given to naturally safe fast reactors with a closed fuel cycle (CFC

  4. A comparison of radioactive waste from first generation fusion reactors and fast fission reactors with actinide recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1991-04-01

    Limitations of the fission fuel resources will presumably mandate the replacement of thermal fission reactors by fast fission reactors that operate on a self-sufficient closed fuel cycle. This replacement might take place within the next one hundred years, so the direct competitors of fusion reactors will be fission reactors of the latter rather than the former type. Also, fast fission reactors, in contrast to thermal fission reactors, have the potential for transmuting long-lived actinides into short-lived fission products. The associated reduction of the long-term activation of radioactive waste due to actinides makes the comparison of radioactive waste from fast fission reactors to that from fusion reactors more rewarding than the comparison of radioactive waste from thermal fission reactors to that from fusion reactors. Radioactive waste from an experimental and a commercial fast fission reactor and an experimental and a commercial fusion reactor has been characterized. The fast fission reactors chosen for this study were the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 and the Integral Fast Reactor. The fusion reactors chosen for this study were the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and a Reduced Activation Ferrite Helium Tokamak. The comparison of radioactive waste parameters shows that radioactive waste from the experimental fast fission reactor may be less hazardous than that from the experimental fusion reactor. Inclusion of the actinides would reverse this conclusion only in the long-term. Radioactive waste from the commercial fusion reactor may always be less hazardous than that from the commercial fast fission reactor, irrespective of the inclusion or exclusion of the actinides. The fusion waste would even be far less hazardous, if advanced structural materials, like silicon carbide or vanadium alloy, were employed.

  5. Environmental Information Document: L-reactor reactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. (comp.)

    1982-04-01

    Purpose of this Environmental Information Document is to provide background for assessing environmental impacts associated with the renovation, restartup, and operation of L Reactor at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). SRP is a major US Department of Energy installation for the production of nuclear materials for national defense. The purpose of the restart of L Reactor is to increase the production of nuclear weapons materials, such as plutonium and tritium, to meet projected needs in the nuclear weapons program.

  6. Oscillation Parameters with forthcoming Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Lasserre, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    I review the status of the forthcoming reactor neutrino experiments that toe the cutting edge of neutrino oscillation research. Kilometer baseline oscillation experiments (Double Chooz, Daya Bay, and Reno) will soon play a relevant role providing clean information on the last undetermined neutrino mixing angle !13. A 50-70 km baseline reactor neutrino experiment could later provide the best sensitivity to the !12 mixing angle.

  7. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  8. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  9. The Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On Aug.15, 201l, a new large-scale scientific facility in China, Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment, started to operate. It is located in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Guangdong Province, around 50kin to both Hong Kong and Shenzhen City. The main scientific goal is to precisely determine the neutrino mixing angle 013 by detecting neutrinos from the reactors at different distances.

  10. Design of an Organic Simplified Nuclear Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Koroush Shirvan; Eric Forrest

    2016-01-01

    Numerous advanced reactor concepts have been proposed to replace light water reactors ever since their establishment as the dominant technology for nuclear energy production. While most designs seek to improve cost competitiveness and safety, the implausibility of doing so with affordable materials or existing nuclear fuel infrastructure reduces the possibility of near-term deployment, especially in developing countries. The organic nuclear concept, first explored in the 1950s, offers an attr...

  11. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors, for example, such characteristics include rapid on-line refueling, and a core design with room for such a large number of assemblies or targets that it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors, such as hot cells, where plutonium could be separated, could pose a safeguards challenge because, in some cases, they are not declared (because they are not located in the facility or because nuclear materials are not foreseen to be processed inside) and may not be accessible to inspectors in States without an Additional Protocol in force.

  12. Current status of fast reactor physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, H.H.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of calculation of reactivity coefficients for fast reactors is developed, starting with a discussion of the status of relevant nuclear data and proceeding to the subjects of group cross section generation and of methods of obtaining reactivity coefficients from group cross sections. Reactivity coefficients measured in critical experiments are compared with calculated values. Dependence of reactivity coefficients on reactor design is discussed. Finally, results of the recent international comparison of calculated reactivity coefficients are presented.

  13. Automatic safety rod for reactors. [LMFBR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-03-23

    An automatic safety rod for a nuclear reactor containing neutron absorbing material and designed to be inserted into a reactor core after a loss-of-flow. Actuation is based upon either a sudden decrease in core pressure drop or the pressure drop decreases below a predetermined minimum value. The automatic control rod includes a pressure regulating device whereby a controlled decrease in operating pressure due to reduced coolant flow does not cause the rod to drop into the core.

  14. Monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2003-01-01

    control approaches that have been used are comprehensively described. These include simple and adaptive controllers, as well as more recent developments such as fuzzy controllers, knowledge-based controllers and controllers based on neural networks.......The current status in monitoring and control of anaerobic reactors is reviewed. The influence of reactor design and waste composition on the possible monitoring and control schemes is examined. After defining the overall control structure, and possible control objectives, the possible process...

  15. COUPLED FAST-THERMAL POWER BREEDER REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, R.

    1961-07-18

    A nuclear reactor having a region operating predominantly on fast neutrons and another region operating predominantly on slow neutrons is described. The fast region is a plutonium core and the slow region is a natural uranium blanket around the core. Both of these regions are free of moderator. A moderating reflector surrounds the uranium blanket. The moderating material and thickness of the reflector are selected so that fissions in the uranium blanket make a substantial contribution to the reactivity of the reactor.

  16. Short-baseline reactor neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, C. [Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The neutrino mixing angle {theta}13 is currently a high-priority topic in the field of neutrino physics, with three different reactor neutrino experiments under way, searching for neutrino oscillations induced by this angle. A description of the reactor experiments searching for a non-zero value of {theta}13 is given, together with a discussion of their sensitivity within the next few years.

  17. Reactor Simulator Integration and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfield, M. P.; Webster, K. L.; Pearson, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Nuclear Systems Office Fission Surface Power Technology Demonstration Unit (TDU) project, a reactor simulator (RxSim) test loop was designed and built to perform integrated testing of the TDU components. In particular, the objectives of RxSim testing were to verify the operation of the core simulator, the instrumentation and control system, and the ground support gas and vacuum test equipment. In addition, it was decided to include a thermal test of a cold trap purification design and a pump performance test at pump voltages up to 150 V because the targeted mass flow rate of 1.75 kg/s was not obtained in the RxSim at the originally constrained voltage of 120 V. This Technical Memorandum summarizes RxSim testing. The gas and vacuum ground support test equipment performed effectively in NaK fill, loop pressurization, and NaK drain operations. The instrumentation and control system effectively controlled loop temperature and flow rates or pump voltage to targeted settings. The cold trap design was able to obtain the targeted cold temperature of 480 K. An outlet temperature of 636 K was obtained, which was lower than the predicted 750 K but 156 K higher than the cold temperature, indicating the design provided some heat regeneration. The annular linear induction pump tested was able to produce a maximum flow rate of 1.53 kg/s at 800 K when operated at 150 V and 53 Hz.

  18. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic interfacing code modules for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Gold, M.; Sills, H. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    The approach for CANDU reactor safety analysis in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) is presented. Reflecting the unique characteristics of CANDU reactors, the procedure of coupling the thermal-hydraulics, reactor physics and fuel channel/element codes in the safety analysis is described. The experience generated in the Canadian nuclear industry may be useful to other types of reactors in the areas of reactor safety analysis.

  20. Development of computer simulator for coal liquefaction reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yawata, T.; Kobayashi, M.; Ohi, S.; Itho, H.; Hiraide, M. [Nippon Oil Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    The computer simulator for a coal liquefaction reactor is a useful engineering tool to analyse the data of such reactors. The authors applied this technique to a reactor in the NEDOL process to predict the performance of the reactor, and to assist in the design of a reactor for demonstration plant. The development program of the simulator and its utilization plan are discussed. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Optimally moderated nuclear fission reactor and fuel source therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Terry, William K.; Gougar, Hans D.

    2008-07-22

    An improved nuclear fission reactor of the continuous fueling type involves determining an asymptotic equilibrium state for the nuclear fission reactor and providing the reactor with a moderator-to-fuel ratio that is optimally moderated for the asymptotic equilibrium state of the nuclear fission reactor; the fuel-to-moderator ratio allowing the nuclear fission reactor to be substantially continuously operated in an optimally moderated state.

