WorldWideScience

Sample records for bipr-7a results comparison

  1. Full-scale VVER-1000 model for Monte Carlo calculation of core neutron characteristics. MCU-PD and BIPR-7A results comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of a Monte Carlo method for simulating of neutron transport in nuclear reactors has more than fifty years of history. Fast progress of computer power and development of more and more perfect algorithms, codes and nuclear data bases allow solving more challenging problems, including three-dimensional calculations of full-scale reactor cores. In a process of verification of MCU-PD code full-scale three-dimensional model of first unit of the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant has been developed. Some critical states were calculated using that model. Those are states at hot zero power level achieved during physical start-up. Power distribution in fuel assemblies throughout core and power distribution throughout fuel assembly height were calculated by MCU-PD and BIPR-7A codes. Concise description of full-scale model developed, annotation of algorithms and methods for the both codes and their results comparison between themselves and with experimental data are presented. (authors)

  2. Comparisons between the measured and calculated by KASKAD neutron-physics characteristics of the cores WWER-1000/320 at Kozloduy NPP during the fuel campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report shows comparisons of calculation results by code package KASKAD and experimental data for the last cycles of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 and Unit 6. The results are related to:-critical boric acid concentration during the cycles;-assemblies relative power distribution (restored and calculated fields) in the core at different moments of operation. The comparisons of relative power distribution in the assemblies are performed: 1)between the SVRK restored Kq's fields and BIPR-7A calculated ones and 2) using PIR-A code of KASKAD and SVRK measured data. The comparisons of the assemblies' relative power distribution show a sufficient agreement for Unit 5, cycle 14, but for Unit 6, cycle 13 there are many discrepancies between the calculated and restored by SVRK relative power coefficients by assemblies. When compared to PIR-A restored Kq's all absolute errors enter in BIPR-7A passport limits. There is not agreement between BIPR-7A passport limits for some groups of TVSA assemblies when compared the calculated to SVRK restored Kq's. The measured boric acid concentration differs by more than 0.40g/kg from the corresponding calculated one to the end of cycles. This leads to a longer actual fuel cycle than the predicted one by more than 3% as it is in BIPR-7A passport. (authors)

  3. Comparison of instability theory with simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a quantitative comparison between linear instability theory and simulation results for a third order charge fluctuation mode in a quadrupole - focused beam are summarized. The theory is found to provide a good account of the initial instability exhibited by the simulation computations

  4. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  5. ARN results in interlaboratory comparison exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) has been involved in several laboratory intercomparison programmes. The objective of participating in these exercises is to assure the quality of the determinations that the radiochemical laboratories of ARN carries out as part of its regulatory activity. Most of these determinations are related to its environmental monitoring program in the vicinity of nuclear and radioactive facilities existing in the country, in operation or not. Other determinations are related with effluent samples and monitoring activities performed inside the facilities. On the other hand, these intercomparisons are part of the requirements for the laboratories under ISO 17025. ARN laboratories are in process to obtain or maintain ISO 17025 accreditation as a priority objective. During the development of the intercomparisons, different samples have been tested in several matrices containing alpha, beta and gamma emitters. These exercises were organized by different laboratories as the IAEA, the EML and NIST from United States, the NPL and the NRPB from England, the BFS from Germany, and so on. The results were very satisfactory not only in direct measurements (gamma spectrometry) but also in those that require a previous intensive laboratory processing (alpha spectrometry and liquid scintillation), resulting in many cases better than the general average. This paper provides a summary of the results obtained in these exercises and the results are compared with the overall average of the participating laboratories. (author)

  6. The International Comparison Programme: 2005 results and supporting the programme

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Whitestone

    2008-01-01

    Explores improvements made in the latest round of the ICP initiative and UK Government support for it in AfricaThe results of the International Comparison Programme (ICP) were released by the World Bank in December 2007. The ICP is a global initiative to collect comparative price data and estimate relative price levels between countries. These figures allow international comparisons of real economic wealth to be made, and hence provide an essential tool for governments designing aid, trade an...

  7. Preliminary Results from SCEC Earthquake Simulator Comparison Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullis, T. E.; Barall, M.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Ward, S. N.; Heien, E.; Zielke, O.; Pollitz, F. F.; Dieterich, J. H.; Rundle, J. B.; Yikilmaz, M. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Kellogg, L. H.; Field, E. H.

    2010-12-01

    Earthquake simulators are computer programs that simulate long sequences of earthquakes. If such simulators could be shown to produce synthetic earthquake histories that are good approximations to actual earthquake histories they could be of great value in helping to anticipate the probabilities of future earthquakes and so could play an important role in helping to make public policy decisions. Consequently it is important to discover how realistic are the earthquake histories that result from these simulators. One way to do this is to compare their behavior with the limited knowledge we have from the instrumental, historic, and paleoseismic records of past earthquakes. Another, but slow process for large events, is to use them to make predictions about future earthquake occurrence and to evaluate how well the predictions match what occurs. A final approach is to compare the results of many varied earthquake simulators to determine the extent to which the results depend on the details of the approaches and assumptions made by each simulator. Five independently developed simulators, capable of running simulations on complicated geometries containing multiple faults, are in use by some of the authors of this abstract. Although similar in their overall purpose and design, these simulators differ from one another widely in their details in many important ways. They require as input for each fault element a value for the average slip rate as well as a value for friction parameters or stress reduction due to slip. They share the use of the boundary element method to compute stress transfer between elements. None use dynamic stress transfer by seismic waves. A notable difference is the assumption different simulators make about the constitutive properties of the faults. The earthquake simulator comparison project is designed to allow comparisons among the simulators and between the simulators and past earthquake history. The project uses sets of increasingly detailed

  8. Results from the International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Hall

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The International Halocarbons in Air Comparison Experiment (IHALACE was conducted to document relationships between calibration scales among various laboratories that measure atmospheric greenhouse and ozone depleting gases. Six stainless steel cylinders containing natural and modified natural air samples were circulated among 19 laboratories. Results from this experiment reveal relatively good agreement among commonly used calibration scales for a number of trace gases present in the unpolluted atmosphere at pmol mol−1 (parts per trillion levels, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs. Some scale relationships were found to be consistent with those derived from bi-lateral experiments or from analysis of atmospheric data, while others revealed discrepancies. The transfer of calibration scales among laboratories was found to be problematic in many cases, meaning that measurements tied to a common scale may not, in fact, be compatible. These results reveal substantial improvements in calibration over previous comparisons. However there is room for improvement in communication and coordination of calibration activities with respect to the measurement of halogenated and related trace gases.

  9. Automated Testing Infrastructure and Result Comparison for Geodynamics Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heien, E. M.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    The geodynamics community uses a wide variety of codes on a wide variety of both software and hardware platforms to simulate geophysical phenomenon. These codes are generally variants of finite difference or finite element calculations involving Stokes flow or wave propagation. A significant problem is that codes of even low complexity will return different results depending on the platform due to slight differences in hardware, software, compiler, and libraries. Furthermore, changes to the codes during development may affect solutions in unexpected ways such that previously validated results are altered. The Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) is funded by the NSF to enhance the capabilities of the geodynamics community through software development. CIG has recently done extensive work in setting up an automated testing and result validation system based on the BaTLab system developed at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. This system uses 16 variants of Linux and Mac platforms on both 32 and 64-bit processors to test several CIG codes, and has also recently been extended to support testing on the XSEDE TACC (Texas Advanced Computing Center) Stampede cluster. In this work we overview the system design and demonstrate how automated testing and validation occurs and results are reported. We also examine several results from the system from different codes and discuss how changes in compilers and libraries affect the results. Finally we detail some result comparison tools for different types of output (scalar fields, velocity fields, seismogram data), and discuss within what margins different results can be considered equivalent.

  10. Issues & comparison of images for excellent results by IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Sharma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different well-known features for image processing specially for the comparison of images are studied, compared and their correlation is analyzed. The features form the basis for the comparison process and performance of the comparison strategy is very much depending upon these features. The study of different features either it is local or global features, which can be used as a basis for an appropriate choice of features or Descriptors. In the past a systematic analysis of image retrieval systems or features was often difficult because different studies usually used different data sets and no common performance measures were established.

  11. Comparison of blade-strike modeling results with empirical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploskey, Gene R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, Thomas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-03-01

    This study is the initial stage of further investigation into the dynamics of injury to fish during passage through a turbine runner. As part of the study, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the probability of blade strike, and associated injury, as a function of fish length and turbine operating geometry at two adjacent turbines in Powerhouse 1 of Bonneville Dam. Units 5 and 6 had identical intakes, stay vanes, wicket gates, and draft tubes, but Unit 6 had a new runner and curved discharge ring to minimize gaps between the runner hub and blades and between the blade tips and discharge ring. We used a mathematical model to predict blade strike associated with two Kaplan turbines and compared results with empirical data from biological tests conducted in 1999 and 2000. Blade-strike models take into consideration the geometry of the turbine blades and discharges as well as fish length, orientation, and distribution along the runner. The first phase of this study included a sensitivity analysis to consider the effects of difference in geometry and operations between families of turbines on the strike probability response surface. The analysis revealed that the orientation of fish relative to the leading edge of a runner blade and the location that fish pass along the blade between the hub and blade tip are critical uncertainties in blade-strike models. Over a range of discharges, the average prediction of injury from blade strike was two to five times higher than average empirical estimates of visible injury from shear and mechanical devices. Empirical estimates of mortality may be better metrics for comparison to predicted injury rates than other injury measures for fish passing at mid-blade and blade-tip locations.

  12. Neutron calibration techniques for comparison of tokamak results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on 1--3 August 1989 reviewed the techniques, uncertainties, and experiences of neutron calibration on PLT, TFTR, JET, Tore Supra, JT-60, JIPPT-IIU, Alcator C-Mod, ATF, FT, ASDEX, Textor, and DIII-D. In the summary session, the workshop participants discussed possible consensus neutron calibration techniques appropriate to D-D plasmas in tokamaks. The application of such techniques would facilitate a more accurate comparison of neutron yields from different devices, and also allow new calibration techniques to relate their precision to a reference value. General agreement was reached on the suitability of two techniques: (1) a 252Cf source calibration of epithermal neutron detectors, and (2) threshold neutron activation of Ni foils placed vertically above or below the plasma. This paper will present details on detector positioning, neutron transport calculations, and interlab normalization needed to accomplish the standardized calibration using a Cf neutron source

  13. Project JADE. Comparison of repository systems. Executive summary of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KBS-3 has since 1984 been the reference method for disposal of spent fuel in Sweden. Several other methods like WP-Cave, Very Deep Holes and Very Long Holes have been evaluated and compared with KBS-3. Though the methods have been judged to have a high safety potential, KBS-3 has been shown to provide advantages in the combined judgement of 'long-term performance and safety', 'technology' and 'costs'. In the present study, different variants of the KBS-3 method have been analysed and compared with the reference concept KBS-3 V (V for vertical). The variants are: KBS-3 H (H for horizontal) and MLH (medium long holes) - with canisters in a horizontal position, single or in a row respectively. The comparison has been carried out separately for the interim items 'technology', 'long-term performance and safety' and 'costs' respectively. The outcome in each of these comparisons have finally been combined in a ranking. This ranking placed KBS-3 V in the top followed by MLH and KBS-3 H. Vertical deposition of a single canister in one deposition hole, KBS-3 V, is robust as gravity is used for lowering the canister and the bentonite into the deposition hole and since each canister has its own barrier in the near field, which reduces the risk for interference between canisters. The drawback for MLH is the uncertainty about the emplacement technique as well as the impact of weak rock and water leakage into a long deposition hole for several canisters. The advantage is that a smaller volume of rock has to be excavated. This is positive regarding the long-term performance and safety, environmental impact and costs. KBS-3 H does not have the same positive potential. The conclusion of the JADE study is that KBS-3 V should remain as reference concept, and that MLH should be studied further with the aim of clarifying the technical feasibility of emplacement and the means of handling water inflow. It is recommended that KBS-3 H with deposition of a single canister in each hole should

  14. EMECC campaign at TRILLO: results and comparison with French feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction of collective dose is an important objective for all nuclear plant operators. One of the support for studying the impact of design and operation parameters is the measurement campaigns of contamination in PWRs. EDF performs consequently gamma spectrometry measurements with CEA and his EMECC system, with more than 300 campaigns in EDF plants and also some campaigns in collaboration with other operators. Commissioned in 1988, the only unit of the nuclear power plant of TRILLO, located in Spain, is a 3-loop PWR of 1066 MWe designed by KWU-Siemens. TRILLO-1, equipped with alloy 800 tubed steam generators, is characterized by a low dosimetry. In order to compare the contamination level of TRILLO-1 to that of French PWRs, an EMECC campaign was performed within the framework of a contract between EDF and the CEA, and with the agreement of CNAT/TRILLO and the support of the CSN (Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear). This campaign took place during the refueling shutdown at the end of cycle 21 from 9 to 16 February 2009. A previous EMECC campaign was performed in 1992 during the refueling shutdown of cycle 4. At the first time, this paper will present the main conclusions of this EMECC campaign: deposited activities measured on legs walls and steam generator tubes walls; and, dose rates measurements. The evolution of the contamination since cycle 4 will be also analyzed. Furthermore, a comparison with the French unit St-LAURENT B1 will be achieved in order to better understand the origin of the differences (source term or outage management) and to improve good operational practices in the future. (author)

  15. A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Key, Brian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zerkle, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shevitz, Daniel [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

  16. Comparison of the results of the RESUME-95 exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research program (NKS), RESUME-95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying using Mobile equipment) took place in Finland in August 1995. Amongst the purposes of the exercise were: to test the ability of existing airborne, car-borne and in-situ instruments to map contaminated areas (in this case from Chernobyl) and; to establish the comparability of results obtained with different systems. Preliminary analysis has shown that major features of the spatial distribution of the contaminants were identified by all teams, but that significant variations in absolute figures were observed. In this paper, we describe some of the quantitative analysis undertaken to assess the comparability of the results and to explore any difference in them. We discuss future actions within a European framework of off-site emergency management to ensure comparability of results and to encourage development of standardisation techniques. Each participating team has already produced reports of their own results, and preliminary analysis has shown that major features of the spatial distribution of the contaminants were identified by all teams, but that variations in absolute figures were observed (some possible explanations for this include the calibrating procedures used and the assumptions concerning the vertical source distribution). In this paper, we describe some of the quantitative analysis undertaken to assess the comparability of the results and to explore any differences in them. In addition, from the experience gained from RESUME-95, we discuss future actions within a European framework of off-site emergency management to ensure comparability of results and to encourage standardisation techniques to be developed. (au)

  17. Comparison of the results of the RESUME-95 exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovgaard, J. [Beredskabsstyrelsen, Birkeroed (Denmark); Scott, M. [Univ. of Glasgow, Dept. of Statistics, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    Within the framework of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research program (NKS), RESUME-95 (Rapid Environmental Surveying using Mobile equipment) took place in Finland in August 1995. Amongst the purposes of the exercise were: to test the ability of existing airborne, car-borne and in-situ instruments to map contaminated areas (in this case from Chernobyl) and; to establish the comparability of results obtained with different systems. Preliminary analysis has shown that major features of the spatial distribution of the contaminants were identified by all teams, but that significant variations in absolute figures were observed. In this paper, we describe some of the quantitative analysis undertaken to assess the comparability of the results and to explore any difference in them. We discuss future actions within a European framework of off-site emergency management to ensure comparability of results and to encourage development of standardisation techniques. Each participating team has already produced reports of their own results, and preliminary analysis has shown that major features of the spatial distribution of the contaminants were identified by all teams, but that variations in absolute figures were observed (some possible explanations for this include the calibrating procedures used and the assumptions concerning the vertical source distribution). In this paper, we describe some of the quantitative analysis undertaken to assess the comparability of the results and to explore any differences in them. In addition, from the experience gained from RESUME-95, we discuss future actions within a European framework of off-site emergency management to ensure comparability of results and to encourage standardisation techniques to be developed. (au).

  18. Comparison of ATHENA/RELAP results against ice experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Moore-Richard, L

    2002-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the adequacy of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor design from a safety stand point as well as investigating the behavior of two-phase flow phenomena during an ingress of coolant event, an integrated ICE test facility was constructed in Japan. The data generated from the ICE facility offers a valuable means to validate computer codes such as ATHENA /RELAP5, which is one of the codes used at the Idaho National Engineering And Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to evaluate the safety of various fusion reactor concepts. In this paper we compared numerical results generated by the ATHENA code with corresponding test data from the ICE facility. Overall we found good agreement between the test data and the predicted results.

  19. Comparison between tensile, stiffness and fatigue life tests results

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da; Pais, Jorge C.; Pereira, Paulo A. A.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory mechanical test is being implemented in the University of Minho to evaluate the asphalt-aggregate interaction. This test measures the tensile properties of the bituminous mixture in the interface between the asphalt and the aggregates. By using the tensile test it is intended to observe how the asphalt-aggregate interaction influences the mechanical properties of the bituminous mixtures, namely, stiffness modulus and fatigue life. The tensile test results must have a good correla...

  20. Subharmonicity, comparison results, and temperature gaps in cylindrical domains

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the solutions of two Poisson PDE's in cylinders with Neumann boundary conditions, one with given initial data and one with data arranged decreasing in the $y-$direction. When the solutions are normalized to have zero mean, we show that the solution with symmetrized data is itself symmetrized and exhibits larger convex means. The main tools used are the $\\star-$function introduced by Baernstein and a new subharmonicity result. As a con...

  1. Comparison of methods for extrapolating breaking creep results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all the methods of extrapolation, the following have been selected: - parametric methods (Larson-Miller, Dorn, Manson-Haferd); - digital and parametric method (minimum commitment); - digital method (finite differences); - descriptive method (Givar). The Larson-Miller, Dorn and Manson-Haferd methods are commonly used for analyzing the breaking creep results of materials for which the master curves can be described simply. The other methods have been developed in order to analyze the breaking creep results of materials where the structural changes over time modify the creep behaviour. In each case the assessment of the parameters is achieved by the least squares method. These methods were compared with each other on two steels, namely: Z6 CND 17-12 (316) and Z4 CND 35-20 (800 alloy). The various analyses performed show that (a) the predictions made as from the different methods are in good agreement between each other when there is a sufficient number of experimental values and (b) the predictions of the breaking times in the case of the 800 alloy differ from one method to the next. This result is due to the limited sampling data and to the complex behaviour of this alloy, the properties of which change with ageing

  2. A comparison of results from dynamic-response field tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Susan M.; Thresher, Robert W.; Wright, Alan D.

    1988-11-01

    The dynamic response of Howden's 330-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) and the Northern Power Systems 100-kW North Wind 100 HAWT has been measured. The Howden machine incorporates a 26-m-diameter, upwind, three-bladed, wood/epoxy rotor that operates at 42 rpm and is a rigid-hub design. The North Wind 100 rotor has a diameter of 17.8 m, is upwind, two-bladed, and constructed of fiberglass, and has a teetered hub. The Northern Power turbine's blades are fully pitchable, while the Howden machine uses pitchable blade tips. This paper will present the results from each of these test programs in an effort to compare the dynamic response of each turbine. The analysis will focus on rotor bending loads in terms of both time domain and frequency response. The FLAP code will be used to explore sensitivity to teeter stiffness and natural frequency placement to provide a better understanding of the differences in behavior caused by configuration alone. The results are presented in the form of normalized azimuth-averaged plots of the deterministic loads, and spectral density plots of the stochastic responses. This presentation of the results will contrast major response differences due to design configurations.

  3. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-04-01

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments.

  4. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments

  5. Melt coolability modeling and comparison to MACE test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M.T.; Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    An important question in the assessment of severe accidents in light water nuclear reactors is the ability of water to quench a molten corium-concrete interaction and thereby terminate the accident progression. As part of the Melt Attack and Coolability Experiment (MACE) Program, phenomenological models of the corium quenching process are under development. The modeling approach considers both bulk cooldown and crust-limited heat transfer regimes, as well as criteria for the pool thermal hydraulic conditions which separate the two regimes. The model is then compared with results of the MACE experiments.

  6. Comparison of calculations with the results of reference experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative evaluations of four reference experimental tests on neutron and gamma transport in matter and the calculations carried out by different authors have been performed. In all the tasks considered there have been measured or calculated corresponding spatial and energy distributions of gamma-and ne--utron-flux. The reference tests and calculational techniques are described for the following tasks: gamma transport from a disk isotropic source in different media (the results are presented for water); fission neutron transport from a disk isotropic natural uranium source in steel shields of different thickness; fast reactor leakage neutron transport in a heterogeneous multilayer steel-graphite shield; neutron transport from a point isotropic source in the center of the sphere at the surfaces of iron spheres. A general conclusion is made that the inconsistency observed between calculated and experimental data exceeds the errors of the calculated data reported by the authors

  7. Comparison of radiological and pathological results in gestational trophoblastic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Izadi-Mood

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD is a heterogenous group of neoplastic lesions that is derived from placental trophoblastic epithelium. According to World Health Organization (WHO classification they include: Hydatidiform mole (complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Hydatidiform mole is the most common and the diagnosis is achieved by pre-evacuation ultrasonographic evaluation, laboratory tests and finally histological assessment as gold standard. Since these disorders show varying potential for local invasion and metastasis, the accurate diagnosis, follow up and recommendations given to patients may differ.Methods: Consecutive cases with diagnosis of GTD from archive of pathology department of women (Mirza Kochak Khan hospital were reviewed in whom results of clinical presentation and pre-evacuation ultrasound examination were documented. There were overall 220 cases for which the following clinical features were determined: gravidity, parity, history of previous abortion and gestational trophoblastic disease, the clinical symptoms such as vaginal bleeding and hypertension. Finally concordance between pre-evacuation ultrasonographic and histological diagnosis by kappa test is calculated.Results: Out of 220 cases with clinically gestational trophoblastic disease diagnosis, 197 cases were confirmed by histological diagnosis. The concluding histological diagnosis includes: 98 cases of complete mole (CM, 84 partial mole (PM, 4 invasive mole and 11 cases of choriocarcinoma. Outside 98 cases with histological diagnosis CM only in 4 cases misdiagnosed by ultrasonoghraphy (4.1% and high degree of concordance between ultrasonography and histological diagnosis is seen.Conclusion: Ultrasonographic examination accompanied with clinical examination, beside histological assessment as gold standard have high efficacy in diagnosing  complete mole. This study did not show this finding for

  8. Comparison of Treatment Results Between Adult and Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a bimodal age distribution. In contrast to the adult variant, little is known about the juvenile form. This study examined the treatment results between adult (aNPC) and juvenile NPC (jNPC) patients for future treatment considerations in jNPC. Methods and Materials: The jNPC population included 53 patients treated at two institutions between 1972 and 2004. The aNPC population included 84 patients treated at one institution. The patients had received a median dose of 66 Gy of external beam radiotherapy and 72% underwent chemotherapy. The mean follow-up for surviving patients was 12.6 years for jNPC and 6.6 years for aNPC. Results: The jNPC patients presented with more advance stages than did the aNPC patients (92% vs. 67% Stage III-IV, p = .006). However, jNPC patients had significantly better overall survival (OS) than did aNPC patients. The 5-year OS rate was 71% for jNPC and 58% for aNPC (p = .03). The jNPC group also demonstrated a trend for greater relapse-free survival than the aNPC group (5-year relapse-free survival rate, 69% vs. 49%; p = .056). The pattern of failure analysis revealed that the jNPC patients had greater locoregional control and freedom from metastasis but the differences were not statistically significant. Univariate analysis for OS revealed that age group, nodal classification, and chemotherapy use were significant prognostic factors. Age group remained significant for OS on multivariate analysis, after adjusting for N classification and treatment. Conclusion: Despite more advance stage at presentation, jNPC patients had better survival than did aNPC patients. Future treatment strategies should take into consideration the long-term complications in these young patients.

  9. "Comparison of ultrasound findings with cytologic results in Thyroid nodules "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Razmpa E

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The nodular thyroid diseas is one of the most common disturbances o the thyroid gland wheras malignant tumors are among the most unusual entities of it. Not only differentiation of these two spectra but also the problems to achieve early diagnosis and treatment, have been a matter of concern, research, and controversy. Two hundred patients were assessed at the Cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital as a retrospective research, considering the aim of evaluating and comparing the results of ultrasound and fine needle aspiration cytology with the postoperative histopathologic report. The ultrosound findings included location, number, size, feature, echogenicity, and presence of calcification; and those of the fine needle aspiration cytology consisted of benign, malignant, and suspicious samples. The cases mentioned as recurrent cancer or metastases of previous thyroid cancer were omitted from the study. In this research we found a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of 92.3% , 76.4% and 88.1%, respectively , for fine needle aspiration cytology and also showed that the sensitivity and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis of malignant lesions of solid nodules was more than in cystic or mixed nodules of thyroid. Moreover, the incidence of false negatives in malignant cases of the studied sample was 7.7% (11/43. This rate was very higher in mixed and cystic lesions compared to benign ones (20% versus 5.7%. According to ultrasound findings, we showed that micro-calcificantion had a significant higher frequency in malignant nodules in comparision with the benign ones (4% in benign lesions versus 35% in malignant ones. The rate of malignancy in solid lesions revealed a significant increment compared to cystic and mixed nodules (P<0.0001. Moreover, the potential for malignancy in nodules with low echogenicity was very higher than high echogenicity producting nodules.

  10. Comparison the results of numerical simulation and experimental results for Amirkabir plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the results of the numerical simulation for Amirkabir Mather-type Plasma Focus Facility (16 kV, 36μF and 115 nH) in several experiments with Argon as working gas at different working conditions (different discharge voltages and gas pressures) have been presented and compared with the experimental results. Two different models have been used for simulation: five-phase model of Lee and lumped parameter model of Gonzalez. It is seen that the results (optimum pressures and current signals) of the Lee model at different working conditions show better agreement than lumped parameter model with experimental values.

  11. Comparison of SPHC Hydrocode Results with Penetration Equations and Results of Other Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Steven W.; Stallworth, Roderick; Stellingwerf, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The SPHC hydrodynamic code was used to simulate impacts of spherical aluminum projectiles on a single-wall aluminum plate and on a generic Whipple shield. Simulations were carried out in two and three dimensions. Projectile speeds ranged from 2 kilometers per second to 10 kilometers per second for the single-wall runs, and from 3 kilometers per second to 40 kilometers per second for the Whipple shield runs. Spallation limit results of the single-wall simulations are compared with predictions from five standard penetration equations, and are shown to fall comfortably within the envelope of these analytical relations. Ballistic limit results of the Whipple shield simulations are compared with results from the AUTODYN-2D and PAM-SHOCK-3D codes presented in a paper at the Hypervelocity Impact Symposium 2000 and the Christiansen formulation of 2003.

  12. Comparison of vibration test results for Atucha II NPP and large scale concrete block models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the soil structure interaction of reactor building that could be constructed on a Quaternary soil, a comparison study of the soil structure interaction springs was performed between full scale vibration test results of Atucha II NPP and vibration test results of large scale concrete block models constructed on Quaternary soil. This comparison study provides a case data of soil structure interaction springs on Quaternary soil with different foundation size and stiffness. (author)

  13. COMPARISON BETWEEN ULTRASONOGRAPHY RESULTS AND RESULTS OF MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN SHOULDER PATHOLOGY – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmela Filipović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The common pathological condition of the shoulder joint is rotator cuff diseases. Patient, 68 years, had pain in the shoulder with limited joint mobility. After clinical examination, blood tests (SE >100 nmol/L, CSF normal, hypergamma- globulinemia and radiographic examination (bone dilution with deformities of the humeral head, a solitary plasmocytoma was suspected. This diagnosis was excluded after biopsy. Patient was referred to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the shoulder, so ultrasonographic (US examination was performed. Our case study points to comparability between US and MRI results regarding tendinitis of muscles in the rotator cuff. By applying both diagnostic methods, calcifications within muscle tendons were evident. Sonography is faster, cheaper, more accessible and readily available method that certainly is a valuable tool for clinicians when it comes to rotator cuff lesions.

  14. Comparison of Ice-Bank Actual Results Against Simulated Predicted Results in Carroll Refurbishment Project DKIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Donnelly

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the selection methods used in the design of an ice-bank thermal energy storage (TES application in the Carroll’s building in Dundalk IT. The complexities of the interaction between the on- site wind turbine, existing campus load and the refurbished building meant that traditional calculation methods and programmes could not be used and specialist software had to be developed during the design process. The research reviews this tool against the actual results obtained from the operation in the building for one college term of full time use. The paper also examines the operation of the system in order to produce recommendations for its potential modification to improve its efficiency and utilisation. Simulation software is evaluated and maximum import capacity is minimised. Significant budget constraints limited the level of control and metering that could be provided for the project, and this paper demonstrates some investigative processes that were used to overcome the limitations on data availability.

  15. Results of the REIMEP-17 and NUSIMEP-8 inter-laboratory comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    JAKOPIC Rozle; BUJAK RENATA; Aregbe, Yetunde; Richter, Stephan; BUDA RAZVAN; Zuleger, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Confidence in measurement results is established via reference materials, reference measurements and inter-laboratory comparisons. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC-JRC-IRMM) has a long time experience in the development of nuclear isotopic reference materials and in the organisation of inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs) in compliance with the respective international ISO guides. The Regular European Inter-labor...

  16. Sturmian comparison results for quasilinear elliptic equations in $R^n$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We obtain Sturmian comparison results for the nonnegative solutions to Dirichlet problems associated with $p$-Laplacian operators. From Picone-type identities [4,9], we obtain results comparing solutions of two types of equations. We also present results related to those operators using Picone-type identities.

  17. A study and implementation of algorithm for automatic ECT result comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automatic ECT Result Comparison Algorithm was developed and implemented with computer language to remove the human error in manual comparison with many data. The structures of two ECT Program (Eddy net and ECT IDS) that have unique file structure were analyzed to open file and upload data in PC memory. Comparison algorithm was defined graphically for easy PC programming language conversion. Automatic Result Program was programmed with C language that is suitable for future code management and has object oriented programming structure and fast development potential. Automatic Result Program has MS Excel file exporting function that is useful to use external S/W for additional analysis and intuitive result visualization function with color mapping in user friendly fashion that helps analyze efficiently

  18. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  19. Thorium in the workplace: Results from a European-based measurement comparison Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of comparisons were conducted to test the capabilities of a range of metrological techniques and analytical laboratories engaged in the assay of thorium in the workplace. The results of these exercises are presented together with the decision criteria used to determine whether results are significantly different from the true value. The discussion highlights those aspects which warrant closer and further attention. (author)

  20. Results of the EURAMET.RI(II)-K2.Ho-166m activity comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2013, five laboratories took part in the EURAMET.RI(II)-K2.Ho-166m comparison of activity concentration measurements of 166mHo. The activity measurements of this comparison are part of the joint research project 'Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management' of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). One aim of this project is a new determination of the 166mHo half-life.The results were found to be in good agreement and no outlier could be identified. A comparison reference value (CRV) has been calculated as the power-moderated mean (PMM) of all final laboratory results and was found to be 119.27(10) kBq g-1. Preliminary degrees of equivalence based on the Comparison Reference Value were also calculated for each reporting laboratory. The Key Comparison Reference Value and final degrees of equivalence will be calculated by the BIPM from the data contained herein and data from measurements made in the International Reference System (SIR). (authors)

  1. Results of first RER/8010 comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To be entitled to organize proficiency testing (PT) or interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) the organizer must demonstrate implementation of quality system according to at least one of the standards: (1) ISO/IEC 9001; (2) ISO/IEC 17025; (3) ISO/IEC Guide 43-1; (4) ISO/Guide 34. Taking it into account Laboratory for Measurements of Technological Doses operated in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology was chosen by the IAEA as organizer of the first comparison in technological gamma ray dosimetry. Lecture presents details and some results of the ILC

  2. Results of the EURAMET.RI(II)-S7.Sm-151 supplementary comparison (EURAMET Project 1292)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international comparison of the activity standardisation of the relatively long-lived gamma-ray emitter 151Sm has been recently completed. A total of six laboratories measured a solution prepared by CEA/LNHB and CEA/LANIE. Aliquots of the master solution were standardized in terms of activity per mass unit by participant laboratories using 2 different techniques. The results of the comparison can be used as the basis for establishing equivalence among the laboratories. The activity measurements of this comparison are part of the joint research project 'Metrology for Radioactive Waste Management' of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). One aim of this project is a new determination of the 151Sm half-life. (authors)

  3. Elastic and plastic buckling of shells. The CEASEMT system. Available results. Comparison with tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific routines for the analysis of elastic and elastic-plastic buckling have been written in the CEASEMT system of analysis by the finite element method. The basis of formulation are reviewed with emphasis on important points like: the correct and comprehensive formulation of the second order terms, the nonconservative loads. Some computational results are given and a comparison is made with experimental results (Euler type buckling of a long tube, elastic-plastic buckling of torispherical ends)

  4. MAAP thermal-hydraulic qualification results of MAAP comparisons to semiscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semiscale Experimental facility was a small scale representation of a Westinghouse 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant. A 1:1705 volume scale was utilized, but the 1:1 elevation scaling maintained most first-order effects. Several different small-break scenarios were investigated with the facility including cold leg, hot leg, stuck pressurizer power operated relief valve (PORV), and steam generator tube rupture sequences. The current set of comparisons to MAAP were limited to the MOD-2B and Mod-2C configuration experiments since they were noted as being the best-documented. This minimized the boundary condition uncertainties in performing the comparisons. A complete list of the MAAP-Semiscale comparisons along with a brief description of each experiment is presented. In general, the MAAP results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The differences can be explained by uncertainties in the experimental boundary conditions or by simplifications in the MAAP models (i.e., no local pressure differentials are calculated which would allow level differences or pump suction loop clearing to be calculated). However, despite these simplifications, the proper trends and behavior were exhibited for all nine comparisons

  5. Rate of Pyrite Bioleaching by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans: Results of an Interlaboratory Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Gregory J.

    1991-01-01

    Ten laboratories participated in an interlaboratory comparison of determination of bioleaching rates of a pyrite reference material. A standardized procedure and a single strain of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were used in this study. The mean rate of bioleaching of the pyrite reference material was 12.4 mg of Fe per liter per h, with a coefficient of variation (percent relative standard deviation) of 32% as determined by eight laboratories. These results show the precision among laboratories of...

  6. Bose-Einstein correlation of positive kaon pairs in E859--Extended results and model comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cianciolo, V. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Results are presented for multidimensional Bose-Einstein Correlation analyses of {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +} mid-rapidity pairs collected by BNL-AGS experiment E859 in 14.6 A{center_dot}GeV/c Si + Au central collisions. Comparisons are made to the cascade codes ARC (v. 1.9.5) and RQMD (v. 1.08). 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Comparison of the 1981 INEL dispersion data with results from a number of different models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewellen, W S; Sykes, R I; Parker, S F

    1985-05-01

    The results from simulations by 12 different dispersion models are compared with observations from an extensive field experiment conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in July, 1981. Comparisons were made on the bases of hourly SF/sub 6/ samples taken at the surface, out to approximately 10 km from the 46 m release tower, both during and following 7 different 8-hour releases. Comparisons are also made for total integrated doses collected out to approximately 40 km. Three classes of models are used. Within the limited range appropriate for Class A models this data comparison shows that neither the puff models or the transport and diffusion models agree with the data any better than the simple Gaussian plume models. The puff and transport and diffusion models do show a slight edge in performance in comparison with the total dose over the extended range approximate for class B models. The best model results for the hourly samples show approximately 40% calculated within a factor of two when a 15/sup 0/ uncertainty in plume position is permitted and it is assumed that higher data samples may occur at stations between the actual sample sites. This is increased to 60% for the 12 hour integrated dose and 70% for the total integrated dose when the same performance measure is used. None of the models reproduce the observed patchy dose patterns. This patchiness is consistent with the discussion of the inherent uncertainty associated with time averaged plume observations contained in our companion reports on the scientific critique of available models.

  8. Comparison of Computational Results with a Low-g, Nitrogen Slosh and Boiling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark; Moder, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The proposed paper will compare a fluid/thermal simulation, in FLUENT, with a low-g, nitrogen slosh experiment. The French Space Agency, CNES, performed cryogenic nitrogen experiments in several zero gravity aircraft campaigns. The computational results have been compared with high-speed photographic data, pressure data, and temperature data from sensors on the axis of the cylindrically shaped tank. The comparison between these experimental and computational results is generally favorable: the initial temperature stratification is in good agreement, and the two-phase fluid motion is qualitatively captured.

  9. French fission products experiments performed in Cadarache and Valduc. Results comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofunded by Cogema, two complementary experimental programmes on burn up credit (BUC) related to fission products (FPs) are performed by CEA and IRSN at Cadarache and Valduc. After shortly recalling the main characteristics of each experiment, a first comparison of some results is presented, especially the energy range in which most part of cross section absorption are qualified. Both experiments exhibit great quality and accurate results, giving a high degree of confidence to the whole experimental French process of qualification devoted to BUC. (author)

  10. BIPM direct on-site Josephson voltage standard comparisons: 20 years of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of the Josephson effect has for the first time given national metrology institutes (NMIs) the possibility of maintaining voltage references which are stable in time. In addition, the introduction in 1990 of a conventional value for the Josephson constant, KJ-90, has greatly improved world-wide consistency among representations of the volt. For 20 years, the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has conducted an ongoing, direct, on-site key comparison of Josephson voltage standards among NMIs under the denominations BIPM.EM-K10.a (1 V) and BIPM.EM-K10.b (10 V) in the framework of the mutual recognition arrangement (CIPM MRA). The results of 41 comparisons illustrate the consistency among primary voltage standards and have demonstrated that a relative total uncertainty of a few parts in 1010 is achievable if a few precautions are taken with regard to the measurement set-up. Of particular importance are the grounding, efficient filters and high insulation resistance of the measurement leads, and clean microwave distribution along the propagation line to the Josephson array. This paper reviews the comparison scheme and technical issues that need to be taken into account to achieve a relative uncertainty at the level of a few parts in 1010 or even a few parts in 1011 in the best cases. (paper)

  11. Results of two Albedo systems in a Brazilian neutron individual monitoring comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everton R.; Martins, Marcelo M.; Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Freitas, Bruno M., E-mail: everton@ird.gov.br, E-mail: marcelo@ird.gov.br, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: brunofreitas@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Dosimetria

    2013-07-01

    In 2012, the Brazilian National Metrology Laboratory sponsored the First Brazilian National Comparison of Measurements with Neutron Individual Monitors. The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry IRD/CNEN-RJ participated in it with its two albedo systems: one-component and two-component albedo monitors. The one component is composed by two capsules in a belt and each capsule has a pair of TLD for albedo neutron detection. The two-component consists of one capsule in a belt with two pairs of TLD: one pair for the measurement of the incident neutrons and the other for albedo neutrons. This paper presents the results of both systems in that comparison. The irradiation of the monitors was performed in four different values of H{sub p}(10,0 deg) in a traceable {sup 241}Am-Be ISO standard reference neutron field. For both systems, it was observed that the evaluated dose values are very close to the reference dose values which each monitor has been undergone. Considering the mean values, the two-component albedo monitor has performance a little bit better than the one-component one but the results of both systems are statistically equal. For both systems, the responses are close to 1 and inside the trumpet curves. Thus, the results of two systems confirm their good accuracy and reproducibility in the tested neutron field and indicate that are able to evaluate the occupational neutron doses. This work confirms the importance of the inter-laboratory comparison programs to verification of the reliability of individual monitoring systems. (author)

  12. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation: Phase II Results of a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.

    2013-11-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. The Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration (OC3), which operated under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 23, was established to verify the accuracy of these simulation tools [1]. This work was then extended under the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project under IEA Wind Task 30 [2]. Both of these projects sought to verify the accuracy of offshore wind turbine dynamics simulation tools (or codes) through code-to-code comparison of simulated responses of various offshore structures. This paper describes the latest findings from Phase II of the OC4 project, which involved the analysis of a 5-MW turbine supported by a floating semisubmersible. Twenty-two different organizations from 11 different countries submitted results using 24 different simulation tools. The variety of organizations contributing to the project brought together expertise from both the offshore structure and wind energy communities. Twenty-one different load cases were examined, encompassing varying levels of model complexity and a variety of metocean conditions. Differences in the results demonstrate the importance and accuracy of the various modeling approaches used. Significant findings include the importance of mooring dynamics to the mooring loads, the role nonlinear hydrodynamic terms play in calculating drift forces for the platform motions, and the difference between global (at the platform level) and local (at the member level) modeling of viscous drag. The results from this project will help guide development and improvement efforts for these tools to ensure that they are providing the accurate information needed to support the design and

  13. Results of two Albedo systems in a Brazilian neutron individual monitoring comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2012, the Brazilian National Metrology Laboratory sponsored the First Brazilian National Comparison of Measurements with Neutron Individual Monitors. The Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Laboratory of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry IRD/CNEN-RJ participated in it with its two albedo systems: one-component and two-component albedo monitors. The one component is composed by two capsules in a belt and each capsule has a pair of TLD for albedo neutron detection. The two-component consists of one capsule in a belt with two pairs of TLD: one pair for the measurement of the incident neutrons and the other for albedo neutrons. This paper presents the results of both systems in that comparison. The irradiation of the monitors was performed in four different values of Hp(10,0 deg) in a traceable 241Am-Be ISO standard reference neutron field. For both systems, it was observed that the evaluated dose values are very close to the reference dose values which each monitor has been undergone. Considering the mean values, the two-component albedo monitor has performance a little bit better than the one-component one but the results of both systems are statistically equal. For both systems, the responses are close to 1 and inside the trumpet curves. Thus, the results of two systems confirm their good accuracy and reproducibility in the tested neutron field and indicate that are able to evaluate the occupational neutron doses. This work confirms the importance of the inter-laboratory comparison programs to verification of the reliability of individual monitoring systems. (author)

  14. Vertical Instability in EAST: Comparison of Model Predictions with Experimental Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Jinping; WAN Baonian; SHEN Biao; XIAO Bingjia; SUN Youwen; SHI Yuejiang; LIN Shiyao; LI Jiangang; GONG Xianzu

    2008-01-01

    Growth rates of the axisymmetric mode in elongated plasmas in the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) are measured with zero feedback gains and then compared with numerically calculated growth rates for the reconstructed shapes. The comparison is made after loss of vertical position control. The open-loop growth rates were scanned with the number of vessel eigenmodes, which up to 20 is enough to make the growth rates settled. The agreement between the growth rates measured experimentally and the growth rates determined numerically is good. The results show that a linear RZIP model is essentially good enough for the vertical position feedback control.

  15. Experimental study of tilting-pad journal bearings - Comparison with theoretical thermoelastohydrodynamic results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillon, Michel; Bligoud, Jean-Claude; Frene, Jean

    1992-07-01

    Operating characteristics of four-shoe tilting-pad journal bearings of 100 mm diameter and 70 mm length are determined on an experimental device. The load, between pad configuration, varies from 0 to 10,000 N and the rotational speed is up to 4000 rpm. Forty thermocouples are used in order to measure bearing element temperatures (babbitt, shaft, housing and oil baths). The influence of operating conditions and preload ratio on bearing performances are studied. Comparison between theoretical and experimental results is presented. The theoretical model is also performed on a large tilting-pad journal bearing which was investigated experimentally by other authors.

  16. Results of a large scale neutron spectrometry and dosimetry comparison exercise at the Cadarache moderator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eurados Working Group 7 recently organised a large-scale comparison of neutron spectrometry and dosimetry measurements at the IPSN/SDOS laboratory of the CEA Cadarache Research Centre in France. A large number of participants took part with a range of instruments including spectrometers, tissue-equivalent proportional counters, personal dosemeters, and survey instruments. The neutron field used for the exercise was a primarily low energy neutron spectrum similar to those which have been measured recently around nuclear facilities. This paper presents the results of the measurements and attempts to draw conclusions about the accuracy attainable with the various devices, their advantages and drawbacks, and potential problems. (author)

  17. Comparison of aerosol behavior codes with experimental results from a sodium fire in a containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The containment expert group (CONT), a subgroup of the CEC fast reactor Safety Working Group (SWG), has carried out several studies on the behavior of sodium aerosols which might form in a severe fast reactor accident during which primary sodium leaks into the secondary containment. These studies comprise an intercalibration of measurement devices used to determine the aerosol particle size spectrum, and the analysis and comparison of codes applied to the determination of aerosol behavior in a reactor containment. The paper outlines the results of measurements of typical data made for aerosols produced in a sodium fire and their comparison with results from different codes (PARDISEKO, AEROSIM, CONTAIN, AEROSOLS/B2). The sodium fire experiment took place at CEN-Cadarache (France) in a 400 m3 vessel. The fire lasted 90 minutes and the aerosol measurements were made over 10 hours at different locations inside the vessel. The results showed that the suspended mass calculated along the time with different codes was in good agreement with the experiment. However, the calculated aerosol deposition on the walls was diverging and always significantly lower than the measured values

  18. Molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull chromophores: A comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Centore, R. [Dipartimento di Chimica P. Corradini, Università di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Noce, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Peluso, A., E-mail: apeluso@unisa.it [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biologia, Università di Salerno, via ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2013-01-16

    Highlights: ► Electro-optical determined and MP2/DFT computed NLO properties have been compared. ► Significant dependence of dipole moments of elongated NLO chromophores on conformations has been found. ► A thorough comparison between MP2 and DFT/TD-DFT computational approaches has been carried out. ► The two-state model overestimates hyperpolarizability. - Abstract: Electric dipole moments and static first order hyperpolarizabilities of two push–pull molecules with an extended π electron systems have been evaluated at different computational levels and compared with the results of electro-optical absorption measurements, based on the two state model. Calculations show that: (i) the dipole moments of such elongated systems depend significantly on conformation, a thorough conformational search is necessary for a meaningful comparison between theoretical and experimental results; (ii) DFT methods, in particular CAM-B3LYP and M05-2X, yield dipole moments which compare well with those obtained by post Hartree–Fock methods (MP2) and by EOA measurements; (iii) theoretical first order hyperpolarizabilities are largely underestimated, both by MP2 and DFT methods, possibly because of the failure of two state model used in electro-optical measurements.

  19. Comparison of stroke infarction between CT perfusion and diffusion weighted imaging: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd. Rahni, Ashrani Aizzuddin; Arka, Israna Hossain; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Mukari, Shahizon Azura; Law, Zhe Kang; Sahathevan, Ramesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present preliminary results of comparison of automatic segmentations of the infarct core, between that obtained from CT perfusion (based on time to peak parameter) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). For each patient, the two imaging volumes were automatically co-registered to a common frame of reference based on an acquired CT angiography image. The accuracy of image registration is measured by the overlap of the segmented brain from both images (CT perfusion and DWI), measured within their common field of view. Due to the limitations of the study, DWI was acquired as a follow up scan up to a week after initial CT based imaging. However, we found significant overlap of the segmented brain (Jaccard indices of approximately 0.8) and the percentage of infarcted brain tissue from the two modalities were still fairly highly correlated (correlation coefficient of approximately 0.9). The results are promising with more data needed in future for clinical inference.

  20. SPACE CHARGE SIMULATION METHODS INCORPORATED IN SOME MULTI - PARTICLE TRACKING CODES AND THEIR RESULTS COMPARISON.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE - WANG,J.; LUCCIO,A.U.; D IMPERIO,N.; MACHIDA,S.

    2002-06-03

    Space charge in high intensity beams is an important issue in accelerator physics. Due to the complicity of the problems, the most effective way of investigating its effect is by computer simulations. In the resent years, many space charge simulation methods have been developed and incorporated in various 2D or 3D multi-particle-tracking codes. It has becoming necessary to benchmark these methods against each other, and against experimental results. As a part of global effort, we present our initial comparison of the space charge methods incorporated in simulation codes ORBIT++, ORBIT and SIMPSONS. In this paper, the methods included in these codes are overviewed. The simulation results are presented and compared. Finally, from this study, the advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  1. Global CO2 flux estimation using GOSAT: An inter-comparison of inversion results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houweling, S.; Basu, S.; Chevallier, F.; Feng, L.; Ganshin, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Palmer, P. I.; Peylin, P.; Poussi, Z.; Takagi, H.; Zhuravlev, R.

    2012-12-01

    A unique global data archive is under construction of total column CO2 measurements retrieved from the Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite, currently spanning more than three years of data. Several groups are investigating the application of these data to global atmospheric inverse modelling for studying the global carbon cycle. It is known from inverse modeling using surface measurements that the robustness of the inversion-estimated fluxes is best analyzed using a multi-model approach. So far, this has not been demonstrated for inversions using satellite data, but but some of the known sources of uncertainty are difficult to account for in a single inversion, such as transport model uncertainties and differences between retrieval methods. We have organized an inversion inter-comparison experiment to investigate whether, despite these uncertainties, robust signals of sources and sinks can be inferred from the GOSAT data. The current experiment allows full freedom in inversion set-up in order to avoid limiting the range of possible outcomes. Each participating group is free to use their preferred inversion set-up, transport model, and measurements, but is asked to report in a common format and for a common time period of one year to allow one-to-one comparison. We will present an overview of the status of the experiment, including a preliminary synthesis of large-scale CO2 fluxes from a statistical analysis of the ensemble of inversion results and verification of the performance of the inversions using independent measurements.

  2. Comparison of travelling ionospheric disturbance measurements with thermosphere/ionosphere model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. F. Ashkaliev

    Full Text Available Comparisons of modeled and measured responses of the ionosphere to the passage of atmospheric gravity waves are made for data recorded by an ionosonde located at Almaty (76°55' E, 43°15' N from June 2000 until May 2001. Temporal variations of the altitude (hmF and electron content (NmF of the F-layer peak are used for comparisons. A significant part of the observations showed well-defined wave structures on the hmF, NmF and other parameter variations observed throughout the entire nights. Both the modeling study and measurements showed that, as the F-layer is lifted by the positive surge in gravity wave, the electron content at the F-layer peak decreases, with the slab thickness being increased as well. Subsequently, the opposite happens as hmF falls below its equilibrium value. Some discrepancy between the model and experimental results related to the phase difference between hmF and NmF variations is revealed.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-atmosphere interaction, ionospheric disturbances

  3. Photolysis frequency measurement techniques: results of a comparison within the ACCENT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Clemitshaw

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available An intercomparison of different radiometric techniques measuring atmospheric photolysis frequencies j(NO2, j(HCHO and j(O1D was carried out in a two-week field campaign in June 2005 at Jülich, Germany. Three double-monochromator based spectroradiometers (DM-SR, three single-monochromator based spectroradiometers with diode-array detectors (SM-SR and seventeen filter radiometers (FR (ten j(NO2-FR, seven j(O1D-FR took part in this comparison. For j(NO2, all spectroradiometer results agreed within ±3%. For j(HCHO, agreement was slightly poorer between −8% and +4% of the DM-SR reference result. For the SM-SR deviations were explained by poorer spectral resolutions and lower accuracies caused by decreased sensitivities of the photodiode arrays in a wavelength range below 350 nm. For j(O1D, the results were more complex within +8% and −4% with increasing deviations towards larger solar zenith angles for the SM-SR. The direction and the magnitude of the deviations were dependent on the technique of background determination. All j(NO2-FR showed good linearity with single calibration factors being sufficient to convert from output voltages to j(NO2. Measurements were feasible until sunset and comparison with previous calibrations showed good long-term stability. For the j(O1D-FR, conversion from output voltages to j(O1D needed calibration factors and correction functions considering the influences of total ozone column and elevation of the sun. All instruments showed good linearity at photolysis frequencies exceeding about 10% of maximum values. At larger solar zenith angles, the agreement was non-uniform with deviations explainable by insufficient correction functions. Comparison with previous calibrations for some j(O1D-FR indicated

  4. Photolysis frequency measurement techniques: results of a comparison within the ACCENT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bohn

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An intercomparison of different radiometric techniques measuring atmospheric photolysis frequencies j(NO2, j(HCHO and j(O1D was carried out in a two-week field campaign in June 2005 at Jülich, Germany. Three double-monochromator based spectroradiometers (DM-SR, three single-monochromator based spectroradiometers with diode-array detectors (SM-SR and seventeen filter radiometers (FR (ten j(NO2-FR, seven j(O1D-FR took part in this comparison. For j(NO2, all spectroradiometer results agreed within ±3%. For j(HCHO, agreement was slightly poorer between −8% and +4% of the DM-SR reference result. For the SM-SR deviations were explained by poorer spectral resolutions and lower accuracies caused by decreased sensitivities of the photodiode arrays in a wavelength range below 350 nm. For j(O1D, the results were more complex within +8% and −4% with increasing deviations towards larger solar zenith angles for the SM-SR. The direction and the magnitude of the deviations were dependent on the technique of background determination. All j(NO2-FR showed good linearity with single calibration factors being sufficient to convert from output voltages to j(NO2. Measurements were feasible until sunset and comparison with previous calibrations showed good long-term stability. For the j(O1D-FR, conversion from output voltages to j(O1D needed calibration factors and correction functions considering the influences of total ozone column and altitude of the sun. All instruments showed good linearity at photolysis frequencies exceeding about 10% of maximum values. At larger solar zenith angles, the agreement was non-uniform with deviations explainable by insufficient correction functions. Comparison with previous calibrations for some j(O1D-FR indicated drifts

  5. THE CCAUV.A-K3 KEY COMPARISON OF PRESSURE RECIPROCITY CALIBRATION OF LS2P MICROPHONES: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Rasmussen, Knud; Nielsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The CCAUV.A-K3 Key Comparison has involved 15 countries organized in two loops with two common laboratories, CENAM and DPLA. The measurements took place in 2003. This is the first CCAUV key comparison organized with more than one loop, and therefore the analysis of the results required a more ela...

  6. Fracture analysis of cracked elbows. Part 2: Comparison of experimental results with estimation predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-scale pipe fracture experiments with cracks in carbon steel and stainless steel long-radius elbow test specimens were performed at nominal pressurized water reactor conditions as part of the IPIRG-2 program. The results of these experiments were intended to provide direction and validation for the analytical methods developed to predict critical crack growth and limit loads in cracked elbows. Dynamic, cyclic pipe system experiments and companion quasi-static, monotonic experiments allowed the investigation into the complex interaction of loading conditions and system dynamics on elbow fracture behavior. Comparisons are made between existing straight pipe analysis methods, current limit load solutions for elbows, and the h-function solutions developed under the IPIRG-2 Program for cracked elbows to determine the applicability of these solutions for predicting failure stresses of cracked elbows

  7. Professionalism and human resource management of donor coordinators: results of an international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uryuhara, Y

    2014-05-01

    Through our earlier international survey on professionalism with donor coordinators in 38 countries, we identified 5 factors that comprise professionalism and demonstrated that, of these 5 factors, "pursuit of excellence" significantly affects job performance and sense of fulfillment among donor coordinators. In the present study we conducted an international comparison concerning professionalism and organizational actions to foster coordinators' professionalism and identify implications for Japan. Japan scored significantly lower than other countries in the "pursuit of excellence" factor of professionalism, feedback on the outcome of organ transplantation, peer recognition, and opportunities to educate other staff, which correspond with intrinsic motivation of organizational actions. These results suggested that each hospital must take steps to enhance intrinsic motivation, thereby increasing professionalism that will lead to successful outcomes in the years ahead. PMID:24815126

  8. Comparison of energy deposition calculations by the LAHET code system with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison was performed between the energy deposition predicted by the LAHET code system (LCS) and experimental values for 800-, 1,000-, and 1,200-MeV protons on targets composed of beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, copper, lead, bismuth, and uranium. The lead, bismuth, and uranium targets showed agreement within ∼ 10% at locations throughout the targets, and the agreement of the total energy deposited over the axial length of the targets ranged from 1 to 18%. for the lighter materials, the agreement at locations throughout the target was within ∼25 %. No definable trend could be determined for the lighter materials because some LCS predictions were greater and some were less than the experimental results, and some showed very good agreement. Also, the LCS underpredicted the proton ranges for 800-MeV protons on iron, 800- and 1,000-MeV protons on copper, and 800- and 1,000-MeV protons on uranium

  9. Contrail Cirrus Forecasts for the ML-CIRRUS Experiment and Some Comparison Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Ulrich; Graf, Kaspar; Bugliaro, Luca; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Giez, Andreas; Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Krämer, Martina; Minikin, Andreas; Schäfler, Andreas; Voigt, Christiane; Wirth, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Ziereis, Helmut

    2015-04-01

    rerun with improved ECMWF-NWP data (at one-hour time resolution). The model results are included in the HALO mission data bank, and the results are available for comparison to in-situ data. The data are useful for identifying aircraft and other sources for measured air properties. The joint analysis of observations and model result has basically just started. Preliminary results from comparisons with lidar-measured extinction profiles, in-situ measured humidity, nitrogen oxides, and aerosol and ice particle concentrations, and with meteorological observations (wind, temperature etc.) illustrate the expected gain in insight. The contrail forecasts have been checked by comparison to available data including satellite data and HALO observations. During the campaign, it became obvious that predicted contrail cirrus cover compared qualitatively mostly well with what was found when HALO reached predicted cirrus regions. From the analysis of the measured data, some examples of significant correlation between model results and observations have been found. However, the quantitative agreement is not uniform. As expected, nature is far more variable than a model can predict. The observed optical properties of cirrus and contrails vary far more in time and space than predicted. Local values were often far higher or lower than mean values. A one-to-one correlation between local observations and model results is not to be expected. This inhomogeneity may have consequences for the climate impact of aviation induced cloud changes.