  2. Design options for a bunsen reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Robert Charles

    2013-10-01

    This work is being performed for Matt Channon Consulting as part of the Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA). Matt Channon Consulting has requested Sandia's assistance in the design of a chemical Bunsen reactor for the reaction of SO2, I2 and H2O to produce H2SO4 and HI with a SO2 feed rate to the reactor of 50 kg/hour. Based on this value, an assumed reactor efficiency of 33%, and kinetic data from the literature, a plug flow reactor approximately 1%E2%80%9D diameter and and 12 inches long would be needed to meet the specification of the project. Because the Bunsen reaction is exothermic, heat in the amount of approximately 128,000 kJ/hr would need to be removed using a cooling jacket placed around the tubular reactor. The available literature information on Bunsen reactor design and operation, certain support equipment needed for process operation and a design that meet the specification of Matt Channon Consulting are presented.

  3. Decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramenkovs Andris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In May 1995, the Latvian government decided to shut down the Salaspils Research Reactor and to dispense with nuclear energy in the future. The reactor has been out of operation since July 1998. A conceptual study on the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor was drawn up by Noell-KRC-Energie- und Umwelttechnik GmbH in 1998-1999. On October 26th, 1999, the Latvian government decided to start the direct dismantling to “green-field” in 2001. The upgrading of the decommissioning and dismantling plan was carried out from 2003-2004, resulting in a change of the primary goal of decommissioning. Collecting and conditioning of “historical” radioactive wastes from different storages outside and inside the reactor hall became the primary goal. All radioactive materials (more than 96 tons were conditioned for disposal in concrete containers at the radioactive wastes depository “Radons” at the Baldone site. Protective and radiation measurement equipment of the personnel was upgraded significantly. All non-radioactive equipment and materials outside the reactor buildings were released for clearance and dismantled for reuse or conventional disposal. Contaminated materials from the reactor hall were collected and removed for clearance measurements on a weekly basis.

  4. MOX in reactors: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Marc; Gros, Jean Pierre [AREVA NC - 33 rue La Fayette, 75009 Paris (France); Niquille, Aurelie; Marincic, Alexis [AREVA NP - Tour AREVA, 1 Place Jean Millier 92084 Paris La Defense (France)

    2010-07-01

    In Europe, MOX fuel has been supplied by AREVA for more than 30 years, to 36 reactors: 21 in France, 10 in Germany, 3 in Switzerland, 2 in Belgium. For the present and future, recycling is compulsory in the frame of sustainable development of nuclear energy. By 2030 the overall volume of used fuel will reach about 400 000 t worldwide. Their plutonium and uranium content represents a huge resource of energy to recycle. That is the reason why, the European Utilities issued an EUR (European Utilities Requirement) demanding new builds reactors to be able of using MOX Fuel Assemblies in up to 50 % of the core. AREVA GEN3+ reactors, like EPR{sup TM} or ATMEA{sup TM} designed with MHI partnership, are designed to answer any utility need of MOX recycling. The example of the EPR{sup TM} reactor operated with 100 % MOX core optimized for MOX recycling will be presented. A standard EPR{sup TM} can be operated with 100 % MOX core using an advanced homogeneous MOX (single Pu content) with highly improved performances (burn-up and Cycle length). The adaptations needed and the main operating and safety reactor features will be presented. AREVA offers the utilities throughout the world, fuel supply (UO{sub 2}, ERU, MOX), and reactors designed with all the needed capability for recycling. For each country and each utility, an adapted global solution, competitive and non proliferant can be proposed. (authors)

  5. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1994-09-16

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).

  6. Supply of enriched uranium for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Since the RERTR-meeting In Newport/USA in 1990 the author delivered a series of papers in connection with the fuel cycle for research reactors dealing with its front-end. In these papers the author underlined the need for unified specifications for enriched uranium metal suitable for the production of fuel elements and made proposals with regard to the re-use of in Europe reprocessed highly enriched uranium. With regard to the fuel cycle of research reactors the research reactor community was since 1989 more concentrating on the problems of its back-end since the USA stopped the acceptance of spent research reactor fuel on December 31, 1988. Now, since it is apparent that these back-end problem have been solved by AEA`s ability to reprocess and the preparedness of the USA to again accept physically spent research reactor fuel the author is focusing with this paper again on the front-end of the fuel cycle on the question whether there is at all a safe supply of low and high enriched uranium for research reactors in the future.

  7. A nanoliter-scale open chemical reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galas, Jean-Christophe; Haghiri-Gosnet, Anne-Marie; Estévez-Torres, André

    2013-02-01

    An open chemical reactor is a container that exchanges matter with the exterior. Well-mixed open chemical reactors, called continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR), have been instrumental for investigating the dynamics of out-of-equilibrium chemical processes, such as oscillations, bistability, and chaos. Here, we introduce a microfluidic CSTR, called μCSTR, that reduces reagent consumption by six orders of magnitude. It consists of an annular reactor with four inlets and one outlet fabricated in PDMS using multi-layer soft lithography. A monolithic peristaltic pump feeds fresh reagents into the reactor through the inlets. After each injection the content of the reactor is continuously mixed with a second peristaltic pump. The efficiency of the μCSTR is experimentally characterized using a bromate, sulfite, ferrocyanide pH oscillator. Simulations accounting for the digital injection process are in agreement with experimental results. The low consumption of the μCSTR will be advantageous for investigating out-of-equilibrium dynamics of chemical processes involving biomolecules. These studies have been scarce so far because a miniaturized version of a CSTR was not available.

  8. Uncertainty quantification approaches for advanced reactor analyses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, L. L.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-03-24

    The original approach to nuclear reactor design or safety analyses was to make very conservative modeling assumptions so as to ensure meeting the required safety margins. Traditional regulation, as established by the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission required conservatisms which have subsequently been shown to be excessive. The commission has therefore moved away from excessively conservative evaluations and has determined best-estimate calculations to be an acceptable alternative to conservative models, provided the best-estimate results are accompanied by an uncertainty evaluation which can demonstrate that, when a set of analysis cases which statistically account for uncertainties of all types are generated, there is a 95% probability that at least 95% of the cases meet the safety margins. To date, nearly all published work addressing uncertainty evaluations of nuclear power plant calculations has focused on light water reactors and on large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) analyses. However, there is nothing in the uncertainty evaluation methodologies that is limited to a specific type of reactor or to specific types of plant scenarios. These same methodologies can be equally well applied to analyses for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and to liquid metal reactors, and they can be applied to steady-state calculations, operational transients, or severe accident scenarios. This report reviews and compares both statistical and deterministic uncertainty evaluation approaches. Recommendations are given for selection of an uncertainty methodology and for considerations to be factored into the process of evaluating uncertainties for advanced reactor best-estimate analyses.

  9. Antineutrino reactor safeguards - a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Eric; Jaffke, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Antineutrinos have been proposed as a means of reactor safeguards for more than 30 years and there has been impressive experimental progress in neutrino detection. In this paper we conduct, for the first time, a case study of the application of antineutrino safeguards to a real-world scenario - the North Korean nuclear crisis in 1994. We derive detection limits to a partial or full core discharge in 1989 based on actual IAEA safeguards access and find that two independent methods would have yielded positive evidence for a second core with very high confidence. To generalize our results, we provide detailed estimates for the sensitivity to the plutonium content of various types of reactors, including most types of plutonium production reactors, based on detailed reactor simulations. A key finding of this study is that a wide class of reactors with a thermal power of less than 0.1-1 GWth can be safeguarded achieving IAEA goals for quantitative sensitivity and timeliness with detectors right outside the reactor ...

  10. FBR and RBR particle bed space reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Botts, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    Compact, high-performance nuclear reactor designs based on High-Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs) particulate fuel are investigated. The large surface area available with the small-diameter (approx. 500 microns) particulate fuel allows very high power densities (MW's/liter), small temperature differences between fuel and coolant (approx. 10/sup 0/K), high coolant-outlet temperatures (1500 to 3000/sup 0/K, depending on design), and fast reactor startup (approx. 2 to 3 seconds). Two reactor concepts are developed - the Fixed Bed Reactor (FBR), where the fuel particles are packed into a thin annular bed between two porous cylindrical drums, and the Rotating Bed Reactor (RBR), where the fuel particles are held inside a cold rotating (typically approx. 500 rpm) porous cylindrical drum. The FBR can operate steady-state in the closed-cycle He-cooled mode or in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode. The RBR will operate only in the open-cycle H/sub 2/-cooled mode.

  11. Technology, Safety and Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Reactors At Multiple-Reactor Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbrock, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Safety and cost information is developed for the conceptual decommissioning of large (1175-MWe) pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and large (1155-MWe) boiling water reactors {BWRs) at multiple-reactor stations. Three decommissioning alternatives are studied: DECON (immediate decontamination), SAFSTOR (safe storage followed by deferred decontamination), and ENTOMB (entombment). Safety and costs of decommissioning are estimated by determining the impact of probable features of multiple-reactor-station operation that are considered to be unavailable at a single-reactor station, and applying these estimated impacts to the decommissioning costs and radiation doses estimated in previous PWR and BWR decommissioning studies. The multiple-reactor-station features analyzed are: the use of interim onsite nuclear waste storage with later removal to an offsite nuclear waste disposal facility, the use of permanent onsite nuclear waste disposal, the dedication of the site to nuclear power generation, and the provision of centralized services. Five scenarios for decommissioning reactors at a multiple-reactor station are investigated. The number of reactors on a site is assumed to be either four or ten; nuclear waste disposal is varied between immediate offsite disposal, interim onsite storage, and immediate onsite disposal. It is assumed that the decommissioned reactors are not replaced in one scenario but are replaced in the other scenarios. Centralized service facilities are provided in two scenarios but are not provided in the other three. Decommissioning of a PWR or a BWR at a multiple-reactor station probably will be less costly and result in lower radiation doses than decommissioning an identical reactor at a single-reactor station. Regardless of whether the light water reactor being decommissioned is at a single- or multiple-reactor station: • the estimated occupational radiation dose for decommissioning an LWR is lowest for SAFSTOR and highest for DECON • the estimated

  12. Reactor performances and microbial communities of biogas reactors: effects of inoculum sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sheng; Liu, Yafeng; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a very complex process that is mediated by various microorganisms, and the understanding of the microbial community assembly and its corresponding function is critical in order to better control the anaerobic process. The present study investigated the effect of different inocula on the microbial community assembly in biogas reactors treating cellulose with various inocula, and three parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were also operated in order to reveal the reproducibility of both microbial communities and functions of the biogas reactors. The results showed that the biogas production, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and pH were different for the biogas reactors with different inocula, and different steady-state microbial community patterns were also obtained in different biogas reactors as reflected by Bray-Curtis similarity matrices and taxonomic classification. It indicated that inoculum played an important role in shaping the microbial communities of biogas reactor in the present study, and the microbial community assembly in biogas reactor did not follow the niche-based ecology theory. Furthermore, it was found that the microbial communities and reactor performances of parallel biogas reactors with the same inoculum were different, which could be explained by the neutral-based ecology theory and stochastic factors should played important roles in the microbial community assembly in the biogas reactors. The Bray-Curtis similarity matrices analysis suggested that inoculum affected more on the microbial community assembly compared to stochastic factors, since the samples with different inocula had lower similarity (10-20 %) compared to the samples from the parallel biogas reactors (30 %).

  13. Vanilla spice and investigation on areas of usageVanilya baharatı ve kullanım alanları üzerine bir araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Deveci

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are of rare plants growing thanks to geographial conditions. Spices which are rare and precious not only primarily provide different flavour and aroma to food and beverages but also commercially contribute to the economy of the country. The transformation of these plants into the spice is made throught traditional or contemporary methods. As a term association, spice generally evokes bitter, salty and refreshing feelings on people.  On the other hand, vanilla is also a spice that can be used in ice-cream, chocolate, dessert, pastry, and confectionery. Also, vanilla is utilized in sector such as medicine, cosmetic and parfume. The purpose of this study is to discuss the general characteristics of vanilla, the orchid plant family it belongs to, its tranformation process to be a spice, the contribution of vanilla type that can be produced in to the industry, the types of vanilla, its areas of usage, how vanilla is produced and differences between vanilla and vanilin.   Özet Birçok ülke, coğrafi şartların uygunluğu sayesinde nadir olarak yetişen bitkilere sahiptir. Az bulunan ve kıymetli olan baharatlar; öncelikle yiyeceklere ve içeceklere farklı tat ve koku sağlamakta, diğer bir yandan da ticari olarak ülke ekonomilerine katkı sağlamaktadır. Bu bitkilerin baharat haline dönüştürme süreçleri geleneksel veya modern şekilde yapılmaktadır. İnsanlar tarafından genel olarak baharat, kelime çağrışımı itibariyle; acı, tuzlu, ferahlatıcı vb. his uyandırmaktadır. Fakat vanilya dondurma, çikolata, tatlı, pasta ve şekerlemelerde kullanılan bir baharat olma özelliği taşımaktadır. Ayrıca vanilya ilaç, kozmetik, parfüm gibi endüstrilerde de kullanılmaktadır.  Bu çalışmada vanilya bitkisinin genel özelliklerine, ait olduğu orkide ailesine, kullanılabilir bir baharat olması için geçirdiği sürece, üretilebilen türün endüstriye olan katkısına, vanilyanın çeşitlerine, kullan

  14. A research about the effects of personality traits over tourism management department preferencesKişilik özelliklerinin turizm bölümleri tercihlerine etkileri üzerine bir araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Şengel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism industry maintains its rapid growing rate both in the world and Turkey in recent years. Since tourism industry is service-driven, human resource is considerably important. Therefore a great number of qualified labour force is needed and the importance of educational institutions that are aim to train labour force for tourism industry is increased. The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between the reason to prefer tourism department and personality traits of tourism students In this study, examining the relation between personality -the term that is related to human’s psychological and physiological structure- and department preference enhances its importance. Survey form technique has been used as data collecting tool. Obtained data was analysed by using SPSS and LISREL Soft wares. Regression analysis shows personality traits explains 32% of career opportunities, 17% of professional convenience and 28% sectoral attractiveness among the reason to prefer tourism department.   Özet Turizm endüstrisi son yıllarda hem dünya genelinde hem de Türkiye’de hızlı bir büyüme seyri göstermektedir. Turizm, hizmet ağırlıklı bir endüstri olması nedeni ile turizmde insan kaynağı oldukça önem taşımaktadır. Bu durum da çok sayıda yetişmiş elemana ihtiyacı ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bu nedenle turizm endüstrisine eleman yetiştirmeye yönelik eğitim veren kurumların da önemi son yıllarda artmıştır. Bu Araştırmada turizm eğitimi alan öğrencilerin turizm bölümünü tercih etme nedenleri ile kişilik özellikleri arasındaki ilişkinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Bu araştırmada insanın psikolojik veya fizyolojik yapısı ile ilgili bir kavram olan kişiliğin bölüm tercihi ile ilişkisinin incelenmesi araştırmayı literatür açısından önemli hale getirmektedir. Araştırmanın veri toplamasında anket tekniği tercih edilmiştir. Kolayda örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 285

  15. “Seramik Sanatı’nda Bir Tasarım İlkesi Olan Koram’ın İncelenmesi ve Kişisel Yorumlar”

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    “Seramik Sanatı’nda Bir Tasarım İlkesi Olan Koram’ın İncelenmesi ve Kişisel Yorumlar” konulu bu çalışmada, kademelenme, derecelenme sisteminde Görsel Hiyerarşi’ye karşılık gelen Koram’ın duyusal ve görsel etkileri genel anlamda değerlendirilmiştir. Koramın uygulanış biçimleri farklı sanat disiplinlerinden örneklerle incelenmiş ve bu incelemede seramik sanatında koram çeşitlerinin uygulanışıyla ilgili bilgiler sunulmuştur. Koram tanımı çerçevesinde modern seramik sanatı anlayışında, este...

  16. Cinema on Cinema: The Kinship between Cinema Paradiso and Zıkkımın Kökü, Karpuz Kabuğundan Gemiler Yapmak, Sinema Bir Mucizedir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Demiray

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of a comparative analysis of four films which fall under the category of “cinema on cinema”. These films are Cinema Paradiso (Giuseppe Tornatore, 1988, Italy, Zıkkımın Kökü (Memduh Ün, 1993, Turkey, Karpuz Kabuğundan Gemiler Yapmak/ Boats out of Watermelon Rinds ( Ahmet Uluçay, 2004, Turkey, Sinema Bir Mucizedir/ Cinema is a Miracle (Memduh Ün- Tunç Başaran, 2005, Turkey. It will be argued that these films have four main points of similarity. First, they are the instances of “cinema on cinema”; second, they are biographical films; third, their plots are constructed upon the rural lives of the past; fourth, they are about cinephilia.