  10. A comparison of results by sequential and concurrent chemo radiotherapy in locally advanced carcinoma esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Bhandari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many Trials using sequential and concurrent chemo radiotherapy have been done so far and has established the role of concurrent chemo radiotherapy in treatment of inoperable carcinoma esophagus. In this study, we have compared the results of concurrent chemo radiotherapy with sequential chemo radiotherapy. We have treated inoperable carcinoma esophagus in both the settings and present here the comparison of results in the two settings. Materials and Methods: There were 26 patients of carcinoma esophagus in sequential and 31 in concurrent chemo radiotherapy arm. In sequential arm methotrexate and Cisplatin followed by radiotherapy was given whereas in concurrent arm, Cisplatin was given once weekly along with radiotherapy. Results: The 2 year survival was 38% in sequential and35.5% in the concurrent setting and the median survival was 19.5 and 18 months respectively in the two arms.The toxicities in both the arms were comparable. P value of 0.4774 with confidence interval of 95% was obtained, which is not significant. Dysphagia was improved earlier in sequential than in the concurrent arm. Conclusion: As the results and toxicities in both the arms are almost similar with better symptom control, so larger randomized trials are required to assess the response and the use of methotrexate in sequential chemo radiotherapy can be further explored.

  11. EPA/NMED/LANL 1998 water quality results: Statistical analysis and comparison to regulatory standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four governmental agencies conducted a round of groundwater, surface water, and spring water sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1998. Samples were split among the four parties and sent to independent analytical laboratories. Results from three of the agencies were available for this study. Comparisons of analytical results that were paired by location and date were made between the various analytical laboratories. The results for over 50 split samples analyzed for inorganic chemicals, metals, and radionuclides were compared. Statistical analyses included non-parametric (sign test and signed-ranks test) and parametric (paired t-test and linear regression) methods. The data pairs were tested for statistically significant differences, defined by an observed significance level, or p-value, less than 0.05. The main conclusion is that the laboratories' performances are similar across most of the analytes that were measured. In some 95% of the laboratory measurements there was agreement on whether contaminant levels exceeded regulatory limits. The most significant differences in performance were noted for the radioactive suite, particularly for gross alpha particle activity and Sr-90

  12. Results of aerosol code comparisons with releases from ACE MCCI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of aerosol release calculations by six groups from six countries are compared with the releases from ACE MCCI Test L6. The codes used for these calculations included: SOLGASMIX-PV, SOLGASMIX Reactor 1986, CORCON.UW, VANESA 1.01, and CORCON mod2.04/VANESA 1.01. Calculations were performed with the standard VANESA 1.01 code and with modifications to the VANESA code such as the inclusion of various zirconium-silica chemical reactions. Comparisons of results from these calculations were made with Test L6 release fractions for U, Zr, Si, the fission-product elements Te, Ba, Sr, Ce, La, Mo and control materials Ag, In, and Ru. Reasonable agreement was obtained between calculations and Test L6 results for the volatile elements Ag, In and Te. Calculated releases of the low volatility fission products ranged from within an order of magnitude to five orders of magnitude of Test L6 values. Releases were over and underestimated by calculations. Poorest agreements were obtained for Mo and Si

  13. Comparison between InfoWorks hydraulic results and a physical model of an urban drainage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinato, Matteo; Shucksmith, James; Saul, Adrian J; Shepherd, Will

    2013-01-01

    Urban drainage systems are frequently analysed using hydraulic modelling software packages such as InfoWorks CS or MIKE-Urban. The use of such modelling tools allows the evaluation of sewer capacity and the likelihood and impact of pluvial flood events. Models can also be used to plan major investments such as increasing storage capacity or the implementation of sustainable urban drainage systems. In spite of their widespread use, when applied to flooding the results of hydraulic models are rarely compared with field or laboratory (i.e. physical modelling) data. This is largely due to the time and expense required to collect reliable empirical data sets. This paper describes a laboratory facility which will enable an urban flood model to be verified and generic approaches to be built. Results are presented from the first phase of testing, which compares the sub-surface hydraulic performance of a physical scale model of a sewer network in Yorkshire, UK, with downscaled results from a calibrated 1D InfoWorks hydraulic model of the site. A variety of real rainfall events measured in the catchment over a period of 15 months (April 2008-June 2009) have been both hydraulically modelled and reproduced in the physical model. In most cases a comparison of flow hydrographs generated in both hydraulic and physical models shows good agreement in terms of velocities which pass through the system. PMID:23863430

  14. EPA/NMED/LANL 1998 water quality results: Statistical analysis and comparison to regulatory standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Gallaher; T. Mercier; P. Black; K. Mullen

    2000-02-01

    Four governmental agencies conducted a round of groundwater, surface water, and spring water sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during 1998. Samples were split among the four parties and sent to independent analytical laboratories. Results from three of the agencies were available for this study. Comparisons of analytical results that were paired by location and date were made between the various analytical laboratories. The results for over 50 split samples analyzed for inorganic chemicals, metals, and radionuclides were compared. Statistical analyses included non-parametric (sign test and signed-ranks test) and parametric (paired t-test and linear regression) methods. The data pairs were tested for statistically significant differences, defined by an observed significance level, or p-value, less than 0.05. The main conclusion is that the laboratories' performances are similar across most of the analytes that were measured. In some 95% of the laboratory measurements there was agreement on whether contaminant levels exceeded regulatory limits. The most significant differences in performance were noted for the radioactive suite, particularly for gross alpha particle activity and Sr-90.

  15. Results of aerosol code comparisons with releases from ACE MCCI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of aerosol release calculations by six groups from six countries are compared with the releases from ACE MCCI Test L6. The codes used for these calculations included: SOLGASMIX-PV, SOLGASMIX Reactor 1986, CORCON.UW, VANESA 1.01, and CORCON mod2.04/VANESA 1.01. Calculations were performed with the standard VANESA 1.01 code and with modifications to the VANESA code such as the inclusion of various zirconium-silica chemical reactions. Comparisons of results from these calculations were made with Test L6 release fractions for U, Zr, Si, the fission-product elements Te, Ba, Sr, Ce, La, Mo, Ru and control materials Ag and In. Reasonable agreement was obtained between calculations and Test L6 results for the volatile elements Ag, In and Te. Calculated releases of the low volatility fission products ranged from within an order of magnitude to five orders of magnitude of Test L6 values. Releases were over and underestimated by calculations. Poorest agreements were obtained for Mo and Si. In summary: Results of this code comparison effort are useful in assessing progress on fission-product release calculations and in providing guidance with respect to databases and further model development. Conclusions and recommendations are given below. 1. Significant progress has been made by the development of various SOLGASMIX chemical equilibrium codes with extensive databases and the development of the CORCON.UW code which gives better agreement with Test L6 than the CORCON mod2.04/VANESA 1.01 codes. The SOLGASMIX calculations on Test L6 and other ACE MCCI tests have provided valuable contributions on the importance of various species in the melt chemistry and the effects of various test parameters on the release. 2. Although some possible causes for discrepancies between calculated and measured releases have been proposed in this paper, the combined efforts of specialists are needed to identify the causes of discrepancies between the calculated and measured releases for each

  16. Round robin comparison of tensile results on GlidCop Al25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, D.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zinkle, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fabritsiev, S.A. [D.V. Efremov Inst. of Electro-Physical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Pokrovsky, A.S. [V.I. Lenin Research Inst. of Atomic Reactors, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-09-01

    A round robin comparison of the tensile properties of GlidCop{trademark} Al25 oxide dispersion strengthened copper was initiated between collaborating laboratories to evaluate the test and analysis procedures used in the irradiation experiments in SRIAR in Dimitrovgrad. The tests were conducted using the same tensile specimen geometry as used in previous irradiation experiments, with tests at each laboratory being conducted in air or vacuum at 25, 150, and 300 C at a strain rate of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}. The strength of the GlidCop Al25 decreased as the test temperature increased, with no observable effect of testing in air versus vacuum on the yield and ultimate strengths. The uniform elongation decreased by almost a factor of 3 when the test temperature was raised from room temperature to 300 C, but the total elongation remained roughly constant over the range of test temperatures. Any effect of testing in air on the ductility may have been masked by the scatter introduced into the results because each laboratory tested the specimens in a different grip setup. In light of this, the results of the round robin tests demonstrated that the test and analysis procedures produced essentially the same values for tensile yield and ultimate, but significant variability was present in both the uniform and total elongation measurements due to the gripping technique.

  17. Thermal conductivity of silicic tuffs: predictive formalism and comparison with preliminary experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of both near- and far-field thermomechanical calculations to assess the feasibility of waste disposal in silicic tuffs requires a formalism for predicting thermal conductivity of a broad range of tuffs. This report summarizes the available thermal conductivity data for silicate phases that occur in tuffs and describes several grain-density and conductivity trends which may be expected to result from post-emplacement alteration. A bounding curve is drawn that predicts the minimum theoretical matrix (zero-porosity) conductivity for most tuffs as a function of grain density. Comparison of experimental results with this curve shows that experimental conductivities are consistently lower at any given grain density. Use of the lowered bounding curve and an effective gas conductivity of 0.12 W/m0C allows conservative prediction of conductivity for a broad range of tuff types. For the samples measured here, use of the predictive curve allows estimation of conductivity to within 15% or better, with one exception. Application and possible improvement of the formalism are also discussed

  18. Comparison of conventional renal clearance values with differently evaluated results of radioisotope nephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    81 patients with renal anormalities or renal disorders of different genesis and severity with and without restricted renal functions were investigated by means of the classical PAH- and inulin-clearance. Furthermore a radioisotope nephrography was carried out after application of I 131-Hippuran followed by Cr 51-EDTA. In addition the activity reduction was measured above the shoulder, as well as the activity in serum samples and urine samples gained 30 min after application. A comparison of the clearance values found with those of conventional clearance resulted in poor correlation for I 131-Hippuran (r = 0.54) and no correlation for Cr 51-EDTA. Of the many parameters of the radioisotope nephrogram curves only the following are able to give sufficient quantitative functional results: The parameters connected with the rise of the curve between the 48sup(rh) and 120sup(rh) s and those connected with the slope of the secant. This is also true for the value of activity measured in the urine. (orig.)

  19. Interlaboratory comparison of EPR dose reconstruction results for russian nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have conducted an EPR dose reconstruction study using tooth enamel of 24 teeth from Russian nuclear workers (Mayak Production Association) with known occupational exposure records. Mayak Production Association began operation in 1948 as the first industrial nuclear reactor of former Soviet Union and as a processing plant of spent nuclear fuels. Each tooth under present investigation was divided into two parts that were shared by at least two laboratories. Dose reconstruction was performed independently in 4 different laboratories located in Japan, Germany and Russia (2 laboratories) without prior knowledge on the recorded dose (double blind intercomparison). The results suggested the mean difference between EPR estimated dose of the paired samples of each tooth shared by the two laboratories in best agreement was 0.02 ± 0.15 Gy. Comparison of EPR results with dose from official records seemed to disclose the presence of at least two groups: one is modern workers (after 1961) who have reliable dosimetric information and can be used for the purposes of the verification of the dose reconstruction methods; the other is nuclear workers with high radiation doses (up to 5 Gy) that were received mainly before 1961. For the latter group, EPR doses tended to be lower than official dose indicating that cancer risk evaluations on this second group might be underestimated. (author)

  20. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Alvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  1. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.

    2010-08-01

    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  2. Non-local gravity and comparison with observational datasets. II. Updated results and Bayesian model comparison with $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Dirian, Yves; Kunz, Martin; Maggiore, Michele; Pettorino, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive and updated comparison with cosmological observations of two non-local modifications of gravity previously introduced by our group, the so called RR and RT models. We implement the background evolution and the cosmological perturbations of the models in a modified Boltzmann code, using CLASS. We then test the non-local models against the Planck 2015 TT, TE, EE and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing data, isotropic and anisotropic Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data, JLA supernovae, $H_0$ measurements and growth rate data, and we perform Bayesian parameter estimation. We then compare the RR, RT and $\\Lambda$CDM models, using the Savage-Dickey method. We find that the RT model and $\\Lambda$CDM perform equally well, while the RR model is disfavored.

  3. Non-local gravity and comparison with observational datasets. II. Updated results and Bayesian model comparison with ΛCDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirian, Yves; Foffa, Stefano; Kunz, Martin; Maggiore, Michele; Pettorino, Valeria

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive and updated comparison with cosmological observations of two non-local modifications of gravity previously introduced by our group, the so called RR and RT models. We implement the background evolution and the cosmological perturbations of the models in a modified Boltzmann code, using CLASS. We then test the non-local models against the Planck 2015 TT, TE, EE and Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) lensing data, isotropic and anisotropic Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data, JLA supernovae, H0 measurements and growth rate data, and we perform Bayesian parameter estimation. We then compare the RR, RT and ΛCDM models, using the Savage-Dickey method. We find that the RT model and ΛCDM perform equally well, while the performance of the RR model with respect to ΛCDM depends on whether or not we include a prior on H0 based on local measurements.

  4. Comparison of different scenarios for the deployment of fast reactors in France. Results obtained with COSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the French Act for waste management, scenarios studies are carried out with the simulation software COSI to compare different options of evolution of the French reactor fleet, possibilities of plutonium recycling, and options of separation and transmutation of minor actinides. The goal of these studies is to evaluate the sustainability of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR) deployment from plutonium availability viewpoint, as well as the interest of minor actinides transmutation options in SFR and associated impacts (decay heat and toxicity) on cycle facilities and geological storage. Each option has been evaluated separately in dynamic scenarios taking into account the transition between the current nuclear reactor fleet and a generation IV fleet, with the deployment of SFR in replacement of PWR. In this paper, the results of three types of scenarios, in the continuity of the paper of GLOBAL 2009, are discussed: 1 - plutonium recycling in SFR; 2 - plutonium recycling and minor actinides transmutation in SFR; 3 - plutonium recycling and americium transmutation in SFR. MA transmutation in heterogeneous mode (named 'het.') and in homogeneous mode (named 'hom.') are distinguished. By comparison with the previous paper, new scenarios and extended results are added and a global comparison between transmutation performances is done. Scenarios have been optimized to minimize the impacts on fuel cycle: stabilization of plants capacities over 40 years, limitation of minor actinides storage in the case of heterogeneous transmutation, limitation of MA content in the case of homogeneous transmutation. The impact of MA transmutation on decay heat of fresh and spent fuel are also assessed. The selected scenarios bring also elements on the impact of a SFR deployment delayed from 2040 to 2080, with or without MA transmutation, and the impact of an increase in the total power capacity installed by maximizing the SFR share in a symbiotic fleet PWR-SFR. Whatever the

  5. First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals: Comparison between SR (BS) and MR computational results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Kizashi [Institute for Nano Science Design Center, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan and TOYOTA Physical and Chemical Research Institute, Nagakute, Aichi, 480-1192 (Japan); Nishihara, Satomichi; Saito, Toru; Yamanaka, Shusuke; Kitagawa, Yasutaka; Kawakami, Takashi; Yamada, Satoru; Isobe, Hiroshi; Okumura, Mitsutaka [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2015-01-22

    First principle calculations of effective exchange integrals (J) in the Heisenberg model for diradical species were performed by both symmetry-adapted (SA) multi-reference (MR) and broken-symmetry (BS) single reference (SR) methods. Mukherjee-type (Mk) state specific (SS) MR coupled-cluster (CC) calculations by the use of natural orbital (NO) references of ROHF, UHF, UDFT and CASSCF solutions were carried out to elucidate J values for di- and poly-radical species. Spin-unrestricted Hartree Fock (UHF) based coupled-cluster (CC) computations were also performed to these species. Comparison between UHF-NO(UNO)-MkMRCC and BS UHF-CC computational results indicated that spin-contamination of UHF-CC solutions still remains at the SD level. In order to eliminate the spin contamination, approximate spin-projection (AP) scheme was applied for UCC, and the AP procedure indeed corrected the error to yield good agreement with MkMRCC in energy. The CC double with spin-unrestricted Brueckner's orbital (UBD) was furthermore employed for these species, showing that spin-contamination involved in UHF solutions is largely suppressed, and therefore AP scheme for UBCCD removed easily the rest of spin-contamination. We also performed spin-unrestricted pure- and hybrid-density functional theory (UDFT) calculations of diradical and polyradical species. Three different computational schemes for total spin angular momentums were examined for the AP correction of the hybrid (H) UDFT. HUDFT calculations followed by AP, HUDFT(AP), yielded the S-T gaps that were qualitatively in good agreement with those of MkMRCCSD, UHF-CC(AP) and UB-CC(AP). Thus a systematic comparison among MkMRCCSD, UCC(AP) UBD(AP) and UDFT(AP) was performed concerning with the first principle calculations of J values in di- and poly-radical species. It was found that BS (AP) methods reproduce MkMRCCSD results, indicating their applicability to large exchange coupled systems.

  6. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 safety tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    Safety tests were conducted on fourteen fuel compacts from AGR-1, the first irradiation experiment of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification program, at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 1800°C to determine fission product release at temperatures that bound reactor accident conditions. The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, strontium, and krypton from fuel compacts containing tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particles during the safety tests, and the predicted values were compared with experimental results. Preliminary comparisons between PARFUME predictions and post-irradiation examination (PIE) results of the safety tests show different trends in the prediction of the fractional release depending on the species, and it leads to different conclusions regarding the diffusivities used in the modeling of fission product transport in TRISO-coated particles: • For silver, the diffusivity in silicon carbide (SiC) might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C and 1700°C, and at least 10 to 102 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of silver in uranium oxy-carbide (UCO) might also be over-estimated, but the available data are insufficient to allow definitive conclusions to be drawn. • For cesium, the diffusivity in UCO might be over-estimated by a factor of at least 102 to 103 at 1600°C, 105 at 1700°C, and 103 at 1800°C. The diffusivity of cesium in SiC might also over-estimated, by a factor of 10 at 1600°C and 103 at 1700°C, based upon the comparisons between calculated and measured release fractions from intact particles. There is no available estimate at 1800°C since all the compacts heated up at 1800°C contain particles with failed SiC layers whose release dominates the release from intact particles. • For strontium, the diffusivity in SiC might be over-estimated by a factor of 10 to 102 at 1600 and 1700°C, and 102 to 103 at 1800°C. These

  7. Ship emitted NO2 in the Indian Ocean: comparison of model results with satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, K.; Richter, A.; Bovensmann, H.; Eyring, V.; Jöckel, P.; Hoor, P.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-10-01

    The inventory of NOx emission from international shipping has been evaluated by comparing NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (January 2003 to February 2008), GOME (January 1996 to June 2003), and GOME-2 (March 2007 to February 2008) to NO2 columns calculated with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (January 2000 to October 2005). For both measurements and model consistently the tropospheric excess method was used to obtain mean NO2 columns over the shipping lane from India to Indonesia, and over two ship free regions, the Bay of Bengal and the central Indian Ocean. The long-term data set from SCIAMACHY yields the first monthly analysis of ship induced NO2 enhancements in the Indian Ocean. Comparison of data from the three instruments and in addition OMI reveals differences between the datasets which are discussed with respect to the diurnal cycle of NO2 and the increase in shipping traffic over the time period studied. In general, the model simulates the differences between the regions affected by ship pollution and ship free regions reasonably well. Minor discrepancies between model results and satellite data were identified during biomass burning seasons in March to May over India and the Indochinese Peninsula and August to October over Indonesia. We conclude that the NOx ship emission inventory used in this study is a good approximation of NOx ship emissions in the Indian Ocean for the years 2002 to 2007. It assumes that around 6 Tg(N) yr-1 are emitted by international shipping globally, resulting in 90 Gg(N) yr-1 in the region of interest when using Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER) as spatial proxy. A second model run using lower ship emissions estimates of 3-4 Tg(N) yr-1 globally results in poorer agreement with the satellite data.

  8. Environmental water monitoring by capillary electrophoresis and result comparison with solvent chemistry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirén, Heli; Väntsi, Sirpa

    2002-05-24

    The aim of this work was to determine inorganic ions from natural waters by capillary electrophoresis (CE) and to compare the results obtained with those measured with conventional solvent chemistry techniques. The project was part of a larger CE study, during which we measured inorganic ions from some lake and river systems and groundwaters in Southern Finland. Results obtained from contaminated Finnish waters were compared with samples from the River Rhine in the Düsseldorf area. Two CE methods were used for analysis: one for determination of chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate at pH 7.7 and the other for ammonium, potassium, calcium, sodium and magnesium at pH 3.6, both methods using identification based on indirect UV detection. Two separation methods were used in order to prevent complex formation of metals with sulfate, hydroxide and decomposed organic matter present in the environmental samples. On the basis of the CE studies dilution was needed for those samples having more than 100 mg/l of sulfate, chloride, calcium and sodium. On average, the natural waters in the study contained ammonium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and calcium below 0.3, 20, 200, 20, and 200 mg/l, respectively. The concentrations of chloride, sulfate, nitrite and nitrate were below 20, 100, 10, and 10 mg/l, respectively. Correlation of the CE results with those acquired by titration, atomic absorption spectrometry, ion chromatography and flow injection analysis were obtained; R2 values for the comparison tests varied from 0.8816 to 0.9994 depending on the ion. The repeatabilities of the anion and cation CE methods were tested using laboratory-made reference sample mixtures with high and low salt concentration. PMID:12102308

  9. Comparison results and linearized oscillations for higher-order difference equations

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, C; G. Ladas

    1992-01-01

    Consider the difference equationsΔmxn+(−1)m+1pnf(xn−k)=0,   n=0,1,…        (1)andΔmyn+(−1)m+1qng(yn−ℓ)=0,   n=0,1,….       (2)We establish a comparison result according to which, when m is odd, every solution of Eq.(1) oscillates provided that every solution of Eq.(2) oscillates and, when m is even, every bounded solution of Eq.(1) oscillates provid...

  10. Comparison of inverse modeling results with measured and interpolated hydraulic head data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inverse modeling of aquifers involves identification of effective parameters, such as transmissivities, based on hydraulic head data. The result of inverse modeling is a calibrated ground water flow model that reproduces the measured hydraulic head data as closely as is statistically possible. An inverse method that includes prior information about the parameters (i.e., kriged log transmissivity) was applied to the Avra Valley aquifer of southern Arizona using hydraulic heads obtained in three ways: measured at well locations, estimated at nodes by hand contouring, and estimated at nodes by kriging. Hand contouring yields only estimates of hydraulic head at node points, whereas kriging yields hydraulic head estimates at node points and their corresponding estimation errors. A comparison of the three inverse applications indicates the variations in the ground water flow model caused by the different treatments of the hydraulic head data. Estimates of hydraulic head computed by all three inverse models were more representative of the measured or interpolated hydraulic heads than those computed using the kriged estimates of log transmissivity. The large-scale trends in the estimates of log transmissivity determined by the three inverse models were generally similar except in the southern portion of the study area. The hydraulic head values and gradients produced by the three inverse models were similar in the interior of the study area, while the major differences between the inverse models occurred along the boundaries. 17 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab

  11. Deflection of light due to rotating mass – a comparison among the results of different approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that light gets deflected due to mass. Value of deflection of light for static body is not same as it is in the case of rotating body. The deflection for a static body entirely depends on the gravitational mass where in case of a rotating body new terms will be included due to rotation. The bending angle of light is also not same in the equatorial plane and non equatorial plane for rotating Kerr body. The light bending angle is also direction of motion dependent i.e. if the motion of the light ray is in the direction of rotation, bending angle is greater than the static case and if the ray is in the opposite direction of rotation, the bending angle is smaller than the static case in equatorial plane. There are two approaches to obtain the bending angle, null geodesic of photon and change of effective refractive index. In this paper a comparison will be made among the results of different approaches

  12. Comparison of long-term Moscow and Danish NLC observations: statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dalin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Noctilucent clouds (NLC are the highest clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, observed close to the mesopause at 80–90 km altitudes. Systematic NLC observations conducted in Moscow for the period of 1962–2005 and in Denmark for 1983–2005 are compared and statistical results both for seasonally summarized NLC parameters and for individual NLC appearances are described. Careful attention is paid to the weather conditions during each season of observations. This turns out to be a very important factor both for the NLC case study and for long-term data set analysis. Time series of seasonal values show moderate similarity (taking into account the weather conditions but, at the same time, the comparison of individual cases of NLC occurrence reveals substantial differences. There are positive trends in the Moscow and Danish normalized NLC brightness as well as nearly zero trend in the Moscow normalized NLC occurrence frequency but these long-term changes are not statistically significant. The quasi-ten-year cycle in NLC parameters is about 1 year shorter than the solar cycle during the same period. The characteristic scale of NLC fields is estimated for the first time and it is found to be less than 800 km.

  13. EXAFS measurements of nickel/nickel oxide nanoparticles and its comparison with TEM and XRD results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We have synthesized the nickel nanoparticles by pulsed laser ablation. The nickel disc in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with surfactant concentration of 10 mM and 20 mM, was used with the focused output of fundamental harmonic from Nd:YAG laser operating at the first harmonic (Iambda= 1064 nm). The laser power was fixed at 35 mJ/pulse with 10 ns pulse width and 10Hz repetition rate and was used for the ablation for 60 minute. Nickel oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical method for different concentration of surfactant Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (ClAB). the surfactant was used to provide favourable site for the growth of the particulate assemblies, which influences the formation process, including nucleation, growth, coagulation and flocculation. the materials used for synthesis were nickel chloride hexahydrate, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (ClAB). UV-Visible absorption, X-ray diffraction, and transmission Electron Microscopy techniques were used for the characterization of produced nanoparticles. The powder samples were characterized by XRD measurements using Cu-Kα radiation at 40 KV with wavelength 1.5405 A0. The EXAFS studies of pure nickel foil and for the synthesized nanoparticles with concentration 10mM of SDS show similar structures. The position of the main peak is same. The only difference was observed in the reduction of the amplitude, which can be attributed to the coordination number. The nearest neighbor distance was similar as for pure nickel foil. The Debye-Waller factor was also similar on comparison. There was no trace of oxide and hydroxide in the EXAFS data which suggest that the synthesized nanoparticles contain only nickel metal. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies of calculated FEFF of nickel oxide and the synthesized nanoparticles with different concentration of ClAB show similar structures. In comparison to standard NiO spectra the reduction of the amplitude and

  14. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase II Results Regarding Monopile Foundation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Passon, P.; Larsen, T.; Camp, T.; Nichols, J.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview and describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, which operates under Subtask 2 of the International Energy Agency Wind Annex XXIII.

  15. Seismic stratigraphic comparison of DSDP Leg 96 results with older Mississippi fan lobes, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, P.; Buffler, R.T.

    1987-05-01

    DSDP Leg 96 drilled the youngest depositional lobe of the Mississippi fan at nine sites. These sites were designed to provide a set of reference cores to help explain the development of Quaternary and older submarine fans. The youngest fan lobe is dominated by a single, sinuous aggradational channel system, characterized by high-amplitude reflections that represent channel-lag gravels and sands, while adjacent laterally continuous reflections correspond to fine-grained overbank sediments. Analysis of 12,000 km of multifold seismic data from the Mississippi fan provides a method for comparing the drilling results with the seismic stratigraphy of the nine older Mississippi fan lobes. Sinuous channels and associated facies are present in all older lobes in the middle fan area, although there is a greater diversity in channel/overbank distribution and interpreted depositional processes. For example, four of the lobes have several coeval channels that are fed by separate submarine canyons in the slope, and a bifurcating channel pattern caused by channel avulsion is present in six different lobes along the middle and lower fan. In addition, an important seismic facies consisting of mounded, hummocky, and chaotic reflections is present at the base of six older lobes. This facies is more areally restricted than the overlying, well-developed channel/overbank deposits and is interpreted to represent coarse-grained channel sediments deposited during lowering sea level. Although Leg 96 drilling provides sedimentologic information that can be used for comparison with other fans, this seismic stratigraphic study of the entire Mississippi fan suggests that additional processes were operating that were not explained by the drilling results.

  16. Atmospheric greenhouse gases retrieved from SCIAMACHY: comparison to ground-based FTS measurements and model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schneising

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT (launched in 2002 enables the retrieval of global long-term column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the two most important anthropogenic greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane (denoted XCO2 and XCH4. In order to assess the quality of the greenhouse gas data obtained with the recently introduced v2 of the scientific retrieval algorithm WFM-DOAS, we present validations with ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS measurements and comparisons with model results at eight Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON sites providing realistic error estimates of the satellite data. Such validation is a prerequisite to assess the suitability of data sets for their use in inverse modelling.

    It is shown that there are generally no significant differences between the carbon dioxide annual increases of SCIAMACHY and the assimilation system CarbonTracker (2.00 ± 0.16 ppm yr−1 compared to 1.94 ± 0.03 ppm yr−1 on global average. The XCO2 seasonal cycle amplitudes derived from SCIAMACHY are typically larger than those from TCCON which are in turn larger than those from CarbonTracker. The absolute values of the northern hemispheric TCCON seasonal cycle amplitudes are closer to SCIAMACHY than to CarbonTracker and the corresponding differences are not significant when compared with SCIAMACHY, whereas they can be significant for a subset of the analysed TCCON sites when compared with CarbonTracker. At Darwin we find discrepancies of the seasonal cycle derived from SCIAMACHY compared to the other data sets which can probably be ascribed to occurrences of undetected thin clouds. Based on the comparison with the reference data, we conclude that the carbon dioxide data set can be characterised by a regional relative precision (mean standard deviation of the differences of about 2.2 ppm and a relative accuracy (standard deviation of the mean differences

  17. Comparison of experimental data with results of some drying models for regularly shaped products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Ahmet [Aksaray University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aksaray (Turkey); Aydin, Orhan [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Trabzon (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    This paper presents an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying of moist slab, cylinder and spherical products to study dimensionless moisture content distributions and their comparisons. Experimental study includes the measurement of the moisture content distributions of slab and cylindrical carrot, slab and cylindrical pumpkin and spherical blueberry during drying at various temperatures (e.g., 30, 40, 50 and 60 C) at specific constant velocity (U = 1 m/s) and the relative humidity {phi}=30%. In theoretical analysis, two moisture transfer models are used to determine drying process parameters (e.g., drying coefficient and lag factor) and moisture transfer parameters (e.g., moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient), and to calculate the dimensionless moisture content distributions. The calculated results are then compared with the experimental moisture data. A considerably high agreement is obtained between the calculations and experimental measurements for the cases considered. The effective diffusivity values were evaluated between 0.741 x 10{sup -5} and 5.981 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.818 x 10{sup -5} and 6.287 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.213 x 10{sup -7} and 7.589 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-I and 0.316 x 10{sup -5}-5.072 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for slab products, 0.580 x 10{sup -5}-9.587 x 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/h for cylindrical products and 1.408 x 10{sup -7}-13.913 x 10{sup -7} m{sup 2}/h spherical products using the model-II. (orig.)

  18. MAAP thermal-hydraulic qualification results of MAAP comparisons to FIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Full Scale Integral Simulation Test (FIST) facility was built by General Electric under joint sponsorship of the NRC, GE and EPRI. The FIST facility is a full height system with a volume scale of 1/624 relative to a boiling water reactor/6 (BWR/6) plant. It can operate at rated reactor pressure and temperature. Two independent external loops and internal jet pumps provide recirculation flow typical of a BWR. The test facility scaling provided correct fluid volume distribution scaling for a BWR. Also included were simulations of the emergency core cooling systems, safety/relief valves, level system trips and automatic depressurization system. The purpose of the FIST tests were to better understand the behavior of the BWR system during various transients and under loss of coolant accident (LOCA) conditions. The FIST tests were conducted in two phases. The Phase 1 tests, consisted of simulation of large and small recirculation line breaks, steam line breaks, natural circulation performance and power transient tests. The Phase 2 tests, completed in June of 1984, simulated an LPCI line break, intermediate line breaks, more natural circulation tests, a simulation of the Peach Bottom Turbine Trip test and boiloff tests. The Phase 2 tests were in part designed to provide data for evaluating the governing phenomena in BWR accident sequences and to provide a data base for thermal-hydraulic code validation. The Phase 2 tests of the most interest for MAAP validation were those most like the severe accident sequences. Three Phase 2 tests were selected for MAAP benchmarking. In the paper each test is described along with the results of the MAAP comparisons

  19. A Short-term Comparison Between Result of Palisade Cartilage Tympanoplasty and Temporalis Fascia Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Shishegar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of cartilage as a grafting material has been advocated in cases where there is a high risk of graft failure, such as subtotal perforations, adhesive processes, and residual defects after primary tympanoplasties. The purpose of this study was to compare the graft acceptance rates and auditory outcomes of cartilage tympanoplasty operations using a palisade technique with those of primary tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia in a homogenous group of patients. Study Design: Prospective study.  Materials and Methods:The study population included 54 patients who were operated on in two groups (palisade technique & temporalis fascia technique with each group containing 27 patients. Patients with pure subtotal perforations (perforation of >50% of the whole tympanic membrane [TM] area, an intact ossicular chain, at least a one month dry period, and normal middle ear mucosa were included in the study. Grafts acceptance rates and pre- and post-operative audiograms were compared. The follow-up time was six months.  Results: Graft acceptance was achieved in all patients (100% in the palisade cartilage tympanoplasty group and in 25 patients (92.5% in the temporalis fascia group. This difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.15. Comparison of the increases in mean speech reception threshold, air–bone gap, and pure-tone average scores between both techniques showed no significant changes.    Conclusion: Our experience with the palisade cartilage technique demonstrates that subtotal or total perforation at high risk for graft failure can be treated efficiently, and that a durable and resistant reconstruction of the TM with reasonable auditory function can be achieved.  

  20. New results from the Colorado CubeSat and comparison with Van Allen Probes data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2013-05-01

    The Colorado Student Space Weather Experiment (CSSWE) is a 3-unit (10cm x 10cm x 30cm) CubeSat mission funded by the NSF, launched into a highly inclined (650) low-Earth (490km x 790km) orbit on 09/13/12 as a secondary payload under NASA's Educational Launch of Nanosatellites (ELaNa) program. CSSWE contains a single science payload, the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope integrated little experiment (REPTile), which is a simplified and miniaturized version of the Relativistic Electron and Proton Telescope (REPT) built at the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP) of University of Colorado for NASA/Van Allen Probes mission, which consists of two identical spacecraft, launched on 08/30/12, that traverse the heart of the radiation belts in a low inclination (100) orbit. REPTile is designed to measure the directional differential flux of protons ranging from 9 to 40 MeV and electrons from 0.5 to >3.3 MeV. Three-month science mission (full success) was completed on 1/05/13. We are now into the extended mission phase, focusing on data analysis and modeling. REPTile measures a fraction of the total population that has small enough equatorial pitch angles to reach the altitude of CSSWE, thus measuring the precipitating population as well as the trapped population. These measurements are critical for understanding the loss of outer radiation belt electrons. New results from CSSWE and comparison with Van Allen Probes data will be presented. The CSSWE is also an ideal class project, involving over 65 graduate and undergraduate students and providing training for the next generation of engineers and scientists over the full life-cycle of a satellite project.

  1. A Short-term Comparison Between Result of Palisade Cartilage Tympanoplasty and Temporalis Fascia Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishegar, Mahmood; Faramarzi, Abolhasan; Taraghi, Ayeh

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The use of cartilage as a grafting material has been advocated in cases where there is a high risk of graft failure, such as subtotal perforations, adhesive processes, and residual defects after primary tympanoplasties. The purpose of this study was to compare the graft acceptance rates and auditory outcomes of cartilage tympanoplasty operations using a palisade technique with those of primary tympanoplasty using temporalis fascia in a homogenous group of patients. Study Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: The study population included 54 patients who were operated on in two groups (palisade technique & temporalis fascia technique) with each group containing 27 patients. Patients with pure subtotal perforations (perforation of >50% of the whole tympanic membrane [TM] area), an intact ossicular chain, at least a one month dry period, and normal middle ear mucosa were included in the study. Grafts acceptance rates and pre- and post-operative audiograms were compared. The follow-up time was six months. Results: Graft acceptance was achieved in all patients (100%) in the palisade cartilage tympanoplasty group and in 25 patients (92.5%) in the temporalis fascia group. This difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.15). Comparison of the increases in mean speech reception threshold, air–bone gap, and pure-tone average scores between both techniques showed no significant changes. Conclusion: Our experience with the palisade cartilage technique demonstrates that subtotal or total perforation at high risk for graft failure can be treated efficiently, and that a durable and resistant reconstruction of the TM with reasonable auditory function can be achieved. PMID:24303394

  2. Radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: comparison of results with lens-sparing versus lateral beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1979 through 1986, 170 children were seen at our institution diagnosed with retinoblastoma. Sixty-six of the children with involvement of 121 eyes, were referred for definitive external beam radiation to one or both eyes. During the study period, two distinct radiation techniques were used. From 1980 through mid-1984, a lens-sparing technique included an anterior electron beam with a contact lens mounted lead shield, combined with a lateral field, was used. Since mid-1984, a modified lateral beam technique has been used, mixing lateral electrons and superior and inferior lateral oblique split beam wedged photons. Doses prescribed were similar for both techniques, ranging from 3,850 to 5,000 cGy in 4 to 5 weeks. The lens-sparing and the modified lateral techniques are compared for local control. For eyes with Group I through III disease, the lens-sparing technique resulted in local control in 33% of the eyes treated, where the modified lateral technique controlled 83% of the eyes treated (p = .006). Mean time to relapse was identical in both groups, that is 24 and 26 months respectively. Most relapses were successfully treated with further local therapy, including laser or cryosurgery, or 60Co plaques. Five eyes required enucleation following initial treatment with the lens-sparing technique, but none thus far with the lateral beam technique. For eyes with Group IV and V disease, no significant differences were found between the two techniques in terms of local control or eventual need for enucleation. With a mean follow-up time of 33 months for the entire group, the 4-year survival is 93%. Two of the 4 deaths are due to second primary tumor, and all 4 have occurred in the lens-sparing group. Because follow-up time is more limited in the lateral beam group, this is not statistically significant and direct survival comparisons are premature

  3. Canadian uranium fuel fabrication study: 1. Intake, retention and excretion monitoring results. 2. Comparison of results with metabolic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-five workers from two uranium fuel fabrication facilities, who had exposure histories of 2.5 to 21 years, were selected for examination of their uranium intakes, retention and excretion characteristics by means of personal air sampling, thorax measurement, and urinalysis, respectively. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility of using a simple set of measurements of the above parameters to estimate doses to the workers in relation to the dose limits specified in the Atomic Energy Control Regulations. Significant correlation coefficients between uranium excretion and lung burden were observed. Moderate correlations were also found between uranium excretion and estimated pulmonary deposition for one facility's subjects. No correlation was observed between pulmonary deposition, as calculated from air sampling data, and retention of uranium in the lung. The personal air samples (PAS) and lung burden data collected from Company A in this study (Part I) have been used with standard ICRP models to calculate urinary excretion and these results compared to measured values. It was found that neither Class W or Class Y compounds would fit the data, but a combination of 50% Class W and Class Y, with modification to the retention of uranium in tissues and organs, would give reasonable results. However, a revised lung model alone was also shown to give good agreement between results and models. This revised lung model does not result in a committed effective dose equivalent per unit intake significantly different from that calculated for Class Y uranium, but gives significantly different excretion rates. The implications of this result for internal contamination monitoring and dose assessment are discussed

  4. Modeling the Fracturing of Rock by Fluid Injection - Comparison of Numerical and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Galvan, Boris; Miller, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    Fluid-rock interactions are mechanically fundamental to many earth processes, including fault zones and hydrothermal/volcanic systems, and to future green energy solutions such as enhanced geothermal systems and carbon capture and storage (CCS). Modeling these processes is challenging because of the strong coupling between rock fracture evolution and the consequent large changes in the hydraulic properties of the system. In this talk, we present results of a numerical model that includes poro-elastic plastic rheology (with hardening, softening, and damage), and coupled to a non-linear diffusion model for fluid pressure propagation and two-phase fluid flow. Our plane strain model is based on the poro- elastic plastic behavior of porous rock and is advanced with hardening, softening and damage using the Mohr- Coulomb failure criteria. The effective stress model of Biot (1944) is used for coupling the pore pressure and the rock behavior. Frictional hardening and cohesion softening are introduced following Vermeer and de Borst (1984) with the angle of internal friction and the cohesion as functions of the principal strain rates. The scalar damage coefficient is assumed to be a linear function of the hardening parameter. Fluid injection is modeled as a two phase mixture of water and air using the Richards equation. The theoretical model is solved using finite differences on a staggered grid. The model is benchmarked with experiments on the laboratory scale in which fluid is injected from below in a critically-stressed, dry sandstone (Stanchits et al. 2011). We simulate three experiments, a) the failure a dry specimen due to biaxial compressive loading, b) the propagation a of low pressure fluid front induced from the bottom in a critically stressed specimen, and c) the failure of a critically stressed specimen due to a high pressure fluid intrusion. Comparison of model results with the fluid injection experiments shows that the model captures most of the experimental

  5. Properties of $^{152}$Gd Collective States (Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Results)

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, J; Honusek, M; Kalinnikov, V G; Mrazek, J; Pronskikh, V S; Caloun, P; Lebedev, N A; Stegailov, V I; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V M

    2002-01-01

    The experimental level energies and reduced probabilities of the transitions decoupling the ^{152}Gd excited states are compared with the calculations using a number of phenomenological formulae, as well as the Q-phonon model, IBA-2, phase transitions U(5)-SO(6) and U(5)-SU(3). A comparison with the calculations made by other authors is also given.

  6. Peculiarities in power type comparison results for half-linear dynamic equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 6 (2012), s. 1995-2013. ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100190701 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear dynamic equation * time scale * comparison theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.389, year: 2012 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.rmjm/1361800616

  7. More Part-Time Work as a Cure for Unemployment? Results of an International Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walwei, Ulrich; Werner, Heinz

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of policies encouraging more part-time employment as a cure for unemployment in Germany was examined through a comparison of the employment policies and labor markets of selected Organization for Economic Development (OECD) countries and the United States. OECD labor force statistics for the years 1972-1992 were analyzed to…

  8. Properties of 152Gd collective states. (Comparison of experimental and theoretical results)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental level energies and reduced probabilities of the transitions decoupling the 152Gd excited states are compared with the calculations using a number of phenomenological formulae, as well as the Q-phonon model, IBA-2, phase transitions U(5)-SO(6) and U(5)-SU(3). A comparison with the calculations made by other authors is also given

  9. Results of the IAVCEI inter-comparison study of eruptive plume models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic plume heights are key observable data for estimating crucial parameters such as mass flow rate, and they are commonly used as input for dispersal models of tephra particles. Therefore, quantitative relationships between plume heights and eruption conditions are required. During the last decades, many 1D, 2D, and 3D models of volcanic plume have been proposed. In order to investigate the dependence of plume dynamics on the models and their assumptions, we carried out an inter-comparison study of the recent plume models (nine 1D models based on the buoyant plume theory and four 3D models). The study was designed as a test in which a set of common input parameters was given for two reference eruptions, representing a strong and a weak eruption column under different meteorological conditions. Comparing the results of the different models has allowed us to evaluate their capabilities and target areas for improvement. Despite their different formulations, the 1D and 3D models provide reasonably consistent predictions of some of the key global descriptors of the volcanic plumes. Variability in modeled plume height, estimated as standard deviation, is within ~20% for the weak plume and ~10% for the strong plume. Predictions of neutral buoyancy level are also in reasonably good agreement among the different models, with a standard deviation ranging from 9 to 19% (the latter for the weak plume in a windy atmosphere). Overall, these discrepancies are in the range of observational uncertainty of column height. However, there are important differences amongst models in terms of local properties along the plume axis, particularly for the strong plume. The analysis suggests that the simplified treatment of entrainment in 1D models is adequate to resolve the general behavior of the weak plume. However, it appears clearly inadequate to capture complex features of the strong plume, such as large vortices, partial column collapse, or gravitational fountaining that strongly

  10. Accuracy and repeatability of weighing for occupational hygiene measurements: results from an inter-laboratory comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Revell, Graham; Tylee, Barry

    2002-11-01

    Gravimetric analysis is a fundamental technique frequently used in occupational hygiene assessments, but few studies have investigated its repeatability and reproducibility. Four inter-laboratory comparisons are discussed in this paper. The first involved 32 laboratories weighing 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters, the second involved 11 laboratories weighing 25 mm diameter PVC filters and the third involved eight laboratories weighing plastic IOM heads with 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters. Data from the third study found that measurements using this type of IOM head were unreliable. A fourth study, to ascertain if laboratories could improve their performance, involved a selected sub-group of 10 laboratories from the first exercise that analysed the 25 mm diameter glassfibre filters. The studies tested the analytical measurement process and not just the variation in weighings obtained on blank filters, as previous studies have done. Graphs of data from the first and second exercises suggest that a power curve relationship exists between reproducibility and loading and repeatability and loading. The relationship for reproducibility in the first study followed the equation log s(R) = -0.62 log m + 0.86 and in the second study log s(R) = -0.64 log m + 0.57, where s(R) is the reproducibility in terms of per cent relative standard deviation (%RSD) and m is the weight of loading in milligrams. The equation for glassfibre filters from the first exercise suggested that at a measurement of 0.4 mg (about a tenth of the United Kingdom legislative definition of a hazardous substance for a respirable dust for an 8 h sample), the measurement reproducibility is more than +/-25% (2sigma). The results from PVC filters had better repeatability estimates than the glassfibre filters, but overall they had similar estimates of reproducibility. An improvement in both the reproducibility and repeatability for glassfibre filters was observed in the fourth study. This improvement reduced

  11. Immersion freezing by SnomaxTM particles: Comparison of results from different instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, Heike; Stratmann, Frank; Rösch, Michael; Niedermeier, Dennis; Nilius, Björn; Möhler, Ottmar; Mitra, Subir K.; Koop, Thomas; Jantsch, Evelyn; Hiranuma, Naruki; Diehl, Karoline; Curtius, Joachim; Budke, Carsten; Boose, Yvonne; Augustin, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Within the DFG funded research unit INUIT (Ice Nucleation research UnIT, FOR 1525), an effort was made to compare results on immersion freezing from a suite of different instruments. Besides mineral dusts, SnomaxTM was picked as one of the substances that were examined by all participating groups. Here, the comparison of the results for SnomaxTM is presented. Every participating group used SnomaxTM from the same batch and, as far as possible, the same particle generation set-up. Instruments participating in the comparison were, in alphabetical order, an acoustic levitator (Diehl et al., 2009), AIDA (Connolly et al., 2009), BINARY (Budke et al., 2013), FINCH (Bundke et al., 2008), LACIS (Hartmann et al., 2011), PINC (Chou et al., 2011) and the Mainz vertical windtunnel (Diehl et al., 2011). Some of the instruments examined droplets directly produced from SnomaxTM suspensions, where the suspensions could have a wide range of concentrations. Other instruments used size segregated particles which were generated via atomization from a SnomaxTM suspension and subsequent drying, followed by size selection with a DMA (Differential Mobility Analyzer). These particles were then activated to droplets and cooled subsequently. For these, the number of ice nucleation active protein complexes present in the droplets depended on the original particle size (for details see e.g. Hartmann et al., 2013). Also, the different measurements spanned a range of different time scales. The shortest residence time of roughly 1 second was used for LACIS measurements, and the longest one was about 6 seconds used in the BINARY setup with a cooling rate of 1 K/min. All data were evaluated using two different approaches: 1) a time dependent approach following Classical Nucleation Theory which included the use of a contact angle distribution (see Niedermeier et al., 2014); 2) a singular approach using an active site density per mass (see Vali, 1971, Murray et al., 2012). Both approaches were found

  12. Comparison of computer code calculations with experimental results obtained in the NSPP series of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments were done on several aerosols in air atmospheres at varying temperatures and humidity conditions of interest in forming a data base for testing aerosol behavior models used as part of the process of evaluating the ''source term'' in light water reactor accidents. This paper deals with the problems of predicting the observed experimental data for suspended aerosol concentration with aerosol calculational codes. Comparisons of measured versus predicted data are provided

  13. Comparison of treatment results of acute and late injuries of the lisfranc joint

    OpenAIRE

    Tarczyńska, Marta; Gawęda, Krzysztof; Dajewski, Zbigniew; Kowalska, Elżbieta; Gągała, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Objective A retrospective comparison of treatment difficulties and treatment outcomes in Lisfranc joint injuries with late and early diagnosis. Methods The study group consisted of 10 patients diagnosed and treated properly within six months to 20 years of the accident causing the injury (mean six years). The control group consisted of the same number of randomly selected patients with a similar type of injury treated immediately after the accident. Mean follow-up was 13 years in the study gr...

  14. DETERMINATION OF CONSTANTS AND COMPARISON OF RESULTS FOR VARIOUS CONSTITUTIVE MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Holmquist, T.; G. Johnson

    1991-01-01

    The ability to compare different constitutive models has been difficult in the past because the constants associated with these models are developed using different methods and test data. This work presents an explicit, consistent procedure for which constants can be determined for different constitutive models using the same test data base. This allows for a direct comparison of the models to be made independent of the material constants. Using this procedure, constants are determined for fo...

  15. MAAP thermal-hydraulic qualification results of MAAP comparisons to MIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) experimental facility is a small scale representation of a Babcock and Wilcox 2x4 (2 hot legs x 4 cold legs) lowered-loop plant. A 1:817 volume scaling is utilized, but a 1:1 elevation scaling maintains most first order effects. Several different scenarios have been investigated with the facility. These include small-break LOCAs, HPI-PORV cooling cases, steam generator tube ruptures and several variations of each. The initial comparisons to Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) were limited to two of the small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) experiments. The first comparison was with the nominal SBLOCA test T3109AA. This experiment simulated a 10 cm2 cold leg break with HPI and AFW available. The reactor coolant pumps trip off, the reactor vessel vent valves are set to actuate automatically (i.e., not forced opened or closed), and constant secondary level control and symmetric cooldown is initiated. The second comparison was with an additional SBLOCA test T410AT3, which was similar to the nominal SBLOCA test but without HPI cooling. Based on the MIST runs made to date modeling changes believed to be necessary are suggested

  16. Comparison of software for thermodynamic process calculation. Results of the VGB research project No. 177

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giglmayr, I.; Pogoreutz, M. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Waermetechnik; Nixdorf, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Thermal Power Systems

    2001-07-01

    The VGB Research Project No. 177 'Comparison of Software for Thermodynamic Process Calculation' gives an overview of 16 programmes commercially available and aims at presenting an objective comparison of them. This comparison is essentially based on the method of utility value analysis. As, however, the requirements to be met by these programmes differ considerably, no generally valid ranking/recommendation can be given. Thus, the programme Quick Select is a tool for the potential user which can be applied to establish a ranking designed to meet his own specific requirements. (orig.) [German] Das VGB-Forschungsvorhaben Nr. 177 'Vergleich von Software zur thermodynamischen Prozessrechnung' gibt eine Uebersicht ueber 16 kommerziell angebotene Programme und gestattet ihre Beurteilung. Der Vergleich der Leistungsfaehigkeit stuetzt sich im Wesentlichen auf die Methode der Nutzwertanalyse, wobei aufgrund der stark divergierenden Anforderungen an die Programme keine allgemein gueltige Reihung/Empfehlung gegeben werden kann. Das im Rahmen der Projektbearbeitung entwickelte Programm Quick Select ermoeglicht jedoch dem potentiellen Anwender, ein Ranking fuer seine eigenen Ansprueche zu erstellen. (orig.)

  17. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  18. The analysis of results of comparison test for radionuclides measurement through γ spectrum analysis from 2007 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test the capability of radionuclides measurement through γ spectrum analysis and improve the ability of the technicians by inter-laboratory comparison test, Gansu Center for Disease Prevention and Control participated in the comparison test organized by China Center for Disease Prevention and Control continuously from 2007 to 2012. All of the measured values are within the scope of qualified, and the relative deviation of measured value in the entire comparison tests is range from -16.31% to 11.83%.The results show that the equipment for γ spectrum measurement works normally, the analysis methods used for radioactive nuclide measuring is correct and the data in issued test report is accurate and reliable. The ability of the γ spectrum analysis satisfies the requirements of China Metrology Accreditation and the occupational health technical service. (authors)

  19. Results of a European interlaboratory comparison on CO2 sorption on activated carbon and coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensterblum, Yves; Busch, Andreas; Krooss, Bernhard; de Weireld, Guy; Billemont, Pierre; van Hemert, Patrick; Wolf, Karl-Heinz

    2013-04-01

    For the assessment of CO2 storage in coal seams or enhanced coalbed methane production (ECBM), the sorption properties of natural coals are important parameters. Since more and more laboratories worldwide are concerned with measurements of gas sorption on coal it is indispensable to establish quality standards for such experiments. The first two interlaboratory studies on CO2 sorption on coal (Goodman et al. 2004, 2007) revealed a poor agreement of sorption isotherms among the participating laboratories, particularly in the high-pressure range. During the MOVECBM (http://www.movecbm.eu/) project funded by the European Commission (6th framework), an interlaboratory comparison of CO2 sorption on selected coals and activated carbon was initiated. Measurements were performed on dry samples at 45° C using the manometric and the gravimetric method. up to a final pressure of 15 MPa. The first set of high-pressure sorption measurements was performed on a Filtrasorb 400 activated carbon sample in order to minimise heterogeneity effects and to optimize the experimental procedures for the individual (manometric or gravimetric) methods (Gensterblum et al. 2009). Since comparability for the activated carbon was excellent, the measurements were continued using natural coals of various rank (anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite) to study the influence of heterogeneities and varying starting conditions on the CO2 sorption properties (Gensterblum et al. 2010). Compared to the poor reproducibility observed in previous interlaboratory studies (Goodman et al., 2004, 2007) this European study showed excellent agreement (coals" IJCG, 2010, 84, 115-124 Gensterblum Y., P. van Hemert, P. Billemont, A. Busch, D. Charriére, D. Li, B.M. Krooss, G. de Weireld, D. Prinz , K.-H.A.A. Wolf, "European inter-laboratory comparison of high pressure CO2 sorption isotherms. I: Activated carbon" Carbon 47 ( 2009 ) 2958 -2969 Goodman, A.L., Busch, A., Duffy, G., Fitzgerald, J.E., Gasem, K

  20. Oscillation and extinction thresholds of the clarinet: comparison of analytical results and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmont, Jean-Pierre; Frappé, Cyrille

    2007-08-01

    In the context of a simplified model of the clarinet in which the losses are assumed to be frequency independent the analytic expressions of the various thresholds have been calculated in a previous paper [Dalmont et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 32.94-3305 (2005)]. The present work is a quantitative comparison between "theoretical" values of the thresholds and their experimental values measured by using an artificial mouth. It is shown that the "Raman" model, providing that nonlinear losses are taken into account, is reliable and able to predict the values of thresholds. PMID:17672663

  1. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem to be made. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on gas, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is capable of accurate predictions

  2. A model for negative ion extraction and comparison of negative ion optics calculations to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative ion extraction is described by a model which includes electron diffusion across transverse magnetic fields in the sheath. This model allows a 2-Dimensional approximation of the problem. It is used to introduce electron space charge effects in a 2-D particle trajectory code, designed for negative ion optics calculations. Another physical effect, the stripping of negative ions on neutral gas atoms, has also been included in our model; it is found to play an important role in negative ion optics. The comparison with three sets of experimental data from very different negative ion accelerators, show that our model is able of accurate predictions

  3. Optical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of photonic crystal fibers: results and comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzycki, Krzysztof; Kobelke, Jens; Schuster, Kay; Wójcik, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Six photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) were characterized at NIT laboratory participating in COST Action 299 "FIDES", allowing for comparisons of properties and their dependence on fiber design. Samples tested included three nonlinear fibers with germanium doped core, two fibers with un-doped core and honeycomb photonic structure, and a "PANDAlike" PCF with a pair of large holes along an un-doped core. Tests included optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) measurements, spectral loss, polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and its variations with temperature, fiber twist and axial strain. Elastooptic coefficient was measured for 2 fibers. Most samples exhibited high PMD, up to 3 ps/m. PMD was usually reduced by twisting the fiber, but twist sensitivity varied widely. The "PANDA-like" PCF, however, had PMD virtually unaffected by both twist and tensile strain; the latter property made it different from true PANDA fiber tested for comparison. Intensity of backscattering in each PCF was stronger compared to a standard telecom single mode fiber (SMF), by a factor up to 110x.