  17. An ideological analysis of AKP, CHP and MHP's 2007 general election campaignAKP, CHP ve MHP’nin 2007 genel seçim kampanyalarına yönelik ideolojik bir analiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Köksal Şahin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The most colourful moments of the political elections are the campaign terms. During campaign periods political parties have many opportunities to present themselves and influence undecided voters and also have intensive efforts to satisfy their own voters. This study is about the ideological themes of the general elections in Turkey on 22 July 2007 which is a very important turning point in the Turkish politics. According to this, to the election posters and ads of three major parties that exceed the threshold has been made content analysis and the rally speeches of the chairman were subjected to discourse analysis. The major problem context of this study is the evaluations suggesting that political map of Turkey has been static rather than movable with the mentioned election which was processed in a deep political crisis atmosphere and that election is one of the breaking points of Turkish political life. The main questions, to which has been tried to find answer for in this study is during the critical election challenge which main issues the leaders were focused on and what the dominant ideological themes were on the electoral rallying. As a main result it can be said that all parties that exceed the threshold and enter the parliament used nationalist rhetoric and rituals. ÖzetSiyasal seçim süreçlerinin en renkli anları kampanya dönemleridir. Siyasal partiler seçmenlerle yakın temas kurdukları, kendilerini takdim için birçok imkân elde ettikleri kampanya dönemlerinde kararsızları etkilemek ve kendi seçmenlerini de tatmin etmek için yoğun bir çaba sarf ederler. Bu çalışma Türk siyasi hayatındaki önemli dönemeçlerden biri olarak kabul edilen 22 Temmuz 2007 “Genel Seçiminin” kampanya dönemindeki ideolojik temalara yöneliktir. Bu doğrultuda ülke seçim barajını aşan üç büyük partinin seçim afiş ve ilanları içerik analizine, genel başkanların miting konuşmaları da söylem analizine tabi tutulmu

  18. A research on the levels of conscious consumerism of the sport consumerSpor tüketicilerinin bilinçli tüketicilik düzeyleri üzerine bir araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ünal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine conscious consumerism levels of 370 sport consumers.Conscious Consumer scale, which adapted to Turkish by Halil İbrahim Sağlam works was used in the research. The reliability score was found as .74. In the research based on simple random sampling method, the number of persons in the population as (N=700, sample diameter was defined as (n = 370.As a result; it was determined that there is a positive relationship (medium level between conscious consumerism point, consumer responsibility point quality, consciousness point and budget-price point. A significant relationship (strong level was found between conscious consumerism point and quality consciousness point and budget-price analysis point. Also a positive significant relationship (weak level was found between conscious consumerism point, quality consciousness point and budget-price analysis point. It was determined that there is no statistical difference between male and female participants in terms of conscious consumerism, consumer responsibility consciousness, quality consciousness, and budget-price consciousness. ÖzetBu araştırma, 370 spor tüketicisinin, bilinçli tüketicilik düzeylerinin araştırılması amacıyla yapılmıştır.Araştırmada, Halil İbrahim Sağlam tarafından geçerlilik ve güvenirlik çalışması yapılan bilinçli tüketicilik ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Ölçeğin güvenirlik değeri (crombach alfa .74 olarak bulunmuştur. Basit rastgele örnekleme yöntemi uygulanarak yapılan çalışmada, kitledeki kişi sayısı (N=700 olarak alındığında, örneklem çapı (n = 370 olarak belirlenmiştir.Sonuç olarak; spor tüketicilerinin, bilinçli tüketicililik düzeyleri ile kalite bilinci ve bütçe-fiyat bilinçleri arasında orta düzeyli bir ilişki; bilinçli tüketicililik düzeyi ile tüketici sorumluluğu bilinci arasında kuvvetli bir ilişki olduğu; tüketici sorumluluğu bilinci ile kalite bilinci ve b

  19. An Application About the Relationship Between Whistleblowing and Ethical Climate Ahlaki Olmayan Davranışların Duyurulması (Whistleblowing ve Etik İklimi İlişkisi Üzerine Bir Uygulama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahra SAYGAN

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing can be defined as revealing non-ethical events or behaviors (likeproducing harmful foods even though marketing them as they are remedial in anorganization. Organizational Ethical Climate is the second concept used in this work. Itconsists of workers’ opinions about the ethical organizational culture of management. Inthis work the relationship between “whistleblowing” and “ethical climate” is searched.The questionnaire used to evaluate the relationship between whistleblowing and ethicalclimate are applied on 123 research assistants in public universities. In the applicationstudy it’s reached that there is not a significant relationship between whistleblowing andethical climate. Even though it’s found that there is not a significant relationship between“whistleblowing” and “ethical climate”; a small significant relationship is discoveredbetween “whistleblowing” and “benevolent ethical climate”.Ahlaki olmayan davranışların duyurulması (Whistleblowing, bir işletmedeki etikolmayan davranış ve olayların açığa çıkarılması olarak tanımlanabilir. Etik iklim iseçalışanların örgüt kültürünün etiksel boyutuyla ilgili gözlem ve görüşlerindenoluşmaktadır. Bu çalışma, ‘Ahlaki olmayan davranışların duyurulması’ ve ‘Etik iklim’arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin mevcut olup olmadığını araştırmaktadır. ‘Ahlaki olmayandavranışların duyurulması’ ve ‘Etik iklim’ arasındaki ilişkiyi ölçmek için kullanılan anketçalışması devlet üniversitelerindeki 123 araştırma görevlisi üzerinde uygulanmıştır.Uygulama çalışması neticesinde “Ahlaki olmayan davranışların duyurulması” ile “Etikİklim” arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin bulunmamasına rağmen; etik iklim boyutlarından biriolan “Yardımsever Etik İklim” ile “Ahlaki olmayan davranışların duyurulması” arasındaanlamlı bir ilişkinin mevcut olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.

  20. Firmaların uyguladığı pazarlama stratejilerinin ihracat performansları üzerindeki etkileri: Bursa ilindeki ihracat yapan tekstil firmaları üzerine bir araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    Bilgin, Hacer Nuray

    2012-01-01

    Globalleşmenin unsurlarından olan iletişim ve ulaşımdaki ilerleme ile toplumlar ürettikleri değerleri birbirleriyle iletişim kurarak ve her türlü ulaşım imkanlarını kullanarak küresel boyutta pazarlama olanaklarına kavuşmuşlardır. Bu durum, özellikle, yurtdışı piyasalara yatırım yapmak isteyen ülkelerin en çok tercih ettiği, en kolay yurtdışı pazarlara girilebilen bir yöntem olmuştur.'İşte, bu araştırma, özellikle gelişmekte olan ülkeleri cezbeden, onların ekonomilerini geliştiren, uluslarara...

  1. Otel İşletmelerinde Müşterilerin Hizmet Beklentileri ve Memnuniyet (Tatmin) Düzeylerinin Değerlendirilmesi: Antalya’da Bir Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    EMIR, Oktay

    2007-01-01

    Otel işletmelerinin ürün ve hizmetlerinin üretimi, pazarlaması, müşteriye sunumu ve sunumda müşterilerle birebir ilişki kurma zorunluluğu; otel işletmelerinin diğer işletmelere göre farklılıklarını yaratan, aynı zamanda da kendilerine has özgünlüğü ortaya koyan bir durumdur. Otel işletmelerinde hizmet sunumunun temel amacı müşterilerin hizmet beklentilerini karşılamak ve onların memnuniyetini sağlamaktır. Zaman satılan, üretildiği yerde tüketilen, üretimi ve tüketimi eş zamanlı olan otel i...

  2. Bir Mecmû’a Ekseninde Bazı Tespît ve Değerlendirmeler Some Determinations And Evaluations In The Context Of A Mecmû’a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timuçin AYKANAT

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mecmû’a (journal, that is an Arabic word, in Turkish means collecting and gathering together. Moving from that meaning, other works (such as risâle or other voluminous works that contains poetic, nonpoetic or poetic and nonpoetic together expressions that are related also called as mecmû’a. Mecmû’a’s are called differently according to their contents and forms. For instance, while a mecmû’a that contains hadiths is called as “mecmû’atü’l-ehâdis (journal of hadiths” or a mecmua about medicine is called as “mecmû’a-yı tıb (journal of medicine”; likewise a mecmû’a, that contains poems belonging to one or several poets, is called as “mecmû’a-yı eş’âr (journal of poets” Mecmû’as that gained a printed literary work appearance in the process, those mecmû’as that have a literary characteristic in the context of Classical Turkish Literature’s; basically, certain poetry forms (such as mecmû’a-yı gazeliyyât can be classified as: mecmû’as that contain several poets’ dewans (mecmû’atü’t-devâvîn, poems that have the characteristic of being an answer to each other (mecmû’atü’n-nezâ’ir, mecmû’as that named after its compiler (Such as Pervâne Bey Mecmû’ası from the approach of literature, Mecmû’as can offer many conveniences to the researcher as well as can drag him to many faults. For his reason, mecmû’as must be handled elaborately like almost any material. By this article, moving from the thought that determinations and evaluations made on texts present more healthy conclusions, some determinations and evaluations are made on the data from the journal of Millî Kütüphâne Yazmalar Katoloğu (National Library Handwriting Catolog 06 Hk 4041 archive number and Mecmû’a-yı Eş’âr (Journal of Poets name, registered to Şeyh Osmân Şemseddîn. Arapça bir sözcük olan mecmû’a; Türkçede toplamak, bir araya getirmek gibi anlamalarla kar

  3. Antik Yunan Dönemi Karşılaştırmalı Siyaset Biliminde Siyasal Sistem Sınıflandırmalarına Genel bir Bakış

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat YILMAZ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Siyaset Biliminin bir alt disiplini olarak karşılaştırmalı siyaset biliminin popülaritesi günümüzde gittikçe artmaktadır. Bu disiplin, farklı ülkelerin siyasal sistemleri hakkında detaylı bilgiler vermesinden dolayı fazlaca önemsenmektedir. Günümüzde ilginin giderek arttığı böyle bir alanın tarihsel geçmişi ise oldukça eski dönemlere dayanmaktadır. karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi alanında yapılan ilk siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Antik Yunan döneminde ortaya çıkmıştır. Bundan dolayı bu makalede, batı siyasal düşüncesi içerisinde yer alan Antik Yunan dönemindeki siyasal sistem sınıflandırmalarının bazı düşünürler bağlamında incelenmesi amaçlanmaktadır. Makalede, öncelikle temel kavramlar olan karşılaştırmalı siyaset bilimi ve siyasal sistem kavramlarına değinilmekte ve daha sonra Antik Yunan dönemi siyasal sistem sınıflandırmaları Heredotos, Platon ve Aristoteles örnekleri ile incelenmektedir.

  4. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  5. Strengthening IAEA Safeguards for Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, Bruce D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Anzelon, George A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Budlong-Sylvester, Kory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    During their December 10-11, 2013, workshop in Grenoble France, which focused on the history and future of safeguarding research reactors, the United States, France and the United Kingdom (UK) agreed to conduct a joint study exploring ways to strengthen the IAEA’s safeguards approach for declared research reactors. This decision was prompted by concerns about: 1) historical cases of non-compliance involving misuse (including the use of non-nuclear materials for production of neutron generators for weapons) and diversion that were discovered, in many cases, long after the violations took place and as part of broader pattern of undeclared activities in half a dozen countries; 2) the fact that, under the Safeguards Criteria, the IAEA inspects some reactors (e.g., those with power levels under 25 MWt) less than once per year; 3) the long-standing precedent of States using heavy water research reactors (HWRR) to produce plutonium for weapons programs; 4) the use of HEU fuel in some research reactors; and 5) various technical characteristics common to some types of research reactors that could provide an opportunity for potential proliferators to misuse the facility or divert material with low probability of detection by the IAEA. In some research reactors it is difficult to detect diversion or undeclared irradiation. In addition, infrastructure associated with research reactors could pose a safeguards challenge. To strengthen the effectiveness of safeguards at the State level, this paper advocates that the IAEA consider ways to focus additional attention and broaden its safeguards toolbox for research reactors. This increase in focus on the research reactors could begin with the recognition that the research reactor (of any size) could be a common path element on a large number of technically plausible pathways that must be considered when performing acquisition pathway analysis (APA) for developing a State Level Approach (SLA) and Annual Implementation Plan (AIP). To

  6. Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials: News for the Reactor Materials Crosscut, May 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science in Radiation and Dynamics Extremes

    2016-09-26

    In this newsletter for Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) Reactor Materials, pages 1-3 cover highlights from the DOE-NE (Nuclear Energy) programs, pages 4-6 cover determining the stress-strain response of ion-irradiated metallic materials via spherical nanoindentation, and pages 7-8 cover theoretical approaches to understanding long-term materials behavior in light water reactors.

  7. Power distribution control of CANDU reactors based on modal representation of reactor kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Lingzhi, E-mail: lxia4@uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Jiang, Jin, E-mail: jjiang@eng.uwo.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Luxat, John C., E-mail: luxatj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Linearization of the modal synthesis model of neutronic kinetic equations for CANDU reactors. • Validation of the linearized dynamic model through closed-loop simulations by using the reactor regulating system. • Design of a LQR state feedback controller for CANDU core power distribution control. • Comparison of the results of this new controller against those of the conventional reactor regulation system. - Abstract: Modal synthesis representation of a neutronic kinetic model for a CANDU reactor core has been utilized in the analysis and synthesis for reactor control systems. Among all the mode shapes, the fundamental mode of the power distribution, which also coincides with the desired reactor power distribution during operation, is used in the control system design. The nonlinear modal models are linearized around desired operating points. Based on the linearized model, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control approach is used to synthesize a state feedback controller. The performance of this controller has been evaluated by using the original nonlinear models under load-following conditions. It has been demonstrated that the proposed reactor control system can produce more uniform power distribution than the traditional reactor regulation systems (RRS); in particular, it is more effective in compensating the Xenon induced transients.

  8. Technological status of reactor coolant pumps in generation III+ pressurized nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, Bernhard; Bross, Stephan [KSB Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    KSB has been developing and producing pumps for thermal power plants for nearly 90 years. Consequently, KSB also started to develop and manufacture pumps for all kinds of nuclear power plants from the very beginning of the civil use of nuclear energy. This is especially true for reactor coolant pumps for pressurized water reactors. For the generation of advanced evolutionary reactors (Generation III+ reactors), KSB developed an advanced shaft seal system which is also able to fulfill the requirements of station blackout conditions. The tests in the KSB test rigs, which were successfully completed in December 2015, proved the full functionality of the new design. For generation III+ passive plant reactors KSB developed a new reactor coolant pump type called RUV, which is based on the experience of classic reactor coolant pumps and reactor internal pumps. It is a very compact, hermetically sealed vertical pump-motor unit with a wet winding motor. A full scale prototype successfully passed the 1st stage qualification test program in October 2015.

  9. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Grandy, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boroski, Andrew [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krajtl, Lubomir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Johnson, Terry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  10. Design guide for category II reactors light and heavy water cooled reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), in the ERDA Manual, requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification operation, maintainance, and decommissioning of DOW-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guide and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirements of Category II reactor structure, components, and systems.

  11. Design guide for Category III reactors: pool type reactors. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynda, W J; Lobner, P R; Powell, R W; Straker, E A

    1978-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) in the ERDA Manual requires that all DOE-owned reactors be sited, designed, constructed, modified, operated, maintained, and decommissioned in a manner that gives adequate consideration to health and safety factors. Specific guidance pertinent to the safety of DOE-owned reactors is found in Chapter 0540 of the ERDA Manual. The purpose of this Design Guide is to provide additional guidance to aid the DOE facility contractor in meeting the requirement that the siting, design, construction, modification, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of DOE-owned reactors be in accordance with generally uniform standards, guides, and codes which are comparable to those applied to similar reactors licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This Design Guide deals principally with the design and functional requirement of Category III reactor structures, components, and systems.