  4. Design Studies of ''Island'' Type MOX Lead Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovitchev, A.M.

    2000-03-31

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <> type MOX LTA design are presented. The characteristics both for infinite MOX grids and for VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are calculated. the neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  5. Design Studies of ''Island'' Type MOX Lead Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of > type MOX LTA design are presented. The characteristics both for infinite MOX grids and for VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are calculated. the neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M

  6. Design Studies of ''100% Pu'' Mox Lead Test Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of > MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M

  7. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR—First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Bollig, C.; Mengistu, G; Sharma, A.; W. Alemu; D. Moema; Tesfaye, M.; Sivakumar, V.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC) mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and backscatter c...

  8. Results of a Longer Term NDACC Measurements Comparison Campaign at Mauna Loa Observatory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November, 2015 and January, 2015, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a pair of lidar instruments at the NOAA facility at Mauna Loa on the Big Island of Hawaii (Lat. 19.5N, Lon. 155.5 W, Altitude 3.397 km. Measurements were made during six different four week periods during this time period by both the NASA GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar (STROZ and the Aerosol and Temperature (ATL lidar. Also making measurements were the JPL Stratospheric Ozone Lidar and the NOAA Aerosol and Water Vapor Lidar. All instruments participate and archive data with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Measurement comparisons were made among various instruments in accordance with the standard intercomparison protocols of the NDACC.

  9. Scheduling of head-sensitive cascaded hydro systems : a comparison based on numerical simulation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric power sector in Portugal and Spain has shifted from a traditional monopoly to a deregulated, competitive energy market. As such, hydroelectric facilities face the optimal challenge of how to make a profit by managing water resources without compromising future potential profit. As such, hydro scheduling is a key activity for hydroelectric power utilities because of its significant economic impact. It involves the optimal management of water inflows and storage in reservoirs. This paper considered the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, concerning head-sensitive cascaded reservoirs, and the algorithmic aspects of its solution. The authors proposed and compared optimization methods based on dynamic programming, and linear and nonlinear network programming. The comparison revealed a negligible extra computational effort in a realistic cascaded hydro system where the head depended on the stored water volume. 17 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  10. Reproducibility of Elecsys anti-TSHR test results in a lot-to-lot comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, D; Eckstein, A; Schinner, S; Willenberg, H S; Thiel, A; Scherbaum, W A; Schott, M

    2010-04-01

    Most recently, a new rapid and fully-automated TSH receptor autoantibody (TRAb) assay has been established. This assay system uses the M22 human monoclonal antibody for competing against the patient's TSH receptor autoantibodies (TRAb) to be detected. The aim of our present study was to compare the reproducibility of TRAb values based on measurements with different TSH receptor preparations in a lot-to-lot comparison. For TRAb values > 2 IU/l the relative differences ranged from -9.0 to +10.0%. The mean difference was 0.28 +/- 8%. For TRAb values around the cutoff for positivity (1.75 IU/l) a higher range of relative differences from -20 up to +15% was obtained. The overall mean of differences was -0.8+/-14%. The data clearly demonstrate that the automated TRAb assay has a high stability in regard to TSH receptor preparations. PMID:20131202

  11. Results of the High Resolution OTR Measurements at KEK and comparison with simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolzon, B; Mazzoni, S; Welsch, C P; Karataev, P; Kruchinin, K; Aryshev, A

    2013-01-01

    Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) is emitted when a charged particle crosses the interface between two media with different dielectric properties. It has become a standard tool for beam imaging and transverse beam size measurements. At the KEK Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2), OTR is used at the beginning of the final focus system to measure micrometre beam size using the visibility of the OTR Point Spread Function (PSF). In order to study in detail the PSF and improve the resolution of the monitor, a novel simulation tool has been developed. Based on the physical optic propagation mode of ZEMAX, the propagation of the OTR electric field can be simulated very precisely up to the image plane, taking into account aberrations and diffraction. This contribution presents the comparison between Zemax simulations and measurements performed at ATF2.

  12. Comparison of a laboratory spectrum of Eu-152 with results of simulation using the MCNP code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenas, J. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Gallardo, S. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es; Ortiz, J. [Laboratorio de Radiactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-21

    Detectors used for gamma spectrometry must be calibrated for each geometry considered in environmental radioactivity laboratories. This calibration is performed using a standard solution containing gamma emitter sources. Nevertheless, the efficiency curves obtained are periodically checked using a source such as {sup 152}Eu emitting many gamma rays that cover a wide energy range (20-1500 keV). {sup 152}Eu presents a problem because it has a lot of peaks affected by True Coincidence Summing (TCS). Two experimental measures have been performed placing the source (a Marinelli beaker) at 0 and 10 cm from the detector. Both spectra are simulated by the MCNP 4C code, where the TCS is not reproduced. Therefore, the comparison between experimental and simulated peak net areas permits one to choose the most convenient peaks to check the efficiency curves of the detector.

  13. Comparison of numerical simulation results for transport and thermodynamic properties of the solid fuels combustion products with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelkov, Yuriy; Samujlov, Eugueny

    2012-04-01

    Comparison of calculation results of transport properties of the solid fuels combustion products was made with known experimental data. Calculation was made by means of the modified program TETRAN developed in G.M. Krzhizhanovsky Power Engineering Institute. The calculation was spent with chemical reactions and phase transformations occurring during combustion. Also ionization of products of solid fuels combustion products at high temperatures was taken into account. In the capacity of fuels various Russian coals and some other solid fuels were considered. As a result of density, viscosity and heat conductivity calculation of a gas phase of solid fuels combustion products the data has been obtained in a range of temperatures 500-20000 K. This comparison has shown good convergence of calculation results with experiment.

  14. Comparison of fission product release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaise Collin

    2014-09-01

    This report documents comparisons between post-irradiation examination measurements and model predictions of silver (Ag), cesium (Cs), and strontium (Sr) release from selected tristructural isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation test of the Advanced Gas Reactor program that occurred from December 2006 to November 2009 in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The modeling was performed using the particle fuel model computer code PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) developed at INL. PARFUME is an advanced gas-cooled reactor fuel performance modeling and analysis code (Miller 2009). It has been developed as an integrated mechanistic code that evaluates the thermal, mechanical, and physico-chemical behavior of fuel particles during irradiation to determine the failure probability of a population of fuel particles given the particle-to-particle statistical variations in physical dimensions and material properties that arise from the fuel fabrication process, accounting for all viable mechanisms that can lead to particle failure. The code also determines the diffusion of fission products from the fuel through the particle coating layers, and through the fuel matrix to the coolant boundary. The subsequent release of fission products is calculated at the compact level (release of fission products from the compact) but it can be assessed at the particle level by adjusting the diffusivity in the fuel matrix to very high values. Furthermore, the diffusivity of each layer can be individually set to a high value (typically 10-6 m2/s) to simulate a failed layer with no capability of fission product retention. In this study, the comparison to PIE focused on fission product release and because of the lack of failure in the irradiation, the probability of particle failure was not calculated. During the AGR-1 irradiation campaign, the fuel kernel produced and released fission products, which migrated through the successive

  15. A comprehensive analyzing and evaluating of the results of a wide scope comparison on the environmental level radioactive samples with γ spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide scope comparison on the environmental level radioactive samples by γ spectrometers, that has been done in 1998 - 1999, was introduced. Some original data about the comparison are presented. Comprehensive analyzing and evaluating on the comparison results have been done. A new method used for determining comparison reference values, the Model Real Time Weight Average, is adopted. The method is detailed and compared with other models. The practice shows that the Model Real Time Weight Average adopted is feasible and successful

  16. Numerical models: Detailing and simulation techniques aimed at comparison with experimental data, support to test result interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This part of the presentation discusses the modelling details required and the simulation techniques available for analyses, facilitating the comparison with the experimental data and providing support for interpretation of the test results. It is organised to cover the following topics: analysis inputs; basic modelling requirements for reactor coolant system; method applicable for reactor cooling system; consideration of damping values and integration time steps; typical analytic models used for analysis of reactor pressure vessel and internals; hydrodynamic mass and fluid damping for the internal analysis; impact elements for fuel analysis; and PEI theorem and its applications. The intention of these topics is to identify the key parameters associated with models of analysis and analytical methods. This should provide proper basis for useful comparison with the test results

  17. Comparison between CAREB code calculations and LOCA test results in the FUMEX III project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Dragos Victor; Pauna, Eduard Ionut [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2011-05-15

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on improvement of computer codes used for fuel behaviour simulation under the name: FUMEX III. The Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti participated at this CRP with ROFEM and CAREB computer codes. Recently, both codes have been improved with new models in order to extend their capabilities. The behaviour of fuel elements during high-temperature transients like LOCA is of importance to safety and licensing of power reactors. CAREB was developed for fuel transients analyses, such as LOCA and RIA. In this paper a comparison between CAREB code calculations and measured data from FIO-131 LOCA tests is presented. Several parameters were considered, including fuel sheath strains, internal element gas pressure, fuel centerline and sheath temperature, thicknesses of ZrO{sub 2} on the sheath. Fuel behavior during high-temperature transient was reasonably well modeled by CAREB code. New LOCA tests are planed to be performed in the C2-LOCA facility of the TRIGA research reactor at INR Pitesti in order to extend the experimental data base used for transient code validation. (orig.)

  18. Comparison between CAREB code calculations and LOCA test results in the FUMEX III project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on improvement of computer codes used for fuel behaviour simulation under the name: FUMEX III. The Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti participated at this CRP with ROFEM and CAREB computer codes. Recently, both codes have been improved with new models in order to extend their capabilities. The behaviour of fuel elements during high-temperature transients like LOCA is of importance to safety and licensing of power reactors. CAREB was developed for fuel transients analyses, such as LOCA and RIA. In this paper a comparison between CAREB code calculations and measured data from FIO-131 LOCA tests is presented. Several parameters were considered, including fuel sheath strains, internal element gas pressure, fuel centerline and sheath temperature, thicknesses of ZrO2 on the sheath. Fuel behavior during high-temperature transient was reasonably well modeled by CAREB code. New LOCA tests are planed to be performed in the C2-LOCA facility of the TRIGA research reactor at INR Pitesti in order to extend the experimental data base used for transient code validation. (orig.)

  19. Results of an IAEA inter-comparison exercise to assess 137Cs and total 210Pb analytical performance in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as 210Pb and 137Cs have been widely used to assess soil erosion and sedimentation processes. It is of major importance to obtain accurate analytical results of FRNs by gamma analysis before any data treatment through conversion model and to allow subsequent comparison of erosion and sedimentation rates from different case studies. Therefore, IAEA organized an inter-comparison exercise to assess the validity and reliability of the analytical results of 137Cs and total 210Pb using γ-spectrometry in the various laboratories participating in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on 'Assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides'. Reference materials were distributed to 14 participating laboratories and, using a rating system, their analytical results were compared to the reference values assigned. In the case of 137Cs, the analytical results were satisfactory with 66% of the laboratories producing acceptable results. Only the sample with low 137Cs activity (2.6±0.2 Bq kg-1) gave less accurate results with more than 25% not acceptable results. The total 210Pb analysis indicated a clear need for corrective actions in the analysis process as only 36% of the laboratories involved in the proficiency test was able to access total 210Pb with occurrence (bias ≤10%). This inter-laboratory test underlines that further inter-comparison exercises should be organized by IAEA or regional laboratories to ensure the quality of the analytical data produced in Member States. As a result of the above-mentioned proficiency test, some recommendations have been provided to improve accurate gamma measurement of both 137Cs and total 210Pb

  20. Results of an IAEA inter-comparison exercise to assess 137Cs and total 210Pb analytical performance in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A; Mabit, L

    2009-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides (FRNs) such as (210)Pb and (137)Cs have been widely used to assess soil erosion and sedimentation processes. It is of major importance to obtain accurate analytical results of FRNs by gamma analysis before any data treatment through conversion model and to allow subsequent comparison of erosion and sedimentation rates from different case studies. Therefore, IAEA organized an inter-comparison exercise to assess the validity and reliability of the analytical results of (137)Cs and total (210)Pb using gamma-spectrometry in the various laboratories participating in the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project on "Assess the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management using fallout radionuclides". Reference materials were distributed to 14 participating laboratories and, using a rating system, their analytical results were compared to the reference values assigned. In the case of (137)Cs, the analytical results were satisfactory with 66% of the laboratories producing acceptable results. Only the sample with low (137)Cs activity (2.6+/-0.2Bqkg(-1)) gave less accurate results with more than 25% not acceptable results. The total (210)Pb analysis indicated a clear need for corrective actions in the analysis process as only 36% of the laboratories involved in the proficiency test was able to access total (210)Pb with occurrence (bias 10%). This inter-laboratory test underlines that further inter-comparison exercises should be organized by IAEA or regional laboratories to ensure the quality of the analytical data produced in Member States. As a result of the above-mentioned proficiency test, some recommendations have been provided to improve accurate gamma measurement of both (137)Cs and total (210)Pb. PMID:18760612

  1. Excluded Volume Effects in Polymer Solutions: II. Comparison of Experimental Results with Numerical Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graessley, W.W.; Grest, G.S.; Hayward, R.C.

    1999-03-23

    The effect of excluded volume on the coil size of dilute linear polymers was investigated by off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations. The radius of gyration R{sub g} was evaluated for a wide range of chain lengths at several temperatures and at the athermal condition. The theta temperature and the corresponding theta chain dimensions were established for the system, and the dependence of the size expansion factor, a{sub s} = R{sub g} /(R{sub g}){sub {theta}}, on chain length N and temperature T was examined. For long chains and at high temperatures, a{sub s} is a function of N/N{sub s}{sup 2} alone, where the length scale N{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on T. The form of this simulations-based master function compares favorably with {alpha}{sub s}(M/M{sub s}{sup 2}), an experimental master curve for linear polymers in good solvents, where M{sub s}{sup 2} depends only on polymer-solvent system. Comparisons when N{sub s}{sup 2}(T) and M{sub s}{sup 2}(system) are reduced to common units, numbers of Kuhn steps, strongly indicate that coil expansion in even the best of good solvents is small relative to that expected for truly athermal solutions. An explanation for this behavior is proposed, based on what would appear to be an inherent difference in the equation of state properties for polymeric and monomeric liquids.

  2. Comparison of the results of Harwell and Winfrith post-dryout experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steady state post dryout heat transfer data have been obtained for vertical flow inside a tube of inside diameter 10 mm and length 920 mm both at Winfrith and Harwell. The data were obtained using the ''hot patch'' technique in which indirectly heated copper blocks brazed onto either end of the test section tube operate at above the critical heat flux. These hot patches stabilise the quench front beyond the tube, which may then be operated in post dryout down to relatively low heat fluxes and steam qualities. Many of the comparisons between the two sets of data are good, but in some cases, when the inlet subcooling is high, the Winfrith tube temperatures are hotter by up to 1000C close to the test section inlet. Further downstream towards the tube outlet Harwell and Winfrith temperature measurements again tend to agree. It is considered most unlikely that experimental error could account for these differences. Furthermore, Winfrith tests have shown that measured tube heat fluxes are sensitive to the inlet flow pattern and the steam quality at the hot patch outlet. The Winfrith test section had a 900 bend immediately upstream of the inlet hot patch, while the Harwell inlet was straight. The Winfrith hot patch braze is also known to have been cracked, affecting the hot patch heat flux profile and its outlet quality. It is suggested that either of these two effects may produce earlier disruption of an inverted annular flow pattern in the Winfrith test section, giving poorer heat transfer and higher tube temperatures in this region. (author)

  3. Comparison of out-of-plane deformation results measured by Dual-function Interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-function interferometer is one of interferometers that have all features of ESPI (Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry) and shearography in one interferometer setup. The deformation of an object is directly obtained by ESPI while the slope of the deformation of an object is obtained by shearography. If the results of shearography are divided by shearing amount and integrated by numerical analyzing, then finally the reconstructed deformation of an object that is the same as the results directly obtained by ESPI can be measured by shearography. In this study, Cu-thin plate is used as specimen and its out-of-plane deformation is measured by ESPI and shearography setup of the dual-function interferometer. Each of the results obtained by ESPI and shearography is compared by using numerical integration to the result of shearography. From this study, it is confirmed that the reconstructed deformation results obtained by numerical integration good agrees with the results obtained by ESPI.

  4. Results of GEANT simulations and comparison with first experiments at DANCE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reifarth, R.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Browne, J. C.; Esch, E. I.; Haight, R. C.; O& #x27; Donnell, J. M.; Kronenberg, A.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.

    2003-07-29

    This report describes intensive Monte Carlo simulations carried out to be compared with the results of the first run cycle with DANCE (Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments). The experimental results were gained during the commissioning phase 2002/2003 with only a part of the array. Based on the results of these simulations the most important items to be improved before the next experiments will be addressed.

  5. Evaluation of NAA laboratory results in inter-comparison on determination of trace elements in food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inter-comparison program is a good tool for improving quality and to enhance the accuracy and precision of the analytical techniques. By participating in this program, laboratories could demonstrate their capability and ensuring the quality of analysis results generated by analytical laboratories. The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry-PTNBR laboratory participated in inter-comparison tests organized by NAA working group. Inter-comparison BATAN 2009 was the third inter-laboratory analysis test within that project. The participating laboratories were asked to analyze for trace elements using neutron activation analysis as the primary technique. Three materials were distributed to the participants representing foodstuff, and environmental material samples. Samples were irradiated in rabbit facility of G.A. Siwabessy reactor with neutron flux ~ 1013 n.cm-2.s-1, and counted with HPGe detector of gamma spectrometry. Several trace elements in these samples were detected. The accuracy and precision evaluation based on International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) criteria was applied. In this paper the PTNBR NAA laboratory results is evaluated. (author)

  6. Life-cycle analysis results of geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J. L.; Clark, C. E.; Han, J.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2010-10-11

    A life-cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions analysis has been conducted with Argonne National Laboratory's expanded Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model for geothermal power-generating technologies, including enhanced geothermal, hydrothermal flash, and hydrothermal binary technologies. As a basis of comparison, a similar analysis has been conducted for other power-generating systems, including coal, natural gas combined cycle, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind, photovoltaic, and biomass by expanding the GREET model to include power plant construction for these latter systems with literature data. In this way, the GREET model has been expanded to include plant construction, as well as the usual fuel production and consumption stages of power plant life cycles. For the plant construction phase, on a per-megawatt (MW) output basis, conventional power plants in general are found to require less steel and concrete than renewable power systems. With the exception of the concrete requirements for gravity dam hydroelectric, enhanced geothermal and hydrothermal binary used more of these materials per MW than other renewable power-generation systems. Energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) ratios for the infrastructure and other life-cycle stages have also been developed in this study per kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electricity output by taking into account both plant capacity and plant lifetime. Generally, energy burdens per energy output associated with plant infrastructure are higher for renewable systems than conventional ones. GHG emissions per kWh of electricity output for plant construction follow a similar trend. Although some of the renewable systems have GHG emissions during plant operation, they are much smaller than those emitted by fossil fuel thermoelectric systems. Binary geothermal systems have virtually insignificant GHG emissions compared to fossil systems. Taking into account plant construction and operation, the

  7. Comparison of Calculational Results from Different Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Crumbling Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PIEPHO, M.G.

    2000-01-25

    Several safety basis cases or scenarios using three different fuel crumbling or degradation approaches were simulated with a modified HANSF Code. Results of simulations are compared and discussed. The conclusion is that the safety basis fuel reaction enhancement factors are conservative and bound other fuel crumbling approaches for the results of interest.

  8. Comparison of Results of Cycles Treated with Modified Mild Protocol and Short Protocol for Ovarian Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    F. Coelho; Aguiar, L. F.; G. S. P. Cunha; N. Cardinot; Lucena, E.

    2014-01-01

    The ovarian stimulation has been applied in order to increase the number of oocytes to compensate for the poor results of in vitro fertilization, allowing the selection of one or more embryos to be transferred. Our aim is to compare the results obtained in IVF/ICSI cycles using the short protocol for controlled ovarian stimulation to the results from the modified mild protocol used in our department. A total of 240 cycles were conducted from January 2010 to December 2011. When comparing both ...

  9. Validation of thermohydraulic codes by comparison of experimental results with computer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by simulation of three cases from CANON depressurization experience, using the TRAC-PF1 computer code, version 7.6, implanted in the VAX-11/750 computer of Brazilian CNEN, are presented. The CANON experience was chosen as first standard problem in thermo-hydraulic to be discussed at ENFIR for comparing results from different computer codes with results obtained experimentally. The ability of TRAC-PF1 code to prevent the depressurization phase of a loss of primary collant accident in pressurized water reactors is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  10. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR—First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bollig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and backscatter coefficients simulated from weather balloon humidity measurements.

  11. Comparison of exact and approximate results of the Tsallis statistics in ultrarelativistic $pp$ collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Parvan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The Tsallis statistics was applied to describe the experimental data on the transverse momentum distributions of hadrons for the first time. This result was achieved only for the massless Maxwell-Boltzmann particles. We considered the energy dependence of the parameters for both the Tsallis statistics and its zeroth term approximation for the pions produced in $pp$ collisions at high energies and found that the results of the zeroth term approximation deviate from the results of the Tsallis statistics only at low NA61/SHINE energies when the value of the parameter $q$ is close to unity. At higher energies, when the value of the parameter $q$ deviates essentially from the unity, the zeroth term approximation satisfactorily recovers the results of the Tsallis statistics.

  12. Comparison of Some Exact and Perturbative Results for a Supersymmetric SU($N_c$) Gauge Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We consider vectorial, asymptotically free ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric SU($N_c$) gauge theories with $N_f$ copies of massless chiral super fields in various representations and study how perturbative predictions for the lower boundary of the infrared conformal phase, as a function of $N_f$, compare......+\\bar S_2$, and (iv) $A_2 + \\bar A_2$, where $F$, $Adj$, $S_2$, and $A_2$ denote, respectively, the fundamental, adjoint, and symmetric and antisymmetric rank-2 tensor representations. We find that perturbative results slightly overestimate the value of $N_{f,cr}$ relative to the respective exact...... results for these representations, i.e., slightly underestimate the interval in $N_f$ for which the theory has infrared conformal behavior. Our results provide a measure of how closely perturbative calculations reproduce exact results for these theories....

  13. CIEMAT interlaboratories comparison of the results obtained in the proficiency test run by IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the results obtained by two different laboratories from CIEMAT after participating in the Proficiency Test organised by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) in 1999. This test involves the analysis of fly ashes containing natural radionuclides and different amounts of added transuranics. The extraction techniques, counting methods and results obtained are detailed. This type of test are used for the labs to achieve their accreditation and check the reliability of the procedures routinely employed. (Author) 4 refs

  14. Results and comparison of seven accelerated cycling test procedures for the photovoltaic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potteau, E.; Desmettre, D.; Mattera, F.; Bach, O.; Martin, J.-L.; Malbranche, P.

    Choosing the right battery for a given photovoltaic (PV) system is a key question, because it strongly influences the cost and reliability of the system. This paper presents results of seven test procedures experienced at the GENEC battery test facility. A set of four complementary tests is selected, covering the various types of photovoltaic systems. Moreover, the analysis of these results gives an estimation of the ageing rate for the different types of batteries used in photovoltaic systems.

  15. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  16. Comparison of the results of T-Test from different versions of Epi Info

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junke Tang; Jinliang Zhu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To take advantage of Epi Info to manage and analyze disease data. Methods: After selecting the living examples for independent sample T-Test, Epi Info 5.00, 5.01a(Chinese), 6.00, 6.04 b, 6.04 d, 2000, 2002(Chinese)were used to do the independent sample T-Test on the two living examples. Then, Intercooled Stata7, Microsoft Excel(2002) and SPSS 10.0 for Windows were used to verify the results. Results: The statistical results from the Epi Info 5.00, 5.01a(Chinese) and 6.00 were the same while that from Epi Info 6.04 b, 6.04 d, 2000,2002 (Chinese), Intercooled Stata7, Microsoft Excel(2002) and SPSS 10.0 for Windows were identical In independent sample T-Test,. But the former result is different with the latter. Conclusion: There was an error in the result of T-Test from Epi Info 6.00 and former versions. Thus, it's important to be alert to select the versions of Epi Info to manage and analyze disease data. On the other hand, it's also quite pivotal to distinguish the adopted Epi Info versions when referring to the articles ane use the statistical results.

  17. Variability in the results of inr (international normalized ratio: a comparison of six commercial thromboplastin brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Daniela Serralvo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The efficacy and safety in treatment with oral anticoagulants are dependent on the monitoring of the effect of anticoagulants by the prothrombin time (PT. The system INR (International Normalized Ratio was developed to minimize the variability in the PT, mainly because of the thromboplastin reagent used. Objective: Compare the results of INR employing six thromboplastins and plasmas of patients using oral anticoagulants. Materials and Methods: For this study, 96 patients using oral anticoagulants and that had TP collected for monitoring anticoagulants were selected randomly. INR values were determined using six commercially available thromboplastin brands. Results and Discussion: Of the 96 patients, 29 were with the INR between 2 and 3 when used reagents Dade-Behring®, Human do Brasil® and Diagnostica Stago®. Regardless of the range of INR, the results obtained with the reagent Labtest® were statistically different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech and Bios Diagnostica®. With INR between 2 and 3 only differences were observed between the results of brands and Bios Diagnostica® Labtest®. With INR above 3, the results of Labtest® were different from the Dade-Behring®, from Diagnostica Stago®, Trinity Biotech® and Bios Diagnostica®. Conclusion: Despite the establishment of INR, there are still significant differences in INR results depending on the thromboplastin brand used, which can interfere with the therapeutic approach in relation to oral anticoagulants.

  18. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We estimated the presence of bone union by radiographic and clinical evaluation and compared the results with Constant and Mayo scores. The etiology of injuries was falls and traffic accidents in 87% of cases. The hanging cast group had the most of elbow contractures and insufficient results of functional scales. The plating group had lower average values of scores than nails, especially considering the elbow function. Among subgroups, the locked intramedullary nails had better results than Ender nails. The most complicated cases treated with Ilizarov and Mitković’s external fixators had good results, especially in the treatment of open humeral shaft fractures; however, the rehabilitation period was longer. The best average functional results were recorded in the nailing group because of rigid fixation, solid callus formation and return to everyday activities in the shortest time.

  19. Bone marrow scintigraphy and MR tomography in malignant lymphoma: Comparison with results of histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One hundred and seven patients with malignant Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma were examined by bone marrow scintigraphy, MRI of bone marrow and bone marrow biopsy to detect bone marrow infiltration. The findings of bone marrow imaging and biopsy were classified as normal (grade 0), suggesting reactive changes of bone marrow (grade 1) or suspicious for infiltration (grade 2). About half of all results of biopsy and imaging methods agreed completely. There was a difference of two steps in the classification in only 2 cases (MRI) and 5 cases (scintigraphy). In patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia false negative findings by both bone marrow imaging techniques were frequent. Although a positive biopsy result must be accepted as proof of bone marrow infiltration, our results indicate that a negative biopsy does not exclude tumor involvement. In all 4 patients with infiltration suspected on MRI or scintigraphy results but with normal findings or reactive changes in the first blind biopsy, blind rebiopsy or guided rebiopsy confirmed the results of the imaging methods. In both patients evaluated at autopsy the preceding MRI and scintigraphy results were confirmed completely, although in both of these patients antemortem biopsy had indicated different findings. Based upon these observations, bone marrow scintigraphy and MRI should be routinely included in the staging of malignant lymphoma as an adjunct to blind bone marrow biopsy in the complete evaluation of bone marrow status. (orig./MG)

  20. Ossiculoplasty with autologous incus versus titanium prosthesis: A comparison of anatomical and functional results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amith I Naragund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze and compare the outcomes of ossiculoplasty in terms of hearing results and graft take-up rates, using autograft incus and titanium middle ear prosthesis in patients with ossicular chain erosion. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Patients between 10 and 60 years of age with a history of chronic ear discharge with moderate conductive deafness (>40 dB HL were included in the study. The patients underwent detailed ENT examination followed by audiological and radiological assessment of temporal bone and those patients with evidence of ossicular erosion were subjected to ossiculoplasty with autologous incus (group I or titanium prosthesis (group II randomly. The patients were followed up after 3 months to analyze the functional and anatomical results. Results: A total of 24 patients with ossicular chain defect were included in the study, of whom 12 patients underwent ossiculoplasty with autograft incus and 12 with titanium prosthesis. Postoperative hearing evaluation by pure tone audiogram was done after 3 months, which showed successful hearing improvement in 58% of cases with autologous incus as compared to 33% cases with titanium prosthesis. Complications and extrusion rate were also higher in patients with titanium prosthesis. Conclusion: Hearing results after ossiculoplasty with autologous incus were significantly better compared with those after titanium prosthesis. Also, complications and extrusion rate were higher in patients with titanium prosthesis. This indicates that ossiculoplasty with autoincus offers better hearing results with minimal complications and extrusion rates as compared to titanium prosthesis.

  1. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  2. Subvastus and medial parapatellar approaches in TKA: comparison of functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Julian; Skowronek, Michal; Sosin, Pawel; Skowronek, Pawel

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the early and late postoperative period using subvastus and medial parapatellar approach. A prospective randomized controlled study was conducted in a group of 169 patients (180 TKAs) with 2-year follow-up. Patients were divided into a study group (97 TKAs) with a subvastus approach and a control group (83 TKAs) with a parapatellar approach. Assessment of the results of both operating approaches was based on functional, clinical Knee Society Score, and pain (visual analog scale). Patients in the subvastus group achieved full active extension, better range of motion, and better Knee Society Score results at 12 days, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks earlier than patients in the medial parapatellar group. They also had less pain at 12 days. No statistically significant differences existed between assessed end points in both groups at 24- and 52-weeks, and 24-months postoperatively. The subvastus approach has given patients better early clinical results; however, at longer follow-up, both groups had similar outcomes. The potential benefits of the subvastus approach are: protection of the extensor mechanism from damage, less risk of damaging the blood supply to the patella, earlier clinical recovery, and less pain in the early postoperative period. The subvastus approach is an alternative to the standard medial parapatellar approach in TKA. It can be used with equally good results, especially taking into consideration positive clinical aspects in the early postoperative period. PMID:21667899

  3. Electron irradiation of polyurethane: Some FTIR results and a comparison with a EGS4 simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravat, B. E-mail: brice.ravat@univ-fcomte.fr; Gschwind, R.; Grivet, M.; Duverger, E.; Chambaudet, A.; Makovicka, L

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, investigations have been carried out on electron beam irradiated thermoplastic and aromatic polyurethane (PU). The changes in chemical structure after irradiation were determined using FTIR spectroscopy. This study has allowed us to highlight polymer degradation versus depth and dose by following the decrease in the NH-bond intensity. The PU oxidation was also studied by following the appearance of OH bonds. Results showed that degradation and oxidation of the PU reaches a maximum between 150 and 250 {mu}m. These effects are quantifiable up to 500 {mu}m. Experimental results were compared with the distribution of the energy deposition simulated by the EGS4-PRESTA code. Our experimental results are in strong accordance with the simulation.

  4. Comparison of results of GICA and RIA in determination of HCG in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the results of golden immuno-chromatographic assay (GICA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) in determination of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in urine. Methods: 148 random urine specimens from child-bearing age women were determined for HCG with both GICA and RIA. Results: The lowest detectable content of HCG in urine was 120.0 mIU/ml with GICA and the detectable range of concentration was 120-427570 mIU/ml, over which the zone phenomena (antigen excess) occurred with false negative result. The sensitivity with RIA was 25 mIU/ml and there was no zone phenomena. Conclusion: The GICA was a simple and rapid method in determination of HCG in urine, but there was the disadvantage of lower sensitivity and presence of zone phenomena

  5. Comparison of fully coupled hydroelastic computation and segmented model test results for slamming and whipping loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical analysis of slamming and whipping using a fully coupled hydroelastic model. The coupled model uses a 3-D Rankine panel method, a 1-D or 3-D finite element method, and a 2-D Generalized Wagner Model (GWM, which are strongly coupled in time domain. First, the GWM is validated against results of a free drop test of wedges. Second, the fully coupled method is validated against model test results for a 10,000 twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU containership. Slamming pressures and whipping responses to regular waves are compared. A spatial distribution of local slamming forces is measured using 14 force sensors in the model test, and it is compared with the integration of the pressure distribution by the computation. Furthermore, the pressure is decomposed into the added mass, impact, and hydrostatic components, in the computational results. The validity and characteristics of the numerical model are discussed.

  6. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    1994-01-01

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two...... the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry...

  7. Comparison of results between the ballooning-modes codes BLOON and BALOON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballooning mode equation eigenvalues calculated by two different codes, BLOON (written at General Atomic) and BALOON (written at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) have been compared for a sequence of equilibria having a range of β values. The results agree for marginal stability only. Differences away from marginal stability may be due to differences in the coordinate systems used for the analysis in the two codes. Equilibria were generated using the ISLAND code of D. Stevens of New York University. Results of various convergence studies made with the codes are presented together with recommendations for their use

  8. Transition state theory description of surface self-diffusion: Comparison with classical trajectory results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have computed the surface self-diffusion constants on four different crystal faces [fcc(111), fcc(100), bcc(110), and bcc(211)] using classical transition state theory methods. These results can be compared directly with previous classical-trajectory results which used the same Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential and template model; the agreement is good, though dynamical effects are evident for the fcc(111) and bcc(110) surfaces. Implications are discussed for low-temperature diffusion studies, which are inaccessible to direct molecular dynamics, and the use of ab initio potentials rather than approximate pairwise potentials

  9. Blade element momentum modeling of inflow with shear in comparison with advanced model results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Riziotis, V.; Zahle, Frederik;

    2012-01-01

    shear is present in the inflow. This gives guidance to how the BEM modeling of shear should be implemented. Another result from the advanced vortex model computations is a clear indication of influence of the ground, and the general tendency is a speed up effect of the flow through the rotor giving a...... higher power than in uniform flow. On the basis of the consistent azimuthal induction variations seen in the advanced model results, three different BEM implementation methods are discussed and tested in the same aeroelastic code. A full local BEM implementation on an elemental stream tube in both...

  10. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model are compared to simulations made using the Monte Carlo method based on multiple scattering processes. An excellent agreement is found in that the discrepancy between the results is smaller than the Monte Carlo standard uncertainties. If we take no account of the geometry of the optical device, the results of the model-estimated backscattered luminance differ from the simulations by a factor 20. We also conclude that the signal-to-noise ratio computed with the Monte Carlo method and our analytical model is in good agreement with experimental results since the mean difference between the calculations and experimental measurements is smaller than the experimental uncertainty

  11. Comparison of radionuclide data analysis results of the CTBTO/IDC and the Finnish NDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is to operate a world-wide radionuclide monitoring network consisting of 80 measuring stations that transmit daily gamma-ray spectra measured from air filter samples to the International Data Centre (IDC). All spectra are analysed automatically and the results are reviewed interactively by an analyst. Quality of the automated analysis has a substantial impact on the reliability and efficiency of the analysis operation. The Finnish National Data Centre (FiNDC) receives the analysis results and raw spectral data from the IDC and performs radionuclide analysis of the spectra using dedicated Finnish software packages. This work evaluates the differences between the analysis results of the IDC and the FiNDC. The results are studied with respect to the spectrum peak finding, fitting and explaining performance. Furthermore, nuclides associated with the peaks are considered, and an effort is made to approximate the number of spurious nuclide identifications. The material of this work consists of representative sets containing 500 to 1500 spectra and their respective analysis result pairs. The spectra were measured by the five certified radionuclide stations and three prototype stations that were operating between August 1, 2000 and March 26, 2001. In the set of 1500 spectra from eight stations, the FiNDC analysis software package was found to detect 4.2 more peaks per spectrum and to explain 5.6 more peaks per spectrum than the IDC software package, which, in turn, left 1.4 more peaks per spectrum unexplained. The median peak explanation percentages of the FiNDC and IDC were 96.7 and 92.3, respectively. The FiNDC analysis software package was found to report 0.7 more spurious nuclides than the IDC analysis software package. When only the CTBTO relevant nuclides were considered, the difference decreased to 0.05. The throughput times involved with the IDC raw measuring data transfer and automatic analysis result

  12. Comparison of radionuclide data analysis results of the CTBTO/IDC and the Finnish NDC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansaranta, T.; Ala-Heikkilae, J.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    2001-06-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is to operate a world-wide radionuclide monitoring network consisting of 80 measuring stations that transmit daily gamma-ray spectra measured from air filter samples to the International Data Centre (IDC). All spectra are analysed automatically and the results are reviewed interactively by an analyst. Quality of the automated analysis has a substantial impact on the reliability and efficiency of the analysis operation. The Finnish National Data Centre (FiNDC) receives the analysis results and raw spectral data from the IDC and performs radionuclide analysis of the spectra using dedicated Finnish software packages. This work evaluates the differences between the analysis results of the IDC and the FiNDC. The results are studied with respect to the spectrum peak finding, fitting and explaining performance. Furthermore, nuclides associated with the peaks are considered, and an effort is made to approximate the number of spurious nuclide identifications. The material of this work consists of representative sets containing 500 to 1500 spectra and their respective analysis result pairs. The spectra were measured by the five certified radionuclide stations and three prototype stations that were operating between August 1, 2000 and March 26, 2001. In the set of 1500 spectra from eight stations, the FiNDC analysis software package was found to detect 4.2 more peaks per spectrum and to explain 5.6 more peaks per spectrum than the IDC software package, which, in turn, left 1.4 more peaks per spectrum unexplained. The median peak explanation percentages of the FiNDC and IDC were 96.7 and 92.3, respectively. The FiNDC analysis software package was found to report 0.7 more spurious nuclides than the IDC analysis software package. When only the CTBTO relevant nuclides were considered, the difference decreased to 0.05. The throughput times involved with the IDC raw measuring data transfer and automatic analysis result

  13. Soil gas and radon entry into a simple test structure: Comparison of experimental and modelling results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Søgaard-Hansen, J.; Majborn, B.

    A radon test structure has been established at a field site at Riso National Laboratory. Measurements have been made of soil gas entry rates, pressure couplings and radon depletion. The experimental results have been compared with results obtained from measured soil parameters and a two......-dimensional steady-state numerical model of Darcy flow and combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. For most probe locations, the calculated values of the pressure couplings and the radon depletion agree well with the measured values, thus verifying important elements of the Darcy flow approximation, and...... the ability of the model to treat combined diffusive and advective transport of radon. However, the model gives an underestimation of the soil gas entry rate. Even if it is assumed that the soil has a permeability equal to the highest of the measured values, the model underestimates the soil gas entry...

  14. Comparison of simulated and experimental results from helical antennas within a muscle-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniature microwave helical antennas for use in thermal therapy applications are usually investigated using muscle-equivalent phantoms. In this paper, an alternative method using an electromagnetic solver based on the finite integration technique is used to simulate a range of 915 MHz helical antennas within a medium with the dielectric properties of muscle. By avoiding the stair-casing effect associated with many solvers, this method enables accurate simulations of non-orthogonal geometric objects such as helical antennas to be achieved. The effects of coil-spacing and insertion depth on the SAR distribution produced by the antennas were characterized and showed good agreement with previously published results obtained using a muscle phantom and a thermographic camera. The simulations confirm that the performance of helical antennas depends on insertion depth. Modification of the coil density demonstrated improvement of the return loss characteristics and changes to the resulting SAR profile

  15. Surface energy of talc and chlorite: Comparison between electronegativity calculation and immersion results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, Jean-Marc; Salles, Fabrice; Henry, Marc; Malandrini, Harold; Clauss, Frédéric

    2007-01-15

    The surface energies of talc and chlorite is computed using a simple model, which uses the calculation of the electrostatic energy of the crystal. It is necessary to calculate the atomic charges. We have chosen to follow Henry's model of determination of partial charges using scales of electronegativity and hardness. The results are in correct agreement with a determination of the surface energy obtained from an analysis of the heat of immersion data. Both results indicate that the surface energy of talc is lower than the surface energy of chlorite, in agreement with observed behavior of wettability. The influence of Al and Fe on this phenomenon is discussed. Surface energy of this type of solids seems to depend more strongly on the geometry of the crystal than on the type of atoms pointing out of the surface; i.e., the surface energy depends more on the physics of the system than on its chemistry. PMID:17081554

  16. Comparison of abdominopelvic CT results and findings at second-look laparotomy in ovarian carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restaging in epithelial ovarian carcinoma after primary therapy has proven difficult by standard noninvasive methods and commonly requires second-look laparotomy. In the authors' study to date preoperative abdominopelvic CT (CBT) results and operative findings have been compared in 24 patients (25 studies) with ovarian adenocarcinoma currently clinically free of disease originally graded as FIGO stage III or IV, except for one patient with stage IC, undergoing second-look laparotomy to determine tumor status. There were ten true-negative, three false-negative, 12 true-positive, and no false-positive CBTs. Negative studies were associated with positive findings at laparotomy, including microscopic foci, in only 12% of all cases; thus, CBT in the series has shown a better correlation with surgery than in previous studies. Currently the authors are combining monoclonal antibody scanning with the CBT results with the goal of possibly avoiding second-look surgery in certain patients

  17. Comparison of various mathematical procedures for calculating enzyme-immunological results with mini-computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the most appropriate evaluation method is, for enzyme-immuno-assays, of decisive importance for preciseness and exactness of the results. The time-consuming graphical determination which can easily contain errors, cannot be used here as far as quality assurance is concerned. The reaction principle which enzyme-immuno-assay is based on is anologous to that used for radio-immuno-assay. Thus it seems reasonable to carry out evaluation with the same software. Our tests concerning the applicability of different, frequently used mathematical algorithms have shown in radio-immuno-assays, that no method can approach all curves to the same degree of exactness and reproducibility. In this paper we compared a simple and a weighted linear regression according to logit-log transformation, and the polygonal and cubic spline interpolation with respect to their applicability for the calculation of the results in Phenytoin with the EMIT technique. (orig.)

  18. Neutron beta-decay: Modern experimental results and comparison with theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron decay experimental data are reviewed and satisfactory agreement with theoretical predictions is certified. The gA/gv value, derived from angular correlation measurements is λ=-1.261±0.004; the mean value, derived from lifetime data, is vertical strokeλvertical stroke=1.267±0.007. The restrictions on S, T terms and V+A currents, resulting from neutron decay experiments, are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Simulation of energy barrier distributions using real particle parameters and comparison with experimental obtained results

    OpenAIRE

    BÜTTNER, M.; Schiffler, M.; Weber, P; Seidel, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we compare previously measured energy barriers over the course of temperature with the results of simulations of the behaviour of the energy barriers. For the measurements the temperature dependent magnetorelaxation method (TMRX) was used. For the simulations of the energy barrier distribution we have used the real particles properties such as anisotropy and core size volume of the fractions of two magnetically fractionated ferrofluids. There is a good agreement between the simul...

  20. Comparison of Simulation and Experimental Results of Class - D Inverter Fed Induction Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rama Reddy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research deals w ith simulation and experimentation of closed loop controlled class-D inverter fed induction heater system. This converter has reduced switching losses, stress and increased power density. The inverter system is designed and the simulation is done using Matlab. The results of simulation and experimentation are presented. The induction heater system uses embedded controller to generate driving pulses. The objective is to develop an induction heater system with minimum hardware.

  1. Comparison between Numerical Simulations and Experimental Results on Copper Deposition in Rotating Cylinder Hull Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • 2D and 3D numerical models were developed for modeling metal electrodeposition. • Experiments on Cu deposition were conducted in a rotating cylindrical Hull cell. • Current and potential distributions were simulated along the cathode. • Calculated potential distributions were validated with experimentally measured data. • Current density distributions calculated by 2D and 3D models were compared. - Abstract: 2D and 3D numerical models for electrorefining used in pyroprocessing have been developed by Seoul National University with the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and University of Idaho with the Idaho National Laboratory, respectively. To validate these models, numerical simulations are conducted on a rotating cylindrical Hull cell for copper deposition in a sulfuric acid solution. The primary current density distribution along the cathode is compared to an empirical equation of Madore. The 2D and 3D modeling results of the tertiary current density distribution along the cathode were compared. The numerical modeling results of the 2D and 3D models match each other well. In addition, the modeling results of the 3D model on the tertiary current density distributions according to the applied current densities are compared to the experimentally measured distributions. There are some discrepancies between the modeling results and experimental data. The discrepancies could be mainly explained by the hydrodynamic effect of Luggin probes used for measuring the overpotential distribution. At low Reynolds number, Luggin probes could act as a static mixer improving mass transfer near working electrode. In contrast, at high Reynolds number, Luggin probes could act as a flow obstacle dissipating flow kinetic energy

  2. The micrometeoroid mass flux into the upper atmosphere: Arecibo results and a comparison with prior estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, J. D.; Janches, D.; Meisel, D. D.; Zhou, Q.-H.

    Radar micrometeor observations at Arecibo Observatory have enabled direct estimates of the meteoroid mass flux into the upper atmosphere. We report mass flux determinations from November 1997/1998 observations that are based on the observed number of meteor events per day in the 300-m diameter Arecibo beam and on particle mass determinations from that fraction of all particles for which deceleration is measured. The average mass of the Arecibo micrometeoroids that manifest observable deceleration is ˜0.32/0.76 µgm/particle with a resultant annual whole-Earth mass flux of 1.6 × 106/2.7 × 106 kg/yr over the ˜10-5-10² µgm mass range for 1997/1998, respectively. The annual whole-earth mass flux per decade of particle mass is calculated and compared with that of Ceplecha et al. [1998] (3.7 × 106 kg/yr) and with that derived by Love and Brownlee [1993] (LB) from small particle impact craters on the orbital Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). We also give the LDEF results as significantly modified using the Arecibo-determined average particle velocity of ˜50 km/sec—much larger than the effective value of 12 km/sec used by LB. This modification results in a net LDEF mass flux of 1.8×106 kg/yr—7% of the value we determined from reanalysis of the LB data using their original 12 km/sec mean impact speed. These results may provoke some debate.

  3. Ossiculoplasty with autologous incus versus titanium prosthesis: A comparison of anatomical and functional results

    OpenAIRE

    Amith I Naragund; Mudhol, R. S.; Harugop, A. S.; Patil, P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To analyze and compare the outcomes of ossiculoplasty in terms of hearing results and graft take-up rates, using autograft incus and titanium middle ear prosthesis in patients with ossicular chain erosion. Study Design: Randomized clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Patients between 10 and 60 years of age with a history of chronic ear discharge with moderate conductive deafness (>40 dB HL) were included in the study. The patients underwent detailed ENT examination followed by audiolo...

  4. An analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog: comparisons with Monte Carlo computations and experimental results

    OpenAIRE

    Taillade, Frédéric; Belin, Etienne; Dumont, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We propose an analytical model for backscattered luminance in fog and derive an expression for the visibility signal-to-noise ratio as a function of meteorological visibility distance. The model uses single scattering processes. It is based on the Mie theory and the geometry of the optical device (emitter and receiver). In particular, we present an overlap function and take the phase function of fog into account. The results of the backscattered luminance obtained with our analytical model...

  5. Comparison of the results of treatment of humeral shaft fractures by different methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Vladimir; Maljanović Mirsad; Arsić Miroslav; Matijević Radmila; Milankov Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the functional results of non-operative and different operative techniques of managing humeral shaft fractures. The average follow-up was one year after the trauma in 61 patients with united fracture, where the initial method of treatment was the definitive one. The patients were divided into four groups: 22 were treated with hanging cast, 20 with intramedullary nails, 10 with dynamic-compressive plates and screws and 9 with external fixators. We est...

  6. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodůlka, Jiří; Vitkovičová, Rut

    2015-05-01

    Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  7. Design and CFD Simulation of the Drift Eliminators in Comparison with PIV Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stodůlka Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drift eliminators are the essential part of all modern cooling towers preventing significant losses of liquid water escaping to the enviroment. These eliminators need to be effective in terms of water capture but on the other hand causing only minimal pressure loss as well. A new type of such eliminator was designed and numerically simulated using CFD tools. Results of the simulation are compared with PIV visulisation on the prototype model.

  8. Comparison of long-term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S S; Grubnik, V V; Kovalchuk, O L; Grubnik, O V

    2006-01-01

    Background: To compare long term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct, to assess post-procedure quality of life. Materials and Methods: From September 1992 to August 2003, we performed 4058 cholecystectomies, out of which 479 (11.80%) patients had choledocholithiasis. There were 163 males and 316 females. Mean age was 63.65 ± 5.5 years. These patients were put in two groups. In the first group of 240 patients, a majority of patients underwent two-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was performed in 210 (87.50%) cases. In the second group of 239 patients, a majority of patients underwent single-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was done in 32 (13.38%) cases. Results: Mortality was zero in both groups. Morbidity was 15.1% in first group and 7.5% in second group. Mean hospital stay was 11.7 ± 3.2 days in first group and 6.2 ± 2.1 days in second group. Average operative time was 95.6 ± 20 minutes in first group and 128.4 ± 32 minutes in second group. Completed questionnaires received from 400 (83.50%) patients revealed better long-term results in the second group. Clinical features of low-grade cholangitis were seen in 20% of patients who underwent ES. Hence the post-procedure quality of life in patients who underwent single-stage procedures was definitely much better, because of minimal damage of sphincter of Oddi. Conclusions: Single-stage laparoscopic operations provide better results and shorter hospital stay. Damage to sphincter of Oddi should be minimal, to avoid long-term low-grade cholangitis. In young patients, the operation of choice should be single-stage laparoscopic procedure with absolutely no damage to sphincter of Oddi. PMID:21170222

  9. Comparison of long-term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Sarabjit

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare long term results of laparoscopic and endoscopic exploration of common bile duct, to assess post-procedure quality of life. Materials and Methods: From September 1992 to August 2003, we performed 4058 cholecystectomies, out of which 479 (11.80% patients had choledocholithiasis. There were 163 males and 316 females. Mean age was 63.65 ± 5.5 years. These patients were put in two groups. In the first group of 240 patients, a majority of patients underwent two-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was performed in 210 (87.50% cases. In the second group of 239 patients, a majority of patients underwent single-stage procedures. ERCP/ES was done in 32 (13.38% cases. Results: Mortality was zero in both groups. Morbidity was 15.1% in first group and 7.5% in second group. Mean hospital stay was 11.7 ± 3.2 days in first group and 6.2 ± 2.1 days in second group. Average operative time was 95.6 ± 20 minutes in first group and 128.4 ± 32 minutes in second group. Completed questionnaires received from 400 (83.50% patients revealed better long-term results in the second group. Clinical features of low-grade cholangitis were seen in 20% of patients who underwent ES. Hence the post-procedure quality of life in patients who underwent single-stage procedures was definitely much better, because of minimal damage of sphincter of Oddi. Conclusions: Single-stage laparoscopic operations provide better results and shorter hospital stay. Damage to sphincter of Oddi should be minimal, to avoid long-term low-grade cholangitis. In young patients, the operation of choice should be single-stage laparoscopic procedure with absolutely no damage to sphincter of Oddi.

  10. Comparison of Magnetic Separation and Flotation Results for Beneficiation of Emet Colemanite Ores

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    Colemanite (2CaO 3B2O3 5H2O) is one of the commercially preferable borates for many industries, such as agricultural, metallurgical, nuclear and production of fibreglass, borosilicate glasses, soaps, detergents, fire retardants, enamels and frits, used directly or after being transformed to boric acid (H3BO3). This paper aims mainly to investigate the practical floatability of colemanite from the Emet deposits of Turkey using a conventional collector and to compare the concentration results w...

  11. Flammability of litter sampled according to two different methods: comparison of results in laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Curt, T.; Lampin, C.; Borgniet, L.

    2014-01-01

    In the laboratory, different types of litter samples (constructed v. intact) can be used in flammability experiments but the sampling method of these litters could affect litter flammability results. To assess this effect, samples of litters were collected in South-eastern France, according to two different methods previously used in other studies, one keeping intact the structure of the litter layers (non-constructed litter) and the other requiring the construction of the litter, using mainl...

  12. Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect versus Positive Effect of Upward Comparisons in the Classroom: How does one reconciliate contradictory results?

    OpenAIRE

    Chanal, Julien; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Studies investigating social comparison in the classroom have lead to contradictory results concerning upward comparison effects. Research demonstrates that they can lead either to enhancing student's academic performance without influencing his/her self-concept or to decreasing student's academic self-concept through Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect (i.e., BFLPE) . Our study tries to reconcile these results by further investigating social comparison effects relative to various frames of reference...

  13. Impact noise radiated by collision of two spheres: Comparison between numerical simulations, experiments and analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact is very common source of noise in the industries. The impacts can be visible, such as forging, and can be invisible, such as impacts due to clearance of hinges. As a result of this generality, the control of impact noise needs more attention. Reduction of this tiresome noise needs enough perception about the impact. A study of this noise sources presents difficult problems both theoretically and experimentally. This is partly due to the many complex interconnected mechanical phenomena that occur and partly due to the fact that usual steady-state techniques of analysis cannot be applied. In such complex problems numerical techniques can help to acousticians. To gain some insight into this source of sound, in this paper collision of two steel spheres are studied with finite element method (FEM). Then the FEM results were compared with experiments to show authority of this numerical method to simulate impact noises. FEM results show that if the vibrational modes are excited by impact, the vibrational modes can be as effective as rigid body motion

  14. Comparison Between Numerical and Experimental Results on Mechanical Stirrer and Bubbling in a Cylindrical Tank - 13047

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of vitrification in a cold crucible heated by direct induction is used in the fusion of oxides. Its feature is the production of high-purity materials. The high-level of purity of the molten is achieved because this melting technique excludes the contamination of the charge by the crucible. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the hydrodynamic of the vitrification process by direct induction, with the focus in the effects associated with the interaction between the mechanical stirrer and bubbling. Considering the complexity of the analyzed system and the goal of the present work, we simplified the system by not taking into account the thermal and electromagnetic phenomena. Based in the concept of hydraulic similitude, we performed an experimental study and a numerical modeling of the simplified model. The results of these two studies were compared and showed a good agreement. The results presented in this paper in conjunction with the previous work contribute to a better understanding of the hydrodynamics effects resulting from the interaction between the mechanical stirrer and air bubbling in the cold crucible heated by direct induction. Further works will take into account thermal and electromagnetic phenomena in the presence of mechanical stirrer and air bubbling. (authors)

  15. Results comparison and model validation for flood loss functions in Australian geographical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, R.; Ngo, T.; Lehman, W.

    2015-06-01

    Rapid urbanisation, climate change and unsustainable developments are increasing the risk of floods, namely flood frequency and intensity. Flood is a frequent natural hazard that has significant financial consequences for Australia. The emergency response system in Australia is very successful and has saved many lives over the years. However, the preparedness for natural disaster impacts in terms of loss reduction and damage mitigation has been less successful. This study aims to quantify the direct physical damage to residential structures that are prone to flood phenomena in Australia. In this paper, the physical consequences of two floods from Queensland have been simulated, and the results have been compared with the performance of two selected methodologies and one newly derived model. Based on this analysis, the adaptability and applicability of the selected methodologies will be assessed in terms of Australian geographical conditions. Results obtained from the new empirically-based function and non-adapted methodologies indicate that it is apparent that the precision of flood damage models are strongly dependent on selected stage damage curves, and flood damage estimation without model validation results in inaccurate prediction of losses. Therefore, it is very important to be aware of the associated uncertainties in flood risk assessment, especially if models have not been adapted with real damage data.

  16. Graphical display of diagnostic test results in electronic health records: a comparison of 8 systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Murphy, Daniel R; Smith, Michael W; Russo, Elise; Wright, Adam; Singh, Hardeep

    2015-07-01

    Accurate display and interpretation of clinical laboratory test results is essential for safe and effective diagnosis and treatment. In an attempt to ascertain how well current electronic health records (EHRs) facilitated these processes, we evaluated the graphical displays of laboratory test results in eight EHRs using objective criteria for optimal graphs based on literature and expert opinion. None of the EHRs met all 11 criteria; the magnitude of deficiency ranged from one EHR meeting 10 of 11 criteria to three EHRs meeting only 5 of 11 criteria. One criterion (i.e., the EHR has a graph with y-axis labels that display both the name of the measured variable and the units of measure) was absent from all EHRs. One EHR system graphed results in reverse chronological order. One EHR system plotted data collected at unequally-spaced points in time using equally-spaced data points, which had the effect of erroneously depicting the visual slope perception between data points. This deficiency could have a significant, negative impact on patient safety. Only two EHR systems allowed users to see, hover-over, or click on a data point to see the precise values of the x-y coordinates. Our study suggests that many current EHR-generated graphs do not meet evidence-based criteria aimed at improving laboratory data comprehension. PMID:25792704

  17. The evaluation of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction by dacryoscintigraphy: comparison with operative results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Dacryoscintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic method used in anatomic obstructions and functional disorders of the lacrimal system that cause epiphora. We assessed quantitative analysis and operative results in accordance with patterns of dacryoscintigraphy in functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction (FNDO). Methods: We studied 25 cases of 19 patients (age: 44-80 years, mean age: 54.6 years) with epiphora, increasing tear meniscus and didn't obstructed of nasolacrimal duct by syringing. These have not history of nasolacrimal duct disease, conjunctivitis and keratitis. The patient was seated in front of a gamma camera and on drop (50 μl) of Tc-99m-pertechnetate containing 50 to 100 μCi, radioactivity was instilled in the outer canthus of the eye. The dynamic images were obtained for 15 second/1 frame, total 20 frames (5 minute). Image findings were classified three types; 1, distal portion of nasolacrimal duct; 2, proximal portion of nasolacrimal duct; 3, pre-lacrimal sac. We performed silicone tube intubation and punctoplasty. Results: All 8 cases of Type l were good prognosis. 6 cases of Type 2 were good prognosis. But, 2 cases of Type 2 were poor prognosis. 6 cases of Type 3 were poor prognosis, finally dacryocystorhinostomy was performed. 3 cases of Type 3 were good prognosis. Conclusion: Dacryoscintigraphy is especially useful for displaying lacrimal system blockade caused by functional disturbances. Moreover, dacryoscintigraphy has been used to evaluate of operative results in accordance with.scintigraphic patterns of functional nasolacrimal duct obstruction. (authors)

  18. In-pile measurements of the fission gas pressure and comparison with ROFEM code results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Dragos Victor; Pauna, Eduard Ionut [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2010-05-15

    One of the main objectives of INR Pitesti Nuclear Fuel R and D Program is to provide high quality experimental data for development and validation of the fuel performance computer codes and for improvement of the physical models used in these computer codes, thanks to the understanding and quantifying of the basic physical mechanisms. The in-pile fission gas pressure measurements provide a wide data base for the evaluation of the fission gas release from the UO{sub 2} pellet during power change operation. The results from the two instrumented fuel elements of different pellet microstructure which operated until to 179 Mwd/tU at significantly power levels in TRIGA Material Testing Reactor (TRIGA MTR) of INR Pitesti, are presented.Some analyses were performed using the ROFEM computer code and the results were compared with experimental data in the framework of the IAEA research project. This paper describes briefly measuring techniques developed and currently in use in INR Pitesti, and presents and discusses selected experimental results obtained during in-pile experiment. (orig.)

  19. In-pile measurements of the fission gas pressure and comparison with ROFEM code results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the main objectives of INR Pitesti Nuclear Fuel R and D Program is to provide high quality experimental data for development and validation of the fuel performance computer codes and for improvement of the physical models used in these computer codes, thanks to the understanding and quantifying of the basic physical mechanisms. The in-pile fission gas pressure measurements provide a wide data base for the evaluation of the fission gas release from the UO2 pellet during power change operation. The results from the two instrumented fuel elements of different pellet microstructure which operated until to 179 Mwd/tU at significantly power levels in TRIGA Material Testing Reactor (TRIGA MTR) of INR Pitesti, are presented.Some analyses were performed using the ROFEM computer code and the results were compared with experimental data in the framework of the IAEA research project. This paper describes briefly measuring techniques developed and currently in use in INR Pitesti, and presents and discusses selected experimental results obtained during in-pile experiment. (orig.)

  20. Femtosecond laser for glaucoma treatment: the comparison between simulation and experimentation results on ocular tissue removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dong Xia; Ngoi, Bryan K. A.; Hoh, Sek Tien; Koh, Lee Huat K.; Deng, Yuan Zi

    2005-04-01

    In ophthalmology, the use of femtosecond lasers is receiving more attention than ever due to its extremely high intensity and ultra short pulse duration. It opens the highly beneficial possibilities for minimized side effects during surgery process, and one of the specific areas is laser surgery in glaucoma treatment. However, the sophisticated femtosecond laser-ocular tissue interaction mechanism hampers the clinical application of femtosecond laser to treat glaucoma. The potential contribution in this work lies in the fact, that this is the first time a modified moving breakdown theory is applied, which is appropriate for femtosecond time scale, to analyze femtosecond laser-ocular tissue interaction mechanism. Based on this theory, energy deposition and corresponding thermal increase are studied by both simulation and experimentation. A simulation model was developed using Matlab software, and the simulation result was validated through in-vitro laser-tissue interaction experiment using pig iris. By comparing the theoretical and experimental results, it is shown that femtosecond laser can obtain determined ocular tissue removal, and the thermal damage is evidently reduced. This result provides a promising potential for femtosecond laser in glaucoma treatment.

  1. Numerical Prediction of the Performance of Integrated Planar Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells, with Comparisons of Results from Several Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O' Brien; B. A. Haberman; A. J. Marquis; C. M. Baca; D. Tripepi; P. Costamagna

    2008-06-01

    A numerical study of the thermal and electrochemical performance of a single-tube Integrated Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (IP-SOFC) has been performed. Results obtained from two finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes FLUENT and SOHAB and from a two-dimensional inhouse developed finite-volume GENOA model are presented and compared. Each tool uses physical and geometric models of differing complexity and comparisons are made to assess their relative merits. Several single-tube simulations were run using each code over a range of operating conditions. The results include polarization curves, distributions of local current density, composition and temperature. Comparisons of these results are discussed, along with their relationship to the respective imbedded phenomenological models for activation losses, fluid flow and mass transport in porous media. In general, agreement between the codes was within 15% for overall parameters such as operating voltage and maximum temperature. The CFD results clearly show the effects of internal structure on the distributions of gas flows and related quantities within the electrochemical cells.

  2. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Kirkinen, Johanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2006-06-15

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  3. The climate impact of energy peat utilisation - comparison and sensitivity analysis of Finnish and Swedish results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The climate impact of energy peat utilisation have been studied both in Finland by VTT Technical Research Centre and in Sweden by IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd. The main objective of this study is to compare the results of earlier studies by VTT and IVL and to perform a sensitivity analysis of previous and new results. The scientific approach of the two studies is very similar. The climate impact of peat utilisation is considered from a life-cycle point of view by taking into account all phases of the peat utilisation chain. Peat reserves can be both sinks and sources of greenhouse gas emissions as well as there are both uptake and emissions of greenhouse gases during the utilisation chain. The net impact of the utilisation chain is assessed as the climate impact due to the utilisation chain minus the climate impact of non-utilisation chain. The instantaneous radiative forcing and accumulated radiative forcing are used in both studies as the indicator of the climate impact. Radiative forcing is calculated on the basis of the concentration changes due to emissions and uptake of greenhouse gases. The differences in the models for calculating concentrations and radiative forcing are minor. There are some differences in the definitions and boundaries of the considered peat utilisation chains, although the differences in the results due to differences in the chain definitions are small. The main reason for the differences in results between the two studies is differences in emission (and uptake) estimates for the after-treatment phase and the non-utilisation chain. Both Swedish and Finnish studies show that the use of cultivated peatland for energy peat utilisation results in lower climate impact than using coal (within 100 years). Both studies show that the use of pristine mires for peat production will result in larger climate impact than the use of already drained peatlands. The climate impact of peat utilisation chains where fens and forestry

  4. Comparison of air-coupled GPR data analysis results determined by multiple analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Nicole; Maser, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Current bridge deck condition assessments using ground penetrating radar (GPR) requires a trained analyst to manually interpret substructure layering information from B-scan images in order to proceed with an intended analysis (pavement thickness, concrete cover, effects of rebar corrosion, etc.) For example, a recently developed method to rapidly and accurately analyze air-coupled GPR data based on the effects of rebar corrosion, requires that a user "picks" a layer of rebar reflections in each B-scan image collected along the length of the deck. These "picks" have information like signal amplitude and two way travel time. When a deck is new, or has little rebar corrosion, the resulting layer of rebar reflections is readily evident and there is little room for subjectivity. However, when a deck is severely deteriorated, the rebar layer may be difficult to identify, and different analysts may make different interpretations of the appropriate layer to analyze. One highly corroded bridge deck, was assessed with a number of nondestructive evaluation techniques including 2GHz air-coupled GPR. Two trained analysts separately selected the rebar layer in each B-scan image, choosing as much information as possible, even in areas of significant deterioration. The post processing of the selected data points was then completed and the results from each analyst were contour plotted to observe any discrepancies. The paper describes the differences between ground coupled and air-coupled GPR systems, the data collection and analysis methods used by two different analysts for one case study, and the results of the two different analyses.

  5. Ship emitted NO2 in the Indian Ocean: comparison of model results with satellite data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Eyring

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of NOx emission from international shipping has been evaluated by comparing NO2 tropospheric columns derived from the satellite instruments SCIAMACHY (January 2003 to February 2008, GOME (January 1996 to June 2003, and GOME-2 (March 2007 to February 2008 to NO2 columns calculated with the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 (January 2000 to October 2005. The data set from SCIAMACHY yields the first monthly analysis of ship induced NO2 enhancements in the Indian Ocean. For both data and model consistently the tropospheric excess method was used to obtain mean NO2 columns over the shipping lane from India to Indonesia, and over two ship free regions, the Bay of Bengal and the central Indian Ocean. In general, the model simulates the differences between the regions affected by ship pollution and ship free regions reasonably well. Minor discrepancies between model results and satellite data were identified during biomass burning seasons in March to May over India and the Indochinese Peninsula and August to October over Indonesia. We conclude that the NOx ship emission inventory used in this study is a good approximation of NOx ship emissions in the Indian Ocean for the years 2002 to 2007. It assumes that around 6 Tg(N yr−1 are emitted by international shipping globally, resulting in 90 Gg(N yr−1 in the region of interest when using Automated Mutual Assistance Vessel Rescue System (AMVER or 72 Gg(N yr−1 when using the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS as spatial proxy. The results do not support some previously published lower ship emissions estimates of 3–4 Tg(N yr−1 globally, making this study the first that evaluates atmospheric response to NOx ship emission estimates from space.

  6. Estimation of topographical effects at Narni ridge (Central Italy): comparisons between experimental results and numerical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Lovati, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Bakavoli, M.; International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran; Massa, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Ferretti, G.; Università degli studi di Genova (Dip.Te.Ris.), sezione di Geofisica; Pacor, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Milano-Pavia, Milano, Italia; Paolucci, R.; Dipartimento di Ingegneria Strutturale, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy; Haghshenas, E.; International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology; Kamalian, M.; International Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Seismology (IIEES), Tehran, Iran

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the seismic site response of Narni ridge (central Italy) is evaluated by comparing experimental results and numerical simulations. The inhabited village of Narni is located in the central Italian Apennines at the top of a steep massive limestone ridge. From March to September 2009 the site was instrumented with 10 weak-motion stations, 3 of which located at the base of the ridge and 7 at the top. The velocimetric network recorded 642 events of ML up to 5.3 and hypocentr...

  7. Comparison of Analytical Predictions and Experimental Results for a Dual Brayton Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) contracted Barber- Nichols, Arvada, CO to construct a dual Brayton power conversion system for use as a hardware proof of concept and to validate results from a computational code known as the Closed Cycle System Simulation (CCSS). Initial checkout tests were performed at Barber- Nichols to ready the system for delivery to GRC. This presentation describes the system hardware components and lists the types of checkout tests performed along with a couple issues encountered while conducting the tests. A description of the CCSS model is also presented. The checkout tests did not focus on generating data, therefore, no test data or model analyses are presented.

  8. Inelastic collisions of Li+ with N2-molecules: a comparison of experimental results with trajectory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotationally and vibrationally inelastic collisions between Li+-ions and N2-molecules have been investigated in a classical trajectory study. Cross sections for energies E = 1-7 eV as a function of final molecular angular momentum and scattering angle have been calculated using an ab initio SCF-potential hypersurface from Staemmler. Basic properties of the scattering process for a potential with a large attractive part and a strong anisotropy are discussed. The results are compared with experimental data from Boettner et al. In general the agreement is good. Minor differences can be attributed to small inaccuracies in the potential. (Auth.)

  9. Comparison of rumen microbial inhibition resulting from various essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H K; Jones, M B; Longhurst, W M

    1968-01-01

    Essential oils were isolated from eight plant species which were relatively unpalatable to sheep and deer. The inhibitory potency of these essential oils upon sheep and deer rumen microorganisms was compared, in terms of total gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, by use of an anaerobic manometric technique. Inhibitory effects of oils from the eight plant species may be placed in four groups: (i) essential oils from vinegar weed (Trichostema lanceoletum) and California bay (Umbellularia californica) inhibited rumen microbial activity most; (ii) lesser inhibition was exhibited by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and California mugwort (Artemisia douglasiana) oils, followed by (iii) blue-gum eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) and sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) oils; and (iv) oils from Douglas fir (Psuedotsuga menziesii) and Jerusalem oak (chenopodium botrys) resulted in the least inhibition, when 0.3 ml of each oil was used. A highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.98(**)) between total gas and VFA production indicated the validity of either method to measure the activity of rumen microorganisms. Our results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the selectivity and voluntary consumption of ruminants are related to the characteristic odor and antibacterial action of essential oils isolated from relatively unpalatable plant species. PMID:5636470

  10. Large Volume Calorimeter Comparison Measurement Results Collected at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracken, D. S. (David S.)

    2005-01-01

    A calorimeter capable of measuring the power output from special nuclear material in 208-liter (55-gal) shipping or storatge containers was designed and fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This high-sensitivity, large-volume calorimeter (LVC) provides a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult-to-assay forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. The entire calorimeter is 104 cm wide x 157 cm deep x 196 cm high in the closed position. The LVC also requires space for a standard electronics rack. A standard 208-1 drum with a 60-cm-diameter retaining ring with bolt will fit into the LVC measurement chamber. With careful positioning, cylindrical items up to 66 cm in diameter and 100 cm tall can be assayed in the LVC. The LVC was used to measure numerous plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 drums at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Measurement results from real waste drums that were previously assayed using multiple NDA systems are compared with the LVC results. The calorimeter previously performed well under laboratory conditions using Pu-238 heat standards. The in-plant instrument performance is compared with the laboratory performance. Assay times, precision, measurement threshold, and operability of the LVC are also presented.

  11. Large Volume Calorimeter Comparison Measurement Results Collected at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A calorimeter capable of measuring the power output from special nuclear material in 208-liter (55-gal) shipping or storatge containers was designed and fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This high-sensitivity, large-volume calorimeter (LVC) provides a reliable NDA method to measure many difficult-to-assay forms of plutonium and tritium more accurately. The entire calorimeter is 104 cm wide x 157 cm deep x 196 cm high in the closed position. The LVC also requires space for a standard electronics rack. A standard 208-1 drum with a 60-cm-diameter retaining ring with bolt will fit into the LVC measurement chamber. With careful positioning, cylindrical items up to 66 cm in diameter and 100 cm tall can be assayed in the LVC. The LVC was used to measure numerous plutonium-bearing items in 208-1 drums at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Measurement results from real waste drums that were previously assayed using multiple NDA systems are compared with the LVC results. The calorimeter previously performed well under laboratory conditions using Pu-238 heat standards. The in-plant instrument performance is compared with the laboratory performance. Assay times, precision, measurement threshold, and operability of the LVC are also presented.

  12. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  13. Comparison of results of Chinese and American forecasting of nursing curriculum needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, D K; Smola, B K; Liu, K H

    1990-11-01

    This study used Mengel's (1987) Round Three Questionnaire results from the Fellows of the American Academy of Nursing and baccalaureate nurse educators of Taiwan to compare perceived importance of nursing curriculum needs. The t-test was used as a test of difference between the two groups. Ninety-nine of 129 items were significantly different (p less than .05). This result showed that the forecasting of nursing curriculum needs between R.O.C. and the U.S. generic baccalaureate nursing faculty are different in many ways; specific content areas, sites for clinical experience, and perceived baccalaureate nursing curriculum needs by the year 1995. R.O.C. nurse educators value more highly than the American group six specific content areas: midwifery, nuclear medicine/nursing, space medicine/nursing, geropsychiatry, critical care nursing, and cardiac rehabilitation. American nurse educators pay more attention to 16 specific content areas: palliative care, family and social support systems for the adult, human responses to actual and potential health problems, alcohol, substance abuse and toxicology, life cycle effects on family dynamics, gerentology, health needs of the adolescent, and increasing patient compliance. The emergency care units are placed higher by the R.O.C. nurse educators than by the American group for clinical experiences. R.O.C. nurse educators rated as more important than the American group the ability to speak a second language, the management of contracted nursing services, entrepreneurial activities, and occupational nursing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2176681

  14. The comparison of upper endoscopy and scintigraphy results in the diagnostics of duodenogastric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of upper endoscopy in respect to the symptoms potentially indicative for duodenogastric reflux (DGR) have been compared to the results obtained by a scintigraphic method, elaborated by the group of the authors. Altogether 89 patients (48 women, 41 men) have been studied. For the analysis of signs indicative for functional disturbances of the upper digestive symptoms (status of the lower esophageal sphincter, gastric tone, presence of bile in the gastric content, status of the pyloric sphincter, influx of the duodenal content observed during the upper endoscopy, presence of the bile in the duodenum) the maximum accepted interval between the two investigations was 24 hours, while 1 month interval was accepted for the evaluations of structural changes (esophagitis, presence of hiatal hernis, gastritis and duodenitis, deformation of the pyloric sphincter and duodenal bulb. No statistically significant correlations has been found between any of the above mentioned parameters at upper endoscopy and the presence or absence of DGR as determined by the scintigraphic method. If a influx of the duodenal content into the stomach during the upper endoscopy, this could be considered as a specific indicator (specificity - 91,3%0, while the sensitivity (16,7%) is very low. There has been a trend to decreased DGR in patients with an atrophic gastritis, still this correlation was not statistically significant. The conclusion is made that the intubation of the stomach during the upper endoscopy could be causative for artificial DGR therefore leading to incorrect data interpretation and hyper diagnostics. (authors)

  15. In-pile measurements of the fission gas pressure and comparison with ROFEM code results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, G.; Ionescu, D.V.; Pauna, E.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    Two experimental fuel elements with different UO{sub 2} grain size were irradiated in the C2 capsule in the TRIGA MT reactor of INR Pitesti to a burn-up of 178.9 MWh kg{sup -1} U and linear powers between 45 to 60 kW m{sup -1}. Both elements were instrumented to measure internal gas pressure during irradiation. Experimental results presented in this paper represent data relative to two fuel elements with different UO{sub 2} grain size. The predictions of fuel performance code ROFEM in terms of internal gas pressure were compared with the experimental data. Experimental programs are in progress at INR Pitesti. New instrumented tests are planed to be performed in the C2 capsule in order to establish the pellet microstructure influence on fission gas release. This paper describes measuring techniques used at INR Pitesti and present experimental results of the inpile tests comparatively with the ROFEM code predictions. (orig.)

  16. On the Weakenesses of Correlation Measures used for Search Engines' Results (Unsupervised Comparison of Search Engine Rankings)

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alberto, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The correlation of the result lists provided by search engines is fundamental and it has deep and multidisciplinary ramifications. Here, we present automatic and unsupervised methods to assess whether or not search engines provide results that are comparable or correlated. We have two main contributions: First, we provide evidence that for more than 80% of the input queries - independently of their frequency - the two major search engines share only three or fewer URLs in their search results, leading to an increasing divergence. In this scenario (divergence), we show that even the most robust measures based on comparing lists is useless to apply; that is, the small contribution by too few common items will infer no confidence. Second, to overcome this problem, we propose the fist content-based measures - i.e., direct comparison of the contents from search results; these measures are based on the Jaccard ratio and distribution similarity measures (CDF measures). We show that they are orthogonal to each other ...

  17. Language lateralization by functional MRI : a comparison with wada test-preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the usefulness of functional MR imaging (fMRI) for the determination of language dominance and to assess differences in language lateralization according to activation task or activated area. Functional maps of the language area were obtained during word generation tasks(noun and verb) and a reading task in ten patients (9 right handed, 1 left handed) who had undergone the Wada test. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5T scanner and the EPI BOLD technique. The SPM program was employed for the postprocessing of images and the threshold for significance was set at p<0.001 or p<0.01. A lateralization index was calculated from the number of activated pixels in three hemispheric regions (whole hemisphere, frontal lobe, and temporoparietal lobe), and the results were compared with those of Wada tests. The results for lateralization of language area were compared among stimulation tasks and regions and used for calculation of lateralization indices. During the Wada test, nine patients were left dominant and one patient was right dominant for language. Language dominance based on activated signals in each hemisphere was consistent with the results of the Wada test in 87.5% (verb and noun generation tasks) and 90% (reading task) of patients. Language dominance determined by activated signals in the frontal lobe was consistent in 87.5%, 75%, and 80% of patients in each stimulation task (verb generation, noun generation, and reading), respectively. The consistency rate of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was 87.5%, 87.5% and 80% of patients in each task. the mean value of the lateralization index, calculated on the basis of activated signals in the temporoparietal lobe was higher than that in the hemisphere or frontal lobe. The verb generation task showed a higher lateralization index than the noun generation or reading task. The lateralization index was higher in the verb generation task and in the region of the temporoparietal lobe than in

  18. Comparison of the simultaneous measurement results of SCR fluxes received by geostationary satellites 'Electro-L' and 'GOES'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the comparison of the results of the simultaneous measurements of solar proton fluxes on board geostationary satellites 'GOES' and 'Electro' was made for the purpose of calibration of 'Electro-L' detectors and determination of the possibility to utilize 'Electro-L' data for space weather monitoring. It was shown that the solar proton observation data on board 'Electro-L' recalculated to energy thresholds of 'GOES' 10 and 30 MeV are in a good consistent with 'GOES' data and may be used for control of radiation conditions in near-earth space.

  19. Chemical analysis of high-pressure metamorphic rocks by PGNAA. Comparison with results from XRF and solution ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-pressure metamorphic rocks showing a large range of chemical compositions were analyzed by PGNAA, XRF and solution ICP-MS for major components and a variety of trace elements. The large data set allowed a comparison of results from PGNAA to the established methods and revealed good agreement for most major elements and for Sc and Gd. For V, Cr, Co and Ni, PGNAA data are satisfactory only at high concentration levels. B, Cl and H were analyzed by PGNAA with very good precision, even at low concentrations. (author)

  20. Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.

  1. A Comparison of Flare Forecasting Methods, I: Results from the "All-Clear" Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, G; Schrijver, C J; Colak, T; Qahwaji, R; Ashamari, O W; Yuan, Y; Zhang, J; McAteer, R T J; Bloomfield, D S; Higgins, P A; Gallagher, P T; Falconer, D A; Georgoulis, M K; Wheatland, M S; Balch, C; Dunn, T; Wagner, E L

    2016-01-01

    Solar flares produce radiation which can have an almost immediate effect on the near-Earth environment, making it crucial to forecast flares in order to mitigate their negative effects. The number of published approaches to flare forecasting using photospheric magnetic field observations has proliferated, with varying claims about how well each works. Because of the different analysis techniques and data sets used, it is essentially impossible to compare the results from the literature. This problem is exacerbated by the low event rates of large solar flares. The challenges of forecasting rare events have long been recognized in the meteorology community, but have yet to be fully acknowledged by the space weather community. During the interagency workshop on "all clear" forecasts held in Boulder, CO in 2009, the performance of a number of existing algorithms was compared on common data sets, specifically line-of-sight magnetic field and continuum intensity images from MDI, with consistent definitions of what ...

  2. Comparison of PMK-NHV test results for 7.4% hot and cold leg breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot and cold leg break simulation tests were performed in the PMK-NHV test facility for the research of LOCA processes. The results of four experiments with cold and hot leg breaks modelling a 7.4% break in the nuclear power plant are presented and compared. The experiments were based on nominally normal plant operation with and without the use of hydroaccumulators, and considering the availability of a single high-pressure system. For previous reports containing the descriptions of hot-leg break tests without and with the use of hydroaccumulators see KFKI--1989-30/G and KFKI--1989-31/G. For reports on cold-leg break tests see KFKI--1988-47/G, KFKI--1988-48/G and KFKI--1988-61/G. (R.P.) 7 refs.; 21 figs

  3. Comparison of the Transportation Risks Resulting from Accidents during the Transportation of the Spent Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safe, environmentally sound and publicly acceptable disposal of high level wastes and spent fuels is becoming a very important issue. The operational safety assessment of a repository including a transportation safety assessment is a fundamental part in order to achieve this goal. According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for spent fuels. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks resulting from the accidents during the transportation of spent fuels for these four transportation scenarios

  4. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert E. Spears; J. Kevin Wilkins

    2011-11-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  5. Dynamics of Tachyon Fields and Inflation - Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Results with Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, M.; Dimitrijević, D. D.; Djordjević, G. S.; Stojanović, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    The role tachyon fields may play in evolution of early universe is discussed in this paper. We consider the evolution of a flat and homogeneous universe governed by a tachyon scalar field with the DBI-type action and calculate the slow-roll parameters of inflation, scalar spectral index (n), and tensor-scalar ratio (r) for the given potentials. We pay special attention to the inverse power potential, first of all to V(x)˜ x^{-4}, and compare the available results obtained by analytical and numerical methods with those obtained by observation. It is shown that the computed values of the observational parameters and the observed ones are in a good agreement for the high values of the constant X_0. The possibility that influence of the radion field can extend a range of the acceptable values of the constant X_0 to the string theory motivated sector of its values is briefly considered.

  6. Comparison of ISRU Excavation System Model Blade Force Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Christopher A.; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Mueller, Robert P.; Schuler, Jason M.; Nick, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    An Excavation System Model has been written to simulate the collection and transportation of regolith on the Moon. The calculations in this model include an estimation of the forces on the digging tool as a result of excavation into the regolith. Verification testing has been performed and the forces recorded from this testing were compared to the calculated theoretical data. A prototype lunar vehicle built at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) was tested with a bulldozer type blade developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) attached to the front. This is the initial correlation of actual field test data to the blade forces calculated by the Excavation System Model and the test data followed similar trends with the predicted values. This testing occurred in soils developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) which are a mixture of different types of sands and whose soil properties have been well characterized. Three separate analytical models are compared to the test data.

  7. Comparison of Cut-Based and Matrix Element Method Results for BSM Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Akyazi, Erdogan; Yilmaz, Metin

    2012-01-01

    The Matrix Element Method has been used originally to reduce statistical uncertainty of the top quark mass measurement in both D{\\O} and CDF experiments at Tevatron with great success. After the method became more popular, it has also been applied to other analysis such as electroweak single top quark production, estimation of the longitudinal W boson helicity fraction in top quark decays and searches for the Higgs boson. It can also be applied to any mass analysis which includes exclusive decay channels at hadron colliders for BSM researches. In this work, mass analysis results for fourth family up-type quark with both Classic Cut-Based and Matrix Element Methods are compared. We show that even with very small number of events, Matrix Element Method gives better estimations for the mass value and its error, especially for event samples in which ratio of Signal and Background events is greater than 0.2.

  8. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  9. Comparison of Risk-Ranking Results for Four Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and its member utilities have been investigating the feasibility of the application of risk-based technologies to reduce nuclear power plant operating and maintenance cost for the past decade. One area that has been shown through actual plant application and implementation to be amenable to this technology is in-service inspection (ISI). Application of risk-based technology together with traditional engineering principles has been termed risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI). This paper will present the results of the application of RI-ISI to a spectrum of plants encompassing each nuclear steam system supplier (NSSS) vendor as well as full- and partial-scope applications

  10. Comparison of the results of a surface anatomy scan with operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, Masayuki; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Kiya, Katsuzou; Yamanaka, Masami; Mukada, Kazutoshi; Arita, Kazunori; Kurisu, Kaoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-04-01

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of a surface anatomy scan (SAS) of brain tumors by comparing the results thus obtained with the operative findings. Eleven cases of brain tumors were examined with SAS before operations. There were 7 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas and 2 metastatic brain tumors. SAS clearly distinguished all the meningiomas from the surrounding edemas and demonstrated the structures of the brain surface. SAS demonstrated astrocytomas as black areas in which tumors invaded and clearly demonstrated the structures of the brain-surface structures. SAS could not distinguish metastatic brain tumors from surrounding edemas. SAS clearly demonstrated large veins of the brain surface in white. SAS is useful for the three-dimensional drawing of the structures of the brain surface before an operation. (author).

  11. Comparison of the results of a surface anatomy scan with operative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the usefulness of a surface anatomy scan (SAS) of brain tumors by comparing the results thus obtained with the operative findings. Eleven cases of brain tumors were examined with SAS before operations. There were 7 meningiomas, 2 astrocytomas and 2 metastatic brain tumors. SAS clearly distinguished all the meningiomas from the surrounding edemas and demonstrated the structures of the brain surface. SAS demonstrated astrocytomas as black areas in which tumors invaded and clearly demonstrated the structures of the brain-surface structures. SAS could not distinguish metastatic brain tumors from surrounding edemas. SAS clearly demonstrated large veins of the brain surface in white. SAS is useful for the three-dimensional drawing of the structures of the brain surface before an operation. (author)

  12. Comparison of steel desulphurisation at homogenisation station with physical modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Socha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of relevant information about transfer processes taking place in the interface slag – metal and with the assessment of the rate and course of steel desulphurization. The study of mentioned processes took place with the verification of the results obtained by the plant experiments in the homogenization station using 180 t ladle and in the physical model of the ladle in the geometrical scale 1 : 9 supplemented by homogenization nozzle. Plant and physical experiments were based on similar methodology. Samples of metal and slag were taken in regular time intervals for following evaluation of kinetics of the sulphur loss in the metal and appropriate increase of sulphur contain in the slag.

  13. Solar flare model: Comparison of the results of numerical simulations and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, I. M.; Vashenyuk, E. V.; Podgorny, A. I.

    2009-12-01

    The electrodynamic flare model is based on numerical 3D simulations with the real magnetic field of an active region. An energy of ˜1032 erg necessary for a solar flare is shown to accumulate in the magnetic field of a coronal current sheet. The thermal X-ray source in the corona results from plasma heating in the current sheet upon reconnection. The hard X-ray sources are located on the solar surface at the loop foot-points. They are produced by the precipitation of electron beams accelerated in field-aligned currents. Solar cosmic rays appear upon acceleration in the electric field along a singular magnetic X-type line. The generation mechanism of the delayed cosmic-ray component is also discussed.

  14. Benchmark of Space Charge Simulations and Comparison with Experimental Results for High Intensity, Low Energy Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Cousineau, Sarah M

    2005-01-01

    Space charge effects are a major contributor to beam halo and emittance growth leading to beam loss in high intensity, low energy accelerators. As future accelerators strive towards unprecedented levels of beam intensity and beam loss control, a more comprehensive understanding of space charge effects is required. A wealth of simulation tools have been developed for modeling beams in linacs and rings, and with the growing availability of high-speed computing systems, computationally expensive problems that were inconceivable a decade ago are now being handled with relative ease. This has opened the field for realistic simulations of space charge effects, including detailed benchmarks with experimental data. A great deal of effort is being focused in this direction, and several recent benchmark studies have produced remarkably successful results. This paper reviews the achievements in space charge benchmarking in the last few years, and discusses the challenges that remain.

  15. Seismic calculation of Superphenix control rod and drive mechanism, comparison with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In case of a seismic event the insertability of Superphenix primary shutdown system: SCP (systeme de commande principal) has to be demonstrated. As there was no existing facility in France to test this kind of slender structure (21 meters high) a new facility named VESUBIE was designed and installed in an existing pit located at the Saclay nuclear research center. The objectives of the tests were the following: demonstrate insertability of control rod, demonstrate absence of seismic induced damage to the SCP, measure increase of scram time, measure seismic induced stresses, obtain data for code correlation. After completion of the tests, measurements have been correlated with results obtained from a non linear finite element model. Time history correlations were achieved for SCP 1. Afterwards a calculation was performed in hot condition to find if there was some effect of temperature on SCP seismic response. (orig./GL)

  16. COMPARISON OF NOVORONEZH UNIT 5 NPP AND SOUTH UKRAINE UNIT 1 NPP LEVEL I PRA RESULTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MUSICKI,Z.; GINSBERG,T.

    2002-04-18

    This paper describes a study undertaken to explain the risk profile differences in the results of PRAs of two similar WER-1000 nuclear power plants. The risk profile differences are particularly significant in the area of small steam/feedwater line breaks, small-small LOCAs, support system initiators and containment bypass initiators. A top level (limited depth) approach was used in which we studied design differences, major assumptions, data differences, and also compared the two PRA analyses on an element-by-element basis in order to discern the major causative factors for the risk profile differences. We conclude that the major risk profile differences are due to differences in assumptions and engineering judgment (possibly combined with some design and data differences) involved in treatment of uncertain physical phenomena (primarily sump plugging in LOCAs and turbine building steaming effects in secondary system breaks). Additional major differences are attributable to support system characteristics.

  17. [Comparison of the results of coronary angioplasty and stenting during one year following surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenko, V B; Seĭdov, V G; Zakharov, S V; Evsiukov, V V; Liubchuk, I V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare long-term results of angioplasty and coronary arterial stenting (CAS) depending on the initial degree of coronary arterial (CA) lesion according to morphological stenosis classification, as well as to evaluate the influence of re-stenosis on myocardial contractility dynamics, anginal recurrence rate, and exercise tolerance. The subjects, 228 men after angioplasty and 184 men after CAS with wire stents without drug coating, were included in the study between 1989 and 2005. Coronarography was repeated in 358 patients one year after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 161 patients, to who 180 stents were implanted. The second group consisted of 197patients, in who 226 angioplasty procedures were performed. Data were processed using standard variational statistical methods, i.e. the calculation of mean values and standard deviation. Statistical calculations were carried out using Analysis ToolPak- VBA software of Microsoft Excel 2000. The study found that one year after either intervention the number of patients without anginal symptoms fell significantly compared with this number during the in-hospital period. In group 2 the frequency of restenosis was higher and the number of patients with anginal symptoms was significantly bigger than in group 1; the number of asymptomatic patients was significantly bigger in group 1. Initial morphological characteristics of CA lesion had a significant effect on the long-term frequency of restenosis following endovascular treatment. Restenosis was 2 to 2.5 times more frequent in patients with C type CA lesion vs. patients with A type regardless the method of endovascular intervention. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of taking into account initial morphological characteristics of CA lesion; CAS is more preferable than angioplasty, especially in patients with C type CA lesion. PMID:17520881

  18. A comparison of long term results of the standard Whipple procedure and the pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuschek, W; Reith, H B; Waleczek, H; Haarmann, W; Edelmann, M; Sonntag, D

    1994-05-01

    The standard Whipple procedure involves intestinal disturbances, such as dumping, diarrhea, dyspeptic complaints and the occurrence of ulcers of the anastomoses. A postoperative weight loss was observed ranging between 10 and 40 kilograms. Only a few patients were able to compensate after several months. It was thought that preservation of the intact stomach would prevent the complications arising from a loss of gastric reservoir function and thus the malnutrition could be improved postoperatively. Between 1985 and March 1992, we performed the pylorus-preserving Whipple procedure and treated a group of 43 patients with this method. In the same period, 15 patients were operated upon with the standard Whipple procedure. The present evaluation of the accumulated patient data, including extensive functional studies, led to the following results comparing the pylorus preserving Whipple procedure with the standard Whipple procedure. First, the capacity for food uptake and the development of body weight postoperatively is significantly better. Second, gastric or jejunal ulcers were not observed. Third, there were no clinical signs of digestive disorders, such as different forms of dumping. Nutrition and digestion were not impeded by the preserved opening mechanism of the pylorus. Fourth, the postoperative exocrine function was only slightly decreased. Fifth, glucose metabolism postoperatively was influenced only slightly by preservation of the pylorus. In taking the results of all the examinations into consideration, it can be said that the restricted organ loss in the Whipple procedure with pylorus preservation leaves the secretory and functional capacity of the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract almost unchanged. PMID:7909485

  19. Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry - general circulation model. Comparison with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, R.; Dameris, M.; Schnadt, C. [and others

    2000-01-01

    An interactively coupled climate-chemistry model which enables a simultaneous treatment of meteorology and atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks is presented. This is the first model, which interactively combines a general circulation model based on primitive equations with a rather complex model of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and which is computational efficient enough to allow long-term integrations with currently available computer resources. The applied model version extends from the Earth's surface up to 10 hPa with a relatively high number (39) of vertical levels. We present the results of a present-day (1990) simulation and compare it to available observations. We focus on stratospheric dynamics and chemistry relevant to describe the stratospheric ozone layer. The current model version ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM can realistically reproduce stratospheric dynamics in the Arctic vortex region, including stratospheric warming events. This constitutes a major improvement compared to formerly applied model versions. However, apparent shortcomings in Antarctic circulation and temperatures persist. The seasonal and interannual variability of the ozone layer is simulated in accordance with observations. Activation and deactivation of chlorine in the polar stratospheric vortices and their interhemispheric differences are reproduced. The consideration of the chemistry feedback on dynamics results in an improved representation of the spatial distribution of stratospheric water vapor concentrations, i.e., the simulated meriodional water vapor gradient in the stratosphere is realistic. The present model version constitutes a powerful tool to investigate, for instance, the combined direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic trace gas emissions, and the future evolution of the ozone layer. (orig.)

  20. Survey results for oblique field magnetic flux leakage survey in comparison to axial field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simek, James [T.D. Williamson, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Pipeline operators worldwide have implemented integrity management programs in an effort to improve operation and maintenance efficiency along with continued safe operation of pipeline systems. Several types of monitoring and data collection activities are incorporated into these programs, with in line inspection (ILI) tools providing data for detection and quantification of features that may impact the integrity of the pipeline system. Magnetic flux leakage (MFL) ILI tools are among the most widely used in pipeline systems. Primarily used for metal loss detection and quantification, these tools are extremely robust, performing successfully in the harsh environments found in operating pipelines, with the majority of MFL tools in service today relying upon axially oriented magnetic fields. For feature classes whose principal axis is aligned parallel to the pipe axis, the use of an axially applied magnetic field may quite often result in decreased performance due to difficulties in detection and sizing. Through the use of fields applied either perpendicular or in an oblique direction to the principal axis, the magnetic leakage levels generated at feature locations are increased, providing usable signal levels. When used concurrently with an axially oriented magnetizer, an obliquely applied magnetic field may provide the ability to detect, quantify, or otherwise aid in discrimination of volumetric versus non-volumetric features. Providing the ability to collect both of these data sets in a single survey would allow operators to minimize the number of surveys required to address all categories of metal loss features that may be present within pipeline systems. This paper will discuss some of the variables that affect detection and sizing of metal loss zones with respect to the applied field direction, including graphs and tables to quantify the effects of angular displacement for specific feature shapes. Several classes of features have been chosen for evaluation

  1. Surface heat budget over the Weddell Sea: Buoy results and model comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Uotila, Juha; Cheng, Bin; Launiainen, Jouko

    2002-02-01

    The surface heat budget over the Weddell Sea ice cover in 1996 was studied on the basis of data from Argos buoys equipped with meteorological sensors. In addition, a thermodynamic sea ice model, satellite-based data on the sea ice concentration, sonar results on ice thickness distribution, and output from large-scale meteorological models were all utilized. Applying the buoy data, the sensible heat flux over sea ice was calculated by Monin-Obukhov theory using the gradient method, and the latent heat flux was obtained by the bulk method. A second estimate for the surface fluxes was obtained from the thermodynamic sea ice model, which was forced by the buoy observations. The results showed a reasonable agreement. The dominating component in the heat budget over ice was the net longwave radiation, which had a mean annual cooling effect of -28 W m-2. This was balanced by the net shortwave radiation (annual mean 13 W m-2), the sensible (13 W m-2) and latent (-3 W m-2) heat fluxes, and the conductive heat flux through the ice (5 W m-2). The regional surface fluxes over the fractured ice cover were estimated using the buoy data and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI)-derived ice concentrations. In winter the regional surface sensible heat flux was sensitive to the ice concentration and thickness distribution. The estimate for the area-averaged formation rate of new ice in leads in winter varies from 0.05 to 0.21 m per month depending on the SSMI processing algorithm applied. Countergradient fluxes occurred 8-10% of the time. The buoy observations were compared with the operational analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and the reanalyses of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). The 2 m air temperature and surface temperature were 3.5° and 4.4°C too high, respectively, in the ECMWF and 3.2° and 3.0°C too low in the NCEP/NCAR fields, but the models reproduced the

  2. Comparison of 5 IU and 10 IU tuberculin test results in patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Tayebi Khosroshahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised patients such as those with end-stage kidney failure under-going hemodialysis (HD are at increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB. For this reason, routine TB screening of HD patients with tuberculin test has been recommended. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has recommended that patients with chronic renal failure should undergo annual skin testing for TB with tuberculin [purified protein derivative (PPD], with an induration of ≥10 mm at 48 h depicting a positive reaction. The aim of this study was to compare the results of two different doses of PPD in dialysis patients. This descriptive and comparative multicenter study was performed on 255 patients on chronic dialysis in Tabriz, Iran. These patients did not have the PPD test done within the preceding one year. Patients were divided into two groups randomly and conventional or double-dose tuberculin test was performed using the Mantoux technique with 5 IU (group 1 and 10 IU (group 2 of PPD. Results were interpreted 48-72 h after injection. Patients were divided into those with less than 10 mm and those with ≥10 mm duration. Mean age was 44.6 ± 15 years (M/F = 1.5/1. The mean duration on dialysis was 39 ± 7 months. There was no significant difference regarding the age, gender, dura-tion on dialysis, causes of chronic kidney disease, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and serum albumin between the two groups. The mean induration was 4.6 mm and 7.7 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was induration ≥10 mm in 19.6% and 25.5% of group 1 and 2, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P <0.05. In conclusion, because of the high frequency of TB in dialysis patients, an annual tuberculin test may be recommended. Our study showed that the double-dose tuberculin test may be a better substitute to the conventional test in dialysis patients.

  3. Improvement of buildings energy efficiency: Comparison, operability and results of commissioning tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Critical analysis of various tools used for commissioning in buildings. • Evaluation of these tools in the considered commissioning phases. • Evaluation of their operability, potential (fault detection, energy savings evaluation), and results. - Abstract: Mainly published to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, new building regulations, leads to a constant improvement of building components such as building envelopes and static insulation. Although, the effectiveness and the behaviour of the air-conditioning plants, validated by commissioning procedures, affect greatly the energy needs in buildings, through ventilation requirements. The main work of Annex 40 of the International Agency of the Energy reports on “Commissioning of Building HVAC systems for Improved Energy Performance”. The retro- and on-going commissioning of existing buildings HVAC systems can be achieved using many tools. In this annex, we focus on three which have several objectives and intervene in different phases of the commissioning process. One leads to the detection of faults whereas the others contribute to energy consumption evaluation. This paper presents a critical analysis of the various tools used and evaluates the potential of each tool in the commissioning phases under consideration, in order to determine the most convenient ones for the project in question. The work presented in this paper allows providing a helpful advice to the energy service company or to the technical and research institutes to determine the most adequate tool in terms of number of potential detected faults, precision in energy savings evaluation, and end-user’s assessment. A critical analysis is presented to evaluate three of these tools and apply them to a real building. It appears clearly that the PECI Guide, developed for new construction, is very useful in retro-commissioning procedures. Moreover, Emma-CTA and its new versions (CITE-AHU, etc.) represent excellent fault detection tools

  4. Head and neck resonance in a rhesus monkey - a comparison with results from a human model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinniswood, Adam; Gandhi, Om P.

    1999-03-01

    The use of primates for examining the effects of electromagnetic radiation on behavioural patterns is well established. Rats have also been used for this purpose. However, the monkey is of greater interest as its physiological make-up is somewhat closer to that of the human. Since the behavioural effects are likely to occur at lower field strengths for resonant absorption conditions for the head and neck, the need for determination of resonance frequencies for this region is obvious. Numerical techniques are ideal for the prediction of coupling to each of the organs, and accurate anatomically based models can be used to pinpoint the conditions for maximum absorption in the head in order to focus the experiments. In this paper we use two models, one of a human male and the other of a rhesus monkey, and find the mass-averaged power absorption spectra for both. The frequencies at which highest absorption (i.e. resonance) occurs in both the whole body and the head and neck region are determined. The results from these two models are compared for both E-polarization and k-polarization, and are shown to obey basic electromagnetic scaling principles.

  5. Small business needs assessment: a comparison of dental educators' responses with SBDC survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, R W; Callan, R S; Blalock, J S; Turner, J E; Trombly, R M

    2001-09-01

    A primary focus of dental education is to teach students the knowledge, skills, and values essential for practicing dentistry. However, the preparation of dentists to manage a business is frequently cited as inadequate. A survey was prepared to assess teachers' opinions of business instructional topics: challenges; desired training; employee benefits; learning resources; importance of business topics; and appropriateness of time allocations. The purpose of this project is to compare opinions of teachers of dental practice management with key management aspects reported for service businesses by the Small Business Development Center (SBDC). Practice management teachers from forty-eight (89 percent) schools responded to the survey. They indicated that several challenges confronting dentists are similar to other service businesses. Dentists, however, rank customer relations appreciably higher. In order of importance of teaching topics, the practice management teachers rank ethics and personnel management as a high priority and planning as a low priority. Awareness of the similarities and differences in the perceptions of practice management teachers and businesspeople may result in instructional improvements. PMID:11569602

  6. Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Bozkurt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In this study, we aimed to compare superficial swab cultures with deep tissue biopsy cultures and also toevaluate the reliability of superficial swap cultures in diabetic foot infected patients.Materials and methods: To compare two culture methods, the hospitalized patients with diabetic foot infections wereretrospectively evaluated at Dicle University and Diyarbakir Education and Research Hospital, between October 2009and November 2010. The patients were divided two groups as with osteomyelitis (osteomyelitis group, Wagner ≥3 andwith soft tissue infections (soft tissue infection (STI group, Wagner <3. The cultures of deep tissue biopsy specimensand swab samples were collected from all patients.Results: In 75 patients with osteomyelitis, the compatibility rate in deep tissue biopsy culture with superficial swabculture was 58.7% whereas in STI group this rate was 89.1% (p<0.001. Of 41 superficial swap cultures, 33 of them (81%had the same microorganisms with the identified microorganisms in deep tissue cultures. Staphylococcus aureus was thepredominant pathogen isolated from deep tissue biopsy cultures and also from superficial swap cultures. The distributionsof microorganisms in deep tissue culture and swap cultures were similar.Conclusions: This study indicates that superficial swab culture could be valuable to identify the pathogens in infecteddiabetic wounds without osteomyelitis. The accuracy of swab specimens diminishes when osteomyelitis develops. Deeptissue culture seems more sensitive and reliable in osteomyelitis group. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2011;1(3:122-127

  7. Computer-assisted comparison of analysis and test results in transportation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of its ongoing research efforts, Sandia National Laboratories' Transportation Surety Center investigates the integrity of various containment methods for hazardous materials transport, subject to anomalous structural and thermal events such as free-fall impacts, collisions, and fires in both open and confined areas. Since it is not possible to conduct field experiments for every set of possible conditions under which an actual transportation accident might occur, accurate modeling methods must be developed which will yield reliable simulations of the effects of accident events under various scenarios. This requires computer software which is capable of assimilating and processing data from experiments performed as benchmarks, as well as data obtained from numerical models that simulate the experiment. Software tools which can present all of these results in a meaningful and useful way to the analyst are a critical aspect of this process. The purpose of this work is to provide software resources on a long term basis, and to ensure that the data visualization capabilities of the Center keep pace with advancing technology. This will provide leverage for its modeling and analysis abilities in a rapidly evolving hardware/software environment

  8. Head and neck resonance in a rhesus monkey - a comparison with results from a human model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of primates for examining the effects of electromagnetic radiation on behavioural patterns is well established. Rats have also been used for this purpose. However, the monkey is of greater interest as its physiological make-up is somewhat closer to that of the human. Since the behavioural effects are likely to occur at lower field strengths for resonant absorption conditions for the head and neck, the need for determination of resonance frequencies for this region is obvious. Numerical techniques are ideal for the prediction of coupling to each of the organs, and accurate anatomically based models can be used to pinpoint the conditions for maximum absorption in the head in order to focus the experiments. In this paper we use two models, one of a human male and the other of a rhesus monkey, and find the mass-averaged power absorption spectra for both. The frequencies at which highest absorption (i.e. resonance) occurs in both the whole body and the head and neck region are determined. The results from these two models are compared for both E-polarization and k-polarization, and are shown to obey basic electromagnetic scaling principles. (author)

  9. Comparison of effects resulting from the application of physical treatments on Aspergillus parasiticus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inactivation effect and fungus toxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 were studied by means of ionizing radiations. The dose-survival curve reveals two different responses to radiation: the first one, showing a relatively high sensitivity, corresponds to mycelia; the second one, more resistant, to non-germinated conidiospores with a D10 value of 0.77 kGy. To carry on further experiments, 1.5 kGy was chosen as radiation treatment dose, which is twice the D10 value for the most resistant form. The mould was cultivated on rice, under ideal temperature and humidity conditions so as to assure toxin production. Samples of different ages were irradiated and 20 hour old mycelium turned out to be the most susceptible to radiation damage. Therefore 20 hours after inoculation, the following experiments were performed: a) irradiation; b) heating; c) heating followed by irradiation. Aflatoxin production was measured along 11 days of incubation, by dilution to extinction on thin layer chromatography. Results obtained show that heated or irradiated samples have decreased aflatoxin levels compared to controls and the combined treatment reduce them below the detection limit of our analytical method, and also below the maximum levels advised by the international organizations on health (FAO/OMS, 1966: less than 30 ppb). (Author)

  10. Comparison results of forest cover mapping of Peninsular Malaysia using geospatial technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Wan Abdul; Abd Rahman, Shukri B. Wan

    2016-06-01

    Climate change and global warming transpire due to several factors. Among them is deforestation which occur mostly in developing countries including Malaysia where forested areas are converted to other land use for tangible economic returns and to a smaller extent, as subsistence for local communities. As a cause for concern, efforts have been taken by the World Resource Institute (WRI) and World Wildlife Fund (WWF) to monitor forest loss using geospatial technology - interpreting time-based remote sensing imageries and producing statistics of forested areas lost since 2001. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia(FDPM) has conducted forest cover mapping for the region using the same technology since 2011, producing GIS maps for 2009-2010,2011-2012,2013-2014 and 2015. This paper focuses on the comparative study of the results generated from WRI,WWF and FDPM interpretations between 2010 and 2015, the methodologies used, the similarities and differences, challenges and recommendations for future enhancement of forest cover mapping technique.

  11. [3-phase scintigraphy in the Sudeck syndrome. Comparison with the results of roentgenologic and clinical studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppers, B

    1982-11-01

    37 patients with clinically and radiologically proved reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome were scintigraphed by 99mTc-MDP (three-phase-scintigraphy). In 87% of the examinations (all three-phases) an increased tracer accumulation in the region of the affected limb could be seen scintigraphically. The majority of the positive results (92% resp. 87%) were found in the interval phase (phase II) and the late phase (phase III) of the scintigraphic examinations.--We recommend a staging of the increase of the tracer accumulation when examining the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. This staging doesn't significantly correlate with the familiar clinical and radiological stagings. However it may be useful when assessing the course of the syndrome.--Increased tracer accumulations could be observed in the case of clinically, radiologically and scintigraphically manifest reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome in the region of the foot, frequently in the ipsilateral knee region, rarely in the ipsilateral hip joint region, although clinically the syndrome could not be observed in these regions. PMID:6184293

  12. Comparison of results of integrated nuclear medical kidney examinations in different stages of Diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 67 diabetics and 33 hypertonics the author carried out the following tests: 1. Serial renal function scintiscanning with 131J-oJH; 2. Simultaneous assessment of global sup(99m)Tc-dtpa and 131J-oJH clearance using a partly screened-off whole-body count 3. Unilateral assessment of 131J-oJH clearance; 4. Assessment of sup(99m)Tc-dtpa and 131J-oJH excretion. From the integral gamma-camera time-activity curves established by ROI technique as a part of serial functional scintiscanning, the nephrogram parameters secretion value, secretion maximum and elimination half-time were ascertained. The values thus obtained were compared with the global and unilateral 131J-oJH clearance. Moreover the excretion of the radiopharmaceuticals in the urine was compared with whole-body clearance determined simultaneously. At normal renal function, the biological half-life for 131J-oJH and sup(99m)Tc-dtpa was calculated and the distribute volumes were assessed from the elimination constant and from renal clearance. The results of the nuclear-medical renal-function parameters in varying stages of diabetic renal disease indicate that the elimination half-time is the only RIN criterion to permit a differentiation of collectives. (orig./MG)

  13. Biomonitoring of airborne particulate matter emitted from a cement plant and comparison with dispersion modelling results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gabriela A.; Wannaz, Eduardo D.; Mateos, Ana C.; Pignata, María L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a cement plant that incinerates industrial waste on the air quality of a region in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, was assessed by means of biomonitoring studies (effects of immission) and atmospheric dispersion (effects of emission) of PM10 with the application of the ISC3 model (Industrial Source Complex) developed by the USEPA (Environmental Protection Agency). For the biomonitoring studies, samples from the epiphyte plant Tillandsia capillaris Ruíz & Pav. f. capillaris were transplanted to the vicinities of the cement plant in order to determine the physiological damage and heavy metal accumulation (Ca, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb). For the application of the ISC3 model, point and area sources from the cement plant were considered to obtain average PM10 concentration results from the biomonitoring exposure period. This model permitted it to be determined that the emissions from the cement plant (point and area sources) were confined to the vicinities, without significant dispersion in the study area. This was also observed in the biomonitoring study, which identified Ca, Cd and Pb, pH and electric conductivity (EC) as biomarkers of this cement plant. Vehicular traffic emissions and soil re-suspension could be observed in the biomonitors, giving a more complete scenario. In this study, biomonitoring studies along with the application of atmospheric dispersion models, allowed the atmospheric pollution to be assessed in more detail.

  14. Clinical Decision Support for the Classification of Diabetic Retinopathy: A Comparison of Manual and Automated Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsch, Christoph; Fehre, Karsten; Prager, Sonja; Scholda, Christoph; Kriechbaum, Katharina; Wrba, Thomas; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The management of diabetic retinopathy, a frequent ophthalmological manifestation of diabetes mellitus, consists of regular examinations and a standardized, manual classification of disease severity, which is used to recommend re-examination intervals. To evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing automated, guideline-based diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading into clinical routine by applying established clinical decision support (CDS) technology. We compared manual with automated classification that was generated using medical documentation and an Arden server with a specific medical logic module. Of 7169 included eyes, 47% (n=3373) showed inter-method classification agreement, specifically 29.4% in mild DR, 38.3% in moderate DR, 27.6% in severe DR, and 65.7% in proliferative DR. We demonstrate that the implementation of a CDS system for automated disease severity classification in diabetic retinopathy is feasible but also that, due to the highly individual nature of medical documentation, certain important criteria for the used electronic health record system need to be met in order to achieve reliable results. PMID:27139380

  15. Radiometry of UVB: Comparisons with results of Lowtran 7 and Premar computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype UVMFR instrument (Ultra Violet MultiFilter Radiometer) with 4 different wavelength sensors in the UVB band has been thoroughly tested in Brasimone (44,11 deg N; 11.11 deg E) prior to tis installation for long term measurement campaigns of the UVB flux at the ground (890 m. local height) with separation of the direct and diffuse components of radiation. It has also been used for the first validation of a new computer code (PREMAR) developed by ENEA which solves the radiation transfer equation in the atmosphere by a Montecarlo approach. The new code considers a multilayer geometry, allows for the computation of albedo effects and exploits the rich library and potentialities of the LOWTRAN-7 U.S. computer code. With reference to the best available data, in days with an optimal meteorology to avoid significant cloud effects, an intercomparison of the instrument and code results has been performed at different times (varying solar zenital angles). A good agreement has been obtained between experiment and calculations as to the diffuse / total radiation ratio, and the deduced local albedo has been found to correspond rather well to theoretical estimates

  16. Life-cycle analysis results for geothermal systems in comparison to other power systems: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, J.L.; Clark, C.E.; Yuan, L.; Han, J.; Wang, M. (Energy Systems)

    2012-02-08

    A study has been conducted on the material demand and life-cycle energy and emissions performance of power-generating technologies in addition to those reported in Part I of this series. The additional technologies included concentrated solar power, integrated gasification combined cycle, and a fossil/renewable (termed hybrid) geothermal technology, more specifically, co-produced gas and electric power plants from geo-pressured gas and electric (GPGE) sites. For the latter, two cases were considered: gas and electricity export and electricity-only export. Also modeled were cement, steel and diesel fuel requirements for drilling geothermal wells as a function of well depth. The impact of the construction activities in the building of plants was also estimated. The results of this study are consistent with previously reported trends found in Part I of this series. Among all the technologies considered, fossil combustion-based power plants have the lowest material demand for their construction and composition. On the other hand, conventional fossil-based power technologies have the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, followed by the hybrid and then two of the renewable power systems, namely hydrothermal flash power and biomass-based combustion power. GHG emissions from U.S. geothermal flash plants were also discussed, estimates provided, and data needs identified. Of the GPGE scenarios modeled, the all-electric scenario had the highest GHG emissions. Similar trends were found for other combustion emissions.