  12. Exploring new coolants for nuclear breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafuente, A., E-mail: anlafuente@etsii.upm.e [ETSII-UPM, c/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Piera, M. [ETSII:UNED, c/Juan del Rosal, 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Breeder reactors are considered a unique tool for fully exploiting natural nuclear resources. In current Light Water Reactors (LWR), only 0.5% of the primary energy contained in the nuclei removed from a mine is converted into useful heat. The rest remains in the depleted uranium or spent fuel. The need to improve resource-efficiency has stimulated interest in Fast-Reactor-based fuel cycles, which can exploit a much higher fraction of the energy content of mined uranium by burning U-238, mainly after conversion into Pu-239. Thorium fuel cycles also offer several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle. The coolant initially selected for most of the FBR programs launched in the 1960s was sodium, which is still considered the best candidate for these reactors. However, Na-cooled FBRs have a positive void reactivity coefficient. Among other factors, this fundamental drawback has resulted in the canceled deployment of these reactors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to explore new options for breeder coolants. In this paper, a proposal is presented for a new molten salt (F{sub 2}Be) coolant that could overcome the safety issues related to the positive void reactivity coefficient of molten metal coolants. Although it is a very innovative proposal that would require an extensive R and D program, this paper presents the very appealing properties of this salt when using a specific type of fuel that is similar to that of pebble bed reactors. The F{sub 2}Be concept was studied over a typical MOX composition and extended to a thorium-based cycle. The general analysis took into account the requirements for criticality (opening the option of hybrid subcritical systems); the requirements for breeding; and the safety requirement of having a negative coolant void reactivity coefficient. A design window was found in the definition of a F{sub 2}Be cooled reactor where the safety requirement was met, unlike for molten metal-cooled reactors, which always have positive void

  13. Thermohydraulics of reactors; Thermohydraulique des reacteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M

    2008-07-01

    This scientific and technical handbook about PWR reactors thermohydraulics is the result of many years of teaching in the framework of the CEA-INSTN's atomic engineering training courses, in engineering schools and during continuing training activities. Its main goal is to present in a rigorous and pedagogical way the basic knowledge necessary for the understanding and modeling of single phase and two-phase thermohydraulic phenomena encountered during the design and operation of nuclear reactors. In particular, heat transfers in two-phase flows are presented in a detailed way. Most chapters include some nuclear engineering examples of application of the studied concepts, and some exercises aiming at mastering these concepts. Each example or exercise is accompanied by its detailed solution. Content: - thermohydraulic characteristics of reactors; - design and thermal dimensioning of reactors; - thermal engineering of the fuel element; - two-phase flow configurations in ducts; - recalls about single-phase flow equations; - basic equations for two-phase flows; - modeling of two-phase flows inside ducts; - pressure drops in ducts; - boiling and vapor condensation heat transfers; - two-phase flow instabilities in ducts; - two-phase flow blocking; thermohydraulics of naval propulsion reactors.

  14. Thermionic reactors for space nuclear power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griaznov, Georgii M.; Zhabotinskii, Evgenii E.; Serbin, Victor I.; Zrodnikov, Anatolii V.; Pupko, Victor Ia.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Usov, V. A.; Nikolaev, Iu. V.

    Compact thermionic nuclear reactor systems with satisfactory mass performance are competitive with space nuclear power systems based on the organic Rankine and closed Brayton cycles. The mass characteristics of the thermionic space nuclear power system are better than that of the solar power system for power levels beyond about 10 kWe. Longlife thermionic fuel element requirements, including their optimal dimensions, and common requirements for the in-core thermionic reactor design are formulated. Thermal and fast in-core thermionic reactors are considered and the ranges of their sensible use are discussed. Some design features of the fast in-core thermionic reactors cores (power range to 1 MWe) including a choice of coolants are discussed. Mass and dimensional performance for thermionic nuclear power reactor system are assessed. It is concluded that thermionic space nuclear power systems are promising power supplies for spacecrafts and that a single basic type of thermionic fuel element may be used for power requirements ranging to several hundred kWe.

  15. Sodium Reactor Experiment decommissioning. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, J.W.; Conners, C.C.; Harris, J.M.; Marzec, J.M.; Ureda, B.F.

    1983-08-15

    The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE) located at the Rockwell International Field Laboratories northwest of Los Angeles was developed to demonstrate a sodium-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor for civilian use. The reactor reached full power in May 1958 and provided 37 GWh to the Southern California Edison Company grid before it was shut down in 1967. Decommissioning of the SRE began in 1974 with the objective of removing all significant radioactivity from the site and releasing the facility for unrestricted use. Planning documentation was prepared to describe in detail the equipment and techniques development and the decommissioning work scope. A plasma-arc manipulator was developed for remotely dissecting the highly radioactive reactor vessels. Other important developments included techniques for using explosives to cut reactor vessel internal piping, clamps, and brackets; decontaminating porous concrete surfaces; and disposing of massive equipment and structures. The documentation defined the decommissioning in an SRE dismantling plan, in activity requirements for elements of the decommissioning work scope, and in detailed procedures for each major task.

  16. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500/sup 0/C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370/sup 0/C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs.

  17. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, M B; Iza, J; Zandvoort, M; Lens, P N L

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. Experiments were carried out in three periods, where different organic loading rates (OLR) were applied to the reactors. The total trace metal concentration steadily decreased at a rate of 48 microg metal/g TS.d in the deprived reactor (down to 35% of their initial value). In contrast, trace metals accumulated in granules present in the control reactor. At the end of the experiment, the COD removal efficiencies were 99% and 77% for the control and deprived reactors, respectively, due to the lack of propionate conversion. Cobalt sorption experiments were carried out in order to study its speciation, and its effects on the speciation of other metals as well. A paper mill wastewater treating granular sludge was also included in the study as a comparison. Results obtained showed that the principal metal forms normally associated with any sludge are a function of each soluble metal concentration in the system, and the characteristics of the particular sludge.

  18. Control Rod Malfunction at the NRAD Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Maddock

    2010-05-01

    The neutron Radiography Reactor (NRAD) is a training, research, and isotope (TRIGA) reactor located at the INL. The reactor is normally shut down by the insertion of three control rods that drop into the core when power is removed from electromagnets. During a routine shutdown, indicator lights on the console showed that one of the control rods was not inserted. It was initially thought that the indicator lights were in error because of a limit switch that was out of adjustment. Through further testing, it was determined that the control rod did not drop when the scram switch was initially pressed. The control rod anomaly led to a six month shutdown of the reactor and an in depth investigation of the reactor protective system. The investigation looked into: scram switch operation, console modifications, and control rod drive mechanisms. A number of latent issues were discovered and corrected during the investigation. The cause of the control rod malfunction was found to be a buildup of corrosion in the control rod drive mechanism. The investigation resulted in modifications to equipment, changes to both operation and maintenance procedures, and additional training. No reoccurrences of the problem have been observed since corrective actions were implemented.

  19. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degra......In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg....../l was degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation, as it was observed that the position...... of the coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  20. Investigation of materials for fusion power reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaddane, A.; Slugeň, V.; Sojak, S.; Veterníková, J.; Petriska, M.; Bartošová, I.

    2014-06-01

    The possibility of application of nuclear-physical methods to observe radiation damage to structural materials of nuclear facilities is nowadays a very actual topic. The radiation damage to materials of advanced nuclear facilities, caused by extreme radiation stress, is a process, which significantly limits their operational life as well as their safety. In the centre of our interest is the study of the radiation degradation and activation of the metals and alloys for the new nuclear facilities (Generation IV fission reactors, fusion reactors ITER and DEMO). The observation of the microstructure changes in the reactor steels is based on experimental investigation using the method of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS). The experimental part of the work contains measurements focused on model reactor alloys and ODS steels. There were 12 model reactor steels and 3 ODS steels. We were investigating the influence of chemical composition on the production of defects in crystal lattice. With application of the LT 9 program, the spectra of specimen have been evaluated and the most convenient samples have been determined.

  1. Risk Management for Sodium Fast Reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Groth, Katrina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wheeler, Timothy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Accident management is an important component to maintaining risk at acceptable levels for all complex systems, such as nuclear power plants. With the introduction of self - correcting, or inherently safe, reactor designs the focus has shifted from management by operators to allowing the syste m's design to manage the accident. While inherently and passively safe designs are laudable, extreme boundary conditions can interfere with the design attributes which facilitate inherent safety , thus resulting in unanticipated and undesirable end states. This report examines an inherently safe and small sodium fast reactor experiencing a beyond design basis seismic event with the intend of exploring two issues : (1) can human intervention either improve or worsen the potential end states and (2) can a Bayes ian Network be constructed to infer the state of the reactor to inform (1). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author s would like to acknowledge the U.S. Department of E nergy's Office of Nuclear Energy for funding this research through Work Package SR - 14SN100303 under the Advanced Reactor Concepts program. The authors also acknowledge the PRA teams at A rgonne N ational L aborator y , O ak R idge N ational L aborator y , and I daho N ational L aborator y for their continue d contributions to the advanced reactor PRA mission area.

  2. Kinetics for a membrane reactor reducing perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Lokesh; Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra

    2007-02-01

    The major objectives of this work were to operate and construct an autohydrogenotrophic reactor and estimate perchlorate degradation kinetics. The results show that autohydrogenotrophic bacteria were cultured in the reactor and capable of removing 3.6 mg/d of perchlorate in the presence of excess hydrogen (99% removal). The reactor was successful in treating the average influent perchlorate concentration of 532 microg/L to the level of 3 microg/L. A first-order relationship was obtained between the concentration of active biomass in the reactor and the hydraulic retention time for the given amount of substrate. During the kinetic loading study, perchlorate removal ranged from 100 to 50%. The kinetic rate of perchlorate degradation observed in this study was 1.62 hr(-1). The significant degradation of perchlorate in these samples indicates the ubiquity of perchlorate-reducing organisms. Additionally, nitrate was simultaneously removed during water treatment (greater than 90% removal). Because of the excess levels of hydrogen, simultaneous removal of nitrate was not believed to significantly affect perchlorate removal. The area of concern was the lack of complete control over biological treatment. The growth of sulfate-reducing organisms in the reactor negatively affected perchlorate removal efficiency. There were no significant effects observed on the dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids concentration of the effluent, suggesting that the treatment did not produce a large amount of biomass washout.