  17. Comparison of China's oil import risk. Results based on portfolio theory and a diversification index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the international oil price has fluctuated violently, bringing about huge risk for the international oil trade. In fact, the risk of crude oil and petroleum product imports is different because of the different import origins and prices. Which import risk is lower for China? From the perspective of oil supply security, how should China portfolio crude oil and petroleum product imports to minimize its oil import risk? Using portfolio theory and a diversification index approach, this paper compares and analyzes the supply, price and transport risks of crude oil and petroleum product imports. Our results show that the following: (1) Specific risk (diversification risk) and marine transport risk of China's petroleum product imports are lower than that of crude oil imports. (2) The average rate of return of China's petroleum product imports is higher than that of crude oil imports. Moreover, the average import price variance of petroleum product imports is lower than that of crude oil imports. Thus, the systematic risk (price risk) of petroleum products is lower too. Therefore, from the perspective of oil supply security, China should increase petroleum product imports to decrease its oil import risk. (author)

  18. Comparison of China's oil import risk: Results based on portfolio theory and a diversification index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, the international oil price has fluctuated violently, bringing about huge risk for the international oil trade. In fact, the risk of crude oil and petroleum product imports is different because of the different import origins and prices. Which import risk is lower for China? From the perspective of oil supply security, how should China portfolio crude oil and petroleum product imports to minimize its oil import risk? Using portfolio theory and a diversification index approach, this paper compares and analyzes the supply, price and transport risks of crude oil and petroleum product imports. Our results show that the following: (1) Specific risk (diversification risk) and marine transport risk of China's petroleum product imports are lower than that of crude oil imports. (2) The average rate of return of China's petroleum product imports is higher than that of crude oil imports. Moreover, the average import price variance of petroleum product imports is lower than that of crude oil imports. Thus, the systematic risk (price risk) of petroleum products is lower too. Therefore, from the perspective of oil supply security, China should increase petroleum product imports to decrease its oil import risk.

  19. Dynamics of tachyon fields and inflation - comparison of analytical and numerical results with observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role tachyon fields may play in evolution of early universe is discussed in this paper. We consider the evolution of a flat and homogeneous universe governed by a tachyon scalar field with the DBI-type action and calculate the slow-roll parameters of inflation, scalar spectral index (n, and tensor-scalar ratio (r for the given potentials. We pay special attention to the inverse power potential, first of all to V (x ~ x−4, and compare the available results obtained by analytical and numerical methods with those obtained by observation. It is shown that the computed values of the observational parameters and the observed ones are in a good agreement for the high values of the constant X0. The possibility that influence of the radion field can extend a range of the acceptable values of the constant X0 to the string theory motivated sector of its values is briefly considered. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021, br. 174020 i br. 43011

  20. Statistics of dark matter substructure - II. Comparison of model with simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bosch, Frank C.; Jiang, Fangzhou

    2016-05-01

    We compare subhalo mass and velocity functions obtained from different simulations with different subhalo finders among each other, and with predictions from the new semi-analytical model presented in Paper I. We find that subhalo mass functions (SHMFs) obtained using different subhalo finders agree with each other at the level of ˜20 per cent, but only at the low-mass end. At the massive end, subhalo finders that identify subhaloes based purely on density in configuration space dramatically underpredict the subhalo abundances by more than an order of magnitude. These problems are much less severe for subhalo velocity functions (SHVFs), indicating that they arise from issues related to assigning masses to the subhaloes, rather than from detecting them. Overall the predictions from the semi-analytical model are in excellent agreement with simulation results obtained using the more advanced subhalo finders that use information in six-dimensional phase-space. In particular, the model accurately reproduces the slope and host-mass-dependent normalization of both the subhalo mass and velocity functions. We find that the SHMFs and SHVFs have power-law slopes of 0.86 and 2.77, respectively, significantly shallower than what has been claimed in several studies in the literature.

  1. Constraining performance assessment models with tracer test results: a comparison between two conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean A.; Selroos, Jan-Olof

    Tracer tests are conducted to ascertain solute transport parameters of a single rock feature over a 5-m transport pathway. Two different conceptualizations of double-porosity solute transport provide estimates of the tracer breakthrough curves. One of the conceptualizations (single-rate) employs a single effective diffusion coefficient in a matrix with infinite penetration depth. However, the tracer retention between different flow paths can vary as the ratio of flow-wetted surface to flow rate differs between the path lines. The other conceptualization (multirate) employs a continuous distribution of multiple diffusion rate coefficients in a matrix with variable, yet finite, capacity. Application of these two models with the parameters estimated on the tracer test breakthrough curves produces transport results that differ by orders of magnitude in peak concentration and time to peak concentration at the performance assessment (PA) time and length scales (100,000 years and 1,000 m). These differences are examined by calculating the time limits for the diffusive capacity to act as an infinite medium. These limits are compared across both conceptual models and also against characteristic times for diffusion at both the tracer test and PA scales. Additionally, the differences between the models are examined by re-estimating parameters for the multirate model from the traditional double-porosity model results at the PA scale. Results indicate that for each model the amount of the diffusive capacity that acts as an infinite medium over the specified time scale explains the differences between the model results and that tracer tests alone cannot provide reliable estimates of transport parameters for the PA scale. Results of Monte Carlo runs of the transport models with varying travel times and path lengths show consistent results between models and suggest that the variation in flow-wetted surface to flow rate along path lines is insignificant relative to variability in

  2. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  3. BioSNG - process simulation and comparison with first results from a 1-MW demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehling, Barbara; Aichernig, Christian [Repotec Umwelttechnik GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann; Rauch, Reinhard [Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-15

    High oil prices and peak oil, next to ecological aspects, increase the necessity of governmental support regarding the use of renewable energy resources. Biomass is a renewable energy source, which allows a sustainable utilization for several reasons. Its carbon dioxide neutrality and high availability in countries across Europe make economic usage of this source possible. Nowadays, biomass is used in rather conservative ways to produce heat and/or electric power. A more sophisticated way of using wood is transforming it into a secondary energy source by liquefaction and gasification. The product of the gasification process - considered in this paper - is a medium calorific product gas, which is nearly free of nitrogen and has a H{sub 2}/CO ratio favourable for synthesis processes. Therefore, the product gas can be converted into a synthetic natural gas (BioSNG). In Guessing (Austria), the concept of a steam blown dual fluidized bed gasifier coupled to a catalytic conversion of the product gas to BioSNG could be proven successfully. A slipstream was used to run a demonstration unit with a capacity of 1 MW BioSNG. The resulting BioSNG exceeded the regulations for injection into the natural gas grid. The compressed BioSNG was stored in a fuelling station to supply CNG cars with energy. Thus, the applicability of using BioSNG in CNG cars was proven as well. The simulation software IPSEpro was used to model the overall system of gasification, gas cleaning, methanation and upgrading to BioSNG. The aim of this modelling work was to evaluate the optimization potential within the system and improve the economic and ecologic situation. Moreover, this tool will also be used to scale-up the process hereafter. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of Severe Accident Results Among SCDAP/RELAP5, MAAP, and MELCOR Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence of the Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) and station blackout sequence of the Maanshan NPP with the SCDAP/RELAP5 (SR5), Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP), and MELCOR codes. The large-break sequence initiated with double-ended rupture of a recirculation loop. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) closed, the feedwater pump tripped, the reactor scrammed, and the assumed high-pressure and low-pressure spray systems of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) were not functional. Therefore, all coolant systems to quench the core were lost. MAAP predicts a longer vessel failure time, and MELCOR predicts a shorter vessel failure time for the large-break LOCA sequence. The station blackout sequence initiated with a loss of all alternating-current (ac) power. The MSIVs closed, the feedwater pump tripped, and the reactor scrammed. The motor-driven auxiliary feedwater system and the high-pressure and low-pressure injection systems of the ECCS were lost because of the loss of all ac power. It was also assumed that the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump was not functional. Therefore, the coolant system to quench the core was also lost. MAAP predicts a longer time of steam generator dryout, time interval between top of active fuel and bottom of active fuel, and vessel failure time than those of the SR5 and MELCOR predictions for the station blackout sequence. The three codes give similar results for important phenomena during the accidents, including SG dryout, core uncovery, cladding oxidation, cladding failure, molten pool formulation, debris relocation to the lower plenum, and vessel head failure. This paper successfully demonstrates the large-break LOCA sequence of the Kuosheng NPP and the station blackout sequence of the Maanshan NPP

  5. Comparison of intravitreal bevacizumab to photodynamic therapy for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy: Short-term results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitamura Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the short-term therapeutic effects of intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB to those of photodynamic therapy (PDT for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV. Materials and Methods: Retrospective interventional case study. Eighty-nine eyes of 89 patients with symptomatic PCV were treated by IVB or PDT. Eighteen eyes were treated with a single injection of IVB (s-IVB group, 22 eyes with three consecutive monthly IVB injections (m-IVB group, and 49 eyes with PDT alone (PDT group. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and OCT-determined central foveal thickness (CFT were evaluated before, and one and three months after the treatment. For statistical analyses, one-factor ANOVA and Chi-square test were used. Results: The differences in the BCVA and CFT among the three groups at the baseline were not significant (P=0.992, P=0.981, respectively. Three months after the treatment, the BCVA improved by> 0.2 logMAR units in two out of 18 eyes (11% in the s-IVB group, three out of 22 eyes (14% in the m-IVB group, and 15 out of 49 eyes (31% in the PDT group (P=0.124. A decrease in the CFT by> 20% was achieved in six out of 18 eyes in the s-IVB group, ten eyes (46% in the m-IVB group, and 35 eyes (71% in the PDT group (P=0.009. The resolution of polyps was achieved in three out of 18 eyes in the s-IVB group, one eye (5% in the m-IVB group and 35 eyes (71% in the PDT group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The better short-term therapeutic outcomes in the PDT group than in the s-IVB and m-IVB groups indicate that PDT may be more effective than IVB in short term after treatment for PCV.

  6. External beam radiation therapy and retinoblastoma: Long-term results in the comparison of two techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This study compares the long-term actuarial local control, eye conservation rate, survival, and ocular complications in children with retinoblastoma treated with two different external beam treatment techniques. Methods and Materials: From 1979-1991, 182 eyes in 123 children (104 bilateral) received primary external beam radiation therapy. An anterior lens-sparing electron beam technique delivering 38 to 50 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions was used in 67 eyes from 1979-1984 and a modified lateral beam technique, delivering 42 to 46 Gy in 2 Gy fractions, was used in 113 eyes from 1984-1991. These groups were balanced with respect to known prognostic variables. Results: For Group I-III eyes, the 5- and 8-year local control was significantly improved using the modified lateral beam technique (84%) compared to (38%) using the anterior lens sparing technique (p p ≤ 0.0001). For Group IV-V eyes, the 5- and 8-year local control rates were not statistically different, despite a trend favoring the modified lateral beam technique. Survival endpoints including eye survival (no enucleation), cause-specific survival, and overall survival comparing the two treatment techniques were not significantly different. Overall, 22% of eyes developed cataracts. There was no difference between the two treatment groups in terms of cataract development. No eyes required enucleation for ocular complications. Conclusion: There is a significant improvement in local control using the modified lateral beam technique compared to an anterior lens-sparing approach for Group I-III eyes. However, there was no difference in survival end points between the two treatment techniques. The incidence of ocular complications using these two external beam techniques is acceptable.

  7. A comparison study between observations and simulation results of Barghouthi model for O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding of the effect of wave-particle interactions on ion outflows in the polar wind region and the resulting ion heating and escape from low altitudes to higher altitudes, we carried out a comparison between polar wind simulations obtained using Barghouthi model with corresponding observations obtained from different satellites. The Barghouthi model describes O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind region in the range 1.7 RE to 13.7 RE, including the effects of gravity, polarization electrostatic field, diverging geomagnetic field lines, and wave-particle interactions. Wave-particle interactions were included into the model by using a particle diffusion equation, which depends on diffusion coefficients determined from estimates of the typical electric field spectral density at relevant altitudes and frequencies. We provide a formula for the velocity diffusion coefficient that depends on altitude and velocity, in which the velocity part depends on the perpendicular wavelength of the electromagnetic turbulence λ⊥. Because of the shortage of information about λ⊥, it was included into the model as a parameter. We produce different simulations (i.e. ion velocity distributions, ions density, ion drift velocity, ion parallel and perpendicular temperatures for O+ and H+ ions, and for different λ⊥. We discuss the simulations in terms of wave-particle interactions, perpendicular adiabatic cooling, parallel adiabatic cooling, mirror force, and ion potential energy. The main findings of the simulations are as follows: (1 O+ ions are highly energized at all altitudes in the simulation tube due to wave-particle interactions that heat the ions in the perpendicular direction, and part of this gained energy transfer to the parallel direction by mirror force, resulting in accelerating O+ ions along geomagnetic field lines from lower altitudes to higher altitudes. (2 The effect of wave-particle interactions is negligible for H

  8. Precise orbit determination for quad-constellation satellites at Wuhan University: strategy, result validation, and comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Xu, Xiaolong; Zhao, Qile; Liu, Jingnan

    2016-02-01

    This contribution summarizes the strategy used by Wuhan University (WHU) to determine precise orbit and clock products for Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). In particular, the satellite attitude, phase center corrections, solar radiation pressure model developed and used for BDS satellites are addressed. In addition, this contribution analyzes the orbit and clock quality of the quad-constellation products from MGEX Analysis Centers (ACs) for a common time period of 1 year (2014). With IGS final GPS and GLONASS products as the reference, Multi-GNSS products of WHU (indicated by WUM) show the best agreement among these products from all MGEX ACs in both accuracy and stability. 3D Day Boundary Discontinuities (DBDs) range from 8 to 27 cm for Galileo-IOV satellites among all ACs' products, whereas WUM ones are the largest (about 26.2 cm). Among three types of BDS satellites, MEOs show the smallest DBDs from 10 to 27 cm, whereas the DBDs for all ACs products are at decimeter to meter level for GEOs and one to three decimeter for IGSOs, respectively. As to the satellite laser ranging (SLR) validation for Galileo-IOV satellites, the accuracy evaluated by SLR residuals is at the one decimeter level with the well-known systematic bias of about -5 cm for all ACs. For BDS satellites, the accuracy could reach decimeter level, one decimeter level, and centimeter level for GEOs, IGSOs, and MEOs, respectively. However, there is a noticeable bias in GEO SLR residuals. In addition, systematic errors dependent on orbit angle related to mismodeled solar radiation pressure (SRP) are present for BDS GEOs and IGSOs. The results of Multi-GNSS combined kinematic PPP demonstrate that the best accuracy of position and fastest convergence speed have been achieved using WUM products, particularly in the Up direction. Furthermore, the accuracy of static BDS only PPP degrades when the BDS IGSO and MEO satellites switches to orbit-normal orientation

  9. New reflectance spectra of 40 asteroids: A comparison with the previous results and an interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busarev, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses selected reflectance spectra of 40 Main Belt asteroids. The spectra have been obtained by the author in the Crimean Laboratory of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute (2003-2009). The aim is to search for new spectral features that characterize the composition of the asteroids' material. The results are compared with earlier findings to reveal substantial irregularities in the distribution of the chemical-mineralogical compositions of the surface material of a number of minor planets (10 Hygiea, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 21 Lutetia, 45 Eugenia, 51 Nemausa, 55 Pandora, 64 Angelina, 69 Hesperia, 80 Sappho, 83 Beatrix, 92 Undina, 129 Antigone, 135 Hertha, and 785 Zwetana), which are manifest at different rotation phases. The vast majority of the analyzed high-temperature asteroids demonstrate subtle spectral features of an atypical hydrated and/or carbonaceous chondrite material (in the form of impurities or separate units), which are likely associated with the peculiarities of the formation of these bodies and the subsequent dynamic and impact processes, which lead, inter alia, to the delivery of atypical materials. Studies of 4 Vesta aboard NASA's Dawn spacecraft have found that asteroids of similar types can form their own phyllosilicate generations provided that their surface material contains buried icy or hydrated fragments of impacting bodies. The first evidence has been obtained of a spectral phase effect (SPE) at small phase angles (≤4°) for 10 Hygiea, 21 Lutetia, and, possibly, 4 Vesta. The SPE manifests itself in an increasing spectral coefficient of brightness in the visible range with decreasing wavelength. This effect is present in the reflectance spectrum of CM2 carbonaceous material at a phase angle of 10° and absent at larger angles (Cloutis et al., 2011a). The shape of Hygeia's reflectance spectra at low phase angles appears to be controlled by the SPE during the most part of its rotation period, which may indicate a

  10. Steady state characteristics of a tilting pad journal bearing with controllable lubrication: Comparison between theoretical and experimental results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    direction. The modification of the injection pressure enables to modify the bearing static and dynamic properties according to the operational needs. The results presented are obtained using a theoretical model, which considers all the effects that determine the bearing behavior (controllable......This paper is aimed at presenting results regarding the static and thermal behavior of a tilting-pad journal bearing operating under controllable regime. The bearing is rendered controllable by injecting high pressure oil into the clearance using holes drilled across the bearing pads in the radial...... elastothermohydrodynamic lubrication regime), as well as using a test rig designed and built to this effect. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results provides solid ground to determine the accuracy of the available model for the the prediction of the steady-state behavior of the tilting-pad bearing with...

  11. Comparison of fatigue test results for different loading sequences with aid of the Relative-Miner-Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Relative-Miner-Rule was applied for comparison of test results obtained in different laboratories with not fully identical loading spectra on notched specimens, pin-lug joints and riveted joints. It was shown, that the Relative-Miner-Rule takes into account the effect of the loading spectrum modification in the case when the corresponding loading frequency distributions have nearly identical maximal loading distributions. The Relative-Miner-Rule results in this case in better life predictions than the conventional Miner-Rule. A conversion with aid of the Relative-Miner-Rule of test results for joints in comparable fatigue life parameters (e.g. number of flights) for a common loading frequency distribution is possible if the S-N lines of the joints are experimentally established. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of oncological results and functional outcomes of radical prostatectomy techniques – retropubic, laparoscopic and robot-assisted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Prilepskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy (RP continues to be the «gold standard» in the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PC for patients with a life expectancy of 10 years.The purpose of this article is to review pertinent literature to the several surgical approaches for PC and compare both functional outcomes and oncological results of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP, laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP and robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP. We chose and systematically reviewed 44 articles published between 1999 and 2013. Comparison analysis showed that the mean blood loss during RRP, LRP and RARP was 935, 442 and 191 ml respectively. Intraoperative transfusion required 19,9; 6,3 and 4,6 % patients respectively. We’d like to outline in our functional outcomes that within the 6-months and 12-months period of follow-up acute urinary retention experienced 89,1 and 92,7 % patients undergoing RARP.However, lack of certain data and absence of standard assessment methods made objective evaluation of erectile function quite complex. Oncologic results revealed that positive surgical margin rates were higher for RARP in comparison to patients after RRP and LRP (the difference was statistically significant.Nevertheless, the absence of randomized approach in an overwhelming majority of cases, as well as the short follow-up period are serious deterrents limiting the number of such trials. Therefore it’s still impossible today to draw certain conclusions about the superiority of any surgical approach for RP

  13. Ion velocity distribution functions in argon and helium discharges: detailed comparison of numerical simulation results and experimental data

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Huihui; Kaganovich, Igor D; Mustafaev, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo Collisions (MCC) method, we have performed simulations of ion velocity distribution functions (IVDF) taking into account both elastic collisions and charge exchange collisions of ions with atoms in uniform electric fields for argon and helium background gases. The simulation results are verified by comparison with the experiment data of the ion drift velocities and the ion transverse diffusion coefficients in argon and helium. The recently published experimental data for the first seven coefficients of the Legendre polynomial expansion of the ion energy and angular distribution functions are used to validate simulation results for IVDF. Good agreements between measured and simulated IVDFs show that the developed simulation model can be used for accurate calculations of IVDFs.

  14. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation within IEA Wind Task 30: Phase II Results Regarding a Floating Semisubmersible Wind System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, A.; Jonkman, J.; Vorpahl, F.; Popko, W.; Qvist, J.; Froyd, L.; Chen, X.; Azcona, J.; Uzungoglu, E.; Guedes Soares, C.; Luan, C.; Yutong, H.; Pengcheng, F.; Yde, A.; Larsen, T.; Nichols, J.; Buils, R.; Lei, L.; Anders Nygard, T.; et al.

    2014-03-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation tools (or codes) that account for the coupled dynamics of the wind inflow, aerodynamics, elasticity, and controls of the turbine, along with the incident waves, sea current, hydrodynamics, and foundation dynamics of the support structure. This paper describes the latest findings of the code-to-code verification activities of the Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration, Continuation (OC4) project, which operates under the International Energy Agency (IEA) Wind Task 30. In the latest phase of the project, participants used an assortment of simulation codes to model the coupled dynamic response of a 5-MW wind turbine installed on a floating semisubmersible in 200 m of water. Code predictions were compared from load-case simulations selected to test different model features. The comparisons have resulted in a greater understanding of offshore floating wind turbine dynamics and modeling techniques, and better knowledge of the validity of various approximations. The lessons learned from this exercise have improved the participants? codes, thus improving the standard of offshore wind turbine modeling.

  15. Results of long term investigations on 18O in the unsaturated zone in comparison to the results of tracing experiments and numerical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observation station of infiltration water is in operation at Wagna in the porous groundwater field of Leibnitz in Southern Styria (Austria) since 1991. Numerous parameters are being measured continuously in the unsaturated zone in different depths under two fields of different agricultural cultivation, the infiltration water being sampled under disturbed and undisturbed conditions. Tracer investigations has been done in 1993, 1997 and 2001 using bromide and 2H to detect the residence time of infiltration water from the surface to the groundwater table (mean average: 4.5 m below surface) and to evaluate transport parameters for the different compartments of soil and unsaturated gravel and sand as a basis for the calibration of numerical solute transport models. From 1991 to 2000 the content of 18O has been detected in precipitation water and in seepage water in different depths of the unsaturated zone as well as in the groundwater itself. The time series of the concentration of 18O in precipitation (mean weighted monthly values from sampling site Graz-Universitaet) and in the soil water at the research station of Wagna 0.4 m below surface is shown. As an example it is visible that the amplitude of 18O in soil water is lower than in precipitation water and that the curve is shifted of about +4 months at the time scale. Due to the intensive investigations on tracing experiments and on numerical modeling at the test field Wagna it will be possible to discuss isotope data evaluation methods used in the unsaturated zone in comparison to the results of tracing experiments and modeling results. On the other hand the long term observation at different depths will give the possibility for better calibration of the numerical transport models on the behaviour of nitrogen from agriculture

  16. Theoretical investigation of second hyperpolarizability of trans-polyacetylene: Comparison between experimental and theoretical results for small oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Ageo Meier; Inacio, Patrícia Loren; Camilo, Alexandre

    2015-12-28

    The development of new conductive polymers nowadays is one of the most important technological areas in materials design. Computational investigation of desired properties in conductive polymers could save financial resources and time, but it is important to choose the methodology that produces good results comparing to experimental results. To verify the prediction of second hyperpolarizability (γ) in oligomers of Trans-Polyacetylene (TPA) by theoretical calculations, a series of semi-empirical, Hartree-Fock (HF), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed and analysed through linear fitting statistical analysis to investigate the accuracy of such theoretical predictions in comparison to the experimental ones. The results showed that HF and DFT methodologies do not describe γ with good accuracy, but the use of diffuse and polarizability functions in HF methodology provided better results than 3-21G and 6-31G functions. It was concluded that RM1 methodology better agrees with γ experimental results for TPA oligomers, and linear fitting statistical analysis is a useful tool to compare experimental and theoretical results. PMID:26723710

  17. Theoretical investigation of second hyperpolarizability of trans-polyacetylene: Comparison between experimental and theoretical results for small oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ageo Meier de; Inacio, Patrícia Loren; Camilo, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    The development of new conductive polymers nowadays is one of the most important technological areas in materials design. Computational investigation of desired properties in conductive polymers could save financial resources and time, but it is important to choose the methodology that produces good results comparing to experimental results. To verify the prediction of second hyperpolarizability (γ) in oligomers of Trans-Polyacetylene (TPA) by theoretical calculations, a series of semi-empirical, Hartree-Fock (HF), and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations were performed and analysed through linear fitting statistical analysis to investigate the accuracy of such theoretical predictions in comparison to the experimental ones. The results showed that HF and DFT methodologies do not describe γ with good accuracy, but the use of diffuse and polarizability functions in HF methodology provided better results than 3-21G and 6-31G functions. It was concluded that RM1 methodology better agrees with γ experimental results for TPA oligomers, and linear fitting statistical analysis is a useful tool to compare experimental and theoretical results.

  18. Results of an EC laboratory comparison on 40K, 90Sr and 137Cs in dried bilberry powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation is presented of a laboratory comparison (LC) on 90Sr, 40K and 137Cs in dried bilberries organised in 2011 by the IRMM. The activity concentrations reported by 88 participant laboratories are compared to the reference values of the new reference material IRMM-426 Wild Berries. Nine per cent and 17% of activity concentration results for 137Cs and 40K, respectively, deviate more than 20% from the reference values, a result worse than that obtained in previous LCs. For 90Sr, about 88% of results lie within 30% of the reference value, better than observed in previous LCs. But only 58% of 90Sr results are satisfactory in terms of the En criterion, indicating difficulties with a complete uncertainty estimation. - Highlights: • New CRM IRMM-426 Wild Berries was used as test material. • Only 91% and 83% of 137Cs and 40K results within 20% of reference values. • Good performance for 90Sr: 88% within 30% of reference values. • For many labs, discrepant evaluation to En criterion and relative deviations. • Many laboratories cannot estimate realistic uncertainties (137Cs, 90Sr)

  19. A direct comparison of MELCOR 1.8.3 and MAAP4 results for several PWR ampersand BWR accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison of calculations of severe accident progression for several postulated accident sequences for representative Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) nuclear power plants performed with the MELCOR 1.8.3 and the MAAP4 computer codes. The PWR system examined in this study is a 1100 MWe system similar in design to a Westinghouse 3-loop plant with a large dry containment; the BWR is a 1100 MWe system similar in design to General Electric BWR/4 with a Mark I containment. A total of nine accident sequences were studied with both codes. Results of these calculations are compared to identify major differences in the timing of key events in the calculated accident progression or other important aspects of severe accident behavior, and to identify specific sources of the observed differences

  20. Super-Droplet Approach to Simulate Precipitating Trade-Wind Cumuli - Comparison of Model Results with RICO Aircraft Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Arabas, Sylwester

    2012-01-01

    In this study we present a series of LES simulations employing the Super-Droplet Method (SDM) for representing aerosol, cloud and rain microphysics. SDM is a particle-based and probabilistic approach in which a Monte-Carlo type algorithm is used for solving the particle collisions and coalescence process. The model does not differentiate between aerosol particles, cloud droplets, drizzle or rain drops. Consequently, it covers representation of such cloud-microphysical processes as: CCN activation, drizzle formation by autoconversion, accretion of cloud droplets, self-collection of raindrops and precipitation including aerosol wet deposition. Among the salient features of the SDM, there are: (i) the robustness of the model formulation (i.e. employment of basic principles rather than parametrisations) and (ii) the ease of comparison of the model results with experimental data obtained with particle-counting instruments. The model set-up used in the study is based on observations from the Rain In Cumulus over Oc...

  1. Maritime Aerosol Network as a Component of AERONET - First Results and Comparison with Global Aerosol Models and Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, A.; Holben, B. N.; Giles, D. M.; Slutsker, I.; O'Neill, N. T.; Eck, T. F.; Macke, A.; Croot, P.; Courcoux, Y.; Sakerin, S. M.; Smyth, T. J.; Zielinski, T.; Zibordi, G.; Goes, J. I.; Harvey, M. J.; Quinn, P. K.; Nelson, N. B.; Radionov, V. F.; Duarte, C. M.; Remer, L. A.; Kahn, R. A.; Kleidman, R. G.; Gaitley, B. J.; Tan, Q.; Diehl, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN) has been collecting data over the oceans since November 2006. Over 80 cruises were completed through early 2010 with deployments continuing. Measurement areas included various parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Northern and Southern Pacific Ocean, the South Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, the Arctic Ocean and inland seas. MAN deploys Microtops handheld sunphotometers and utilizes a calibration procedure and data processing traceable to AERONET. Data collection included areas that previously had no aerosol optical depth (AOD) coverage at all, particularly vast areas of the Southern Ocean. The MAN data archive provides a valuable resource for aerosol studies in maritime environments. In the current paper we present results of AOD measurements over the oceans, and make a comparison with satellite AOD retrievals and model simulations.

  2. A comparison of experimental and computational results for 5 and 10 degree cones at high Mach numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, A. W.; Prabhu, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were performed on 5 and 10 deg slender cones at a velocity of approximately 5 km/sec in the NASA-Ames ballistic ranges. The flowfields for the cones were computed using ideal-gas and chemical nonequilibrium-air parabolized Navier-Stokes codes. Experimentally determined drag coefficients and shock shapes are compared with the results of the computer codes. Both the flight-data analysis methods and the computational codes are examined to achieve the most meaningful comparison. Under the conditions of the experiments, skin-friction drag makes up approximately 50 percent of the total drag for the 5 deg cone and 30 percent of the total drag for the 10 deg cone. Computed drag coefficients of the 10 deg cone agree well with the experimental values; predictions fall below the experimental values for the 5 deg cone.

  3. Numerical investigation of inspiratory airflow in a realistic model of the human tracheobronchial airways and a comparison with experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcner, Jakub; Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Jicha, Miroslav; Chovancova, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    In this article, the results of numerical simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and a comparison with experiments performed with phase Doppler anemometry are presented. The simulations and experiments were conducted in a realistic model of the human airways, which comprised the throat, trachea and tracheobronchial tree up to the fourth generation. A full inspiration/expiration breathing cycle was used with tidal volumes 0.5 and 1 L, which correspond to a sedentary regime and deep breath, respectively. The length of the entire breathing cycle was 4 s, with inspiration and expiration each lasting 2 s. As a boundary condition for the CFD simulations, experimentally obtained flow rate distribution in 10 terminal airways was used with zero pressure resistance at the throat inlet. CCM+ CFD code (Adapco) was used with an SST k-[Formula: see text] low-Reynolds Number RANS model. The total number of polyhedral control volumes was 2.6 million with a time step of 0.001 s. Comparisons were made at several points in eight cross sections selected according to experiments in the trachea and the left and right bronchi. The results agree well with experiments involving the oscillation (temporal relocation) of flow structures in the majority of the cross sections and individual local positions. Velocity field simulation in several cross sections shows a very unstable flow field, which originates in the tracheal laryngeal jet and propagates far downstream with the formation of separation zones in both left and right airways. The RANS simulation agrees with the experiments in almost all the cross sections and shows unstable local flow structures and a quantitatively acceptable solution for the time-averaged flow field. PMID:26163996

  4. A comparison of fatigue loads of wind turbine resulting from a non-Gaussian turbulence model vs. standard ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project funded by the federal ministry of education and research from the research group 'Wind turbulence and its significance in the use of wind energy' handles a comparison between the load ranges for horizontal axis wind turbines resulting from different turbulence models, i.e. between the usual models as defined in the standards and a new model designed by Friedrich and Kleinhans. This should enable an evaluation of the relevance of this new model for wind modelling for wind turbines and if so, provide the community with new tools in wind simulation. Indeed, spectral models do not well reproduce extreme wind increments as met in gusts. Those models simulate using purely Gaussian statistics. However, measurements show that those increments do not follow normal statistics. The new model developed aims at correcting this problem. The turbulence models used are the Kaimal, von Karman and Mann models as defined in the IEC guidelines and the Friedrich-Kleinhans model, based on stochastic processes called Continuous Time Random Walks. The comparison is based on load ranges resulting from an RFC analysis of 100 time series obtained for 100 different seed numbers. Five wind speeds are investigated. The aeroelastic code used is FLEX5. The main conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that the non-Gaussian Friedrich-Kleinhans model produces loads that are significantly different from the loads obtained with the Kaimal model. That proves that the form of the tails of the increment distribution has a major influence on the loads of the wind turbine and should be considered when making fatigue calculations

  5. The GEWEX water vapour assessment (G-VAP) - first results from inter-comparisons and stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Marc; Lockhoff, Maarit; Shi, Lei; Fennig, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    In a Joint Letter from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) the general need for coordinated international assessments of climate products was formulated. Such assessments are important mechanisms for improvements and to enhance and promote utilisation. The GEWEX Radiation Panel (GRP, renamed to GEWEX Data and Assessment Panel - GDAP) has initiated a Water Vapor Assessment in 2011, further on referred to as G-VAP. The major purpose of G-VAP is to: • Quantify the state of the art in water vapour products being constructed for climate applications, and by this; • Support the selection process of suitable water vapour products by GDAP for its production of globally consistent water and energy cycle products. The usage of products within GDAP activities essentially implies to study long-term data records. Since the start of G-VAP in 2011 two workshops have been conducted. The results of these workshops together with feedback from the first GDAP meeting were used for setting up the G-VAP assessment plan. This plan (available at www.gewex-vap.org) summarizes scope and goals of the assessement, introduces science questions and provides details on the planned technical and scientific activities. Major elements of G-VAP are: • All three parts of the GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECV) on water vapour and their consistency are considered: Total Column Water Vapour, Upper Tropospheric Humidity as well as water vapour profiles and their related temperature profiles; • The assessment focuses on overall characteristics of participating satellite data records and reanalyses as determined from inter-comparison and comparisons against in situ observations as well as against ground-based products; • In this characterisation process the data records are not ranked according to their quality. Rather, the application areas and requirements of the individual data records as well as the GEWEX requirements are documented

  6. A COMPARISON OF STUDY RESULTS OF BUSINESS ENGLISH STUDENTS IN E-LEARNING AND FACE-TO-FACE COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kučera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the comparison of results of students in thelessons of Business English e-learning course with face-to-faceteaching at the Faculty of Economics and Management of the CULSin Prague. E-learning as a method of instruction refers to learningusing technology, such as the Internet, CD-ROMs and portabledevices. A current trend in university teaching is a particular focus one-learning method of studies enhancing the quality and effectivenessof studies and self-studies. In the paper we have analysed the currentstate in the area of English for Specific Purposes (ESP e-learningresearch, pointed out the results of a pilot ESP e-learning course intesting a control and an experimental group of students and resultsof questionnaires with views of students on e-learning. The paperfocuses on the experimental verification of e-learning influenceon the results of both groups of students. Online study materialsupports an interactive form of the teaching by means of multimediaapplication. It could be used not only for full-time students but alsofor distance students and centers of lifelong learning.

  7. Fly's proprioception-inspired micromachined strain-sensing structure: idea, design, modeling and simulation, and comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new strain-sensing structure inspired from insect's (especially the Fly) propricoception sensor is devised. The campaniform sensillum is a strain-sensing microstructure with very high sensitivity despite its small dimension (diameter ∼10 μm in a relatively stiff material of insect's exocuticle (E = ∼109 Pa). Previous work shows that the high sensitivity of this structure towards strain is due to its membrane-in-recess- and strainconcentrating-hole-features. Based on this inspiration, we built similar structure using silicon micromachining technology. Then a simple characterisation setup was devised. Here, we present briefly, finite-element modeling and simulation based on this actual sample preparation for the characterisation. As comparison and also to understand mechanical features responsible for the strain-sensitivity, we performed the modeling on different mechanical structures: bulk chunk, blind-hole, through-hole, surface membrane, and membrane-in-recess. The actual experimental characterisation was performed previously using optical technique to membrane in-recess micromachined Si structure. The FEM simulation results confirm that the bending stress and strain are concentrated in the hole-vicinity. The membrane inside the hole acts as displacement transducer. The FEM is in conformity with previous analytical results, as well as the optical characterisation result. The end goal is to build a new type MEMS strain sensor

  8. Fly's proprioception-inspired micromachined strain-sensing structure: idea, design, modeling and simulation, and comparison with experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, D. H. B.; Zhang, L.-J.; Pandraud, G.; French, P. J.; Vincent, J. F. V.

    2006-04-01

    A new strain-sensing structure inspired from insect's (especially the Fly) propricoception sensor is devised. The campaniform sensillum is a strain-sensing microstructure with very high sensitivity despite its small dimension (diameter ~10 µm in a relatively stiff material of insect's exocuticle (E = ~109 Pa). Previous work shows that the high sensitivity of this structure towards strain is due to its membrane-in-recess- and strainconcentrating- hole- features. Based on this inspiration, we built similar structure using silicon micromachining technology. Then a simple characterisation setup was devised. Here, we present briefly, finite-element modeling and simulation based on this actual sample preparation for the characterisation. As comparison and also to understand mechanical features responsible for the strain-sensitivity, we performed the modeling on different mechanical structures: bulk chunk, blind-hole, thorugh-hole, surface membrane, and membrane-in-recess. The actual experimental characterisation was performed previously using optical technique to membranein- recess micromachined Si structure. The FEM simulation results confirm that the bending stress and strain are concentrated in the hole-vicinity. The membrane inside the hole acts as displacement transducer. The FEM is in conformity with previous analytical results, as well as the optical characterisation result. The end goal is to build a new type MEMS strain sensor.

  9. Comparison of the cellular composition of two different chondrocyte-seeded biomaterials and the results of their transplantation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horák, M; Handl, M; Podškubka, A; Kaňa, R; Adler, J; Povýšil, C

    2014-01-01

    Our study compares the histological and immunohistochemical cellular composition of two different chondrocyte-seeded biomaterials and the results of their transplantation. Our study cohort included 21 patients, comprising 19 men and two women with a mean age of 32 years, who were affected by single chondral lesions of the femoral condyles. These patients were enrolled in our study and treated with arthroscopic implantation of the tissue Hyalograft C and/or Brno culture. Brno culture bioengineered with a fibrin-based scaffold contains round cells showing features of differentiated chondrocytes expressing S-100 protein and α-smooth muscle actin. In contrast, in the case of Hyalograft C, the scaffold was made up of a fibrillar network composed of biomaterial fibres of the esters of hyaluronic acid and cells resembling fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and expressing only α-smooth muscle actin. The average size of the defects was 2.5 cm2. Patients were evaluated using the standardized guidelines of the International Knee Documentation Committee. During the comparison of bioptic samples obtained from both patient cohorts, we did not observe any important differences in the histological makeup of the newly formed cartilage. The histological analysis of these two groups of homogeneous patients shows that this bioengineered approach, under proper indications, may offer favourable and stable clinical results over time, in spite of the different matrix and cellular composition of the two transplants used. PMID:24594051

  10. On accommodating the factors influencing the sports results by splitting the order effect in paired comparison experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The results of sport contests depend upon a lot. In this article, an attempt is made to accommodate the factors influencing the sports-results by proposing a model for paired comparison experiments that splits the order effect into its components. The proposed model can be used to study the effects of all the components of the order effect separately. For instance, we study only two components of the order effect. The maximum likelihood estimates of the worth parameters are found and the plausibility of the proposed model is checked. Real data set is collected on five top-ranked one-day-international cricket teams and is used to illustrate the estimation procedure.

  11. An assessment of the validity of inelastic design analysis methods by comparisons of predictions with test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computer programs that employ relatively complex constitutive theories and analysis procedures to perform inelastic design calculations on fast reactor system components introduces questions of validation and acceptance of the analysis results. We may ask ourselves, ''How valid are the answers.'' These questions, in turn, involve the concepts of verification of computer programs as well as qualification of the computer programs and of the underlying constitutive theories and analysis procedures. This paper addresses the latter - the qualification of the analysis methods for inelastic design calculations. Some of the work underway in the United States to provide the necessary information to evaluate inelastic analysis methods and computer programs is described, and typical comparisons of analysis predictions with inelastic structural test results are presented. It is emphasized throughout that rather than asking ourselves how valid, or correct, are the analytical predictions, we might more properly question whether or not the combination of the predictions and the associated high-temperature design criteria leads to an acceptable level of structural integrity. It is believed that in this context the analysis predictions are generally valid, even though exact correlations between predictions and actual behavior are not obtained and cannot be expected. Final judgment, however, must be reserved for the design analyst in each specific case. (author)

  12. A Radiation-Hydrodynamics Code Comparison for Laser-Produced Plasmas: FLASH versus HYDRA and the Results of Validation Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Orban, Chris; Chawla, Sugreev; Wilks, Scott C; Lamb, Donald Q

    2013-01-01

    The potential for laser-produced plasmas to yield fundamental insights into high energy density physics (HEDP) and deliver other useful applications can sometimes be frustrated by uncertainties in modeling the properties and expansion of these plasmas using radiation-hydrodynamics codes. In an effort to overcome this and to corroborate the accuracy of the HEDP capabilities recently added to the publicly available FLASH radiation-hydrodynamics code, we present detailed comparisons of FLASH results to new and previously published results from the HYDRA code used extensively at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We focus on two very different problems of interest: (1) an Aluminum slab irradiated by 15.3 and 76.7 mJ of "pre-pulse" laser energy and (2) a mm-long triangular groove cut in an Aluminum target irradiated by a rectangular laser beam. Because this latter problem bears a resemblance to astrophysical jets, Grava et al., Phys. Rev. E, 78, (2008) performed this experiment and compared detailed x-ray int...

  13. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison phase results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Rühaak, Wolfram

    2016-04-01

    Climate change impacts in permafrost regions have received considerable attention recently due to the pronounced warming trends experienced in recent decades and which have been projected into the future. Large portions of these permafrost regions are characterized by surface water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost often generating taliks (unfrozen zones) within the permafrost that allow for hydrologic interactions between the surface water bodies and underlying aquifers and thus influence the hydrologic response of a landscape to climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model past and future evolution such units (Kurylyk et al. 2014). However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, which can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. A benchmark exercise was initialized at the end of 2014. Participants convened from USA, Canada, Europe, representing 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones (Kurylyk et al. 2014; Grenier et al. in prep.; Rühaak et al. 2015). They range from simpler, purely thermal 1D cases to more complex, coupled 2D TH cases (benchmarks TH1, TH2, and TH3). Some experimental cases conducted in a cold room complement the validation approach. A web site hosted by LSCE (Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement) is an interaction platform for the participants and hosts the test case databases at the following address: https://wiki.lsce.ipsl.fr/interfrost. The results of the first stage of the benchmark exercise will be presented. We will mainly focus on the inter-comparison of participant results for the coupled cases TH2 & TH3. Both cases

  14. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Zn-65 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 65Zn for the BARC (India) with linked results for the CCRI(II)-K2.Zn-65 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new participation in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Zn-65 comparison has been added to the previous results. A link has been made to the CCRI(II)-K2.Zn-65 comparison held in 2003 through the measurement of all ampoules of the K2 comparison in the International Reference System (SIR) at the BIPM before despatch to the participants. This has produced a revised value for the key comparison reference value (KCRV), calculated using the power-moderated weighted mean. Six NMIs used the K2 comparison to update their degree of equivalence. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the International Reference System (SIR) and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table for the remaining two NMIs in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Zn-65 comparison and the 17 other participants in the CCRI(II)-K2.Zn-65 comparison. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  15. Comparison and evaluation of field and numerical results from the Site A heater test at Avery Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the capability of finite element programs to calculate the thermomechanical response of salt. The Site A heater test is one of three similar field experiments which has provided data for comparison with numerical analyses. Temperature, displacements and stresses measured at Site A over a period of 500 days are compared with the calculated values. The closeness of agreement indicates that numerical techniques can simulate mechanical rock behavior in the rock salt surrounding a nuclear waste canister. The agreement is good for the comparison involving temperatures and displacements, whereas the comparison of stresses does not agree satisfactorily. 18 figs

  16. Towards more accurate isoscapes encouraging results from wine, water and marijuana data/model and model/model comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Cerling, T.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding how the biosphere responds to change it at the heart of biogeochemistry, ecology, and other Earth sciences. The dramatic increase in human population and technological capacity over the past 200 years or so has resulted in numerous, simultaneous changes to biosphere structure and function. This, then, has lead to increased urgency in the scientific community to try to understand how systems have already responded to these changes, and how they might do so in the future. Since all biospheric processes exhibit some patchiness or patterns over space, as well as time, we believe that understanding the dynamic interactions between natural systems and human technological manipulations can be improved if these systems are studied in an explicitly spatial context. We present here results of some of our efforts to model the spatial variation in the stable isotope ratios (δ2H and δ18O) of plants over large spatial extents, and how these spatial model predictions compare to spatially explicit data. Stable isotopes trace and record ecological processes and as such, if modeled correctly over Earth's surface allow us insights into changes in biosphere states and processes across spatial scales. The data-model comparisons show good agreement, in spite of the remaining uncertainties (e.g., plant source water isotopic composition). For example, inter-annual changes in climate are recorded in wine stable isotope ratios. Also, a much simpler model of leaf water enrichment driven with spatially continuous global rasters of precipitation and climate normals largely agrees with complex GCM modeling that includes leaf water δ18O. Our results suggest that modeling plant stable isotope ratios across large spatial extents may be done with reasonable accuracy, including over time. These spatial maps, or isoscapes, can now be utilized to help understand spatially distributed data, as well as to help guide future studies designed to understand ecological change across

  17. Comparison of the results of several heat transfer computer codes when applied to a hypothetical nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct comparison of transient thermal calculations was made with the heat transfer codes HEATING5, THAC-SIP-3D, ADINAT, SINDA, TRUMP, and TRANCO for a hypothetical nuclear waste repository. With the exception of TRUMP and SINDA (actually closer to the earlier CINDA3G version), the other codes agreed to within +-5% for the temperature rises as a function of time. The TRUMP results agreed within +-5% up to about 50 years, where the maximum temperature occurs, and then began an oscillary behavior with up to 25% deviations at longer times. This could have resulted from time steps that were too large or from some unknown system problems. The available version of the SINDA code was not compatible with the IBM compiler without using an alternative method for handling a variable thermal conductivity. The results were about 40% low, but a reasonable agreement was obtained by assuming a uniform thermal conductivity; however, a programming error was later discovered in the alternative method. Some work is required on the IBM version to make it compatible with the system and still use the recommended method of handling variable thermal conductivity. TRANCO can only be run as a 2-D model, and TRUMP and CINDA apparently required longer running times and did not agree in the 2-D case; therefore, only HEATING5, THAC-SIP-3D, and ADINAT were used for the 3-D model calculations. The codes agreed within +-5%; at distances of about 1 ft from the waste canister edge, temperature rises were also close to that predicted by the 3-D model

  18. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  19. Fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients for neutrons: a comparison between results obtained by MCNP and FLUKA codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversion coefficients from fluence to effective dose are calculated by radiation transport codes using mathematical models of the adult human, the so called anthropomorphic phantoms. A comparison using different codes is always important to discover limits and bugs in the computational methods of the codes. Two well-known radiation transport codes, MCNP and FLUKA, have been compared calculating the conversion coefficients from neutron fluence to effective dose using an identical model of an hermaphrodite phantom. Monoenergetic neutrons of energy ranging from 10 keV to 15 MeV plus Maxwellian distributed 0.025 eV neutrons were used with various irradiation geometries. The agreement is generally satisfactory in the energy range 10 keV-10MeV, although differences as large as 20% can be observed for posterior-anterior irradiation. At thermal energy and at 15 MeV discrepancies up to 25% and 15% respectively, are found for all the irradiation geometries investigated. These results are discussed and some considerations about the various contributions of the radiation involved to the effective dose are exposed. (Author)

  20. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop

  1. Comparison of the large-scale radon risk map for southern Belgium with results of high resolution surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large-scale radon survey consisting of long-term measurements in about 5200 singe-family houses in the southern part of Belgium was carried from 1995 to 1999. A radon risk map for the region was produced using geostatistical and GIS approaches. Some communes or villages situated within high risk areas were chosen for detailed surveys. A high resolution radon survey with about 330 measurements was performed in half part of the commune of Burg-Reuland. Comparison of radon maps on quite different scales shows that the general Rn risk map has similar pattern as the radon map for the detailed study area. Another detailed radon survey in the village of Hatrival, situated in a high radon area, found very high proportion of houses with elevated radon concentrations. The results of this detailed survey are comparable to the expectation for high risk areas on the large-scale radon risk map. The good correspondence between the findings of the general risk map and the analysis of the limited detailed surveys, suggests that the large-scale radon risk map is likely reliable. (author)

  2. Comparison of silver, cesium, and strontium release predictions using PARFUME with results from the AGR-1 irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Blaise P.; Petti, David A.; Demkowicz, Paul A.; Maki, John T.

    2015-11-01

    The PARFUME (PARticle FUel ModEl) code was used to predict the release of fission products silver, cesium, and strontium from tristructural isotropic coated fuel particles and compacts during the first irradiation experiment (AGR-1) of the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification program. The PARFUME model for the AGR-1 experiment used the fuel compact volume average temperature for each of the 620 days of irradiation to calculate the release of silver, cesium, and strontium from a representative particle for a select number of AGR-1 compacts. Post-irradiation examination (PIE) measurements provided data on release of these fission products from fuel compacts and fuel particles, and retention of silver in the compacts outside of the silicon carbide (SiC) layer. PARFUME-predicted fractional release of silver, cesium, and strontium was determined and compared to the PIE measurements. For silver, comparisons show a trend of over-prediction at low burnup and under-prediction at high burnup. PARFUME has limitations in the modeling of the temporal and spatial distributions of the temperature and burnup across the compacts, which affects the accuracy of its predictions. Nevertheless, the comparisons on silver release lie in the same order of magnitude. Results show an overall over-prediction of the fractional release of cesium by PARFUME. For particles with failed SiC layers, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 3, corresponding to a potential over-estimation of the diffusivity in uranium oxycarbide (UCO) by a factor of up to 250. For intact particles, whose release is much lower, the over-prediction is by a factor of up to 100, which could be attributed to an over-estimated diffusivity in SiC by about 40% on average. The release of strontium from intact particles is also over-predicted by PARFUME, which also points towards an over-estimated diffusivity of strontium in either SiC or UCO, or possibly both. The measured strontium fractional release

  3. Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration within IEA Wind Annex XXIII: Phase III Results Regarding Tripod Support Structure Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, J.; Camp, T.; Jonkman, J.; Butterfield, S.; Larsen, T.; Hansen, A.; Azcona, J.; Martinez, A.; Munduate, X.; Vorpahl, F.; Kleinhansl, S.; Kohlmeier, M.; Kossel, T.; Boker, C.; Kaufer, D.

    2009-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are designed and analyzed using comprehensive simulation codes. This paper describes the findings of code-to-code verification activities of the IEA Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration.

  4. Recent regional key comparison results for air kerma and absorbed dose to water in X-rays and 60Co radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degrees of equivalence (DoE) of the national standards as a result of periodically organized supporting key or supplementary comparisons are essential to maintain the calibration and measurement capabilities CMC lines in the database of the CIPM MRA. All the primary and secondary' standard dosimetry laboratories belong to at least one of the APMP, AFRIMETS, COOMET, EURAMET, and SIM Regional Metrology Organizations. Most of their host country's NMIs have signed the CIPM MRA and these NMIs or Designated Institutes (DI) in 32 countries worldwide have published dosimetry CMC's. From these 941 claims, 222 relate to the calibration of a wide variety of dosemeters in term of air kerma or absorbed dose to water being used in diagnostic or therapy practice in hospitals. In the case of low and medium energy X-ray beam qualities, one regional key comparison (APMP.RI (I)-K3) has been published and has some results that do not fully support the stated uncertainties of the participants. The other two similar comparisons (APMP.RI (I)-K-2, SIM.RI (I)-K-2) are still ongoing. For air kerma of the 60Co beam from the APMP.RI(I)-K1, SIM.RI(I)-K1 and EURAMET.RI(I)-K1 comparisons there are two results among the twenty-one recently established DoE values that is outside the expanded uncertainty. Further technical details of regional comparisons including the stated uncertainty budgets for the calibration of a typical therapy ionization chamber will be presented in the poster. Concerning the future regional key and supplementary comparison program the most important issues are the following: - encourage the dosimetry laboratories to organise and coordinate these comparisons, - more economic arrangement of the X-ray comparisons on the basis of the generic beam qualities of the 85 standard qualities, - organization of supplementary comparisons in term of air kerma length to support the CT dose measurements, - using dedicated mammography X-ray tube for air kerma comparisons of mammography

  5. The InterFrost benchmark of Thermo-Hydraulic codes for cold regions hydrology - first inter-comparison results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Roux, Nicolas; Anbergen, Hauke; Collier, Nathaniel; Costard, Francois; Ferrry, Michel; Frampton, Andrew; Frederick, Jennifer; Holmen, Johan; Jost, Anne; Kokh, Samuel; Kurylyk, Barret; McKenzie, Jeffrey; Molson, John; Orgogozo, Laurent; Rivière, Agnès; Rühaak, Wolfram; Selroos, Jan-Olof; Therrien, René; Vidstrand, Patrik

    2015-04-01

    The impacts of climate change in boreal regions has received considerable attention recently due to the warming trends that have been experienced in recent decades and are expected to intensify in the future. Large portions of these regions, corresponding to permafrost areas, are covered by water bodies (lakes, rivers) that interact with the surrounding permafrost. For example, the thermal state of the surrounding soil influences the energy and water budget of the surface water bodies. Also, these water bodies generate taliks (unfrozen zones below) that disturb the thermal regimes of permafrost and may play a key role in the context of climate change. Recent field studies and modeling exercises indicate that a fully coupled 2D or 3D Thermo-Hydraulic (TH) approach is required to understand and model the past and future evolution of landscapes, rivers, lakes and associated groundwater systems in a changing climate. However, there is presently a paucity of 3D numerical studies of permafrost thaw and associated hydrological changes, and the lack of study can be partly attributed to the difficulty in verifying multi-dimensional results produced by numerical models. Numerical approaches can only be validated against analytical solutions for a purely thermic 1D equation with phase change (e.g. Neumann, Lunardini). When it comes to the coupled TH system (coupling two highly non-linear equations), the only possible approach is to compare the results from different codes to provided test cases and/or to have controlled experiments for validation. Such inter-code comparisons can propel discussions to try to improve code performances. A benchmark exercise was initialized in 2014 with a kick-off meeting in Paris in November. Participants from USA, Canada, Germany, Sweden and France convened, representing altogether 13 simulation codes. The benchmark exercises consist of several test cases inspired by existing literature (e.g. McKenzie et al., 2007) as well as new ones. They

  6. Improvement of space-time kinetics capability in the SNATCH solver and comparison to KIN3D/PARTISN results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are going on both at the CEA Cadarache and at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to develop an efficient and robust three-dimensional neutron kinetics solver to be employed as a new neutronic tool for simulating severe accident transients with the SIMMER code. To this aim, the SNATCH space-time kinetics has been recently extended and coupled with the SIMMER code in a multiple-channel approach. On the other hand, the PARTISN code was coupled to KIN3D, a time-dependent model for neutron kinetics of the ERANOS code system and applied to transient analyses. In this paper, the recent SNATCH extensions are introduced and a comparison to the KIN3D/PARTISN code is provided. SNATCH implementation of the Improved Quasi-Static Method (IQM) relies on a special treatment in which Point Kinetics (PK) parameters are computed for each micro time step by assuming a linear variation of the flux shape over a shape time step. This procedure provides a better coupling between the PK parameters and material perturbations. A new formulation for the reactivity computation is implemented in SNATCH, as the original formulation does not account for reactivity variation for source-induced transients. Comparative results show that, overall, SNATCH neutron kinetics results are coherent with KIN3D/PARTISN for a fast transient induced by a source-jerk in a three-dimensional subcritical system driven by an external source. It is also found that reactivity variations are more correctly assessed by the new formulation on reactivity. (author)

  7. Early functional results after Hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a randomized comparison between a minimal invasive and a conventional approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renken Felix

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A minimal invasive approach for elective hip surgery has been implemented in our institution in the past. It is widely hypothesized that implanting artificial hips in a minimal invasive fashion decreases surgical trauma and is helpful in the rehabilitation process in elective hip surgery. Thereby geriatric patients requiring emergency hip surgery also could theoretically benefit from a procedure that involves less tissue trauma. Methods Sixty patients who sustained a fractured neck of femur were randomly assigned into two groups. In the minimal invasive arm, the so called “direct anterior approach” (DAA was chosen, in the conventional arm the Watson-Jones-Approach was used for implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty. Primary outcome parameter was the mobility as measured by the four-item-Barthel index. Secondary outcome parameters included pain, haemoglobin-levels, complications, duration of surgery, administration of blood transfusion and external length of incision. Radiographs were evaluated. Results A statistically significant difference (p = 0,009 regarding the mobility as measured with the four-item Barthel index was found at the 5th postoperative day, favouring the DAA. Evaluation of the intensity of pain with a visual analogue scale (VAS showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0,035 at day 16. No difference was evident in the comparison of radiographic results. Conclusions Comparing two different approaches to the hip joint for the implantation of a bipolar hemi-arthroplasty after fractured neck of femur, it can be stated that mobilization status is improved for the DAA compared to the WJA when measured by the four-item Barthel index, there is less pain as measured using the VAS. There is no radiographic evidence that a minimal invasive technique leads to inferior implant position. Level of Evidence: Level II therapeutic study.