  3. Preliminary hazards review overboring Hanford reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilson, R.; Carlson, P.A.

    1962-07-25

    The General Electric Company, as prime contractor to the AEC at Hanford, is proposing to modify the lattice characteristics of the 8 3/8-inch lattice reactors for the purposes of improving the conversion ratio of these reactors. The proposed overbore modification of the reactors would remove the existing aluminum process tubes, enlarge the diameters of the graphite channels by about one-half inch, insert smooth-bore Zircaloy-2 process tubes and refuel the reactor with larger size, self-supported fuel elements. The overbore fuel will remain the internally-and-externally-cooled cylindrical type, but the weight per foot will be about twice that of the present fuel element. The removal of the inlet and outlet piping connections which would be required in the overboring process will permit the replacement of the existing fittings with ones of improved design. Furthermore, new orifices and venturis which are compatible with the hydraulic characteristics of the overbore tube and fuel geometry and the pumping system will be installed. No basic changes are proposed in the pumping system though the reactor flaw rate may be increased 5--10 percent by changes in hydraulic characteristics depending on the water plant flow capacity.

  4. Yazmada Etkililik: Kalem ve Klavyeye Yönelik Bir Karşılaştırma Writing Effectiveness: A Comparison of Pen and Keyboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol DURAN

    2013-03-01

    ılma nedeni diğer değişkenlerdenziyade, yazma aracının yazma becerisine etkisini araştırmaktır.Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu, Uşak İlindeki, sosyo ekonomik düzeyiyüksek olan öğrencilerin eğitim gördüğü okullara devam eden ilköğretim5 (n=32 ve 8. sınıf (n=32 öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Öğrencilerindevam ettikleri sınıflar, bilgisayar kullanım düzeyleri ve yazma aracıdeğişkenlerinin, hem hikâye edici hem de bilgilendirici metin yazmabeceri düzeylerine ortak etkisinin anlamlı olmadığı sonucunaulaşılmıştır. Fakat bununla birlikte, öğrencilerin hikâye edici vebilgilendirici metin yazma beceri düzeyleri, öğrencilerin devam ettiklerisınıflara ve yazma aracına göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir şekildefarklılaşmaktadır. İlköğretim 8. sınıf öğrencilerinin hem hikâye edicihem de bilgilendirici metin yazma türünde ekrana yazma beceridüzeylerinin ilköğretim 5. sınıf öğrencilerine göre daha iyi olduğusöylenebilir. Ayrıca her iki yazı türünde, kalem ile kâğıt üzerineyazmanın, öğrencilerin beceri düzeyi gelişimine etkisinin klavye ileekran üzerine yazmaya göre daha etkili olduğu sonucuna varılabilir.

  5. Community radios as a sample of alternative media abstractBir alternatif medya örneği olarak topluluk radyoları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Kırık

    2017-01-01

    rgütleri, genel olarak “topluluk medyası” olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Ana akım medyaya alternatif oluşturan medya örgütlerinden birisi de topluluk radyolarıdır. Topluluk radyoları; bağışlar, hükümet yardımları ve yerel vergilerden gelirlerini sağlayan, belirli bir coğrafi bölgeye ya da dağınık gruplara seslenen radyolardır. Geleneksel radyolarda kendilerine yeterince yer verilmeyen toplulukların ihtiyaçları nedeniyle, dünyanın hemen her yerinde farklı zamanlarda, farklı şekillerde ortaya çıkan bu radyoların ortak noktası; “kar amacı gütmemesi,  sahipliliği, kontrolü ve yönetiminin topluluğa ait olması ve yayınlarında topluluğun da katılımına açık olmasıdır” denilebilir. Çoğulculuğa, düşünce özgürlüğüne, demokratikleşmeye, yayıncılık anlamında içerik çeşitliliğine, toplumsal olarak farklı baskı ve çıkar gruplarının temsiline yardımcı olması, diyalog ve şeffaflığa hizmet etmesi, hedeflediği topluluk tarafından denetlenebilir, katılımcı, gönüllülere açık alternatif yapılarının olması nedeniyle topluluk radyolarının, medyanın özgürleşmesine önemli katkılar sunduğu söylenebilir.

  6. Solution of heat removal from nuclear reactors by natural convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zitek Pavel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the basis for the solution of heat removal by natural convection from both conventional nuclear reactors and reactors with fuel flowing coolant (such as reactors with molten fluoride salts MSR.The possibility of intensification of heat removal through gas lift is focused on. It might be used in an MSR (Molten Salt Reactor for cleaning the salt mixture of degassed fission products and therefore eliminating problems with iodine pitting. Heat removal by natural convection and its intensification increases significantly the safety of nuclear reactors. Simultaneously the heat removal also solves problems with lifetime of pumps in the primary circuit of high-temperature reactors.

  7. Proliferation Resistant Nuclear Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L W; Moody, K J; Bradley, K S; Lorenzana, H E

    2011-02-18

    Global appetite for fission power is projected to grow dramatically this century, and for good reason. Despite considerable research to identify new sources of energy, fission remains the most plentiful and practical alternative to fossil fuels. The environmental challenges of fossil fuel have made the fission power option increasingly attractive, particularly as we are forced to rely on reserves in ecologically fragile or politically unstable corners of the globe. Caught between a globally eroding fossil fuel reserve as well as the uncertainty and considerable costs in the development of fusion power, most of the world will most likely come to rely on fission power for at least the remainder of the 21st century. Despite inevitable growth, fission power faces enduring challenges in sustainability and security. One of fission power's greatest hurdles to universal acceptance is the risk of potential misuse for nefarious purposes of fissionable byproducts in spent fuel, such as plutonium. With this issue in mind, we have discussed intrinsic concepts in this report that are motivated by the premise that the utility, desirability, and applicability of nuclear materials can be reduced. In a general sense, the intrinsic solutions aim to reduce or eliminate the quantity of existing weapons usable material; avoid production of new weapons-usable material through enrichment, breeding, extraction; or employ engineering solutions to make the fuel cycle less useful or more difficult for producing weapons-usable material. By their nature, these schemes require modifications to existing fuel cycles. As such, the concomitants of these modifications require engagement from the nuclear reactor and fuel-design community to fully assess their effects. Unfortunately, active pursuit of any scheme that could further complicate the spread of domestic nuclear power will probably be understandably unpopular. Nevertheless, the nonproliferation and counterterrorism issues are paramount

  8. Small Modular Reactors: Institutional Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Perkowski, Ph.D.

    2012-06-01

    ? Objectives include, among others, a description of the basic development status of “small modular reactors” (SMRs) focused primarily on domestic activity; investigation of the domestic market appeal of modular reactors from the viewpoints of both key energy sector customers and also key stakeholders in the financial community; and consideration of how to proceed further with a pro-active "core group" of stakeholders substantially interested in modular nuclear deployment in order to provide the basis to expedite design/construction activity and regulatory approval. ? Information gathering was via available resources, both published and personal communications with key individual stakeholders; published information is limited to that already in public domain (no confidentiality); viewpoints from interviews are incorporated within. Discussions at both government-hosted and private-hosted SMR meetings are reflected herein. INL itself maintains a neutral view on all issues described. Note: as per prior discussion between INL and CAP, individual and highly knowledgeable senior-level stakeholders provided the bulk of insights herein, and the results of those interviews are the main source of the observations of this report. ? Attachment A is the list of individual stakeholders consulted to date, including some who provided significant earlier assessments of SMR institutional feasibility. ? Attachments B, C, and D are included to provide substantial context on the international status of SMR development; they are not intended to be comprehensive and are individualized due to the separate nature of the source materials. Attachment E is a summary of the DOE requirements for winning teams regarding the current SMR solicitation. Attachment F deserves separate consideration due to the relative maturity of the SMART SMR program underway in Korea. Attachment G provides illustrative SMR design features and is intended for background. Attachment H is included for overview

  9. Reactor Dosimetry State of the Art 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorbraak, Wim; Debarberis, Luigi; D'Hondt, Pierre; Wagemans, Jan