  8. Real time prediction of sea level anomaly data with the Prognocean system - comparison of results obtained using different prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wieslaw

    2013-04-01

    Prognocean is a near-real time modeling and prediction system elaborated and based at University of Wroclaw, Poland. It operates on gridded Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) data obtained from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), France. The data acquisition flow from AVISO to Prognocean is entirely automatic and is implemented in Python. The core of the system - including data pre-processing, modeling, prediction, validation and visualization procedures - is composed of a series of R scripts that are interrelated and work at three levels of generalization. The objective of the work presented here is to show the results of our numerical experiment that have been carried out since early 2012. Four prediction models have been implemented to date: (1) extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and the extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model with (2) autoregressive model, (3) threshold autoregressive model and (4) autocovariance procedure. Although the presentation is limited to four models and their predictive skills, Prognocean consists of modules and hence new techniques may be plugged in at any time. In this paper, the comparison of the results into forecasting sea level anomaly maps is presented. Along with sample predictions, with various lead times up to two weeks, we present and discuss a set of root mean square prediction error maps computed in real time after the observations have been available. We identified areas where linear prediction models reveal considerable errors, which may indicate a non-linear mode of sea level change. In addition, we have identified an agreement between the spatial pattern of large prediction errors and the spatial occurrence of key mesoscale ocean eddies.

  9. Comparison of multianalyte proficiency test results by sum of ranking differences, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbić, Biljana; Héberger, Károly; Durišić-Mladenović, Nataša

    2013-10-01

    Sum of ranking differences (SRD) was applied for comparing multianalyte results obtained by several analytical methods used in one or in different laboratories, i.e., for ranking the overall performances of the methods (or laboratories) in simultaneous determination of the same set of analytes. The data sets for testing of the SRD applicability contained the results reported during one of the proficiency tests (PTs) organized by EU Reference Laboratory for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (EU-RL-PAH). In this way, the SRD was also tested as a discriminant method alternative to existing average performance scores used to compare mutlianalyte PT results. SRD should be used along with the z scores--the most commonly used PT performance statistics. SRD was further developed to handle the same rankings (ties) among laboratories. Two benchmark concentration series were selected as reference: (a) the assigned PAH concentrations (determined precisely beforehand by the EU-RL-PAH) and (b) the averages of all individual PAH concentrations determined by each laboratory. Ranking relative to the assigned values and also to the average (or median) values pointed to the laboratories with the most extreme results, as well as revealed groups of laboratories with similar overall performances. SRD reveals differences between methods or laboratories even if classical test(s) cannot. The ranking was validated using comparison of ranks by random numbers (a randomization test) and using seven folds cross-validation, which highlighted the similarities among the (methods used in) laboratories. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis justified the findings based on SRD ranking/grouping. If the PAH-concentrations are row-scaled, (i.e., z scores are analyzed as input for ranking) SRD can still be used for checking the normality of errors. Moreover, cross-validation of SRD on z scores groups the laboratories similarly. The SRD technique is general in nature, i.e., it can

  10. NAS Parallel Benchmark. Results 11-96: Performance Comparison of HPF and MPI Based NAS Parallel Benchmarks. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subash; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    High Performance Fortran (HPF), the high-level language for parallel Fortran programming, is based on Fortran 90. HALF was defined by an informal standards committee known as the High Performance Fortran Forum (HPFF) in 1993, and modeled on TMC's CM Fortran language. Several HPF features have since been incorporated into the draft ANSI/ISO Fortran 95, the next formal revision of the Fortran standard. HPF allows users to write a single parallel program that can execute on a serial machine, a shared-memory parallel machine, or a distributed-memory parallel machine. HPF eliminates the complex, error-prone task of explicitly specifying how, where, and when to pass messages between processors on distributed-memory machines, or when to synchronize processors on shared-memory machines. HPF is designed in a way that allows the programmer to code an application at a high level, and then selectively optimize portions of the code by dropping into message-passing or calling tuned library routines as 'extrinsics'. Compilers supporting High Performance Fortran features first appeared in late 1994 and early 1995 from Applied Parallel Research (APR) Digital Equipment Corporation, and The Portland Group (PGI). IBM introduced an HPF compiler for the IBM RS/6000 SP/2 in April of 1996. Over the past two years, these implementations have shown steady improvement in terms of both features and performance. The performance of various hardware/ programming model (HPF and MPI (message passing interface)) combinations will be compared, based on latest NAS (NASA Advanced Supercomputing) Parallel Benchmark (NPB) results, thus providing a cross-machine and cross-model comparison. Specifically, HPF based NPB results will be compared with MPI based NPB results to provide perspective on performance currently obtainable using HPF versus MPI or versus hand-tuned implementations such as those supplied by the hardware vendors. In addition we would also present NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for

  11. Effect of ZSM-5 on the production of reformulated gasoline. Comparison between FCC pilot plant and commercial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the more interesting ways for production of light olefins and for minimization of Gasoline olefins is the use of catalytic additives in the FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) inventory. The most widely used additive for the FCC process is the ZSM-5 which is a shape selective zeolite. When this additive is added to FCC units, it boosts the yields of LPG's olefins at the expense of gasoline, while increasing gasoline RON. The addition of ZSM-5 offers a great flexibility to a refinery since, in a relatively simple and cheap way, it can increase the RON and produces higher yields of light olefins. For all the above reasons the last years more studies are carried out in order to investigate the effect of this additive. In study presented in this paper, main emphasis was given, for the investigation of the effect of ZSM- 5 addition on FCC product distribution and especially on gasoline olefins. Moreover, in the previous literature works the ZSM-5 influences were examined using mainly fixed bed reactors. In the present study the investigation was carried out in a FCC pilot plant. The additive was also added in a commercial FCC unit of a Greek refinery (Hellenic Aspropyrgos Refinery - HAR) and thus comparison results of commercial and pilot plant test are also presented. The above study is part of a research collaboration which exists the last 10 years between the laboratory of Environmental Fuels and hydrocarbons of Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute (LEFH/CPERI) and the main Greek refineries (HEL.PETROLEUM, Motor Oil Hellas Refinery). The target of this research collaboration is i) the development of technology for the production of reformulated fuels and hydrocarbons and ii) to assist the Greek refineries to face the new regulations for environmental friendly fuels

  12. In vitro testing of tensides employing monolayer cultures: a comparison with results of patch tests on human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, L; Bertazzoni, G; Seidenari, S

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the irritant potential of new products or ingredients prior to human testing is generally performed in vivo on animals. However, according to the 6th amendment and following updates of the European Community directive on cosmetic products (93/35/EEC), animal testing will be banned when suitable substitutes will be available. To know whether in vitro tests for assessment of skin irritancy provide results approaching human conditions, comparisons have to be made between data deriving from in vitro tests and skin response in humans. The aim of our study was to assess the validity of the monolayer culture system of normal human keratinocytes as a model for the evaluation of the irritant effects of detergents, by comparing in vitro cell culture data to in vivo acute skin irritancy effects of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), an amphoteric compound, Tween 20 (TW20) (polysorbate 20) and Tween 80 (TW80) (polysorbate 80), representing nonionic compounds, applied to the skin of 24 healthy volunteers at a concentration similar to that employed in commercial products. As parameters for cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, cell membrane integrity and cell metabolism were assessed by cell counts, thymidine incorporation, MTT conversion, and Neutral Red uptake. In order to increase the sensitivity of the in vivo evaluation, bioengineering methods for assessment of the effects of test products on the skin were employed. Whereas all 4 in vitro methods ranked the tensides according to their toxicity in the following order: CAPB>SLS>TW20>TW80, both in vivo methods agreed in identifying SLS as the most irritating substance. Moreover, as compared with the irritation potential on human skin, all 4 in vitro tests overestimated the toxicity of CAPB. This suggests that the keratinocyte monolayer cell culture technique cannot directly replace in vivo methods, and that data obtained by this method should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:9928803

  13. Genetic structure of the Utah Mormons: comparison of results based on RFLPs, blood groups, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, E; Rogers, A R; Beesley, J; Jorde, L B

    1994-10-01

    The genetic structure of the Utah Mormon population is examined using 25 blood group and 47 RFLP alleles obtained from 442 subjects living in 8 geographic subdivisions. Nei's GST was 0.013 (p 0.4) for the blood group data, showing that only 1% of the genetic variance in this population can be attributed to subdivision effects. A comparison of intersubdivision distance matrices based on blood groups, RFLPs, migration matrices, isonymy, and pedigrees shows that genetic distances have relatively low and nonsignificant correlations with the other three types of data. However, the correlations based on RFLPs are considerably higher than those based on blood groups. Relationship matrices based on interindividual allele sharing were compared with known genealogical kinship coefficients between each pair of individuals. The correlation between the blood group and RFLP relationship matrices was small but marginally significant using the Mantel test (r = 0.014, p < 0.06). The RFLP relationship matrix correlated more highly with genealogical kinship than did the blood group relationship matrix (r = 0.023, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.012, p < 0.001, respectively). These correlations increased by approximately one order of magnitude when pairs of subjects having zero kinship coefficients were excluded. These results show that genetic distances derived from RFLPs correlate more strongly with other types of kinship than do distances based on blood groups. This probably reflects the fact that RFLPs are more neutral, have frequencies that are more accurately estimated, and contain more information about DNA sequence variation. PMID:8001907

  14. Results from APMP comparisons on radioactivity measurements of sup 5 sup 8 Co, sup 8 sup 8 Y and sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 sup m Ho

    CERN Document Server

    Hino, Y

    2003-01-01

    International comparisons on radioactivity measurements of sup 5 sup 8 Co, sup 8 sup 8 Y and sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 sup m Ho were carried out within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme. Radioactive sources were also sent to the International Reference System (SIR) at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in order to link the results of these regional comparisons to the BIPM key comparison-reference values. The arithmetic mean for the activity results of sup 1 sup 6 sup 6 sup m Ho was in good agreement with the SIR reference value, but some disagreements were found for sup 5 sup 8 Co and sup 8 sup 8 Y results. The mean values for sup 5 sup 8 Co and sup 8 sup 8 Y were both higher than the existing SIR values by about 1.5 % and 0.9 %, respectively. Although there were some disagreements, it was successfully demonstrated that these regional comparisons could be linked to other international key comparisons through the SIR. The present results were also evaluated to estimate a reasonabl...

  15. Adaptation of the severe accident codes to VVER-440/V213 (V230) reactor unit, their comparison and utilisation of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an application and comparison of the computer codes, devoted for severe accident analysis of PWR up to source term evaluation, to a VVER-440/V213 and V230 NPP. The basic results of selected sequences are described and some physical parameters predicted by different codes are compared. The comparison is deliberated mainly on the timing of main primary circuit events and fission products behaviour up to source term evaluation. Utilisation of the results of the severe accident analysis for development of the emergency procedures for rapid assessment of barriers status and source term category is shortly described, too. (author)

  16. Monitoring of land subsidence in Ravenna Municipality using two different DInSAR techniques: comparison and discussion of the results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaschi, Simone; Di Martire, Diego; Tessitore, Serena; Achilli, Vladimiro; Ahmed, Ahmed; Borgstrom, Sven; Calcaterra, Domenico; Fabris, Massimo; Ramondini, Massimo; Serpelloni, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Valeria; Floris, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Land subsidence affecting the Ravenna Municipality (Emilia Romagna Region, NE Italy) is one of the best example on how the exploitation of natural resources can affect the environment and the territory. In fact, the pumping of groundwater and the extraction of gas from both on and off-shore reservoirs, started in the 1950s, have caused a strong land subsidence affecting most of the Emilia Romagna territory but in particular the Adriatic Sea coastline near Ravenna. In such area the current subsidence rate, even if lower than in the past, can reach the -2cm/y. Local Authorities have monitored this phenomenon over the years with different techniques: spirit levelling, GPS surveys and, more recently, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) techniques, confirming the critical situation of land subsidence risk. In this work, we present the comparison between the results obtained with two different DInSAR techniques applied to the study of the land subsidence in the Ravenna territory: the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) and the Coherent Pixel Technique (CPT) techniques. The SBAS works on SARscape software and is based on the Berardino et al., 2002 algorithm. This technique relies on the combination of differential interferograms created from stacks of SAR image pairs that have small temporal and perpendicular baselines. Thanks to the application of several interferograms for every single image, it is possible to obtain high spatial coherence, high data density and more effective error reduction. This allows us to obtain mean velocity maps with good data density even over non-urbanized territories. For the CPT we used the SUBsoft processor based on the algorithm implemented by Mora et al., 2003. CPT is able to extract from a stack of differential interferograms the deformation evolution over wide areas during large time spans. The processing scheme is composed of three main steps: a) the generation of the best interferogram set among all the available images of the

  17. Preliminary Model Comparison Results From the Sim-SEQ Project Using TOUGH2, STOMP, Eclipse, and VESA Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Doughty, Christine A.; Bacon, Diana H.; Bacci, Giacomo; Govindan, Rajesh; Shi, Ji-Quan; Gasda, Sarah E.; Ramanathan, Ramya; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Hosseini, Seyyed; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-01

    Sim-SEQ is an international initiative on model comparison for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS), with an objective to understand and, if possible, quantify model uncertainties. Model comparison efforts in Sim-SEQ are initially limited to one specific field test site, hereafter referred to as the Sim-SEQ Study site (or S-3 site). Within Sim-SEQ, different modeling teams are developing conceptual models of CO2 injection at the S-3 site. One of the conceptual models, developed by the LBNL team, is based on TOUGH2/EOS7C. In this paper, we present some preliminary model predictions of the S-3 site using the TOUGH2/EOS7C simulator. We also compare the predictions of the TOUGH2 simulator with three other conceptual models, developed by three different organizations, of the S-3 site.

  18. Smoking prevalence in the European Union: a comparison of national and transnational prevalence survey methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Godfrey, Fiona; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the European Commission Eurobarometer survey of 27 European Union (EU) member states produces reliable smoking prevalence estimates when compared to national prevalence survey data, and to identify approaches to standardising the measurement of smoking prevalence in the EU. Methods This was a direct comparison of questions, sampling methods and smoking prevalence estimates, between the 2006 Eurobarometer study and contemporaneous national surveys. All 27 EU mem...

  19. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL (LASIK-CXL.Methods: We studied a total of 155 consecutive eyes planned for LASIK myopic correction. Group A represented 73 eyes that were treated additionally with concurrent prophylactic high-fluence CXL; group B included 82 eyes subjected to the stand-alone LASIK procedure. The following parameters were evaluated preoperatively and up to 1-year postoperatively: manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE, refractive astigmatism, visual acuity, corneal keratometry, and endothelial cell counts. We plotted keratometry measurements pre-operatively and its change in the early, interim and later post-operative time for the two groups, as a means of keratometric stability comparison.Results: Group A (LASIK-CXL had an average postoperative MRSE of -0.23, -0.19, and -0.19 D for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month period, respectively, compared to -6.58±1.98 D preoperatively. Flat keratometry was 37.69, 37.66, and 37.67 D, compared to 43.94 D preoperatively, and steep keratometry was 38.35, 38.36, and 38.37 D, compared to 45.17 D preoperatively. The predictability of Manifest Refraction Spherical Equivalent (MRSE correction showed a correlation coefficient of 0.979. Group B (stand-alone LASIK had an average postoperative MRSE of -0.23, -0.20, and -0.27 D for the 3-, 6-, and 12-month period, respectively, compared with -5.14±2.34 D preoperatively. Flat keratometry was 37.65, 37.89, and 38.02 D, compared with 43.15 D preoperatively, and steep keratometry was 38.32, 38.57, and 38.66 D, compared with 44.07 D preoperatively

  20. Monte Carlo modelling for the in vivo lung monitoring of enriched uranium: Results of an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assess the reliability of Monte Carlo (MC)-based numerical calibration of in vivo counting systems the EURADOS network supported a comparison of MC simulation of well-defined experiments. This action also provided training for the use of voxel phantoms. In vivo measurements of enriched uranium in a thoracic phantom have been carried out and the needed information to simulate these measurements was distributed to 17 participants. About half of the participants managed to simulate the measured counting efficiency without support from the organisers. Following additional support all participants managed to simulate the counting efficiencies within a typical agreement of ±5% with experiment.

  1. Comparison of LASNEX calculations with experimental results of parylene disc irradiations at 1.06 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations are discussed using the 2D Lagrangian code LASNEX to simulate irradiation of Parylene discs. Using a representation of the experimental beam profile, geometric optics propagation, and an absorption model based on plasma simulations, the scattered light angular intensity distribution can be obtained. The use of a suprathermal electron heating spectrum and thermally generated magnetic fields with Braginskii transport coefficients leads to agreement with time-integrated x-ray spectra and x-ray spatial distributions. Details of the calculations and comparisons with other models are discussed

  2. The Effect of Data Structure and Model Choices on MFA Results: A Comparison of Phosphorus Balances for Denmark and Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinglmair, Manfred; Zoboli, Ottavia; Laner, David;

    2016-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) studies for a particular substance often exist for several different countries or regions, but share a similar goal and scope. In direct comparisons of such regional resource budgets, the importance of the choices made in establishing an MFA system tends to be...... (9%) case. We suggest an iterative approach to uncertainty assessment. Likewise, we demonstrate the effect of the aggregation of flows on model uncertainty. These findings quantify and emphasise the importance of examining MFA studies’ metadata and suggest an approach to be followed when drawing on...

  3. Test results of a 40-kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA Lewis computer code predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David J.; Cairelli, James E.

    1988-03-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at Nasa-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were: (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations from those predicted by the code. The silicon carbide foam generators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix showed severely reduced performance.

  4. Test results of a 40 kW Stirling engine and comparison with the NASA-Lewis computer code predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D.; Cairelli, J.

    1985-12-01

    A Stirling engine was tested without auxiliaries at NASA-Lewis. Three different regenerator configurations were tested with hydrogen. The test objectives were (1) to obtain steady-state and dynamic engine data, including indicated power, for validation of an existing computer model for this engine; and (2) to evaluate structurally the use of silicon carbide regenerators. This paper presents comparisons of the measured brake performance, indicated mean effective pressure, and cyclic pressure variations with those predicted by the code. The measured data tended to be lower than the computer code predictions. The silicon carbide foam regenerators appear to be structurally suitable, but the foam matrix tested severely reduced performance.

  5. Comparison of CATHARE results with the experimental results of cold leg intermediate break LOCA obtained during ROSA-2/LSTF test 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazgaj Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal-hydraulic analysis is a key part in support of regulatory work and nuclear power plant design and operation. In the field of Loss Of Coolant Accident, evolutions of the regulations are discussed in various countries taking into account the very unlikely character of a double-ended guillotine break and questioning the necessity to study such an event with Design Basis Conditions assumptions. As a consequence, the consideration of intermediate size piping rupture becomes more and more important. The paper presents the modeling of the Test Facility ROSA-2/LSTF in the calculation code CATHARE 2.V2.5. OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 7 was conducted with the Large Scale Test Facility on June 14, 2012. The experiment simulated the thermal-hydraulic responses during a PWR 13% cold leg Intermediate Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (IBLOCA. The break was simulated by a cold leg upwardly mounted long break nozzle. The facility and the experiment conditions are modeled in CATHARE. The vessel is modeled by using a 3D module. A thermal-hydraulic analysis is conducted and the obtained results are subsequently compared with the experimental results from ROSA-2/LSTF Test 7. Evaluation of the differences between experimental and calculated results is discussed.

  6. Result of the onsite dosimetry and questioning about quality assurance/quality control of radiotherapy in the Hokuriku area. A comparison with past results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to analyze temporal changes in human resources in the radiotherapy section, quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and dose difference for radiotherapy in the Hokuriku area based on the results of past investigations and our investigation. We visited radiotherapy sections of 17 hospitals in the Hokuriku area (5 in Toyama, 9 in Ishikawa and 3 in Fukui) to measure the dose at the reference point of a linear accelerator (LINAC), as we asked questions to a radiotherapist about human resources, QA/QC of LINAC, etc. We compared our results with past reports (1992 to 2007) on the dose difference, human resources and frequency of dose monitor system calibration. The number of physicians has not changed since 1999, but the number of radiotherapists was significantly increased. Weekly dose monitor system calibration has been achieved in 80% of the institutions in our survey. This percentage was significantly higher than in the past surveys. The dose difference distribution from our onsite dosimetry did not significantly differ from that from the onsite dosimetry in 2007. 91% of the institutions have accomplished within 2% of the dose difference. We found that the number of physicians has not increased since 1999, but the number of radiotherapists has increased. We conclude that the increment of radiotherapists led to 80% achievement of the weekly dose monitor system calibration. Almost all institutions in Hokuriku area have properly performed QA of the dose monitor system. (author)

  7. Comparison of hearing results following the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses in stapes surgery: a retrospective controlled study reporting short-term postoperative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Révész, Péter; Szanyi, István; Ráth, Gábor; Bocskai, Tímea; Lujber, László; Piski, Zalán; Karosi, Tamás; Gerlinger, Imre

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the 3-month postoperative hearing results following laser stapedotomy with the use of NiTiBOND versus Nitinol prostheses (31 and 39 patients, respectively). The operations were performed between September 2012 and September 2014, and between March 2006 and December 2012 regarding NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. Twenty of the consecutive 31 patients were female and 11 were male for NiTiBOND, while 11 were male and 28 were female for Nitinol. The mean age was 43.8 years (range 22-61) and 46.9 years (range 28-83) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. No significant cochlear trauma was documented postoperatively. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 3-month postoperative follow-up was 7.6 dB (SD 4.7), and 9.3 dB (SD 4.1) for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively. The differences between the mean pre- (p = 0.179), and postoperative (p = 0.059) ABG of the two groups were not significant. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.4 and 59 % for NiTiBOND and Nitinol, respectively, the difference was not significant (p = 0.10). Two cases of delayed facial paralysis occurred, 1 with Nitinol and 1 with the NiTiBOND. All patients attained an ABG memory piston prosthesis allowed an easy and minimally invasive approach with excellent short-term hearing results when the NiTiBOND prosthesis was applied. Laser application allowed manipulation in a bloodless environment and avoided manual crimping of the incus. PMID:26018979

  8. Results of APL rain gauge network measurements in mid-Atlantic coast region and comparisons of distributions with CCIR models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Gebo, Norman; Rowland, John

    1988-01-01

    In this effort are described cumulative rain rate distributions for a network of nine tipping bucket rain gauge systems located in the mid-Atlantic coast region in the vicinity of the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, Wallops Island, Virginia. The rain gauges are situated within a gridded region of dimensions of 47 km east-west by 70 km north-south. Distributions are presented for the individual site measurements and the network average for the year period June 1, 1986 through May 31, 1987. A previous six year average distribution derived from measurements at one of the site locations is also presented. Comparisons are given of the network average, the CCIR (International Radio Consultative Committee) climatic zone, and the CCIR functional model distributions, the latter of which approximates a log normal at the lower rain rate and a gamma function at the higher rates.

  9. Comparison between systemic radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and local radiotherapy in extended small cell lung carcinoma. Results of randomized series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1982 and 1987 a prospective randomized study to compare the effectiveness of high-dosed half-body irradiation (HBI) (A), intensive combined chemotherapy (B), and local or locoregional radiotherapy (C) in extended small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) was carried out. 99 patients with a histologically proved SCLC were arranged to three therapeutic groups of series: A = 31 patients, B = 37 patients, C = 31 patients. The median survival period showed a statistically significant advantage (p < 0.01) for the chemotherapy group (B = 46 weeks) in comparison to the radiotherapy groups (A = 19 weeks, C = 23 weeks). The survival after half a year, one year, and two years revealed also clear advantages over the chemotherapy group. No difference was found between the radiotherapy groups A and C. The high-dosed HBI did not improve the deplorable therapeutic situation for the extended SCLC. (author)

  10. Diametral low-cycle fatigue testing. A comparison of first experimental results from diametral low-cycle fatigue tests with results from axial tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental results of diametral low-cycle fatigue tests on DIN 1.4948 (similar to AISI type 304) at 823 K are reported. The cyclic hardening behaviour of diametral tests and axial tests only differs for the first (ten) cycles. Due to progressive strain hardening this difference reduces at increasing number of cycles. The cyclic stresses of diametral and axial tests are equal after cyclic hardening to values of about twice the 0.2 yield stress or higher. At low strain ranges (Δepsilonsub(t) < 1.0%) the number of cycles to failure (Nsub(f)) of diametral tests on hour-glass specimens do not differ from those of axial tests on the uniform gauge length type (GRIM) specimen. At high strain ranges (Δepsilonsub(t) < 1.0%) Nsub(f)-values of diametral tests are higher. This is attributed to the hour-glass shape of the specimen which allows high compressive stresses without buckling. (Auth.)

  11. A comparison of real-time radiography results and visual characterization results with emphasis on WIPP WAC and TRAMPAC compliance issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visual characterization provides a means of confirming the real-time radiography (RTR) certification process and process knowledge. RTR and visual characterization have been conducted on thirty-three drums containing transuranic (TRU) waste in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Experimental Test Program (WETP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) detected a small can of liquid in one of these drums during the visual examination, resulting in a WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WIPP-WAC) miscertification. The remaining thirty-two drums were certified correctly by the RTR system at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) for WIPP-WAC and TRUPACT-II Authorized Methods for Payload Control (TRAMPAC) requirements. TRAMPAC contains restrictions on the weights of specific materials allowed in the waste, based on the shipping category. Items on the restricted list for a given shipping category are allowed in quantities less than 1 percent of the weight of the waste. RTR can estimate the weights of certain broad categories in homogeneous waste forms, however, the capability to estimate weights at the 1 percent level is not presently realistic. Process knowledge forms the basis of conformance to these weight requirements. Visual characterization suggests process knowledge is not completely adequate at this level

  12. Results and assessment of participation of VUPEK in coordinated research project of the IAEA ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results and conclusions are summarized of the research programme ''Comparison of cost-effectiveness of risk reduction among different energy systems'' co-ordinated in 1983 to 1988 by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Institutes in 18 member states were involved which performed 33 case studies in the field of risk reduction in various power systems or their parts. A comparison with cost-effectiveness of risk reduction in other fields was made as well. The health risks (occupational, those of population) and the environmental risks were evaluated. The case studies cover various stages of the decision-making process and various decision makers. The solution resulted in 5 methodological studies and 16 models. 11 case studies and 1 methodological study were conducted by the Research Institute of the Fuel and Energy Complex. The experiences obtained, the questions so far unanswered and recommendations for those who will perform similar studies are given. (author). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 3 refs

  13. Diffusion MRI microstructure models with in vivo human brain Connectom data: results from a multi-group comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Ferizi, Uran; Schneider, Torben; Alipoor, Mohammad; Eufracio, Odin; Fick, Rutger H J; Deriche, Rachid; Nilsson, Markus; Loya-Olivas, Ana K; Rivera, Mariano; Poot, Dirk H J; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Marroquin, Jose L; Rokem, Ariel; Pötter, Christian; Dougherty, Robert F; Sakaie, Ken; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia; Warfield, Simon K; Witzel, Thomas; Wald, Lawrence L; Raya, José G; Alexander, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    A large number of mathematical models have been proposed to describe the measured signal in diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and infer properties about the white matter microstructure. However, a head-to-head comparison of DW-MRI models is critically missing in the field. To address this deficiency, we organized the "White Matter Modeling Challenge" during the International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI) 2015 conference. This competition aimed at identifying the DW-MRI models that best predict unseen DW data. in vivo DW-MRI data was acquired on the Connectom scanner at the A.A.Martinos Center (Massachusetts General Hospital) using gradients strength of up to 300 mT/m and a broad set of diffusion times. We focused on assessing the DW signal prediction in two regions: the genu in the corpus callosum, where the fibres are relatively straight and parallel, and the fornix, where the configuration of fibres is more complex. The challenge participants had access to three-quarters of t...

  14. Establishment of IDF-curves for precipitation in the tropical area of Central Africa - comparison of techniques and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mohymont

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF curves for precipitation remains a powerful tool in the risk analysis of natural hazards. Indeed the IDF-curves allow for the estimation of the return period of an observed rainfall event or conversely of the rainfall amount corresponding to a given return period for different aggregation times. There is a high need for IDF-curves in the tropical region of Central Africa but unfortunately the adequate long-term data sets are frequently not available. The present paper assesses IDF-curves for precipitation for three stations in Central Africa. More physically based models for the IDF-curves are proposed. The methodology used here has been advanced by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998 and an inter-station and inter-technique comparison is being carried out. The IDF-curves for tropical Central Africa are an interesting tool to be used in sewer system design to combat the frequently occurring inundations in semi-urbanized and urbanized areas of the Kinshasa megapolis.

  15. An Inter-Comparison of Two Independent Site Test Interferometers Located in Goldstone, California: Initial Study Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, David; D'Addario, Larry; Acosta, Roberto J.; Nessel, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Site Test Interferometers (STIs) have been deployed at two different locations at the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) tracking complex in Goldstone, California. An STI measures the difference in path length between a geostationary satellite and two antennas on the Earth, producing a measure of atmospheric phase fluctuations over spatial distances comparable to those between elements of possible microwave phased arrays. The purposes of the Goldstone STIs are to assess the suitability of Goldstone as an array site and to statistically characterize atmospheric induced delay fluctuations for application to future array scenarios.The two STI's are separated by 13 km across the Goldstone complex. Each instrument is composed of two small-diameter antennas and associated electronics separated by approx. 200 meters in a principally east-west configuration. The antennas continuously observe signals emitted by geo-stationary satellites and produce data that contain information on the phase difference between signals received by both antennas. The fluctuation in delay (or path length difference) statistics derived from these data sets can be used to infer power loss for particular array configurations.We report on a comparison of the root mean square (RMS) phase delay statistics estimated over 10-minute intervals between the two Goldstone STIs. We have achieved good statistical agreement between the data acquired from the two STIs, given that each instrument is observing different satellites, at different frequencies, over different baseline lengths, with very different implementations, and are located 13 km apart in widely separated terrain at different geodetic altitudes.

  16. The comparison of road safety survey answers between web-panel and face-to-face : Dutch results of SARTRE-4 survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenbeld, C. Craen, S. de & Wildervanck, C.

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, a comparison of an online and a face-to-face sample of car drivers was made to study differences on a number of selected questions from the SARTRE-4 road safety survey. Contrary to expectations, there was no indication that online respondents were more likely to come from higher educated or more privileged social groups. Confirming earlier research, the results indicated that online respondents were less inclined to give socially desirable answers and were less inclined to...

  17. Modeling of the first three fuel campaigns at the Rostov NPP using the program complex 'RADUGA-7.3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents the results from the verification of the neutron-physical module of the program complex 'RADUGA-7.3' on the example of the Rostov NPP unit using neutron-physical library 'SAPHIR-95'. The verification is made by the repeating of the experiments during the reactor start-up, power buildup and during the first three refueling campaigns. The results are compared to those calculated by the similar program - 'BIPR-7/A' and using the system 'Hortitsa-M'. The results show that the complex 'RADUGA-7.3' can be successfully applied for WWER reactor core calculations

  18. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  19. A comparison study of experimental and direct numerical simulation results associated with dynamics and heat transfer of a boiling bubble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Ose, Yasuo [Yamato System Engineer Co., Ltd., Yamato (Japan); Kunugi, Tomoaki [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    In the experiment, by applying both a total reflection technique which consisted of a coherent laser and an infrared thermometry to a boiling surface with high spatial and temporal resolution, the liquid-vapor phase and the heat transfer distributions underneath a growing bubble were simultaneously measured. In the simulation, nucleate boiling process of a single bubble was simulated by using the MARS (Multi-interface Advection and Reconstruction Solver) including a non-empirical boiling and condensation model. The experimental measurement and numerical simulation data of a boiling bubble on a heated wall were presented and compared in detail with focus on liquid-vapor phase and heat transfer distributions on the boiling surface. In the experiment, the technique is based on spatial and temporal synchronization of an infrared thermometry technique for the local heat transfer measurement, a total reflection technique for the liquid-vapor phase detection, and a laser interferometry technique for detection of the microlayer geometry. In the simulation, a single bubble nucleate boiling was simulated by using the MARS including a non-empirical boiling and condensation model. The major findings from the present comparison study are following: - The microlayer evaporation could affect the characteristics of heat transfer for a bubble growth cycle. At the beginning of bubble growth, the effective heat transfer from a heated wall occurs due to microlayer evaporation, which impeded the local wall superheated in the dry region. Ad-hoc experiments to obtain the velocity and temperature field before a bubble nucleation, such as using PIV (particle image velocimetry) and LIF (laser induced fluorescence) techniques, are ongoing in our laboratory.

  20. Comparison of reconstructed radial pin total fission rates with experimental results in full scale BWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total fission rate measurements have been performed on full size BWR fuel assemblies of type SVEA-96+ in the zero power reactor PROTEUS at the Paul Scherrer Institute. This work presents comparisons of reconstructed 2D pin fission rates in two configurations, I-1A and I-2A. Both configurations contain, in the central test zone, an array of 3x3 SVEA-96+ fuel elements moderated with light water at 20 deg. C. In configuration I-2A, an L-shaped hafnium control blade (half of a real cruciform blade) is inserted adjacent to the NW corner of the central fuel element. To minimize the impact of the surroundings, all measurements were done in fuel pins belonging to the central assembly. The 3x3 experimental configuration was modeled using the core monitoring and design tools that are applied at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant (KKL). These are the 2D transport code HELIOS, used for the cross-section generation, and the 3D, 2-group nodal diffusion code PRESTO-2. The exterior is represented, in the axial and radial directions, by 2-group albedos calculated at the test zone boundary using a full-core 3D MCNPX model. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) ratios of the total fission rates have a standard deviation of 1.3% in configuration I-1A (uncontrolled) and 3.2% in configuration I-2A (controlled). Sensitivity cases are analyzed to show the impact of certain parameters on the calculated fission rate distribution and reactivity. It is shown that the relative pin fission rate is only weakly dependent on these parameters. In cases without a control blade, the pin power reconstruction methodology delivers the same level of accuracy as 2D transport calculations. On the other hand, significant deviations, that are inherent to the use of reflected geometry in the lattice calculations, are observed in cases when the control blade is inserted. (authors)

  1. Elemental composition of aerosol particulate matter collected on membrane filters: A comparison of results by PIXE and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elemental composition of aerosol matter (total suspended particles) collected on high-purity membrane filters during 24-h sampling periods with distinctly different pollution levels was analysed by proton-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The mass density of the material deposited on 34-mm diameter filter areas ranged from 65 to 294 μg/cm2. Different spots on each sample as well as on blank reference filters were first analysed by PIXE (1.85 MeV protons, beam diameter 1.5 mm). Using a peak-fitting routine developed in-house together with an empirically determined sensitivity function, the background-corrected net spectra were converted to elemental yields. Absolute calibration was achieved by comparison against a thin-film copper standard prepared by evaporation. Following PIXE analysis, the whole filters with the aerosol deposits were digested by high-pressure ashing. A small amount of the dissolved material was analysed by ICP-AES using standard procedures. The mass fractions of elements in the particulate matter ranged from 6x10-5 for Co to 0.1 for Ca, with significant differences between the sampling periods. For some elements the mass fractions determined by PIXE showed a spot-to-spot variation by up to 30%. In most cases the mean elemental mass per filter determined by the two techniques agreed quite well, with a slight trend towards lower values by PIXE (10-15%). The difference is within the combined uncertainty of about 20%, estimated for elemental mass ratios determined by the two techniques. The Ti content determined by ICP-AES was always about 50% lower than by PIXE, the K content sometimes up to 30% higher. The discrepancy for Ti appears to reflect a digestion problem. The enhanced K content is attributed to a rather high instrumental background in ICP-AES

  2. Comparison of soil water measurement using the neutron scattering, time domain reflectometry and capacitance methods. Results of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    water measuring techniques; To consult on the procedures for adopting alternative techniques for soil water measurement in the IAEA's future research and training programmes. This technical document is intended as a guide to those choosing a water measurement technology, however, a point by point comparison between the technologies is not presented here

  3. Comparison of Analytical and Measured Performance Results on Network Coding in IEEE 802.11 Ad-Hoc Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Fang; Médard, Muriel; Hundebøll, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    CATWOMAN that can run on standard WiFi hardware. We present an analytical model to evaluate the performance of COPE in simple networks, and our results show the excellent predictive quality of this model. By closely examining the performance in two simple topologies, we observe that the coding gain results...

  4. St. Jude Medical and CarboMedics Mechanical Heart Valves in the Aortic Position: Comparison of Long-Term Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kandemir, Ozer; Tokmakoglu, Hilmi; Yildiz, Ulku; TEZCANER, Tevfik; Yorgancioglu, A. Cem; Gunay, Ilhan; Suzer, Kaya; Zorlutuna, Yaman

    2006-01-01

    We designed this study to compare long-term results of St. Jude Medical and CarboMedics mechanical heart valves in the aortic position. We retrospectively analyzed the results of 174 consecutive patients who received either a St. Jude (n=80) or a CarboMedics (n=94) mechanical aortic valve from March 1992 through October 2004.

  5. A comparison between the nomogram and DPA (Discrete point approximation) methods for estimating dose resulting from γ-ray emitted by nuclides in finite cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between the nomogram and DPA methods for estimation of dose resulting from γ-ray emitted by nuclide in finite cloud is presented. Some calculations have been made by using both two methods under the described situation. The computations of comparison for gamma air dose show a considerable agreement. Mostly, above 86% of the data are within a factor of two, up to 96% of the data are within a factor of three. Naturally, it should be noticed that the remaining percentage have a deviation up to a factor of six under the condition of slightly stable atmosphere (category E). The differences coming from these methods are caused by some input parameters and the input parameters have a different degree of compatibility with these two methods

  6. Dynamics of the reaction H2+(He;H)HeH+ total cross sections: comparison of quasiclassical trajectory results with molecular beam data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the quasiclassical trajectory method based on the DIM potential energy surface of Kuntz, total reaction and dissociation cross sections for collisions between He atoms and H2+ molecular ions in the hyperthermal energy region 0.5-5.0 eV(c.m.) have been calculated. Detailed comparison of the theoretical results is presented with mass-spectrometric data of Chupka et al. for specific vibrational states of the reactant ion and with the recent data of Schlier et al. for reactant ion vibrational-state mixtures as produced by electron impact ionization; for the latter comparison, appropriately averaged cross sections have been determined. The agreement, except for low translational energies and low vibrational states, is satisfactory. (Auth.)

  7. Estimated H-atom anisotropic displacement parameters: a comparison between different methods and with neutron diffraction results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munshi, Parthapratim; Madsen, Anders Ø; Spackman, Mark A; Larsen, Sine; Destro, Riccardo

    Anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are compared for H atoms estimated using three recently described procedures, both among themselves and with neutron diffraction results. The results convincingly demonstrate that all methods are capable of giving excellent results for several benchmark...... results is substantial, suggesting that this is now the most readily and widely applicable of the three approximate procedures. Using this new library--SHADE2--it is shown that, in line with expectations, a segmented rigid-body description of the heavy atoms yields only a small improvement in the...... agreement with neutron results. The SHADE2 library, now incorporated in the SHADE web server, is recommended as a routine procedure for deriving estimates of H-atom ADPs suitable for use in charge-density studies on molecular crystals, and its widespread use should reveal remaining deficiencies and perhaps...

  8. Evaluation of a laser scanner for large volume coordinate metrology: a comparison of results before and after factory calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volume laser scanners are increasingly being used for a variety of dimensional metrology applications. Methods to evaluate the performance of these scanners are still under development and there are currently no documentary standards available. This paper describes the results of extensive ranging and volumetric performance tests conducted on a large volume laser scanner. The results demonstrated small but clear systematic errors that are explained in the context of a geometric error model for the instrument. The instrument was subsequently returned to the manufacturer for factory calibration. The ranging and volumetric tests were performed again and the results are compared against those obtained prior to the factory calibration. (paper)

  9. LTA Physics Design: Description of All MOX Pin LTA Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-09-28

    In this document issued according to Work Release 02. P. 99-lb the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  10. Design Studies of ``100% Pu'' Mox Lead Test Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovichev, A.M.

    2001-01-11

    In this document the results of neutronics studies of <<100%Pu>> MOX LTA design are presented. The parametric studies of infinite MOX-UOX grids, MOX-UOX core fragments and of VVER-1000 core with 3 MOX LTAs are performed. The neutronics parameters of MOX fueled core have been performed for the chosen design MOX LTA using the Russian 3D code BIPR-7A and 2D code PERMAK-A with the constants prepared by the cell spectrum code TVS-M.

  11. Dose control in electron beam processing: Comparison of results from a graphite charge collector, routine dosimeters and the ISS alanine-based dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Onori, S.; Casali, F.; Chirco, P.

    1993-10-01

    A 12 MeV linear accelerator is currently used for electron beam processing of power semiconductor devices for lifetime control and, on an experimental basis, for food irradiation, sludge treatment etc. In order to control the irradiation process a simple, quick and reliable method for a direct evaluation of dose and fluence in a broad electron beam has been developed. This paper presents the results obtained using a "charge collector" which measures the charge absorbed in a graphite target exposed in air. Calibration of the system with super-Fricke dosimeter and comparison of absorbed dose results obtained with plastic dosimeters and alanine pellets are discussed.

  12. Impact of dynamic specimen shape evolution on the atom probe tomography results of doped epitaxial oxide multilayers: Comparison of experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results from two different specimen orientations (top-down and sideways) of a high oxygen ion conducting Samaria-doped-ceria/Scandia-stabilized-zirconia multilayer thin film solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte was compared with level-set method based field evaporation simulations for the same specimen orientations. This experiment-simulation comparison explains the dynamic specimen shape evolution and ion trajectory aberrations that can induce density artifacts in final reconstruction, leading to inaccurate estimation of interfacial intermixing. This study highlights the importance of comparing experimental results with field evaporation simulations when using APT to study oxide heterostructure interfaces

  13. Direct Numerical Simulation of Liquid Nozzle Spray with Comparison to Shadowgraphy and X-Ray Computed Tomography Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppel, Bret; Owkes, Mark; Nelson, Thomas; Lee, Zachary; Sowell, Tyler; Benson, Michael; Vasquez Guzman, Pablo; Fahrig, Rebecca; Eaton, John; Kurman, Matthew; Kweon, Chol-Bum; Bravo, Luis

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present high-fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results of liquid fuel injection from a pressure-swirl atomizer and compare the simulations to experimental results obtained using both shadowgraphy and phase-averaged X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The CFD and experimental results focus on the dense near-nozzle region to identify the dominant mechanisms of breakup during primary atomization. Simulations are performed using the NGA code of Desjardins et al (JCP 227 (2008)) and employ the volume of fluid (VOF) method proposed by Owkes and Desjardins (JCP 270 (2013)), a second order accurate, un-split, conservative, three-dimensional VOF scheme providing second order density fluxes and capable of robust and accurate high density ratio simulations. Qualitative features and quantitative statistics are assessed and compared for the simulation and experimental results, including the onset of atomization, spray cone angle, and drop size and distribution.

  14. Indirect Land Use Change From Increased Biofuels Demand - Comparison of Models and Results for Marginal Biofuels Production from Different Feedstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Robert; MULLIGAN DECLAN; Marelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This study compares the ILUC results produced by different economic models for marginal increases in biofuel production from different feedstocks. The work is the result of a survey of marginal calculations launched by the JRC-IE during 2009, involving some of the best known models worldwid. The modellers were requested by JRC-IE to run scenarios corresponding as closely as possible to the following specification (e.g. marginal runs against existing baseline of the following scenarios): A ...

  15. Reference biospheres for post-closure performance assessment: inter-comparison of SHETRAN simulations and BIOMASS results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Example Reference Biosphere 2B (ERB2B) is a hypothetical river catchment, described in the IAEA-sponsored BIOMASS study on biosphere aspects of post-closure radiological safety assessments for repositories for solid radioactive wastes. In ERB2B, a radioactively contaminated aquifer interacts with the soils and sediments of the river catchment. A 'semi-distributed', lumped-parameter model (SDLP) was set up for the site as part of the BIOMASS study. In the model, empirically derived transfer functions are used to reduce the complexity of real hydrological transport systems to readily calculable mass-balance accounting routines. In this work, a physically based, spatially distributed modelling system SHETRAN was set up for the site and comparison made with the existing SDLP model. The work has shown that, using standard soil properties in SHETRAN, the soil rapidly saturates and much of the hydrologically effective rainfall (precipitation less evapotranspiration) is lost as saturation-excess surface runoff. This is contrary to the assumptions in the SDLP model. The difficulty arose from the original formulation of catchment characteristics in BIOMASS. Specifically, there was a large water volume entering the soils from precipitation together with an upward flux of groundwater across the lower boundary of a substantial part of the catchment. This water had to be lost from the catchment in some way and the thinness of the soil zone precluded dominance of subsurface, lateral flow over surface runoff. Increasing the saturated conductivity from 1 to 20 m d-1 reduced the surface flows to similar values to those assumed in the SDLP model (this could also have been achieved by increasing the soil depth). Even with the high saturated conductivity there were still major differences between the two representations. In the woodland on the upper slopes of the valley, the SHETRAN simulation was slightly wetter than the SDLP model, whereas in the shrubland and marshland near the

  16. Comparison of whole genome sequencing typing results and epidemiological contact information from outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in Swedish cattle herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ågren, Estelle C. C.; Wahlström, Helene; Vesterlund-Carlson, Catrin; Lahti, Elina; Melin, Lennart; Söderlund, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is becoming a routine tool for infectious disease outbreak investigations. The Swedish situation provides an excellent opportunity to test the usefulness of WGS for investigation of outbreaks with Salmonella Dublin (S. Dublin) as epidemiological investigations are always performed when Salmonella is detected in livestock production, and index isolates from all detected herds are stored and therefore available for analysis. This study was performed to evaluate WGS as a tool in forward and backward tracings from herds infected with S. Dublin. Material and methods In this study, 28 isolates from 26 cattle herds were analysed and the WGS results were compared with results from the epidemiological investigations, for example, information on contacts between herds. The isolates originated from herds in three different outbreaks separated geographically and to some extent also in time, and from the only region in Sweden where S. Dublin is endemic (Öland). Results The WGS results of isolates from the three non-endemic regions were reliably separated from each other and from the endemic isolates. Within the outbreaks, herds with known epidemiological contacts generally showed smaller differences between isolates as compared to when there were no known epidemiological contacts. Conclusion The results indicate that WGS can provide valuable supplemental information in S. Dublin outbreak investigations. The resolution of the WGS was sufficient to distinguish isolates from the different outbreaks and provided additional information to the investigations within an outbreak. PMID:27396609

  17. Absorbed body dose simulation in Thyroid cancer therapy using MCNP4Cand ITScodes and comparison to experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two standard particle transport codes of MCNP4C and integrated tiger series were used to estimate the total body dose in a thyroid cancer therapy study, with I-131 as the radionuclide source. Human body was modeled by water and soft tissue ellipsoids. Phantoms' dimensions were selected according to Brow nell recommendation. Absorbed fractions were calculated by both codes for different phantoms and for gammas with 0.364 MeV energy, which has the highest fraction in I-131 emitting gammas. Results were compared to the data published by Brow nell et.al.. Figure 1 shows the results of MCNP4C and Integrated Tiger Series with results published by Brow nell et. al.

  18. Description of premixing with the MC3D code including molten jet behavior modeling. Comparison with FARO experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthoud, G.; Crecy, F. de; Meignen, R.; Valette, M. [CEA-G, DRN/DTP/SMTH, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    1998-01-01

    The premixing phase of a molten fuel-coolant interaction is studied by the way of mechanistic multidimensional calculation. Beside water and steam, corium droplet flow and continuous corium jet flow are calculated independent. The 4-field MC3D code and a detailed hot jet fragmentation model are presented. MC3D calculations are compared to the FARO L14 experiment results and are found to give satisfactory results; heat transfer and jet fragmentation models are still to be improved to predict better final debris size values. (author)

  19. The acoustics of public squares/places: A comparison between results from a computer simulation program and measurements in situ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paini, Dario; Rindel, Jens Holger; Gade, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    not completely closed and not completely open, with highly reflecting and partially diffusing vertical surfaces (the facades) and with one totally absorbing surface (the sky). A natural application of these results will be the possibility to detect the best position for a sound source (typically an...... orchestra or a band during, for instance, music summer festivals) and the best position for the audience. A further result could be to propose some acoustic adjustments to achieve better acoustic quality by considering the acoustic parameters which are typically used for concert halls and opera houses....

  20. Comparison of DAMA/LIBRA and DM ICE Results using Information Theory to Rule out Dark Matter Claims

    CERN Document Server

    Cline, David

    2015-01-01

    We study the details of the DAMA/LIBRA results and compare those with the recent published DM Ice results of ICE Cube. In various recent papers, it was shown that the 40K peak on DAMA/LIBRA data leaves no room for a Dark Matter signal in the bulk of the data. Using Information Theory for the different types of detection environments, we show that annual variation calculations and the DM Ice data reinforce the claims that the DAMA/LIBRA detector is not observing Dark Matter WIMPs.

  1. Excitation functions of proton induced reactions on natOs up to 65 MeV: Experiments and comparison with results from theoretical codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of thin natOs targets, electrodeposited on Ni backings, was investigated for the first time in stacked foil irradiations with 65 MeV and 34 MeV proton beams. Assessments of the produced radionuclides by high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy yielded excitation functions for formation of 184, 185, 186m,m+g, 187m+g, 188m+g, 189m2+m1+g, 190m2,m1+g, 192m1+gIr and 185cum, 191m+gOs, 183m+gRe. Where available comparisons with the reaction cross sections obtained in 2 earlier studies on enriched 192Os were made. Reduced uncertainty on cross sections is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the 27Al(p,x)22,24Na, natNi(p,x)57Ni and natTi(p,x)48V monitor reactions over wide relevant energy ranges. Confirmation of monitoring took place by assessment of excitation functions of 61Cu, 56Ni, 55,56,57,58Co and 52Mn induced in the Ni backings and comparison with a recent compilation for most of these radionuclides. Contributing reactions and overall cross sections are discussed and were evaluated in comparison with the results of the theoretical code TALYS 1.6 (values from the on-line library TENDL-2013)

  2. Sound propagation in forests: A comparison of experimental results and values predicted by the Nord 2000 model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarrero, A.I.; Martín, M.A.; González, J.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the work described in this paper is twofold: (i) to present the results of an experimental investigation of the sound attenuation in different types of forest, and (ii) to validate a part of the Nord 2000 model. A number of measurements have been carried out in regular and irregula...

  3. Comparison of the results of X-ray, endoscopic and radionuclide investigations in patients with deforming bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comprehensive investigation including panoramic chest X-ray, tomography, bronchofibroscopy with biopsy, bronchography, and comprehensive radionuclide investigation, were used in 233 patients with deforming bronchitis. All the patients were divided into 3 groups. Endoscopic findings corresponded to the results of comprehensive radionuclide investigation in all the groups

  4. Comparison of gamma knife validation film's analysis results of different film dose analysis software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the analytical result of different kinds of film dose analysis software for the same gamma knife, analyze the reasons of difference caused, and explore the measurements and means for quality control and quality assurance during testing gamma knife and analyzing its result. Methods: To test the Moon Deity gamma knife with Kodak EDR2 film and γ-Star gamma knife with GAFCHROMIC® EBT film, respectively. All the validation films are scanned to proper imagine format for dose analysis software by EPSON PERFECTION V750 PRO scanner. Then imagines of Moon Deity gamma knife are analyzed with Robot Knife Adjuvant 1.09 and Fas-09 1.0, and imagines of γ-Star gamma knife with Fas-09 and MATLAB 7.0. Results: There is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of radiation field size (Full Width at Half Maximum, FWHM) and its nominal value between Robot Knife Adjuvant and Fas-09 for Moon Deity gamma knife (t=-2.133, P>0.05). The analysis on the radiation field's penumbra region width of collimators which have different sizes indicated that the differences are significant (t=-8.154, P<0.05). There is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of FWHM and its nominal value between Fas-09 and MATLAB for γ-Star gamma knife (t=-1.384, P>0.05). However, following national standards,analysis of φ4 mm width of collimators can obtain different results according to the two kinds software, and the result of Fas-09 is not qualified while MATLAB is qualified. The analysis on the radiation field's penumbra region width of collimators which have different sizes indicates that the differences are significant (t=3.074, P<0.05). The imagines are processed with Fas-09. The analysis of imagine in the pre-and the post-processing indicates that there is no significant difference in the maximum deviation of FWHM and its nominal value (t=0.647, P>0.05), and the analytical result of the radiation field's penumbra region width indicates that there is

  5. Four-spacecraft determination of magnetopause orientation, motion and thickness: comparison with results from single-spacecraft methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Haaland

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we use Cluster data from one magnetopause event on 5 July 2001 to compare predictions from various methods for determination of the velocity, orientation, and thickness of the magnetopause current layer. We employ established as well as new multi-spacecraft techniques, in which time differences between the crossings by the four spacecraft, along with the duration of each crossing, are used to calculate magnetopause speed, normal vector, and width. The timing is based on data from either the Cluster Magnetic Field Experiment (FGM or the Electric Field Experiment (EFW instruments. The multi-spacecraft results are compared with those derived from various single-spacecraft techniques, including minimum-variance analysis of the magnetic field and deHoffmann-Teller, as well as Minimum-Faraday-Residue analysis of plasma velocities and magnetic fields measured during the crossings. In order to improve the overall consistency between multi- and single-spacecraft results, we have also explored the use of hybrid techniques, in which timing information from the four spacecraft is combined with certain limited results from single-spacecraft methods, the remaining results being left for consistency checks. The results show good agreement between magnetopause orientations derived from appropriately chosen single-spacecraft techniques and those obtained from multi-spacecraft timing. The agreement between magnetopause speeds derived from single- and multi-spacecraft methods is quantitatively somewhat less good but it is evident that the speed can change substantially from one crossing to the next within an event. The magnetopause thickness varied substantially from one crossing to the next, within an event. It ranged from 5 to 10 ion gyroradii. The density profile was sharper than the magnetic profile: most of the density change occured in the earthward half of the magnetopause.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and

  6. Oxidation of hazardous waste in supercritical water: A comparison of modeling and experimental results for methanol destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments at Sandia National Laboratories conducted in conjunction with MODEC Corporation have demonstrated successful clean- up of contaminated water in a supercritical water reactor. These experiments targeted wastes of interest to Department of Energy production facilities. In this paper we present modeling and experimental results for a surrogate waste containing 98% water, 2% methanol, and parts per million of chlorinated hydrocarbons and laser dyes. Our initial modeling results consider only methanol and water. Experimental data are available for inlet and outlet conditions and axial temperature profiles along the outside reactor wall. The purpose of our model is to study the chemical and physical processes inside the reactor. We are particularly interested in the parameters that control the location of the reaction zone. The laboratory-scale reactor operates at 25 MPa., between 300 K and 900 K; it is modeled as a plug-flow reactor with a specified temperature profile. We use Chemkin Real-Gas to calculate mixture density, with the Peng-Robinson equation of state. The elementary reaction set for methanol oxidation and reactions of other C1 and C2 hydrocarbons is based on previous models for gas-phase kinetics. Results from our calculations show that the methanol is 99.9% destroyed at 1/3 the total reactor length. Although we were not able to measure composition of the fluid inside the experimental reactor, this prediction occurs near the location of the highest reactor temperature. This indicates that the chemical reaction is triggered by thermal effects, not kinetic rates. Results from ideal-gas calculations show nearly identical chemical profiles inside the reactor in dimensionless distance. However, reactor residence times are overpredicted by nearly 150% using an ideal-gas assumption. Our results indicate that this oxidation process can be successfully modeled using gas-phase chemical mechanisms. 23 refs., 8 figs

  7. ENEA results in the international comparison organized by BIPM for the measurament of neutron fluxes of a Californium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period between May 1978 and August 1984 under the auspices of Section III of CCEMRI of CIPM it has been carried out the international intercomparison of Californium neutron source emission rate. The previous intercomparison was based on Ra-Be (α -n) source measuraments, which took place between 1959 and 1965, and the results showed a total spread of +- 3%. Owing to the better accuracy achived over the following decade the Ra-Be intercomparison was no longer representative of the state of the art, therefore it was decided to arrange the intercomparison based on Californium which in the meantime reached a wide use in the world. Contributions to the intercomparison were received from fourteen laboratories representative of twelve Nations plus the BIPM. The results put into evidence a considerable advance on accuracy in the neutron source emission rate measuraments. The standard deviation of the residuals obtained from least square fit of normalized data resulted +- 0,57%. In the present report it is widely described the Manganese bath method used at ENEA, CRE Casaccia in Roma, and the experimental procedure followed for its absolute calibration. All measuraments are reported and analysed, including those effectuated for corrective factors determination. The final results obtained at ENEA for the circulated Californium source is (3,457 +- 0,013) 10*H7 neutron/s. The analysis of data from all partecipantes has been effectuated and concluded by J. Axton in March 1986 and the conclusions which have been showed in the present report put in evidence the satisfactory results achived by the ENEA

  8. The Jeffery-Hamel Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluids by Homotopy Perturbation Method and Comparison with Numerical Results

    CERN Document Server

    Pourabdian, Majid; Morad, Mohammad Reza; Javareshkian, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of nanoparticles on the nonlinear Jeffery-Hamel flow problem. Investigation is performed for three types of nanoparticles namely copper Cu, alumina Al2O3 and titania TiO2 by considering water as a base fluid. The resulting nonlinear governing equations and their associated boundary conditions are solved for both semi-analytical and numerical solutions. The semi-analytical solution is developed by using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) whereas the numerical solution is presented by Runge-Kutta scheme. Dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are addressed for the involved pertinent parameters. It is observed that the influence of solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the heat transfer and fluid flow parameters is more noticeable when compared with the type of nanoparticles. The achieved results reveal that HPM is very effective, convenient and accurate for this problem.

  9. Comparison of stimulation selectivity in monopolar and bipolar configuration using the Transversal Intrafascicular Multichannel Electrode (TIME) - Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejasz, Paweł; Badia, Jordi; Boretius, Tim; Harreby, Kristian Rauhe; Jensen, Winnie; Stieglitz, Thomas; Navarro, Xavier; Guiraud, David

    2013-01-01

    The Transversal Intrafascicular Multichannel Electrode (TIME) is intended to be implanted transversally in the nerve and address several fascicles or subgroups of nerve fibres with one device. It has been already shown that TIME allows to achieve high selectivity of stimulation when using monopolar configuration, i.e. when current is delivered through one of the sites of the TIME against small needle electrode placed in the proximity of the nerve. Results of the current study suggest that usi...

  10. Comparison of vibro-acoustic stimulation and acupressure effects in nonstress test results and its parameters in pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Mahboubeh, Valiani; Masoumeh, Pirhadi; Zahra, Shahshahan

    2013-01-01

    Background: The primary goal of antenatal testing is to identify fetuses at risk of intrauterine neurologic injury or death so that these adverse outcomes can be prevented. We want to assess nonstress test (NST) results and some parameters before and after vibro-acoustic stimulation and acupressure. We did a randomized controlled clinical trial in Shahid-Beheshti Hospital in Isfahan in 2011. Materials and Methods: A total of 64 pregnant women (32-36 weeks) in prenatal care unit were selected ...

  11. EURADOS intercomparisons on whole body and extremity dosemeters (2008–2009) – Results and comparison of different dosemeter designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EURADOS (European Radiation Dosimetry Group) working group (WG2) on Harmonisation of Individual Monitoring in Europe has shown that intercomparisons are fundamental for harmonisation of individual monitoring. As a result of these considerations, EURADOS started to prepare a series of continuous intercomparisons for individual monitoring services (IMS) in Europe. EURADOS has now successfully executed two intercomparison exercises, one for whole body dosemeters (2008) and one for extremity dosemeters (2009). Both exercises were performed without external funding, all costs being covered by the participants’ fees. More than 120 (!) different – mainly passive – dosimetry systems were tested from all over Europe until now and the results were analysed and compared. Although scientific studies were not the primary objective of these exercises specific additional information about the tested systems supplied by the participants for statistical analysis allows a detailed analysis of these results with respect to different parameters like dosemeter type, detector material, filter thickness or others design parameters. The influence of such parameters on the response values of the dosemeters is analysed and discussed in this paper. Both energy response as well as directional response for beta and photon radiation are considered. The influence of different design parameters e.g. detector material, is analysed by comparing the frequency distribution of the response values for different dosemeter groups. Pronounced differences for different detector materials (LiF:Mg,Ti, LiF:Mg,Cu,P and Li2B4O7/CaSO4) were found. The paper gives a comprehensive overview on the performance of various European dosimetry services and the influence of the dosemeter design on the resulting response values.

  12. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanellopoulos, John

    2014-01-01

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL) (LASIK-CXL).Methods: We studied a total of 155&nbs...

  13. Comparison of prophylactic higher fluence corneal cross-linking to control, in myopic LASIK, one year results

    OpenAIRE

    Kanellopoulos AJ; Asimellis G; Karabatsas C

    2014-01-01

    Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis,1 Costas Karabatsas1 1LaserVision.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Purpose: To compare 1-year results: safety, efficacy, refractive and keratometric stability, of femtosecond myopic laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) with and without concurrent prophylactic high-fluence cross-linking (CXL) (LASIK-CXL).Methods: We studied a total of 155 consec...

  14. Comparison of fMRI coregistration results between human experts and software solutions in patients and healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performed by echo-planar imaging (EPI) is often highly distorted, and it is therefore necessary to coregister the functional to undistorted anatomical images, especially for clinical applications. This pilot study provides an evaluation of human and automatic coregistration results in the human motor cortex of normal and pathological brains. Ten healthy right-handed subjects and ten right-handed patients performed simple right hand movements during fMRI. A reference point chosen at a characteristic anatomical location within the fMRI sensorimotor activations was transferred to the high resolution anatomical MRI images by three human fMRI experts and by three automatic coregistration programs. The 3D distance between the median localizations of experts and programs was calculated and compared between patients and healthy subjects. Results show that fMRI localization on anatomical images was better with the experts than software in 70% of the cases and that software performance was worse for patients than healthy subjects (unpaired t-test: P = 0.040). With 45.6 mm the maximum disagreement between experts and software was quite large. The inter-rater consistency was better for the fMRI experts compared to the coregistration programs (ANOVA: P = 0.003). We conclude that results of automatic coregistration should be evaluated carefully, especially in case of clinical application. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of item analysis results of Korean Medical Licensing Examination according to classical test theory and item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Lim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the 64th and 65th Korean Medical Licensing Examination were analyzed according to the classical test theory and item response theory in order to know the possibility of applying item response theory to item analys and to suggest its applicability to computerized adaptive test. The correlation coefficiency of difficulty index, discriminating index and ability parameter between two kinds of analysis were got using computer programs such as Analyst 4.0, Bilog and Xcalibre. Correlation coefficiencies of difficulty index were equal to or more than 0.75; those of discriminating index were between - 0.023 and 0.753; those of ability parameter were equal to or more than 0.90. Those results suggested that the item analysis according to item response theory showed the comparable results with that according to classical test theory except discriminating index. Since the ability parameter is most widely used in the criteria-reference test, the high correlation between ability parameter and total score can provide the validity of computerized adaptive test utilizing item response theory.

  16. Comparison of the PSHA results of the 1993-EUS- update and the 1998-TIP studies for waste bar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savy, J; Bernreuter, D

    2001-01-09

    From 1981 to 1989, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission a method for performing Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) in the eastern US with results documented in NUREG/CR-5250. Improvements in the handling of the uncertainties lead to updated results documented in the 1993-EUS-Update study (NUREG-1488.) These results presented substantial differences with the utilities sponsored study performed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, 1989.) In order to understand the differences between the two studies, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department Of Energy (DOE) and EPRI jointly sponsored a study led by the Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) the task of which was to explain the differences between the two studies and provide guidance on how to perform a state-of-the-art PSHA. The work and conclusions of the SSHAC are documented in NUREG/CR-6372, 1997. As a follow-up to the 1997 SSHAC study, the Trial Implementation Project (TIP), (UCRL-ID-133494, 1998, NUREG/CR-6607) made use of the SSHAC recommendations and developed a set of more detailed guidance for performing PSHA. The TIP project tested the more complicated issue of development of the seismic zonation and seismicity models on two sites: Watts Bar and Vogtle. It was found that the uncertainty generated by artificial disagreements among experts can be considerably reduced through interaction and discussion of the available data and by identifying the elements common to all experts' interpretation. By concentration on those elements, it was possible to develop a consensus of the group on the way to characterize them and eliminate large unnecessary differences. The present study compares the results of the 1993-EUS-Update and the 1998-TIP studies and identifies the reasons for the differences, which were found to be: (1) Differences in the ground motion (GM) attenuation models; (2) The introduction of the

  17. Using GTO-Velo to Facilitate Communication and Sharing of Simulation Results in Support of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Boyd, Lauren W.

    2015-01-26

    The Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study (GTO-CCS) aims to support the DOE Geothermal Technologies Office in organizing and executing a model comparison activity. This project is directed at testing, diagnosing differences, and demonstrating modeling capabilities of a worldwide collection of numerical simulators for evaluating geothermal technologies. Teams of researchers are collaborating in this code comparison effort, and it is important to be able to share results in a forum where technical discussions can easily take place without requiring teams to travel to a common location. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed an open-source, flexible framework called Velo that provides a knowledge management infrastructure and tools to support modeling and simulation for a variety of types of projects in a number of scientific domains. GTO-Velo is a customized version of the Velo Framework that is being used as the collaborative tool in support of the GTO-CCS project. Velo is designed around a novel integration of a collaborative Web-based environment and a scalable enterprise Content Management System (CMS). The underlying framework provides a flexible and unstructured data storage system that allows for easy upload of files that can be in any format. Data files are organized in hierarchical folders and each folder and each file has a corresponding wiki page for metadata. The user interacts with Velo through a web browser based wiki technology, providing the benefit of familiarity and ease of use. High-level folders have been defined in GTO-Velo for the benchmark problem descriptions, descriptions of simulator/code capabilities, a project notebook, and folders for participating teams. Each team has a subfolder with write access limited only to the team members, where they can upload their simulation results. The GTO-CCS participants are charged with defining the benchmark problems for the study, and as each GTO-CCS Benchmark problem is

  18. Comparison of the effectiveness of various procedures for the rejection of outlying results and assigning consensus values in interlaboratory programs involving determination of trace elements or radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejection of outlying results is usually necessary in the evaluation of interlaboratory comparisons, especially those involving trace elements and low-level activity measurements. The performance of several criteria (Dixon's test, Grubbs' test, coefficient of skewness test, and coefficient of kurtosis test) is described; authentic data sets from intercomparison runs on trace element or radionuclide determinations in spiked samples are used. The existence of 'masking effects' in certain cases is demonstrated. It is shown that concurrent use of all four criteria at small (0.01) or moderate (0.05) significance levels gives better results than the use of any single test. The use of all four criteria at α = 0.05 followed by calculation of overall mean and pertinent confidence limits is suggested as a general method of data handling in interlaboratory comparison. This method normally ensures good selectivity of outlier rejection while avoiding excessive rejections, and results in generally good agreement between the 'true' value and the final overall mean. The use of this approach for the establishment of recommended values in candidate reference materials is demonstrated and its advantages and limitations are discussed. The results are further compared with those obtained by other methods of data evaluation (Student's test, dominant cluster mode and gamma transformation). (Auth.)

  19. The advantage of CO2-treated dental necks, in comparison with a standard method: results of an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, A; Gutknecht, N; Schoop, U; Goharkhay, K; Ebrahim, D; Wernisch, J; Sperr, W

    1996-02-01

    Various methods are used for treatment of hypersensitive dental necks. They all aim to seal exposed dentinal tubules, which are open toward the oral cavity and transmit stimuli to the sensitive nerve endings of the tooth pulp. The main sealing materials are fluoride preparations, strontium chloride, and hydroxyapatite. However, these materials must be applied periodically to achieve permanent freedom from pain. Since the introduction of laser technology into dentistry, efforts have been made to treat dentine hypersensitivity with the laser. An in vitro study revealed that CO2 laser irradiation results in almost complete closure of the dentinal tubules in the dental neck region. In the present in vivo study, the efficacy of laser treatment was examined in 72 patients with dentine hypersensitivity and 72 control patients over a period of 12 weeks. When success was defined as complete freedom from pain, the success rate in the laser group was 94.5%; when marked pain relief was included in the definition of treatment success, 98.6% of the patients were treated successfully. Treatment of the control group with conventional dental neck fluoridation resulted in no marked improvement. Laser Doppler measurements of pulpal blood flow immediately before and after treatment revealed no effects of laser irradiation on pulpal blood flow. Dentine samples were obtained from the dental necks 6 weeks after laser treatment and examined with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Tin was present in the samples, which suggests that the combined laser treatment and fluoridation result in permanent integration of fluoride in the dentine surface. PMID:9484097

  20. Efficiency of unenhanced MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Comparison with Alvarado scoring system and histopathological results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inci, Ercan, E-mail: ercan_inci@mynet.com [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Incirli-Bakirkoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Hocaoglu, Elif; Aydin, Sibel; Palabiyik, Figen; Cimilli, Tan [Department of Radiology, Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Incirli-Bakirkoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Turhan, Ahmet Nuray; Ayguen, Ersan [Department of Surgery, Istanbul Bakirkoy Dr. Sadi Konuk Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare with Alvarado scores and histopathological results. Materials and methods: The study included 85 consecutive patients (mean age, 26.5 {+-} 11.3 years) who were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis. Each patients Alvarado scores were recorded and unenhanced MRI was performed, consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The MR images were prospectively reviewed in consensus for the presence of acute appendicitis by two radiologists who were blinded to the results of the Alvarado scores. The study population were divided into three subgroups based on the MRI findings: Group I: definitely not appendicitis, Group II: probably appendicitis, Group III: definitely appendicitis. All patients were divided into two subgroups according to Alvarado scores as Group A (low: 1-6), and Group B (high: 7-10). MR findings were compared with Alvarado scores and histopathological findings. Results: Sixty-six (77.6%) of the 85 patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis, had undergone surgery. The diagnosis of appendicitis could be correctly achieved with MRI in 55 (83.3%) of 57 (86.4%) patients with histopathologically proven acute appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI examination and Alvarado scoring system in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis were 96.49%, 66.67%, 94.83%, 75.0% and 84.21%, 66.67%, 94.12%, 40.0%, respectively. Conclusions: MRI is a valuable technique for detecting acute appendicitis even in the cases with low Alvarado scores. To increase the diagnostic accuracy and preventing unnecessary laparotomies for suspected appendicitis, shorter and cheaper unenhanced basic MRI may be performed.

  1. Efficiency of unenhanced MRI in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Comparison with Alvarado scoring system and histopathological results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and compare with Alvarado scores and histopathological results. Materials and methods: The study included 85 consecutive patients (mean age, 26.5 ± 11.3 years) who were clinically suspected of having acute appendicitis. Each patients Alvarado scores were recorded and unenhanced MRI was performed, consisting of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and fat-suppressed T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. The MR images were prospectively reviewed in consensus for the presence of acute appendicitis by two radiologists who were blinded to the results of the Alvarado scores. The study population were divided into three subgroups based on the MRI findings: Group I: definitely not appendicitis, Group II: probably appendicitis, Group III: definitely appendicitis. All patients were divided into two subgroups according to Alvarado scores as Group A (low: 1-6), and Group B (high: 7-10). MR findings were compared with Alvarado scores and histopathological findings. Results: Sixty-six (77.6%) of the 85 patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis, had undergone surgery. The diagnosis of appendicitis could be correctly achieved with MRI in 55 (83.3%) of 57 (86.4%) patients with histopathologically proven acute appendicitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of MRI examination and Alvarado scoring system in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis were 96.49%, 66.67%, 94.83%, 75.0% and 84.21%, 66.67%, 94.12%, 40.0%, respectively. Conclusions: MRI is a valuable technique for detecting acute appendicitis even in the cases with low Alvarado scores. To increase the diagnostic accuracy and preventing unnecessary laparotomies for suspected appendicitis, shorter and cheaper unenhanced basic MRI may be performed.

  2. Comparison of fertility results after vaginal insemination using different thawing procedures and packages for frozen ram semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ådnøy Tormod

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of different thawing procedures for ram semen frozen in minitubes and mini straws on the fertility of sheep was tested in a field trial. Methods Altogether, 719 Norwegian Crossbred ewes, aged between six months and six-and-a-half years from 8 farms, were inseminated vaginally in natural oestrus with frozen-thawed semen. Minitubes were thawed at 70°C for 8 sec (T70 and mini straws either at 50°C for 9 sec (S50 or at 35°C for 12 sec (S35. Results Vaginal insemination with 200 × 106 spermatozoa resulted in 25-days non-return rates of 63.2, 59.6, and 62.5% (overall 61.8%, respectively, and lambing rates of 56.8, 55.0, and 59.2% (overall 57.0%, respectively. No significant effect on fertility (as 25-days non-return- or lambing rate was seen for straw type/thawing temperature (P = 0.5/0.5, but semen filled in mini straws and thawed at 35°C resulted numerically in the highest lambing rate (59.2%. A significant effect was, however, seen for farmer (P = >0.0001/>0.0001 and ram (P = 0.009/0.002. Moreover, age of the ewes had a significant effect on the NR rate (0.007, but not on lambing rate (P = 0.2. Conclusion A vaginal deposition of frozen ram semen containing approximately 200 × 106 spermatozoa, filled in mini straws and thawed at 35°C is a simplified technique that under field conditions and used on a do-it-yourself regime gives acceptable lambing rates in Norway.

  3. Comparison of Mean Contrast Sensitivity Results of LASIK and LASEK in Patients with Myopia and Myopic Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Taşkın

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare LASIK and LASEK for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism in terms of contrast sensitivity. Materials and Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients who underwent LASIK and 60 eyes of 30 patients who underwent LASEK for myopia and myopic astigmatism at the Excimer Laser Center of Dokuz Eylül University, Faculty of Medicine, were included in this study. Mean best-corrected contrast sensitivity values were noted before surgery. Mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity values were evaluated 1 month and 6 months after surgery as well as at the last exam. Complications were noted. The results of LASIK and LASEK groups were compared. Results: The two groups were similar in terms of age and gender. No significant difference was noted between the mean preoperative best-corrected contrast sensitivity values of the two groups. Mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity values were not significantly different at the first and sixth months. Mean last exam time was 13.4 (9-36 months. Also at the last exam, mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity values were not significantly different. Mean uncorrected contrast sensitivity values at the last exam were higher than the preoperative mean best-corrected contrast sensitivity values in both LASIK and LASEK groups. Conclusion: Both LASIK and LASEK for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism seem to be safe procedures in terms of contrast sensitivity when performed to appropriate patients. Neither technique demonstrated significantly different contrast sensitivity results in this study. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 436-9

  4. IRSL dating of a deep water core from Pylos, Greece, comparison to post IR blue OSL and TL dating results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeris, G. S.; Kitis, G.

    The 'double SAR' protocol procedure permits the determination of two equivalent dose (De) values for each polymineral aliquot; an IRSL De resulting mostly from feldspars along with a post- IR OSL De for a mixed signal for quartz (mostly) and feldspar grains. The objective of the present study is to test for the first time its usefulness for polymineral, coarse silt, closely-spaced deep-sea sediment samples. A new, 'double SAR' IRSL dataset is presented for the sedimentation ages of a deep-sea sediment core of the Hellenic Trench, drilled from a water depth of 4 km, near the deepest site of the Mediterranean Sea, outside Pylos, Greece. Post IR quartz-based optical dating was previously proved to be consistent with AMS radiocarbon ages, obtained from planktonic foraminifera from the same core. IRSL De values are, with one exception, always much greater than the corresponding (post-IR) OSL results. This result suggests that for the present study 'double SAR' protocol procedure was proved to be extremely effective method for separating the luminescence signals from quartz and feldspars. Furthermore, De values obtained after infra-red stimulation and thermoluminescence generally agree within errors. This quantitative equivalence of those two sets of De values implies that as in the case of IRSL, TL signal is also feldspar-dominated. IRSL ages vary between 3.5 and 7.8 ka with associated errors up to 9%. Application of 'double SAR' protocol to coarse silt, closely-spaced deep-sea sediment samples seems advisable, despite the fact that the post-IR blue OSL signal is the most stable signal, and is preferred for dating.

  5. Comparison of fertility results after vaginal insemination using different thawing procedures and packages for frozen ram semen

    OpenAIRE

    Ådnøy Tormod; Paulenz Heiko; Söderquist Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The effect of different thawing procedures for ram semen frozen in minitubes and mini straws on the fertility of sheep was tested in a field trial. Methods Altogether, 719 Norwegian Crossbred ewes, aged between six months and six-and-a-half years from 8 farms, were inseminated vaginally in natural oestrus with frozen-thawed semen. Minitubes were thawed at 70°C for 8 sec (T70) and mini straws either at 50°C for 9 sec (S50) or at 35°C for 12 sec (S35). Results Vaginal insemi...

  6. Hydraulic Losses and Flow Patterns in Bent Pipes : Comparison of the Results in Wavy Pipes and Quasi-coiled Ones

    OpenAIRE

    Shimizu, Yukimaru; Sugino, Koichi; Kuzuhara, Sadao

    1982-01-01

    A coiled pipe, a helically bent pipe and a wavily bent pipe are used in practical engineering for many purposes. In this report, the relationships between hydraulic losses and flow patterns are investigated in regard to wavily bent pipes and quasi-coiled pipes which are constructed with many 90° elbows or 90°bends with small curvature ratios, R/r_w=l, 3 and 6,respectively. The results of wavy pipes are compared with those of quasi-coiled pipes. The reasons why wavily bent pipes are adequate f...

  7. Comparison of objective methods for assessment of annoyance of low frequency noise with the results of a laboratory listening test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Subjective assessments made by test persons were compared to results from a number of objective measurement and calculation methods for the assessment of low frequency noise. Eighteen young persons with normal hearing listened to eight environmental low frequency noises and evaluated the annoyance...... of the noises. The noises were stationary noise with and without tones, intermittent noise, music, traffic noise and impulsive low frequency noise. The noises were presented twice in a random order at L-Aeq levels of 20 dB, 27.5 dB and 35 dB. The assessment methods were those used in Sweden, Germany...

  8. Ring current plasma of the Earth magnetosphere. Model in comparison with the results of the AMPTE/CCE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When comparing the model of ion energy density distribution in the range of the ring current with the results of AMPTE/CCE experiment, the existence of the quiet ring current was confirmed, the maximum energy content of plasma and its composition was refined. Considerable content of oxygen ions points to their ionospheric source. Temperatures of ring current ions constitute tens of kiloelectronvolt. Gradient drift in magnetic field of the ions can create the ring current with magnetic momentum of the same direction in the Earth centre as geomagnetic dipole

  9. Calculation of conversion coefficients Hp(3)/K air using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code and comparison with MCNP calculation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report calculations performed using the MNCP and PENELOPE codes to determine the Hp(3)/K air conversion coefficient which allows the Hp(3) dose equivalent to be determined from the measured value of the kerma in the air. They report the definition of the phantom, a 20 cm diameter and 20 cm high cylinder which is considered as representative of a head. Calculations are performed for an energy range corresponding to interventional radiology or cardiology (20 keV-110 keV). Results obtained with both codes are compared

  10. Start-to-end simulations of SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility, Phase I: comparison with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VUV SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility (Phase 1) was successfully running and reached saturation in the wavelength range 80-120 nm. We present a posteriori start-to-end simulations of this machine. The codes Astra and elegant are used to track particle distribution from the cathode to the undulator entrance. An independent simulation of the beam dynamics in the bunch compressor is performed with the code CSRtrack. SASE FEL process is simulated with the code FAST. Simulation results are in a good agreement with the measured properties of SASE FEL radiation

  11. CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in Battelle model containment. Experimental phases 2, 3 and 4. Results of comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present final report comprises the major results of Phase II of the CEC thermal-hydraulic benchmark exercise on Fiploc verification experiment F2 in the Battelle model containment, experimental phases 2, 3 and 4, which was organized and sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities for the purpose of furthering the understanding and analysis of long-term thermal-hydraulic phenomena inside containments during and after severe core accidents. This benchmark exercise received high European attention with eight organizations from six countries participating with eight computer codes during phase 2. Altogether 18 results from computer code runs were supplied by the participants and constitute the basis for comparisons with the experimental data contained in this publication. This reflects both the high technical interest in, as well as the complexity of, this CEC exercise. Major comparison results between computations and data are reported on all important quantities relevant for containment analyses during long-term transients. These comparisons comprise pressure, steam and air content, velocities and their directions, heat transfer coefficients and saturation ratios. Agreements and disagreements are discussed for each participating code/institution, conclusions drawn and recommendations provided. The phase 2 CEC benchmark exercise provided an up-to-date state-of-the-art status review of the thermal-hydraulic capabilities of present computer codes for containment analyses. This exercise has shown that all of the participating codes can simulate the important global features of the experiment correctly, like: temperature stratification, pressure and leakage, heat transfer to structures, relative humidity, collection of sump water. Several weaknesses of individual codes were identified, and this may help to promote their development. As a general conclusion it may be said that while there is still a wide area of necessary extensions and improvements, the

  12. The Comparison of Inflammatory Responses and Clinical Results After Groin Hernia Repair Using Polypropylene or Polyester Meshes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbuller, N; Kirkil, C; Godekmerdan, A; Aygen, E; Ilhan, Y S

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results and the inflammatory responses against polypropylene and polyester meshes after groin hernia repair. Ninety patients with unilateral inguinal hernia randomly underwent Shouldice herniorrhaphy or Lichtenstein hernioplasty using polypropylene or polyester meshes. Venous blood samples were collected to evaluate serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Postoperative acute and chronic pain and time to attain to normal activities were evaluated. IL-6 levels decreased to preoperative levels in all groups at 48th hour. CRP levels of mesh-implanted groups are significantly higher than preoperative level at 48th hour, while it reduced to preoperative level in Shouldice herniorrhaphy group. Patients treated with mesh repair had less postoperative acute pain and recovered more rapidly than those who underwent Shouldice herniorrhaphy. It was concluded that polypropylene and polyester meshes used in hernia repair caused similar inflammatory responses and that clinical results after groin hernia repair with these prostheses were not significantly different. PMID:26730010

  13. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory-Including comparisons with data from AGASA and HiRes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of the Pierre Auger Observatory is described. Recent measurements from the Observatory relating to the arrival direction distribution, mass composition and energy spectrum above 1018 eV are presented. No anisotropy has yet been detected. From measurements of the variation of the depth of shower maximum with energy, there are indications-if models of high-energy interactions are correct-that the mass composition is not proton dominated at the highest energies. A flattening of the slope of the energy spectrum from -3.30±0.06 to -2.62±0.02 is observed at 4.5x1018 eV while above 3.6x1019 eV the spectrum steepens with the slope becoming -4.1±0.4. Because of the composition result, caution needs to be observed over interpretation of the steepening as the long-sought Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect. The results are discussed in the context of similar data from the AGASA and HiRes projects and are compared with some models for the propagation of high-energy cosmic rays

  14. Benchmarking Reactor Systems Studies by Comparison of EU and Japanese System Code Results for Different DEMO Concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Recent systems studies work within the Broader Approach framework has focussed on benchmarking the EU systems code PROCESS against the Japanese code TPC for conceptual DEMO designs. This paper describes benchmarking work for a conservative, pulsed DEMO and an advanced, steady-state, high-bootstrap fraction DEMO. The resulting former machine is an R0 = 10 m, a = 2.5 m, βN 0 = 8 m, a = 2.7 m), with βN = 3.0, enhanced confinement, and high bootstrap fraction fBS = 0.8. These options were chosen to test the codes across a wide range of parameter space. While generally in good agreement, some of the code outputs differ. In particular, differences have been identified in the impurity radiation models and flux swing calculations. The global effects of these differences are described and approaches to identifying the best models, including future experiments, are discussed. Results of varying some of the assumptions underlying the modelling are also presented, demonstrating the sensitivity of the solutions to technological limitations and providing guidance for where further research could be focussed. (author)

  15. Effect of pregnancy on intestinal transit: comparison of results using radioactive and non-radioactive test meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were performed to determine the effect of pregnancy on both gastrointestinal transit and small intestinal transit. Gastrointestinal transit was examined by determining the leading edge of distribution within the small intestine of a charcoal marker placed directly into the stomach. Intestinal transit was evaluated by quantifying the distribution of a radiolabelled marker placed dirrectly into the duodenum. The distribution of the marker was determined (1) by calculating the slope of the distribution curve and (2) by calculating the geometric center of distribution of the radioisotope. In all studies the data from animals in either the second or third trimester of pregnancy were compared with the results obtained from non-pregnant females. The results confirm previous observations that gastrointestinal transit is reduced during the latter stages of pregnancy. This can be explained, at least in part, by a decreased intestinal transit. The data also suggest that analysis of the geometric center of distribution provides a more sensitive and reliable measure of intestinal transit than does analysis of the slope of the distribution curve

  16. THE BEHAVIOR OF TRANSVERSE WAVES IN NONUNIFORM SOLAR FLUX TUBES. I. COMPARISON OF IDEAL AND RESISTIVE RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, Roberto; Terradas, Jaume; Oliver, Ramón [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Goossens, Marcel, E-mail: roberto.soler@uib.es [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-11-10

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves are ubiquitously observed in the solar atmosphere. Kink waves are a type of transverse MHD waves in magnetic flux tubes that are damped due to resonant absorption. The theoretical study of kink MHD waves in solar flux tubes is usually based on the simplification that the transverse variation of density is confined to a nonuniform layer much thinner than the radius of the tube, i.e., the so-called thin boundary approximation. Here, we develop a general analytic method to compute the dispersion relation and the eigenfunctions of ideal MHD waves in pressureless flux tubes with transversely nonuniform layers of arbitrary thickness. Results for kink waves are produced and compared with fully numerical resistive MHD eigenvalue computations in the limit of small resistivity. We find that the frequency and resonant damping rate are the same in both ideal and resistive cases. The actual results for thick nonuniform layers deviate from the behavior predicted in the thin boundary approximation and strongly depend on the shape of the nonuniform layer. The eigenfunctions in ideal MHD are very different from those in resistive MHD. The ideal eigenfunctions display a global character regardless of the thickness of the nonuniform layer, while the resistive eigenfunctions are localized around the resonance and are indistinguishable from those of ordinary resistive Alfvén modes. Consequently, the spatial distribution of wave energy in the ideal and resistive cases is dramatically different. This poses a fundamental theoretical problem with clear observational consequences.

  17. Ozone production in the reaction of T2 and O2 gas: A comparison of experimental results and model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone, predicted to be an important intermediate species in T2 oxidation, was monitored in situ by UV absorption spectroscopy for 0.01-1.0 mol % T2 in O2 (1 atm, 298 K). These are the first measurements of a tritium oxidation reaction intermediate. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of the author's comprehensive model of tritium oxidation. The experimentally determined temporal variation in ozone concentration is qualitatively reproduced by the model. As predicted, the measured initial rate of ozone production varied linearly with the initial T2 concentration ([T2]o), but with a value one-third of that predicted. The steady-state ozone concentration ([O3]ss) a factor of 4 larger than predicted for a 1.0% T2-O2 mixture. Addition of H2 to the T2O2 mixture, to differentiate between the radiolytic and chemical behavior of the tritium, produced a decrease in [O3]ss which was larger than predicted. Changing the reaction cell surface-to-volume ratio showed indications of minor surface removal of ozone. No reasonable variation in model input parameters brought both the predicted initial ozone production rates and steady-state concentrations of ozone into agreement with the experimental results. Though qualitative agreement was achieved, further studies, with emphasis on surface effects, are necessary to explain quantitative differences and gain a greater understanding of the oxidation mechanism. 27 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Comparison of total Hg results in sediment samples from Rio Grande reservoir determine by NAA and CV AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, Robson L., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (ELAI/CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Laboratorio de Quimica Inorganica; Bevilacqua, Jose Eduardo [Centro Tecnologico de Saneamento Basico (CETESB), SP, Sao Paulo (Brazil). UNIFIEO - Centro Universitario FIEO; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica (LAN/CRPq)

    2011-07-01

    The Rio Grande reservoir is located in the Metropolitan area of Sao Paulo and it is used for recreation purposes and as source water for drinking water production. During the last decades has been detected mercury contamination in the sediments of this reservoir, mainly in the eastern part, near the main affluent of the reservoir, in the Rio Grande da Serra and Ribeirao Pires counties. In the present study bottom sediment samples were collected in four different sites into four sampling campaigns during the period of September 2008 to January 2010. The samples were dried at room temperature, ground and passed through a 2 mm sieve. Total Hg determination in the sediment samples was carried out by two different analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis (NAA) and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV AAS). The methodology validation, in terms of precision and accuracy, was performed by reference materials, and presented a recovery of 83 to 108%. The total Hg results obtained by both analytical techniques ranged from 3 to 71 mg kg-1 and were considered similar by statistical analysis, even though NAA technique furnishes the total concentration while CV AAS using the 3015 digestion procedure characterizes only the bioavailable Hg. These results confirm that both analytical techniques were suitable to detect the Hg concentration levels in the Rio Grande sediments studied. The Hg levels in the sediment of the Rio Grande reservoir confirm the anthropogenic origin for this element in this ecosystem. (author)

  19. Comparison of the Developmental Potential and Clinical Results of In Vivo Matured Oocytes Cryopreserved with Different Vitrification Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oocyte vitrification is widely used throughout the world, but its clinical efficacy is inconsistent and depends on the vitrification media. This study compared the developmental potential and clinical results of in vivo matured oocytes cryopreserved with different vitrification media. Methods: This retrospective study involved vitrified-warmed oocytes at one in vitro fertilization laboratory. Vitrification media kits comprised the MC kit (ethylene glycol [EG] plus 1,2-propanediol [PROH], the KT kit (EG plus dimethyl sulphoxide [DMSO], and the Modified kit (EG plus DMSO and PROH kit. Rates of oocyte survival and subsequent developmental potential were recorded and analyzed. The t-test and the Chi-square test were used to evaluate each method′s efficacy. Results: Oocyte survival rate was significantly higher for the Modified kit (92.0% than for the MC kit (88.2% (P 0.05. The high-quality embryo rate per warmed oocyte was significantly higher (23.4% in the Modified kit group than in the other groups (P 0.05. Conclusions: Modified vitrification media are efficient for oocyte vitrification and, with further verification, may be able to replace commercially available media in future clinical applications.

  20. Partial ion yield and NEXAFS of 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethanethiol self-assembled monolayer: Comparison with PTFE results

    CERN Document Server

    Setoyama, H; Murase, T; Imamura, M; Mase, K; Okudaira, K K; Hara, M; Ueno, N

    2003-01-01

    Partial-ion-yield (PIY) spectra using ion time-of-flight (TOF) method and near-edge absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra were measured for 2-(perfluorooctyl)ethanethiol [CF sub 3 (CF sub 2) sub 7 (CH sub 2) sub 2 SH] self-assembled monolayer (F8-SAM) on Au(1 1 1) near carbon K-edge. The PIY spectra of the F8-SAM at the magic angle, where -CF sub 3 groups exist at the surface were compared with those of the rubbed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin film. The F sup + intensity from the F8-SAM at the photon energy of the sharp peak of the NEXAFS, which originates from the excitation of C1s electron to sigma sup * (C-F) states at -CF sub 2 - chain, was extremely smaller than that from the rubbed PTFE film. This result clearly indicates that the ions observed by PIY do not originate from the film inside but from the surface. This was confirmed by changes in ion-TOF mass spectra during soft X-ray induced etching of the F8-SAM. The NEXAFS peaks of the F8-SAM were also assigned by considering PIY results.

  1. The comparison of OFS simulation and measurement results to verify the Wolsong spent fuels in pond area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Optical Fiber Scintillator(OFS) system is being developed to verify the CANDU spent fuels in the pond area of Wolsong Nuclear Power Plants. The OFS has been known to be able to use for neutron, alpha, beta and gamma detection in extreme environments. The OFS consists of optic detectors with light guides and light guide, Photo Multiplier Tube(PMT) modules, electronic equipment, a scanning device and computer software. This system detects a gross gamma ray emitting from the spent fuels by measuring the current from OFS. The dominant signal is from a front and a back side bundles of the OFS detector. Due to the tiny and flexible structure, the detector can easily access to the spent fuels, which are located in the difficult to access area. Therefore, it is expected that the spent fuels in the pond can be verified without the tray movement using the OFS system. In this study, OFS system response using MCNP code and the result were compared with the measurement result from field test

  2. The dispersion of 99Tc in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean: a comparison of model results and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radionuclide 99Tc had been discharged from the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield (UK) into the Irish Sea in increased amounts in the 1990s. We compare the simulated dispersion of 99Tc in surface water as calculated by a hydrodynamic model and an assessment box model with field-observations from 1996 to 1999 to study concentrations, pathways and travel times. The model results are consistent with the observations and show the typical pathway of dissolved radionuclides from the Irish Sea via the North Sea along the Norwegian Coast. Subsequently the contaminated water separates into three branches of which the two Arctic branches bear the potential for future monitoring of the signal in the next decades. The results of the hydrodynamic model indicate a large variability of surface concentrations in the West Spitsbergen Current which has implications for future monitoring strategies. According to the observed and simulated distributions we suggest an improved box model structure to better capture the pattern for concentrations at the surface

  3. Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code simulation results and comparison with theory scaling laws for photoelectron-generated radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipp, T.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)]|[Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Bolling AFB, DC (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The generation of radiation via photoelectrons induced off of a conducting surface was explored using Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code computer simulations. Using the MAGIC PIC code, the simulations were performed in one dimension to handle the diverse scale lengths of the particles and fields in the problem. The simulations involved monoenergetic, nonrelativistic photoelectrons emitted normal to the illuminated conducting surface. A sinusoidal, 100% modulated, 6.3263 ns pulse train, as well as unmodulated emission, were used to explore the behavior of the particles, fields, and generated radiation. A special postprocessor was written to convert the PIC code simulated electron sheath into far-field radiation parameters by means of rigorous retarded time calculations. The results of the small-spot PIC simulations were used to generate various graphs showing resonance and nonresonance radiation quantities such as radiated lobe patterns, frequency, and power. A database of PIC simulation results was created and, using a nonlinear curve-fitting program, compared with theoretical scaling laws. Overall, the small-spot behavior predicted by the theoretical scaling laws was generally observed in the PIC simulation data, providing confidence in both the theoretical scaling laws and the PIC simulations.

  4. Comparison of numerical and experimental results on flow rate and friction losses in water outflow from extended pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented of numerical calculation and experimental determinaion of the flow rate and friction losses during boiling-up water flow motion in extended pipelines at critical outflow regime with account of compressibility of heat-transferring medium. The difference of the calculation model proposed is in the fact that the presence of a finite length pipeline portion is implied where the Mach number (M) remains equal to 1 at a continuously varying flow rate and the sound velocity varying from its thermodynamical equilibrium value inside the channel to the non-equilibrium one at the exit. At that the deceleration pressure along this portion remains constant, and the M=1 condition is maintained automatically due to a constant flow rate. Analysis of numerical experiment has shown that the new scheme of heat transfer by critical two-phase flow is more efficient than that by one-phase flow within the 0.5 to 8 MPa range of initial pressures at a 0-50 K subcooling as a result of a decrease in the head of transfering pumps and a reduction in the pipeline pressure. Experiments carried out show good agreement with the calclation data

  5. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  6. Post-mortem computed tomography findings of the lungs: Retrospective review and comparison with autopsy results of 30 infant cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasumi, Yusuke, E-mail: ssu@rad.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Usui, Akihito, E-mail: t7402r0506@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosokai, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: hosokai@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Igari, Yui, E-mail: igari@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hosoya, Tadashi [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Yoshie, E-mail: yoshie@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Saito, Haruo, E-mail: hsaito@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Image Analysis, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Ishibashi, Tadashi, E-mail: tisibasi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Imaging, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Funayama, Masato, E-mail: funayama@forensic.med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Forensic Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). •In this study, twenty-two of the thirty sudden infant death cases showed increasing concentration in the entire lung field. •Based on the autopsy results, the lungs simply collapsed and no other abnormal lung findings were identified. •The radiologist should not consider increasing concentration in all lung fields as simply a pulmonary disorder when diagnosing the cause of infant death using PMCT. -- Abstract: Objectives: Infant cases frequently show a diffuse increase in the concentration of lung fields on post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT). However, the lungs often show simply atelectasis at autopsy in the absence of any other abnormal changes. Thus, we retrospectively reviewed the PMCT findings of lungs following sudden infant death and correlated them with the autopsy results. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed infant cases (0 year) who had undergone PMCT and a forensic autopsy at our institution between May 2009 and June 2013. Lung opacities were classified according to their type; consolidation, ground-glass opacity and mixed, as well as distribution; bilateral diffuse and areas of sparing. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the relationships among lung opacities, causes of death and resuscitation attempt. Results: Thirty infant cases were selected, which included 22 sudden and unexplained deaths and 8 other causes of death. Resuscitation was attempted in 22 of 30 cases. Bilateral diffuse opacities were observed in 21 of the 30 cases. Of the 21 cases, 18 were sudden and unexplained deaths. Areas of sparing were observed in 4 sudden and unexplained deaths and 5 other causes of death. Distribution of opacities was not significantly associated with causes of death or resuscitation attempt. The 21 cases with bilateral diffuse opacities included 6 consolidations (4 sudden and unexplained

  7. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements

  8. Monte Carlo modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons in internal dosimetry: Results of an international comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ros, J.M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jm.gomezros@ciemat.es; Carlan, L. de [CEA DRT/LIST/DETECS/LNHB/LMD, Bat 534, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, Cedex (France); IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Franck, D. [IRSN DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP6, F-92262, Fontenay-aux-Roses, Cedex (France); Gualdrini, G. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Lis, M.; Lopez, M.A.; Moraleda, M. [CIEMAT, Av. Complutense 22, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Zankl, M. [GSF - National Research Center for Environment and Health, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Badal, A. [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, UPC, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Capello, K. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Cowan, P. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Ferrari, P. [ENEA ION-IRP, Via dei Colli 16, I-40136 Bologna (Italy); Heide, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Henniger, J. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Hooley, V. [Serco Assurance, Bld. A32, Winfrith Tech. Centre Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset DT2 8DH (United Kingdom); Hunt, J. [IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Kinase, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Kramer, G.H. [Human Monitoring Laboratory (Canada); Loehnert, D. [Technical University of Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Lucas, S. [LARN Laboratory, University of Namur, Rue de Bruxelles 61, B-5000 Namur (Belgium)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    This communication summarizes the results concerning the Monte Carlo (MC) modelling of Germanium detectors for the measurement of low energy photons arising from the 'International comparison on MC modelling for in vivo measurement of Americium in a knee phantom' organized within the EU Coordination Action CONRAD (Coordinated Network for Radiation Dosimetry) as a joint initiative of EURADOS working groups 6 (computational dosimetry) and 7 (internal dosimetry). MC simulations proved to be an applicable way to obtain the calibration factor that needs to be used for in vivo measurements.

  9. Offshore code comparison collaboration continuation (OC4), phase I - Results of coupled simulations of an offshore wind turbine with jacket support structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popko, Wojciech; Vorpahl, Fabian; Zuga, Adam; Kohlmeier, Martin; Jonkman, Jason; Robertson, Amy; Larsen, Torben J.; Yde, Anders; Sætertrø, Kristian; Okstad, Knut M.; Nichols, James; Nygaard, Tor A.; Gao, Zhen; Manolas, Dimitris; Kim, Kunho; Yu, Qing; Shi, Wei; Park, Hyunchul; Vásquez-Rojas, Andrés; Dubois, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel; Thomassen, Paul; De Ruiter, Marten J.; Peeringa, Johan M.; Zhiwen, Huang; Von Waaden, Heike

    In this paper, the exemplary results of the IEA Wind Task 30 "Offshore Code Comparison Collaboration Continuation" (OC4) Project - Phase I, focused on the coupled simulation of an offshore wind turbine (OWT) with a jacket support structure, are presented. The focus of this task has been the...... the buoyancy calculation and methods of accounting for additional masses (such as hydrodynamic added mass). Finally, recommendations concerning the modeling of the jacket are given. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  10. Orientation parameters and dipole moments of He+(n = 2) states in He2+ + H collisions: comparison of CTMC and close-coupling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orientation parameter and the dipole moment of the n = 2 states of He+ resulting from electron capture in He2+ + H collisions are examined using the classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method and the close-coupling expansion using two-centre atomic orbitals at 10, 25 and 50 keV amu-1. It is shown that the orientation parameters calculated from the two theories are in good agreement but large discrepancies exist for the dipole moments. Together with previous similar comparisons for p-H collisions, we conclude that the CTMC method is not reliable in predicting the coherence parameters of excited states formed in atomic collisions. (author)

  11. Comparison of mixed quantum-classical and full quantum results for the multiphoton dissociation of H{sub 2}{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael; Grossmann, Frank; Schmidt, Ruediger [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden,D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Handt, Jan; Krause, Sebastian; Rost, Jan-Michael [Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We present a mixed quantum-classical approach for the time-dependent dynamics of para-H{sub 2}{sup +} exposed to short intense laser pulses with 800 nm wavelength including all nuclear as well as electronic degrees of freedom. Depending on the initial vibrational state, the angular distributions of photofragments show characteristic shapes in very good agreement with our full quantum calculations. The results are interpreted in the framework of two-dimensional adiabatic Floquet surfaces which depend on the internuclear separation and the rotation angle, demonstrating that adiabatic light-dressed surfaces are a useful concept also for full dimensional nuclear dynamics. With the help of kinetic energy release spectra, we are able to extract the contribution of different photon channels also in the quantum-classical case.

  12. Comparison of mixed quantum-classical and full quantum results for the multiphoton dissociation of H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a mixed quantum-classical approach for the time-dependent dynamics of para-H2+ exposed to short intense laser pulses with 800 nm wavelength including all nuclear as well as electronic degrees of freedom. Depending on the initial vibrational state, the angular distributions of photofragments show characteristic shapes in very good agreement with our full quantum calculations. The results are interpreted in the framework of two-dimensional adiabatic Floquet surfaces which depend on the internuclear separation and the rotation angle, demonstrating that adiabatic light-dressed surfaces are a useful concept also for full dimensional nuclear dynamics. With the help of kinetic energy release spectra, we are able to extract the contribution of different photon channels also in the quantum-classical case.

  13. Comparison of results from different imputation techniques for missing data from an anti-obesity drug trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders W.; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In randomised trials of medical interventions, the most reliable analysis follows the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle. However, the ITT analysis requires that missing outcome data have to be imputed. Different imputation techniques may give different results and some may lead to bias....... In anti-obesity drug trials, many data are usually missing, and the most used imputation method is last observation carried forward (LOCF). LOCF is generally considered conservative, but there are more reliable methods such as multiple imputation (MI). OBJECTIVES: To compare four different methods of...... handling missing data in a 60-week placebo controlled anti-obesity drug trial on topiramate. METHODS: We compared an analysis of complete cases with datasets where missing body weight measurements had been replaced using three different imputation methods: LOCF, baseline carried forward (BOCF) and MI...

  14. The MATROSHKA experiment: results and comparison from extravehicular activity (MTR-1) and intravehicular activity (MTR-2A/2B) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Paweł; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Reitz, Günther

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts working and living in space are exposed to considerably higher doses and different qualities of ionizing radiation than people on Earth. The multilateral MATROSHKA (MTR) experiment, coordinated by the German Aerospace Center, represents the most comprehensive effort to date in radiation protection dosimetry in space using an anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom used for radiotherapy treatment planning. The anthropomorphic upper-torso phantom maps the radiation distribution as a simulated human body installed outside (MTR-1) and inside different compartments (MTR-2A: Pirs; MTR-2B: Zvezda) of the Russian Segment of the International Space Station. Thermoluminescence dosimeters arranged in a 2.54 cm orthogonal grid, at the site of vital organs and on the surface of the phantom allow for visualization of the absorbed dose distribution with superior spatial resolution. These results should help improve the estimation of radiation risks for long-term human space exploration and support benchmarking of radiation transport codes. PMID:24252101

  15. FARO test L-14 on fuel coolant interaction and quenching. Comparison report, volume 1 + 2, analysis of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides a comparative analysis of the results from the ISP-39 exercise promoted by OECD-CSNI in the frame of the NEA activities. ISP-39 has been conceived to benchmark the predictive capabilities of computer codes used in the evaluation of fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) and quenching phenomenologies of relevance in water cooled reactors severe accidents safety analysis. The ISP-39 reference case is FARO test L-14, a non-energetic FCI test performed under realistic melt composition and prototypical accident conditions in the FARO experimental installation (Ispra, Italy). Thirteen research organizations from ten countries participated in the exercise submitting 15 prediction calculations with 8 different codes or code versions (COMETA, MC3D, IVA, IFCI, JASMINE, TEXAS, THIRMAL, VAPEX). ISP-39 was conducted as an open exercise. Conclusions are given concerning code capabilities, users effect and sensitivity analyses, numerical accuracy quantification of the predictions, code improvements, general considerations

  16. Comparison of british and french analytical results carried out on plutonium oxide batches supplied for Rapsodie 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the terms of the contract number: 5380/r, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority had to supply the CEA with 45 kilograms of plutonium in oxide form for the manufacture of Rapsodie I. The main analysis was the plutonium content of the product, which had to fit with several precise specifications: isotopic composition, β γ total emission, loss on heating, surface area and impurities content. The analytical verifications have been made by the analysts of the 'Production Group' of Windscale, on one side, and by the analysts of the Plutonium Department of Fontenay-aux-Roses, on the other side. The concordance between the analytical results has been excellent, and it has not been necessary to appeal to arbitration of a third laboratory for the thirty nine batches which made the delivery. (author)

  17. Detached Eddy Simulation Results for a Space Launch System Configuration at Liftoff Conditions and Comparison with Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Steven E.; Ghaffari, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Computational simulations for a Space Launch System configuration at liftoff conditions for incidence angles from 0 to 90 degrees were conducted in order to generate integrated force and moment data and longitudinal lineloads. While the integrated force and moment coefficients can be obtained from wind tunnel testing, computational analyses are indispensable in obtaining the extensive amount of surface information required to generate proper lineloads. However, beyond an incidence angle of about 15 degrees, the effects of massive flow separation on the leeward pressure field is not well captured with state of the art Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes methods, necessitating the employment of a Detached Eddy Simulation method. Results from these simulations are compared to the liftoff force and moment database and surface pressure data derived from a test in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel.

  18. Estimation of global daily irradiation in complex topography zones using digital elevation models and meteosat images: Comparison of the results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Durban, M. [Dpto. de Lenguajes y Computacion, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain); Zarzalejo, L.F.; Polo, J. [Dpto. de Energia, CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bosch, J.L.; Rosiek, S.; Batlles, F.J. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Almeria, 04120 Almeria (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    The knowledge of the solar irradiation in a certain place is fundamental for the suitable location of solar systems, both thermal and photovoltaic. On the local scale, the topography is the most important modulating factor of the solar irradiation on the surface. In this work the global daily irradiation is estimated concerning various sky conditions, in zones of complex topography. In order to estimate the global daily irradiation we use a methodology based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM), on one hand making use of pyranometer measurements and on the other hand utilizing satellite images. We underline that DTM application employing pyranometer measurements produces better results than estimation using satellite images, though accuracy of the same order is obtained in both cases for Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Bias Error (MBE). (author)

  19. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 ∼ 15 ys, mean age: 8 ± 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 ∼ 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 ± 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe

  20. A comparison with result of normalized image to different template image on statistical parametric mapping of ADHD children patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Dong Ho [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joh, Chol Woo; Yoon, Seok Nam [Medical College, Ajou University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    We studied 64 ADHD children patients group (4 {approx} 15 ys, mean age: 8 {+-} 2.6 ys. M/F: 52/12) and 12 normal group (6 {approx} 7 ys, mean age: 9.4 {+-} 3.4 ys, M/F: 8/4) of the brain had been used to analysis of blood flow between normal and ADHD group. For analysis of Children ADHD, we used 12 children's mean brain images and made Template image of SPM99 program. In crease of blood flow (P-value 0.05), the result of normalized images to Template image to offer from SPM99 program, showed significant cluster in inter-Hemispheric and occipital Lobe, in the case of normalized images to children template image, showed inter-hemispheric and parietal lobe.

  1. Wind plant capacity credit variations: A comparison of results using multiyear actual and simulated wind-speed data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Although it is widely recognized that variations in annual wind energy capture can be significant, it is not clear how significant this effect is on accurately calculating the capacity credit of a wind plant. An important question is raised concerning whether one year of wind data is representative of long-term patterns. This paper calculates the range of capacity credit measures based on 13 years of actual wind-speed data. The results are compared to those obtained with synthetic data sets that are based on one year of data. Although the use of synthetic data sets is a considerable improvement over single-estimate techniques, this paper finds that the actual inter-annual variation in capacity credit is still understated by the synthetic data technique.

  2. Establishment of a primary reference solar cell calibration technique in Korea: methods, results and comparison with WPVS qualified laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, SeungKyu; Ahn, SeJin; Yun, Jae Ho; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Winter, Stefan; Igari, Sanekazu; Yoon, KyungHoon

    2014-06-01

    A primary reference solar cell calibration technique recently established at the Korea Institute of Energy Research in Korea is introduced. This calibration technique is an indoor method that uses a highly collimated continuous-type solar simulator and absolute cavity radiometer traceable to the World Radiometric Reference. The results obtained using this calibration technique are shown with a precise uncertainty analysis, and the system configuration and calibration procedures are introduced. The calibration technique avoids overestimating the short-circuit current of a reference solar cell due to multiple reflections of incident simulator light using a novel method. In addition, the uncertainty analysis indicates that the calibration technique has an expanded uncertainty of approximately 0.7% with a coverage factor of k = 2 for a c-Si reference cell calibration. In addition, the developed primary reference solar cell calibration technique was compared with other techniques established in the World Photovoltaic Scale (WPVS) qualified calibration laboratories to verify its validity and reliability.

  3. A comparison of NASTRAN (Cosmic) and experimental results for the vibration of thick open cylindrical cantilevered shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindle, W. L.; Torvik, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    The natural frequencies and associated mode shapes for three thick open cantilevered cylindrical shells were determined both numerically and experimentally. The shells ranged in size from moderately to very thick with length to thickness ratios of 16, 8 and 5.6, the independent dimension being the shell thickness. The shell geometry is characterized by a circumferential angle of the 142 degrees and a ratio of length to inner radii arc length near 1.0. The finite element analysis was performed using NASTRAN's (COSMIC) triangular plate bending element CTRIA2, which includes membrane effects. The experimental results were obtained through holographic interferometry which enables one to determine the resonant frequencies as well as mode shapes from photographs of time-averaged holograms.

  4. OECD/NEA comparison calculations for an accelerator-driven minor actinide burner: analysis of preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee, an international benchmark exercise for an accelerator-driven system is being undertaken. A model of a lead-bismuth cooled subcritical system driven by a beam of 1 GeV protons was chosen for the exercise. Except for the subassembly geometry, the design of the subcritical core is based on the ALMR reference design of a sodium-cooled actinide burner. To reduce the high pumping power for the lead-bismuth coolant, the reference subassembly was replaced by a subassembly with a smaller number of pins, and the fission power of the system was proportionally reduced. Lead-bismuth was chosen as target material to reflect the generally increased interest in this material for high-power spallation target applications. An interesting role of accelerator-driven systems is to burn actinide waste from reactors with conventional fuel cycles. The benchmark reactor is assumed to operate as a minor actinide burner in a 'double strata' fuel cycle scheme, featuring a fully closed fuel cycle with a top-up of pure minor actinides. Two fuel compositions for a start-up and an equilibrium core are considered, both differing considerably from normal U-Pu mixed oxide fuel compositions. Six organisations (ANL, CIEMAT, JAERI, KAERI, PSI/CEA and RIT) have contributed preliminary results for inclusion in this paper. The results are based on deterministic transport as well as Monte Carlo calculations using data from ENDF/B-VI, JENDL3.2 and JEF2.2. Significant difference in important neutronic parameters are observed. (authors)

  5. Comparison of the results between polyethylene liners articulated with zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chrome femoral heads in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Liu; James P. Waddell

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aseptic loosening of the implants is the main contributor to the long-term failure of hip arthroplasty.One of the alternatives is to choose ceramic head instead of the traditional CoCr head. This study is conducted to determine the clinicalefficacy of a zirconia ceramic head. Methods: Twenty-six cementless total hip arthroplasties in 24 patients were performed using a zirconiahead coupled with polyethylene. All hips were followed for an average of 9 years (range, 6-13 years). A matched group of 26 hips in 26patients using cobalt-chrome heads coupled with polyethylene were also followed for average of 10 years (range, 5-14 years). The twogroups of patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically respectively. Results: The average scores of functional hip according toHarris standard improved from 46 (preoperatively) to 86 (at the final follow-up) in the Zirconia group, and from 50 to 88 in the CrCogroup. The mean liner wear rate of zirconia-polyethylene coupling was 0. 118 mm/year (range, 0. 064-0. 175 mm/year), and the linearwear rate of CrCo-polyethylene was 0.113 mm/year (range, 0.056-0.190 mm/year). There were 10 hips (27%) revised due to looseningor extensive osteolysis of the.cup in the Zirconia group, and only 4 hips (11.5%) in CrCo group. Conclusion: Results of the studysuggest that a zirconia ceramic femoral head has little advantage over a cobalt-chrome head in decreasing polyethylene wear in vivo. Ourstudy demonstrates that although changes in designs and materials may offer theoretical advantages over current components, their effectsremain questionable in vivo.