    2009-08-01

    Oral session 1: Retrospective dosimetry. Retrospective dosimetry of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel at the 3rd unit of Dukovany NPP / M. Marek ... [et al.]. Retrospective dosimetry study at the RPV of NPP Greifswald unit 1 / J. Konheiser ... [et al.]. Test of prototype detector for retrospective neutron dosimetry of reactor internals and vessel / K. Hayashi ... [et al.]. Neutron doses to the concrete vessel and tendons of a magnox reactor using retrospective dosimetry / D. A. Allen ... [et al.]. A retrospective dosimetry feasibility study for Atucha I / J. Wagemans ... [et al.]. Retrospective reactor dosimetry with zirconium alloy samples in a PWR / L. R. Greenwood and J. P. Foster -- Oral session 2: Experimental techniques. Characterizing the Time-dependent components of reactor n/y environments / P. J. Griffin, S. M. Luker and A. J. Suo-Anttila. Measurements of the recoil-ion response of silicon carbide detectors to fast neutrons / F. H. Ruddy, J. G. Seidel and F. Franceschini. Measurement of the neutron spectrum of the HB-4 cold source at the high flux isotope reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory / J. L. Robertson and E. B. Iverson. Feasibility of cavity ring-down laser spectroscopy for dose rate monitoring on nuclear reactor / H. Tomita ... [et al.]. Measuring transistor damage factors in a non-stable defect environment / D. B. King ... [et al.]. Neutron-detection based monitoring of void effects in boiling water reactors / J. Loberg ... [et al.] -- Poster session 1: Power reactor surveillance, retrospective dosimetry, benchmarks and inter-comparisons, adjustment methods, experimental techniques, transport calculations. Improved diagnostics for analysis of a reactor pulse radiation environment / S. M. Luker ... [et al.]. Simulation of the response of silicon carbide fast neutron detectors / F. Franceschini, F. H. Ruddy and B. Petrović. NSV A-3: a computer code for least-squares adjustment of neutron spectra and measured dosimeter responses / J. G

  10. Thyristor Controlled Reactor for Power Factor Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mahapatra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Power factor improvement is the essence of any power sector for reliable operation. This paper provides Thyristor Controlled Reactor regulated by programmed microcontroller which aids in improving power factor and retaining it close to unity under various loading conditions. The implementation is done on 8051 microcontrollerwhich isprogrammed using Keil software. To determine time lag between current and voltage PSpice softwareis used and to display power factor according tothe variation in loadProteus software is used. Whenever a capacitive load is connected to the transmission linea shunt reactor is connected which injects lagging reactive VARs to the power system. As a result the power factor is improved. The results given in this paper provides suitable microcontroller based reactive power compensation and power factor improvement technique using a Thyristor Controlled Reactor module.

  11. Iodine chemistry in a reactor regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, D.A. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

    1996-12-01

    Radioactive iodine has always been an important consideration in the regulation of nuclear power reactors to assure the health and safety of the public. Regulators adopted conservatively bounding predictions of iodine behavior in the earliest days of the development of nuclear power because there was so little known about either accidents or the chemistry of iodine. Today there is a flood of new information and understanding of the chemistry of iodine under reactor accident conditions. This paper offers some thoughts on how the community of scientists engaged in the study of iodine chemistry can present the results of their work so that it is more immediately adopted by the regulator. It is suggested that the scientific community consider the concept of consensus standards so effectively used within the engineering community to define the status of the study of radioactive iodine chemistry for reactor safety. (author) 9 refs.

  12. Geoneutrinos and reactor antineutrinos at SNO+

    CERN Document Server

    Baldoncini, M; Wipperfurth, S A; Fiorentini, G; Mantovani, F; McDonough, W F; Ricci, B

    2016-01-01

    In the heart of the Creighton Mine near Sudbury (Canada), the SNO+ detector is foreseen to observe almost in equal proportion electron antineutrinos produced by U and Th in the Earth and by nuclear reactors. SNO+ will be the first long baseline experiment to measure a reactor signal dominated by CANDU cores ($\\sim$55\\% of the total reactor signal), which generally burn natural uranium. Approximately 18\\% of the total geoneutrino signal is generated by the U and Th present in the rocks of the Huronian Supergroup-Sudbury Basin: the 60\\% uncertainty on the signal produced by this lithologic unit plays a crucial role on the discrimination power on the mantle signal as well as on the geoneutrino spectral shape reconstruction, which can in principle provide a direct measurement of the Th/U ratio in the Earth.

  13. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  14. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  15. Wire core reactor for nuclear thermal propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Richard B.; Brengle, Robert G.

    1993-01-01

    Studies have been performed of a compact high-performance nuclear rocket reactor that incorporates a tungsten alloy wire fuel element. This reactor, termed the wire core reactor, can deliver a specific impulse of 1,000 s using an expander cycle and a nozzle expansion ratio of 500 to 1. The core is constructed of layers of 0.8-mm-dia fueled tungsten wires wound over alternate layers of spacer wires, which forms a rugged annular lattice. Hydrogen flow in the core is annular, flowing from inside to outside. In addition to the concepts compact size and good heat transfer, the core has excellent power-flow matching features and can resist vibration and thermal stresses during star-up and shutdown.

  16. Hydrogen release from reactor-irradiated beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepikov, A.Kh. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Tazhibaeva, I.L. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Shestakov, V.P. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Romanenko, O.G. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Chikhray, Y.V. [Kazakh State Univ., Alma-Ata (Kazakstan); Kenzhin, E.A. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Cherepnin, Yu.S. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation); Tikhomirov, L.N. [IAE NNC RK, Semipalatinsk-21 (Russian Federation)

    1996-10-01

    Experiments on gas release of reactor-irradiated beryllium samples were carried out and compared to control samples. The simultaneous influence of reactor irradiation and exposure to hydrogen results in more hydrogen retention in beryllium, than if beryllium is initially irradiated and then exposed to hydrogen. Appearance of low temperature peaks at 460 K and 540 K with 0.71 eV/atom and 0.84 eV/atom desorption activation energies, respectively, assessed in a frame of a second order desorption model, is mainly responsible for the increase in hydrogen content. These peaks can be attributed to chemical hydrogen bonds with surface oxide. The simultaneous influence of hydrogen and nuclear reactor irradiation at a temperature of 1150 K was assumed to increase significantly microcrack formation near the surface of beryllium samples, resulting in an increase in low temperature peak intensities. (orig.).

  17. New inlet nozzle assembly: C Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calkin, J.F.

    1960-10-19

    The use of self-supported fuel elements in ribless Zircaloy-2 tubes at C-Reactor requires some inlet nozzle modification to allow charging of the larger overall diameter fuel pieces. A new nozzle assembly has been developed (by Equipment Development Operation -- IPD) which will allow use of the new fuel pieces and at the same time increase the reliability of the header-to-tube piping and reduce pumping power losses. Flow test data were requested for the new assembly and the results of these tests are presented herein. This report also presents a comparison of the header to tube energy losses for the various reactor inlet nozzle assemblies which are currently used on the Hanford production reactors.

  18. Carbon-14 production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.

    1976-09-01

    Calculations based on existing composition data were performed to estimate the order of magnitude and the final location of /sup 14/C in fusion reactors. These calculations indicate that approximately 8 Ci/day, formed principally by /sup 14/N activation, will be produced in the UWMAK-II reference reactor (5,000 MWth). If Nb-1 percent Zr is used as the structural material instead of stainless steel 316 this quantity will be more than doubled. No information is available on the form of the /sup 14/C produced, but reduced forms such as carbides, hydrocarbons and perhaps CO may be produced. Most of the /sup 14/C may remain fixed in structural and other reactor materials until the material is reclaimed. Activation of air in the plasma chamber would be an immediate concern.

  19. Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gidaspow, D. [IIT Center, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this investigation is to convert a {open_quotes}learning gas-solid-liquid{close_quotes} fluidization model into a predictive design model. This model is capable of predicting local gas, liquid and solids hold-ups and the basic flow regimes: the uniform bubbling, the industrially practical churn-turbulent (bubble coalescence) and the slugging regimes. Current reactor models incorrectly assume that the gas and the particle hold-ups (volume fractions) are uniform in the reactor. They must be given in terms of empirical correlations determined under conditions that radically differ from reactor operation. In the proposed hydrodynamic approach these hold-ups are computed from separate phase momentum balances. Furthermore, the kinetic theory approach computes the high slurry viscosities from collisions of the catalyst particles. Thus particle rheology is not an input into the model.

  20. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.