  6. Comparison of Two Dose-response Relationship of Noise Exposure Evaluation Results with High Frequency Hearing Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua Zhang; Nan Li; Qiu-Ling Yang; Wei Qiu; Liang-Liang Zhu; Li-Yuan Tao; Robert I Davis

    2015-01-01

    Background:Complex noise and its relation to hearing loss are difficult to measure and evaluate.In complex noise measurement,individual exposure results may not accurately represent lifetime noise exposure.Thus,the mean LAeq,8 h values of individuals in the same workgroup were also used to represent LAeq,8h in our study.Our study aimed to explore whether the mean exposure levels of workers in the same workgroup represented real noise exposure better than individual exposure levels did.Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted to establish a model for cumulative noise exposure (CNE) and hearing loss in 205 occupational noise-exposed workers who were recruited from two large automobile manufacturers in China.We used a personal noise dosimeter and a questionnaire to determine the workers' occupational noise exposure levels and exposure times,respectively.A qualified audiologist used standardized audiometric procedures to assess hearing acuity after at least 16 h of noise avoidance.Results:We observed that 88.3% of workers were exposed to more than 85 dB(A) of occupational noise (mean:89.3 ± 4.2 dB(A)).The personal CNE (CNEp) and workgroup CNE (CNEg) were 100.5 ± 4.7 dB(A) and 100.5 ± 2.9 dB(A),respectively.In the binary logistic regression analysis,we established a regression model with high-frequency hearing loss as the dependent variable and CNE as the independent variable.The Wald value was 5.014 with CNEp as the independent variable and 8.653 with CNEg as the independent variable.Furthermore,we found that the figure for CNEg was more similar to the stationary noise reference than CNEp was.The CNEg model was better than the CNEp model.In this circumstance,we can measure some subjects instead of the whole workgroup and save manpower.Conclusions:In a complex noise environment,the measurements of average noise exposure level of the workgroup can improve the accuracy and save manpower.

  7. Comparison of the Developmental Potential and Clinical Results of In Vivo Matured Oocytes Cryopreserved with Different Vitrification Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei Li; Miao-Miao Wang; Hui Liu; Ke-Liang Wu; Shui-Ying Ma; Cheng Li; Hai-Bin Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oocyte vitrification is widely used throughout the world, but its clinical efficacy is inconsistent and depends on the vitrification media.This study compared the developmental potential and clinical results of in vivo matured oocytes cryopreserved with different vitrification media.Methods: This retrospective study involved vitrified-warmed oocytes at one in vitro fertilization laboratory.Vitrification media kits comprised the MC kit (ethylene glycol [EG] plus 1,2-propanediol [PROH]), the KT kit (EG plus dimethyl sulphoxide [DMSO]), and the Modified kit (EG plus DMSO and PROH kit).Rates of oocyte survival and subsequent developmental potential were recorded and analyzed.The t-test and the Chi-square test were used to evaluate each method's efficacy.Results: Oocyte survival rate was significantly higher for the Modified kit (92.0%) than for the MC kit (88.2%) (P < 0.05) and the KT kit (77.3%) (P < 0.001).The rate of high-quality embryo development in the Modified kit group (35.8%) was significantly higher than in the MC kit group (29.0%) and the KT kit group (28.3%) (P < 0.001).No significant differences were observed in the clinical pregnancy and implantation rates among the MC, KT, and Modified kit groups (37.2% vs.30.2% vs.39.6%;21.9% vs.18.8% vs.27.4%,respectively) (P > 0.05).The high-quality embryo rate per warmed oocyte was significantly higher (23.4%) in the Modified kit group than in the other groups (P < 0.001).The embryo utilization and live birth rates per warmed oocyte were the highest in the Modified kit group, but not significantly (P > 0.05).Conclusions: Modified vitrification media are efficient for oocyte vitrification and, with further verification, may be able to replace commercially available media in future clinical applications.

  8. Comparison between LDG-network and GERESS-array with respect to regional detection and location results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schulte-Theis

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of a global seismic system to monitor compliance with a ban on underground nuclear testing considerably deviates from previous concepts of international seismic data exchange. The new concept relies on centralized processing of continuous data from a fixed station network (“alpha” stations which provides the primary detection and location capability. This alpha station network is augmented by additional stations (“beta” stations which send data on request to refine the hypocentres of events which were detected by the alpha network. To test this concept we have used the GERESS array in Germany as a prototype alpha station and investigated its regional detection and location capability for events in France and surrounding areas. For this region, data from the national French network operated by LDG provide an excellent reference data base. Within a 5 degree distance, GERESS showed an excellent performance in terms of detection and location down to magnitude M(LDG = 3. Between a 5 degree and 10 degree distance, the detection capability is still high but very often it is not sufficient to locate events below M(LDG = 4. Generalizing these results, we can conclude that either the maximum distance between alpha stations should be 10 degrees or the contribution of beta stations has to play a significant role in a future monitoring system.

  9. The single pile classification: a new tool for the classification of haemorrhoidal disease and the comparison of treatment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbetti, C; Giani, I; Novelli, E; Fucini, C; Martellucci, Jacopo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare Goligher Classification with the Single Pile Hemorrhoid Classification (SPHC) to show the possible bias and limits of Goligher's use and the possible advantage with the employment of the new classification. SPHC considers the number of pathological piles(N), the characteristics of each internal pile and the characteristics of each external pile, reporting the presence of a fibrous inelastic redundant pile(F), the presence of the subversion of dentate line or the congestion of the external pile(E) and the presence of not tolerated skin tags(S). From September 2010 to December 2012, 197 consecutive patients were analysed according to both classifications. Considering pathological piles, I and II Goligher patients showed a complete agreement between pathological pile and grade, III Goligher patients had 80.5 % of pathological piles of III grade while IV Goligher patients had only 44.3 % of IV grade pathological piles (p < 0.001). Regarding the distribution of the other anatomical variables: F, E, S described in SPHC, the results showed that F was present in 18.3 % while ES was present in 46.2 %. Goligher's Classification has showed to be an inadequate tool to overview surgical outcome or to compare surgical procedure, particularly for high grades, while SPHC showed to be a feasible instrument both to describe and to compare patients affected by hemorrhoid disease. PMID:26547759

  10. Ambient Vibration Tests of an Arch Dam with Different Reservoir Water Levels: Experimental Results and Comparison with Finite Element Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vincenzo Calcina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ambient vibration tests performed in an arch dam in two different working conditions in order to assess the effect produced by two different reservoir water levels on the structural vibration properties. The study consists of an experimental part and a numerical part. The experimental tests were carried out in two different periods of the year, at the beginning of autumn (October 2012 and at the end of winter (March 2013, respectively. The measurements were performed using a fast technique based on asynchronous records of microtremor time-series. In-contact single-station measurements were done by means of one single high resolution triaxial tromometer and two low-frequency seismometers, placed in different points of the structure. The Standard Spectral Ratio method has been used to evaluate the natural frequencies of vibration of the structure. A 3D finite element model of the arch dam-reservoir-foundation system has been developed to verify analytically determined vibration properties, such as natural frequencies and mode shapes, and their changes linked to water level with the experimental results.

  11. EUROASPIRE (European Action on Secondary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events) III--a comparison of Irish and European results.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, M T

    2009-04-01

    The EUROASPIRE III audit was a Europe-wide study which took place in 2006\\/2007. The objective was to examine the control of risk factors in subjects with established cardiovascular disease. Here, we compare the Irish results to those of the other 21 European countries which participated. Control of blood cholesterol was significantly better in Irish participants, with 73% below the target of 4.5 mmol\\/l. Blood pressure control was less satisfactory in both Irish and European individuals, with an average of 52% of Irish participants not achieving blood pressure targets. Medication usage was high throughout, particularly anti-platelet agents, beta-blockers and, especially in Ireland, statins. Obesity figures were particularly high in Ireland and throughout Europe, with 82% Irish men and women either overweight or obese. Smoking figures in Irish women were also of concern, with 24% continuing to smoke. Cardiac rehabilitation attendance was particularly high in Ireland, with 68% attending; substantially higher than the European figure of 34%. In common with the rest of Europe, current control of body weight and blood pressure in Ireland is unsatisfactory and in need of increased consideration on the part of both patients and healthcare professionals.

  12. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  13. Offsite radiation doses from Hanford Operations for the years 1983 through 1987: A comparison of results calculated by two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report compares the results of the calculation of potential radiation doses to the public by two different environmental dosimetric systems for the years 1983 through 1987. Both systems project the environmental movement of radionuclides released with effluents from Hanford operations; their concentrations in air, water, and foods; the intake of radionuclides by ingestion and inhalation; and, finally, the potential radiation doses from radionuclides deposited in the body and from external sources. The first system, in use for the past decade at Hanford, calculates radiation doses in terms of 50-year cumulative dose equivalents to body organs and to the whole body, based on the methodology defined in ICRP Publication 2. This system uses a suite of three computer codes: PABLM, DACRIN, and KRONIC. In the new system, 50-year committed doses are calculated in accordance with the recommendations of the ICRP Publications 26 and 30, which were adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in 1985. This new system calculates dose equivalent (DE) to individual organs and effective dose equivalent (EDE). The EDE is a risk-weighted DE that is designed to be an indicator of the potential health effects arising from the radiation dose. 16 refs., 1 fig., 38 tabs

  14. High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function at visible and NIR wavelengths – comparison with modelling results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumont

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available High-accuracy measurements of snow Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF were performed for four natural snow samples with a spectrogonio-radiometer in the 500–2600 nm wavelength range. These measurements are one of the first sets of direct snow BRDF values over a wide range of lighting and viewing geometry. They were compared to BRDF calculated with two optical models. Variations of the snow anisotropy factor with lighting geometry, wavelength and snow physical properties were investigated. Results show that at wavelengths with small penetration depth, scattering mainly occurs in the very top layers and the anisotropy factor is controlled by the phase function. In this condition, forward scattering peak or double scattering peak is observed. In contrast at shorter wavelengths, the penetration of the radiation is much deeper and the number of scattering events increases. The anisotropy factor is thus nearly constant and decreases at grazing observation angles. The whole dataset is available on demand from the corresponding author.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary sinus and the oral part of the upper jaw. Comparison of treatment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment results were compared in 77 patients with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MC) and 53 patients with squamous cell carcinoma arising from the oral part of the upper law (OC). Both sets of patients received radiotherapy alone, or radiotherapy combined with surgery and/or chemotherapy. Computerized tomography was useful for the definition of the treatment volume. Intraarterial chemotherapy was given in 89 of 130 patients and in these patients the total radiation dose was reduced by about 10 Gy. No difference was found in the 5-year survival rate between the MC (65%) and the OC (66%) groups. The cumulative incidence of local failure was higher in MC (36%) than in OC (26%), whereas the ultimate incidence of neck node metastasis was higher in OC (43%) than in MC patients (18%). Half of the inoperable patients (9/18) were older than 80 years and had contraindications to anaesthesia and major surgery. The local recurrence rate was high in the inoperable MC patients (6/8). Contralateral simus cancers occurred in 4 patients in the MC group. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of modelling and experimental results of anode surface melting by femtosecond laser-stimulated electrical discharges in small gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments and particle-in-cell simulations of femtosecond laser-stimulated electrical discharges in submicrometre gaps between scanning tunnelling microscope tip cathodes and gold film anodes are described. In experiments at applied potentials of 35 V and less, discharges were detected either as self-terminating low-current pulses with durations less than 10 ns and magnitudes less than 200 mA or as higher-current, longer-duration current waveforms. The probability of occurrence of low-current pulses increased as applied potential was decreased, being certain at low potentials of 20-25 V. Low-current pulse waveforms and surface melting of gold anodes predicted by the simulations were compared with experiments. Laser stimulation was modelled by introducing partially ionized electrode materials into the simulation domain at a controlled rate. Simulation results showed that the duration of low-current pulses was influenced by the time over which material was added to the gap region, establishing the importance of electrode vaporization on discharge duration. Subsequently, partially ionized electrode materials were preloaded into the gap in controlled amounts in subsequent simulations. Peak currents predicted by these simulations were nearly equal to the low-current pulse measurements but simulated pulse durations were shorter than experiments. Thus, the time axis of simulation current profiles was normalized for equality of charge transfer with experiments. Anode temperatures and melt diameters calculated from normalized simulated heat input profiles were well matched to experimental measurements.

  17. Preparation of a multi-isotope plutonium AMS standard and preliminary results of a first inter-lab comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, B.-A.; Dunai, T. J.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.; Feuerstein, C.; Strub, E.; Fifield, L. K.; Froehlich, M. B.; Tims, S. G.; Wallner, A.; Christl, M.

    2015-10-01

    The motivation of this work is to establish a new multi-isotope plutonium standard for isotopic ratio measurements with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), since stocks of existing solutions are declining. To this end, certified reference materials (CRMs) of each of the individual isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 242Pu and 244Pu were obtained from JRC IRMM (Joint Research Center Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements). These certified reference materials (IRMM-081a, IRMM-083, IRMM-043 and IRMM-042a) were diluted with nitric acid and mixed to obtain a stock standard solution with an isotopic ratio of approximately 1.0:1.0:1.0:0.1 (239Pu:240Pu:242Pu:244Pu). From this stock solution, samples were prepared for measurement of the plutonium isotopic composition by AMS. These samples have been measured in a round-robin exercise between the AMS facilities at CologneAMS, at the ANU Canberra and ETH Zurich to verify the isotopic ratio and to demonstrate the reproducibility of the measurements. The results show good agreement both between the different AMS measurements and with the gravimetrically determined nominal ratios.

  18. ASTRID: A 3D Eulerian software for subcooled boiling modelling - comparison with experimental results in tubes and annuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briere, E.; Larrauri, D.; Olive, J. [Electricite de France, Chatou (France)

    1995-09-01

    For about four years, Electricite de France has been developing a 3-D computer code for the Eulerian simulation of two-phase flows. This code, named ASTRID, is based on the six-equation two-fluid model. Boiling water flows, such as those encountered in nuclear reactors, are among the main applications of ASTRID. In order to provide ASTRID with closure laws and boundary conditions suitable for boiling flows, a boiling model has been developed by EDF and the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse. In the fluid, the heat and mass transfer between a bubble and the liquid is being modelled. At the heating wall, the incipient boiling point is determined according to Hsu`s criterion and the boiling heat flux is split into three additive terms: a convective term, a quenching term and a vaporisation term. This model uses several correlations. EDF`s program in boiling two-phase flows also includes experimental studies, some of which are performed in collaboration with other laboratories. Refrigerant subcooled boiling both in tubular (DEBORA experiment, CEN Grenoble) and in annular geometry (Arizona State University Experiment) have been computed with ASTRID. The simulations show the satisfactory results already obtained on void fraction and liquid temperature. Ways of improvement of the model are drawn especially on the dynamical part.

  19. Comparison of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin for lipid lowering in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: results from the URANUS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berne Christian

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The Use of Rosuvastatin versus Atorvastatin iN type 2 diabetes mellitUS (URANUS study compared rosuvastatin with atorvastatin for the reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods After a 6-week dietary run-in, patients aged ≥ 18 years with type 2 diabetes and LDL-C ≥ 3.3 mmol/L were randomised to double-blind treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg (n = 232 or atorvastatin 10 mg (n = 233 for 4 weeks. Doses were then titrated up to a maximum of rosuvastatin 40 mg or atorvastatin 80 mg over 12 weeks to achieve the 1998 European LDL-C goal ( Results Rosuvastatin reduced LDL-C levels significantly more than atorvastatin during the fixed-dose and titration periods (p Conclusion At the start dose and following dose titration, rosuvastatin was significantly more effective than atorvastatin at reducing LDL-C and achieving European LDL-C goals in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  20. Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate at finite temperature: Exact results and comparison to proximity force approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the finite temperature Casimir interaction between a cylinder and a plate using the exact formula derived from the Matsubara representation and the functional determinant representation. We consider the scalar field with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The asymptotic expansions of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force when the separation a between the cylinder and the plate is small are derived. As in the zero temperature case, it is found that the leading terms of the Casimir free energy and the Casimir force agree with those derived from the proximity force approximation when rT>>1, where r is the radius of the cylinder. Specifically, when aT5/2 whereas, for the Casimir force, it is of order T7/2. In this case, the leading terms are independent of the separation a. When 13/2, whereas, for the force, it is inversely proportional to a5/2. The first order corrections to the proximity force approximations in different temperature regions are computed using the perturbation approach. In the zero temperature case, the results agree with those derived in [M. Bordag, Phys. Rev. D 73, 125018 (2006)].

  1. Characteristics of Atmospheric Heat Sources over Asia in Summer:Comparison of Results Calculated Using Multiple Reanalysis Datasets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; CHEN Longxun; HE Jinhai; ZHU Congwen; LI Wei

    2009-01-01

    Using 1979-2000 daily NCEP/NCAR (National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research) reanalysis data (version 1, hereafter referred to as NCEP1; version 2, hereafter referred to as NCEP2), ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasts) reanalysis data (ERA), and the Global Asian Monsoon Experiment (GAME) reanalysis data in summer 1998, the vertically integrated heat source (Q1) in summer is calculated, and results obtained using different datasets are com-pared. The distributions of (Q1) calculated by using NCEP1 are in good agreement with rainfall observations over the Arabian Sea/Indian Peninsula, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and East China. The distributions of (Q1)revealed by using NCEP2 are unrealistic in the southern Indian Peninsula, the BOB, and the South China Sea. Using ERA, the heat sources over the tropical Asia are in accordance with the summer precipitation,however, the distributions of (Q1) in East China are unreasonable. In the tropical region, the distributions of the summer heat source given by NCEP1 and ERA seem to be more accurate than those revealed by NCEP2. The NCEP1 and NCEP2 data are better for calculating heat sources over the subtropical and eastern regions of mainland China.

  2. Dosimetry Optimization System and Integrated Software (DOSIS): a comparison against Fluke code results over a standard phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dual-imaging facilities (PET-CT, SPECT-CT) allow obtainance of both mass and activity patient-speci c distributions perfectly correlated, which may improve dose distributions estimations and radioimmunotherapy treatment plani cations accuracy [1]. Calculation methods at voxel level require both quantitative and qualitative validation to obtain improvements in patient-speci c dosimetry [2]. This work presents advances of a novel computational tool dedicated to 3D patient-speci c dosimetry at voxel level. Focusing on providing a dosimetric tool at voxel level, as well as the development of a platform based on full-stochastic methods for alpha-, beta- and gamma-emitters used in radiopharmaceutical applications. DOSIS is based on the Boltzmann radiation transport equation to realize energy delivering calculations. Procedures have been designed tacking into account MIRD formalism and standards [3]. Anatomic and metabolic images, and dose maps resulting of this calculations are analysed and procesed by a special developed and designed software [4]. Finally, a dose calculation over a standard phantom is performed using DOSIS calculation code and FLUKA, validating the radiation transport code of DOSIS

  3. The self-preserving size distribution theory. II. Comparison with experimental results for Si and Si3N4 aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Petrus J; Tuinman, Ilse L; Marijnissen, Jan C M; Friedlander, Sheldon K; Scarlett, B

    2002-04-15

    The gas to particle synthesis route is a relatively clean and efficient manner for the production of high-quality ceramic powders. These powders can be subsequently sintered in any wanted shape. The modeling of these production systems is difficult because several mechanisms occur in parallel. From theoretical considerations it can be determined, however, that coagulation and sintering are dominant mechanisms as far as shape and size of the particles are considered. In part I of this article an extensive theoretical analysis was given on the self-preserving size distribution theory for power law particles. In this second part, cumulative particle size distributions of silicon and silicon nitride agglomerates, produced in a laser reactor, were determined from TEM pictures and compared to the distributions calculated from this self-preserving theory for power law particles. The calculated distributions were in fair agreement with the measured results, especially at the high end of the distributions. Calculated and measured particle growth rates were also in fair agreement. Using the self-preserving theory an analysis was made on the distribution of annealed silicon agglomerates, of interest in applications to nanoparticle technology. PMID:16290535

  4. Electron impact excitation of N IV: calculations with the DARC code and a comparison with ICFT results

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, K M; Lawson, K D

    2016-01-01

    There have been discussions in the recent literature regarding the accuracy of the available electron impact excitation rates (equivalently effective collision strengths $\\Upsilon$) for transitions in Be-like ions. In the present paper we demonstrate, once again, that earlier results for $\\Upsilon$ are indeed overestimated (by up to four orders of magnitude), for over 40\\% of transitions and over a wide range of temperatures. To do this we have performed two sets of calculations for N~IV, with two different model sizes consisting of 166 and 238 fine-structure energy levels. As in our previous work, for the determination of atomic structure the GRASP (General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package) is adopted and for the scattering calculations (the standard and parallelised versions of) the Dirac Atomic R-matrix Code ({\\sc darc}) are employed. Calculations for collision strengths and effective collision strengths have been performed over a wide range of energy (up to 45~Ryd) and temperature (up to 2.0$...

  5. Postoperative comparison of result of renal transplantation between ethnic minorities and Han recipients after receiving kidneys from Han donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-wen CUI

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the outcomes and postoperative complications of renal transplant recipients of ethnic minorities and Han population in China, and investigate the differences between them. Methods  Clinical data from 89 minorit y patients and 100 Han patients who had received renal transplant of Hans' donators in Organ Transplantation Center of PLA from 1990 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The general data before transplantation, and rate of short-term survival of the graft, incidence of delayed graft function (DGF, acute rejection, and pulmonary infection after transplantation were analyzed and compared. Results  No statistical difference was found in the preoperative personal profile between the recipients of minorities and Han nationality. In the recipients of minorities and Han nationality, the 1-year graft survival rate was 89.9% and 92%, the respective incidence of DGF was 28.1% and 27.0%, and the respective incidence of acute rejection was 22.5% and 19.0%, and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05. The incidence of pulmonary infection was higher in minority recipients (30.3% than in Han recipients (10.0%, P0.05. Conclusion  The short-term clinical outcome of renal transplant recipients seems to be similar in different Chinese ethnic groups, but the incidence of pulmonary infection is higher in minority recipients, so it is important to strengthen monitoring in early postoperative period.

  6. Pellet penetration in ASDEX: a comparison of results computed by means of the ORNL ablation model with measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral gas plasma shielding (NGPS) ablation model recently proposed by Houlberg et al. has been extensively tested on pellet penetration depths measured in JET. The best fit among calculated and measured penetration depths was obtained by assuming a shielding cloud radius 1 mm larger than the local pellet radius: Rcl = rp + 1 mm, yielding maximum shielding at the end of the pellet liftime (rp = 0). Recently, a model was developed that describes the time evolution of particle clouds in plasmas. With the help of this model, the ionization radius, i.e. the radius of the shielding cloud, can be calculated as a function of the local ablation rate. The results of these calculations show that the shielding cloud radius is proportional to the number of particles locally deposited. The cloud expansion code can be combined with the ORNL ablation model with an Rcl feedback option between the two models. Calculations are performed here for a number of randomly selected pellet-fuelled ASDEX shots. The pellet penetration is calculated for the measured Te(r) and ne(r) profiles by means of the ORNL ablation code with and without Rcl feedback active. (author) 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Dominant rock properties affecting the performance of conical picks and the comparison of some experimental and theoretical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Bilgin; M.A. Demircin; H. Copur; C. Balci; H. Tuncdemir; N. Akcin [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2006-01-15

    Conical picks are the essential cutting tools used especially on roadheaders, continuous miners and shearers and their cutting performance affects directly the efficiency and the cost of rock/mineral excavation. In this study, in order to better understand the effects of dominant rock properties on cutter performance, 22 different rock specimens having compressive strength values varying from 10 to 170 MPa are first subjected to a wide range of mechanical tests. Then, laboratory full-scale linear cutting tests with different depth of cut and cutter spacing values are realized on large blocks of rock specimens using one type of conical pick. Specific energy, cutting and normal force values for relieved and unrelieved cutting modes are recorded using a triaxial force dynamometer with capacity of 50 tonnes and a data acquisition system. Cutter force and specific energy values are correlated with rock properties and theoretical force and specific energy values obtained from widely used theoretical approaches. The results indicate that uniaxial compressive strength among the rock properties investigated is best correlated with the measured cutter performance values, which is in good agreement with previous studies. However, it is also emphasized in this study that Brazilian tensile strength, Schmidt hammer rebound values, static and dynamic elasticity modulus are also dominant rock properties affecting cutter performance.

  8. Effective-Lagrangian approach to gamma gamma --> WW; II: Results and comparison with e+e- --> WW

    CERN Document Server

    Nachtmann, O; Pospischil, M; Utermann, A

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of anomalous electroweak gauge-boson couplings which can be measured in e+e- and gamma gamma collisions at a future linear collider like ILC. We consider the gauge-boson sector of a locally SU(2) x U(1) invariant effective Lagrangian with ten dimension-six operators added to the Lagrangian of the Standard Model. These operators induce anomalous three- and four-gauge-boson couplings and an anomalous gamma gamma H coupling. We calculate the reachable sensitivity for the measurement of the anomalous couplings in gamma gamma --> WW. We compare these results with the reachable precision in the reaction e+e- --> WW on the one hand and with the bounds that one can get from high-precision observables in Z decays on the other hand. We show that one needs both the e+e- and the gamma gamma modes at an ILC to constrain the largest possible number of anomalous couplings and that the Giga-Z mode offers the best sensitivity for certain anomalous couplings.

  9. Two-year Results From a Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-eluting and Sirolimus-eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SORT OUT IV Trial). Featured clinical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Christiansen, E H; Maeng, M; Hansen, Hans-Henrik Tilsted; Junker, Anders; Ravkilde, Jan; Kaltoft, A; Madsen, M; Sørensen, H T; Thuesen, L; Lassen, J F

    Two-year Results From a Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-eluting and Sirolimus-eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SORT OUT IV Trial). Featured clinical study.......Two-year Results From a Randomized Comparison of Everolimus-eluting and Sirolimus-eluting Stents in Patients Treated with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SORT OUT IV Trial). Featured clinical study....

  10. Comparison of remote results of conventional fractionation radiotherapy and late course accelerated hyperfractionation radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the long-term effects of conventional fractionation (CF) radio-therapy and late course accelerated hyperfractionation (LCAHF) radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and to arrive at a appropriate NPC radiotherapy protocol. Methods: According to the criteria, 496 patients with NPC were allotted to our retrospective analysis, including 269 in the CF group and 227 in the LCAHF group. Two large lateral opposing fields were first used to treat the nasopharynx and the upper neck at a fraction of 2 Gy daily, 5 days per week. After 36-40 Gy, two small lateral opposing fields were used to boost the primary tumor while the spinal cord shielded. In the CF group, the accumulated total dose of naso-pharynx was 68-76 Gy at 2 Gy daily. In the LCAHF group, the radiation fraction of primary tumor was 1.5 Gy twice daily, with a minimum of six-hour interval in the late course. The accumulated total dose was 69-72 Gy. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method and Logrank analysis. Results: The 5-year primary site control, tumor-free survival and overall survival rates was 65.4% ,61.5% and 68.1% in the LCAHF group and 52.8%, 49.4% and 57.5% in the CF group. The difference between the two groups were significant (P=0.006, 0.006 and 0.031). Further analysis showed that LCAHF improved the primary site control, tumor-free survival and overall survival rates of T2-T3 NPC (P0.05). Conclusions: When compared with conventional fractionation radiotherapy, late course accelerated hyperfractionation radiotherapy, being tolerable, definitely can improve the local control, tumor-free survival and overall survival in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. But the recurrence rates of cervical lymph nodes and distant metastasis were similar in between these two groups. (authors)

  11. Expansion of discharge planning system in Japan: Comparison of results of a nationwide survey between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagata Satoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the rapid aging of the population in Japan, many care systems have been created in quick succession. Establishment of discharge planning departments (DPDs in hospitals is one of them. In this study, we compared the distribution and characteristics of DPDs and the characteristics of the hospitals that have DPDs between 2001 and 2010 in Japan. Methods We mailed a questionnaire about the characteristics of hospitals and existence and situation of DPDs to all general hospitals with 100 or more general beds in 2001 and in 2010. Results In 2001, of the 3,268 hospitals queried, 1,568 (48.0% responded and 1,357 (41.5% were selected for data analysis. In 2010, among 2,600 hospitals, 940 hospitals (36.1% responded and 913 (35.1% met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of hospitals with DPDs increased from 30% to more than 70% between the two surveys. More departments were under the direct control of the hospital director and more physicians participated in discharge planning activities in 2010 than in 2001. In 2001, private hospitals and hospitals with an affiliated institution or agency tended to have a DPD; however, the relationship between these factors and the presence of a DPD had disappeared in 2010. Larger hospitals and hospitals with more nurses per patient tended to have a DPD both in 2001 and 2010. Conclusions Since 2008, the establishment of a DPD has been directly connected to medical fees so hospital administrators might have recognized the DPD as a “necessary and paid for” department. Having a DPD was the majority’s policy in Japan, and we must recognize the importance of quality assurance through DPDs from now on, especially in small hospitals.

  12. SPINNING DUST EMISSION: EFFECTS OF IRREGULAR GRAIN SHAPE, TRANSIENT HEATING, AND COMPARISON WITH WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planck is expected to answer crucial questions on the early universe, but it also provides further understanding on anomalous microwave emission. Electric dipole emission from spinning dust grains continues to be the favored interpretation of anomalous microwave emission. In this paper, we present a method to calculate the rotational emission from small grains of irregular shape with moments of inertia I1 ≥ I2 ≥ I3. We show that a torque-free rotating irregular grain with a given angular momentum radiates at multiple frequency modes. The resulting spinning dust spectrum has peak frequency and emissivity increasing with the degree of grain shape irregularity, which is defined by I1:I2:I3. We discuss how the orientation of the dipole moment μ in body coordinates affects the spinning dust spectrum for different regimes of internal thermal fluctuations. We show that the spinning dust emissivity for the case of strong thermal fluctuations is less sensitive to the orientation of μ than in the case of weak thermal fluctuations. We calculate spinning dust spectra for a range of gas density and dipole moment. The effect of compressible turbulence on spinning dust emission is investigated. We show that the emission in a turbulent medium increases by a factor from 1.2 to 1.4 relative to that in a uniform medium, as the sonic Mach number Ms increases from 2 to 7. Finally, spinning dust parameters are constrained by fitting our improved model to five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe cross-correlation foreground spectra, for both the Hα-correlated and 100-μm-correlated emission spectra.

  13. Comparison beetwen open and laparoscopic radical cistectomy in a latin american reference center: perioperative and oncological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectives:To evaluate the differences of peri-operatory and oncological outcomes between Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy and Open Radical Cystectomy in our center.Materials and Methods:Overall, 50 patients were included in this non randomized match-pair analysis: 25 patients who had undergone Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer (Group-1 and 25 patients with similar characteristics who had undergone Open Radical Cystectomy (Group-2. The patients were operated from January 2005 to December 2012 in a single Institution.Results:Mean operative time for groups 1 and 2 were 350 and 280 minutes (p=0.03 respectively. Mean blood loss was 330 mL for group 1 and 580 mL for group 2 (p=0.04. Intraoperative transfusion rate was 0% and 36% for groups 1 and 2 respectively (p=0.005. Perioperative complication rate was similar between groups. Mean time to oral intake was 2 days for group 1 and 3 days for group 2 (p=0.08. Median hospital stay was 7 days for group 1 and 13 for group 2 (p=0.04. There were no differences in positive surgical margins and overall survival, between groups.Conclusions:In a reference center with pelvic laparoscopic expertise, Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy may be considered a safe procedure with similar complication rate of Open Radical Cystectomy. Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy is more time consuming, with reduced bleeding and transfusion rate. Hospital stay seems to be shorter. Oncologically no difference was observed in our mid-term follow-up.

  14. Measuring Patient Adherence to Malaria Treatment: A Comparison of Results from Self-Report and a Customised Electronic Monitoring Device.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Bruxvoort

    Full Text Available Self-report is the most common and feasible method for assessing patient adherence to medication, but can be prone to recall bias and social desirability bias. Most studies assessing adherence to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs have relied on self-report. In this study, we use a novel customised electronic monitoring device--termed smart blister packs--to examine the validity of self-reported adherence to artemether-lumefantrine (AL in southern Tanzania.Smart blister packs were designed to look identical to locally available AL blister packs and to record the date and time each tablet was removed from packaging. Patients obtaining AL at randomly selected health facilities and drug stores were followed up at home three days later and interviewed about each dose of AL taken. Blister packs were requested for pill count and extraction of smart blister pack data.Data on adherence from both self-report verified by pill count and smart blister packs were available for 696 of 1,204 patients. There was no difference between methods in the proportion of patients assessed to have completed treatment (64% and 67%, respectively. However, the percentage taking the correct number of pills for each dose at the correct times (timely completion was higher by self-report than smart blister packs (37% vs. 24%; p<0.0001. By smart blister packs, 64% of patients completing treatment did not take the correct number of pills per dose or did not take each dose at the correct time interval.Smart blister packs resulted in lower estimates of timely completion of AL and may be less prone to recall and social desirability bias. They may be useful when data on patterns of adherence are desirable to evaluate treatment outcomes. Improved methods of collecting self-reported data are needed to minimise bias and maximise comparability between studies.

  15. Results of total lung irradiation and chemotherapy in comparison with partial lung irradiation in metastatic undifferentiated soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, N.; Fuerst, G.; Pape, H.; Bannach, B.; Schmitt, G.; Molls, M.

    1988-07-01

    The poor prognosis of patients with unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcoma is well known. In order to evaluate the beneficial effect of radiotherapy, we have treated 44 patients with pulmonary metastases of grade 3 soft tissue sarcoma from 1980 to 1986. In 36 patients the treatment volume was restricted to the single metastases up to a dose of 50 to 60 (9 to 10 Gy/week). The survival rate at one year was 18% and at two years 6%. Eight patients were treated with a combined regimen, consisting of cisplatin and ifosfamide with simultaneous whole lung irradiation. Irradiation was performed with 8 or 16 MV photons at a hyperfractionation of 2x0,8 Gy/day (8 Gy/week). After a dose of 12 Gy, the single metastases were boosted up to 50 to 60 Gy, with a second course of chemotherapy. In six of eight patients complete remissions were achieved, one patient showed a partial remission. The survival rate at 27 months was 50%. The patients with partial remission died from pulmonary progression at 23 months. One patient died after twelve months from a loco-regional recurrence in the tonsillar fossa without evidence of pulmonary disease. Side effects included alopecia and moderate bone marrow suppression approximately twelve days after each chemotherapy cycle. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed only at the high dose volume without impairment of respiratory function. From these observations the conclusion is drawn that whole lung irradiation simultaneously with cisplatin and ifosfamide chemotherapy provides good palliative results without relevant morbidity in patients with high grade unresectable pulmonary metastases of soft tissue sarcomas.

  16. Paraxial light distribution in the focal region of a lens: a comparison of several analytical solutions and a numerical result

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Kelly, Damien P.

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of the complex field in the focal region of a lens is a classical optical diffraction problem. Today, it remains of significant theoretical importance for understanding the properties of imaging systems. In the paraxial regime, it is possible to find analytical solutions in the neighborhood of the focus, when a plane wave is incident on a focusing lens whose finite extent is limited by a circular aperture. For example, in Born and Wolf’s treatment of this problem, two different, but mathematically equivalent analytical solutions, are presented that describe the 3D field distribution using infinite sums of Un and Vn type Lommel functions. An alternative solution expresses the distribution in terms of Zernike polynomials, and was presented by Nijboer in 1947. More recently, Cao derived an alternative analytical solution by expanding the Fresnel kernel using a Taylor series expansion. In practical calculations, however, only a finite number of terms from these infinite series expansions is actually used to calculate the distribution in the focal region. In this manuscript, we compare and contrast each of these different solutions to a numerically calculated result, paying particular attention to how quickly each solution converges for a range of different spatial locations behind the focusing lens. We also examine the time taken to calculate each of the analytical solutions. The numerical solution is calculated in a polar coordinate system and is semi-analytic. The integration over the angle is solved analytically, while the radial coordinate is sampled with a sampling interval of Δρ and then numerically integrated. This produces an infinite set of replicas in the diffraction plane, that are located in circular rings centered at the optical axis and each with radii given by 2πm/Δρ, where m is the replica order. These circular replicas are shown to be fundamentally different from the replicas that arise in a Cartesian coordinate system. PMID

  17. Pericenter precession induced by a circumstellar disk on the orbit of massive bodies: comparison between analytical predictions and numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A.; Marzari, F.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Planetesimals and planets embedded in a circumstellar disk are dynamically perturbed by the disk gravity. It causes an apsidal line precession at a rate that depends on the disk density profile and on the distance of the massive body from the star. Aims: Different analytical models are exploited to compute the precession rate of the perihelion ϖ˙. We compare them to verify their equivalence, in particular after analytical manipulations performed to derive handy formulas, and test their predictions against numerical models in some selected cases. Methods: The theoretical precession rates were computed with analytical algorithms found in the literature using the Mathematica symbolic code, while the numerical simulations were performed with the hydrodynamical code FARGO. Results: For low-mass bodies (planetesimals) the analytical approaches described in Binney & Tremaine (2008, Galactic Dynamics, p. 96), Ward (1981, Icarus, 47, 234), and Silsbee & Rafikov (2015a, ApJ, 798, 71) are equivalent under the same initial conditions for the disk in terms of mass, density profile, and inner and outer borders. They also match the numerical values computed with FARGO away from the outer border of the disk reasonably well. On the other hand, the predictions of the classical Mestel disk (Mestel 1963, MNRAS, 126, 553) for disks with p = 1 significantly depart from the numerical solution for radial distances beyond one-third of the disk extension because of the underlying assumption of the Mestel disk is that the outer disk border is equal to infinity. For massive bodies such as terrestrial and giant planets, the agreement of the analytical approaches is progressively poorer because of the changes in the disk structure that are induced by the planet gravity. For giant planets the precession rate changes sign and is higher than the modulus of the theoretical value by a factor ranging from 1.5 to 1.8. In this case, the correction of the formula proposed by Ward (1981) to

  18. Adverse drug reactions in hospitalised children in Germany are decreasing: results of a nine year cohort-based comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Oehme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years, efforts have been made to improve paediatric drug therapy. The aim of this research was to investigate any changes regarding the frequency and nature of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in hospitalized children in one paediatric general medical ward over a 9-year period. METHODOLOGY: Two prospective observational cohort studies were conducted at a large University hospital in Germany in 1999 and 2008, respectively. Children aged 0-18 years admitted to the study ward during the study periods were included. ADRs were identified using intensive chart review. Uni- and multivariable regression has been used for data analysis. RESULTS: A total of 520 patients (574 admissions were included [1999: n = 144 (167; 2008: n = 376 (407]. Patients received a total of 2053 drugs [median 3, interquartile range (IQR 2-5]. 19% of patients did not receive any medication. Median length of stay was 4 days (IQR 3-7; range 1-190 days with a significantly longer length of stay in 1999. The overall ADR incidence was 13.1% (95% CI, 9.8-16.3 varying significantly between the two study cohorts [1999: 21.9%, 95% CI, 14.7-29.0; 2008: 9.2%, 95% CI, 5.9-12.5 (p<0.001]. Antibacterials and corticosteroids for systemic use caused most of the ADRs in both cohorts (1999; 2008. Exposure to systemic antibacterials decreased from 62.9% to 43.5% whereas exposure to analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs increased from 17.4% to 45.2%, respectively. The use of high risk drugs decreased from 75% to 62.2%. In 1999, 45.7% and in 2008 96.2% of ADRs were identified by treating clinicians (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1999 and 2008, the incidence of ADRs decreased significantly. Improved treatment strategies and an increased awareness of ADRs by physicians are most likely to be the cause for this positive development. Nevertheless further research on ADRs particularly in primary care and the establishment of prospective pharmacovigilance systems are still

  19. Experimental determination of short- and long-wave dust radiative effects in the Central Mediterranean and comparison with model results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S.; Burlizzi, P.; Perrone, M. R.

    2016-05-01

    Downward and upward irradiance measurements, in the short-wave (SW) and long-wave (LW) spectral range, have been used in combination with simultaneous aerosol optical depths (AODs) to experimentally determine the instantaneous and clear-sky aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing (DRF) at the surface, during a desert dust outbreak which affected the Central Mediterranean from 9 to 13 July 2012. AODs were retrieved from AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun/sky photometer measurements collocated in space and time. The importance of downward and upward radiative flux measurements to properly account for both the surface albedo dependence on the solar zenith angle, and the land surface temperature (TLS) has been highlighted. Measured radiative fluxes were in reasonable agreement with the CERES (Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System) and AERONET corresponding ones collocated in space and time. SW and LW downward fluxes at the surface decreased up to 9% and increased up to 13%, respectively, as a consequence of a factor 5 increase of the AOD at 675 nm (AOD675). This is due to the cooling and warming effect of desert dust in the SW and LW spectral range, respectively. In fact, we have also found that the TLS increased at a rate of about 250 K per unit increase of the AOD675. The aerosol DRF at the surface varied from - 8 to - 74 W m- 2 and from + 1.2 to + 9.6 W m- 2 in the SW and LW spectral domains, respectively. In particular, we have found that the LW-DRF on average offsets 14% of the related SW component. It is shown that a two-stream radiative transfer model can reproduce the experimental findings at the surface by replacing the refractive indices typical of dust particles with the ones obtained for a mixture made of dust and soot particles. The dust contamination by anthropogenic particles during its transport to the monitoring site located several hundred kilometers away from the source region was responsible for this last result. We have also found by model

  20. Deterministic and stochastic approach for safety and reliability optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using GA/SA-based hybrid techniques: A comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a comparison of results for optimization of captive power plant maintenance scheduling using genetic algorithm (GA) as well as hybrid GA/simulated annealing (SA) techniques. As utilities catered by captive power plants are very sensitive to power failure, therefore both deterministic and stochastic reliability objective functions have been considered to incorporate statutory safety regulations for maintenance of boilers, turbines and generators. The significant contribution of this paper is to incorporate stochastic feature of generating units and that of load using levelized risk method. Another significant contribution of this paper is to evaluate confidence interval for loss of load probability (LOLP) because some variations from optimum schedule are anticipated while executing maintenance schedules due to different real-life unforeseen exigencies. Such exigencies are incorporated in terms of near-optimum schedules obtained from hybrid GA/SA technique during the final stages of convergence. Case studies corroborate that same optimum schedules are obtained using GA and hybrid GA/SA for respective deterministic and stochastic formulations. The comparison of results in terms of interval of confidence for LOLP indicates that levelized risk method adequately incorporates the stochastic nature of power system as compared with levelized reserve method. Also the interval of confidence for LOLP denotes the possible risk in a quantified manner and it is of immense use from perspective of captive power plants intended for quality power

  1. Validation of Refractivity Profiles Retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Radio Occultation Soundings: Preliminary Results of Statistical Comparisons Utilizing Balloon-Borne Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Hayashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The GPS radio occultation (RO soundings by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC _ Formosa Satellite Misssion #3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate satellites launched in mid-April 2006 are compared with high-resolution balloon-borne (radiosonde and ozonesonde observations. This paper presents preliminary results of validation of the COSMIC RO measurements in terms of refractivity through the troposphere and lower stratosphere. With the use of COSMIC RO soundings within 2 hours and 300 km of sonde profiles, statistical comparisons between the collocated refractivity profiles are erformed for some tropical regions (Malaysia and Western Pacific islands where moisture-rich air is expected in the lower troposphere and for both northern and southern polar areas with a very dry troposphere. The results of the comparisons show good agreement between COSMIC RO and sonde refractivity rofiles throughout the troposphere (1 - 1.5% difference at most with a positive bias generally becoming larger at progressively higher altitudes in the lower stratosphere (1 - 2% difference around 25 km, and a very small standard deviation (about 0.5% or less for a few kilometers below the tropopause level. A large standard deviation of fractional differences in the lowermost troposphere, which reaches up to as much as 3.5 - 5%at 3 km, is seen in the tropics while a much smaller standard deviation (1 - 2% at most is evident throughout the polar troposphere.

  2. Binary neutron-star mergers with Whisky and SACRA: First quantitative comparison of results from independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes

    CERN Document Server

    Baiotti, Luca; Yamamoto, Tetsuro

    2010-01-01

    We present the first quantitative comparison of two independent general-relativistic hydrodynamics codes, the Whisky code and the SACRA code. We compare the output of simulations starting from the same initial data and carried out with the configuration (numerical methods, grid setup, resolution, gauges) which for each code has been found to give consistent and sufficiently accurate results, in particular in terms of cleanness of gravitational waveforms. We focus on the quantities that should be conserved during the evolution (rest mass, total mass energy, and total angular momentum) and on the gravitational-wave amplitude and frequency. We find that the results produced by the two codes agree at a reasonable level, with variations in the different quantities but always at better than about 10%.

  3. Comparison of results at area 1 and area 2 between different Swedish in-situ teams in the RESUME-95 exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of 1996 the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe was commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute to perform a compilation of the results obtained by the Swedish in-situ teams that participated in the RESUME-95 exercise. The aim of this survey is to study the coherence in the reported activity data between the groups. It is not the purpose to see this comparison as a performance ranking of individual laboratories. Any such comparison must be made with precaution since the teams generally have collected their data with different equipment and by different methods. In this work, all in-situ teams have been given code-names, where each team has been labelled a number from 1 to 5. For more details, the interested reader is referred to the internal reports made by each team that (supposedly) also are to be included in the major compilation of the in-situ gamma spectrometry in the RESUME-95 exercise by Danish Emergency Management Agency. (au)

  4. 更新过程中的几个随机比较结果%SOME RESULTS ON STOCHASTIC COMPARISONS OF RENEWAL PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马敏

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study some results on stochastical comparisons of renewal process. By using stochastical comparison of the occurence times of the last renewals before two fixed time points with respect to the hazard rate, the reversed hazard rate and the likelihood ratio orders, we obtain that if the underlying distribution F is IFR then Sn(t)> the occurence time of the last renewal before time t, is increasing in t with respect to the hazard rate and the reversed hazard rate orders, and that if F is IFR and absolutely continuous then Sn(t) is increasing in t with respect to the likelihood ratio order.%本文研究了更新过程中的几个随机比较结果.通过对不同时刻之前的最后一次更新发生时刻变量在失效率序、反向失效率序和似然比序意义下的随机比较,获得了若底分布F是IFR,则t之前最后一次更新的发生时刻变量SN(t)在失效率序和反向失效率序意义下关于t单调递增;若底分布F是IFR且绝对连续,则SN(t)在似然比序意义下关于t单调递增.

  5. Comparison of results at area 1 and area 2 between different Swedish in-situ teams in the RESUME-95 exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    In the beginning of 1996 the Department of Radiation Physics in Malmoe was commissioned by the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute to perform a compilation of the results obtained by the Swedish in-situ teams that participated in the RESUME-95 exercise. The aim of this survey is to study the coherence in the reported activity data between the groups. It is not the purpose to see this comparison as a performance ranking of individual laboratories. Any such comparison must be made with precaution since the teams generally have collected their data with different equipment and by different methods. In this work, all in-situ teams have been given code-names, where each team has been labelled a number from 1 to 5. For more details, the interested reader is referred to the internal reports made by each team that (supposedly) also are to be included in the major compilation of the in-situ gamma spectrometry in the RESUME-95 exercise by Danish Emergency Management Agency. (au).

  6. On the Comparison of Akaike Information Criterion and Consistent Akaike Information Criterion in Selection of an Asymmetric Price Relationship: Bootstrap Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Acquah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Akaike’s Information Criteria provide a basis for choosing between competing approaches to testing for price asymmetry. However, very little research has been undertaken to understand its performance in the price transmission modelling context. In addressing this issue, this paper introduces and applies parametric bootstrap techniques to evaluate the ability of Akaike Information Criteria (AIC and Consistent Akaike Information Criteria (CAIC in distinguishing between competing asymmetric price transmission models under various error and sample size conditions. Bootstrap simulation results suggest that the performance of the model selection methods depends on sample size and stochastic variance. The Bootstrap simulations further indicate that CAIC is consistent and performs better than the AIC in large bootstrap samples. The ability of the model selection methods to identify the true asymmetric price relationship decreases with increase in stochastic variance. The research findings demonstrate the usefulness of Bootstrap algorithms in price transmission model comparison and selection.

  7. A comparison between the discrete point approximation and NOMOGRAM methods for estimation of dose resulting from gamma rays emitted by radionuclide in finite cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both the nomogram method and discrete point approximation can be used for estimation of doses resulting from gamma rays emitted by radionuclides in finite cloud. The former can only be applied for evaluation of dose from nine noble gas finite clouds in case of constant weather conditions, but the later can be used for estimation of doses from some radionuclides finite clouds is case of changing weather condition during the transport times. Some calculations using the two methods have been made under the described situation. The comparison computations for absorbed dose rate in air show a very good agreement. Mostly, above 86% of the computed data are within a factor of 2, up to 96% of data are within a factor of 3. Naturally, it should be noticed that the remaining percentage have an error up to a factor of 6 at stable atmospheric condition. (2 tabs.)

  8. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T1/2 estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T1/2 > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d

  9. ClO Observations from Space by JEM/SMILES: First results of SMILES L2 research product and comparison with MLS and Odin/SMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hideto; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Takeshi; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Smiles Mission Team

    Submillimetre-wave receiving Systems based on sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detector Technology provide new opportunities for Accurate Observation of ClO in the at-mosphere. The Superconducting Submillimetre-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was launched and installed onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. The SMILES project is a collaboration of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aims of THE SMILES project are: i) Space demonstration of super-conductive SIS mixer for submillimetre-wave limb emission sounding cooled down to 4K using a mechanical cooler. ii) Global measurements of atmospheric molecules and radicals. SMILES observes atmospheric species and isotopologues such as Osub3/sub, Hsup35/supCl, Hsup37/supCl, ClO, Upper tro-pospheric humidity, BrO, HOBr, HOCl, HOsub2/sub, Hsub2/subOsub2/sub, HNOsub3/sub, CHsub3/subCN, SOsub2/sub, and ozone isotope species in the altitude region from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with a precision of a few percent. SMILES observes day and night profiles of ClO in the altitude range 20-65km between 65N and 38S. We have been analyzing the ClO observations. We will present the recent status of the analysis with respect to the NICT research level-2 data product, give an error estimation, and provide early comparison/validation results from comparisons with global measurements from Odin/SMR and MLS.

  10. An Analysis of the DER Adoption Climate in Japan UsingOptimization Results for Prototype Buildings with U.S. Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2006-06-16

    This research demonstrates economically optimal distributedenergy resource (DER) system choice using the DER choice and operationsoptimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer AdoptionModel (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installedequipment given prevailing utility tariffs and fuel prices, siteelectrical and thermal loads (including absorption cooling), and a menuof available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeitidealized, that shows how site useful energy loads can be served atminimum cost. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examinedand DER-CAM is applied to select the economically optimal DER system foreach. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductionsare evaluated. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbonemissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savingswere most noticeable in the prototype sports facility, followed by thehospital, hotel, and office building. Results show that DER with combinedheat and power equipment is a promising efficiency and carbon mitigationstrategy, but that precise system design is necessary. Furthermore, aJapan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffsrelevant to DER installation is presented.

  11. Fly's proprioception-inspired micromachined strain-sensing structure: idea, design, modeling and simulation, and comparison with experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicaksono, D H B [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, Delft, Zuid-Holland 2628CD (Netherlands); Zhang, L-J [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, Delft, Zuid-Holland 2628CD (Netherlands); Pandraud, G [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, Delft, Zuid-Holland 2628CD (Netherlands); French, P J [Department of Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 4, Delft, Zuid-Holland 2628CD (Netherlands); Vincent, J F V [Department of Mech. Engineering, Bath University Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-01

    A new strain-sensing structure inspired from insect's (especially the Fly) propricoception sensor is devised. The campaniform sensillum is a strain-sensing microstructure with very high sensitivity despite its small dimension (diameter {approx}10 {mu}m in a relatively stiff material of insect's exocuticle (E = {approx}10{sup 9} Pa). Previous work shows that the high sensitivity of this structure towards strain is due to its membrane-in-recess- and strainconcentrating-hole-features. Based on this inspiration, we built similar structure using silicon micromachining technology. Then a simple characterisation setup was devised. Here, we present briefly, finite-element modeling and simulation based on this actual sample preparation for the characterisation. As comparison and also to understand mechanical features responsible for the strain-sensitivity, we performed the modeling on different mechanical structures: bulk chunk, blind-hole, through-hole, surface membrane, and membrane-in-recess. The actual experimental characterisation was performed previously using optical technique to membrane in-recess micromachined Si structure. The FEM simulation results confirm that the bending stress and strain are concentrated in the hole-vicinity. The membrane inside the hole acts as displacement transducer. The FEM is in conformity with previous analytical results, as well as the optical characterisation result. The end goal is to build a new type MEMS strain sensor.

  12. Results of the direct comparison of primary standards for absorbed dose to water in 60Co and high-energy photon beams (EURAMET TC-IR Project 1021)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BEV graphite calorimeter is in operation since 1983 as an absorbed dose to water primary standard for 60Co radiation fields. After an extended refurbishment process the energy range was enhanced for application in accelerator fields. For this purpose a set of conversion and correction factors was required. They were obtained utilising Monte Carlo simulations and measurements. To verify the results of the refurbishment and the enhancement process a project was proposed for the direct comparison of primary standards for absorbed dose to water of BEV, METAS and PTB, in 60Co gamma ray beams and high-energy photon beams. The primary standards used for this comparison were the BEV graphite calorimeter and two water calorimeters (METAS, PTB). The measurements were carried out in the 60Co gamma ray beams and in high-energy photon beams (4 MV, 6 MV, 10 MV and 15 MV) of METAS and PTB. The BEV transported the graphite calorimeter primary standard to PTB (in September 2008) and METAS (in November 2008). This was the first time that an absorbed dose primary standard calorimeter of one National Metrology Institute (NMI) was transported to a different NMI for the purpose of a direct comparison in accelerator high-energy photon beams. The project was connected with a huge logistic effort (transportation and setup of the calorimeter system including graphite phantom, measurement- and evaluation device, vacuum pump, ionization chamber measurement system etc.) and with a lot of expected and unexpected challenges. The main concept of the comparison is shown. Measurements in 60Co gamma ray beams: Determination of the reference value for absorbed dose to water of the 60Co therapy unit of PTB, respectively METAS with the the BEV graphite calorimeter; Comparison of this value with the reference value determined with the water calorimeter of PTB, respectively METAS. Measurements in high-energy photon beams: Determination of absorbed dose to water at the accelerator at PTB, respectively

  13. Comparison of detection results of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at different degrees in infant patients between brain electrical activity mapping, transcranial Doppler sonography and computer tomography examinations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongruo He; Xiaoying Xu; Yinghui Zhang; Guochao Han

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND; It has been proved that brain electrical activity mapping (BEAM) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection can reflect the function of brain cell and its diseased degree of infant patients with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).OBJECTIVE: To observe the abnormal results of HIE at different degrees detected with BEAM and TCD in infant patients, and compare the detection results at the same time point between BEAM, TCD and computer tomography (CT) examinations.DESTGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Departments of Neuro-electrophysiology and Pediatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College.PARTICTPANTS: Totally 416 infant patients with HIE who received treatment in the Department of Newborn Infants, Second Affiliated Hospital of Qiqihar Medical College during January 2001 and December 2005. The infant patients, 278 male and 138 female, were at embryonic 37 to 42 weeks and weighing 2.0 to 4.1 kg, and they were diagnosed with CT and met the diagnostic criteria of HIE of newborn infants compiled by Department of Neonatology, Pediatric Academy, Chinese Medical Association. According to diagnostic criteria, 130patients were mild abnormal, 196 moderate abnormal and 90 severe abnormal. The relatives of all the infant patients were informed of the experiment.METHODS: BEAM and TCD examinations were performed in the involved 416 infant patients with HIE at different degrees with DYD2000 16-channel BEAM instrument and EME-2000 ultrasonograph before preliminary diagnosis treatment (within 1 month after birth) and 1,3,6,12 and 24 months after birth, and detected results were compared between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations.MATN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of detection results of HIE at different time points in infant patients between BEAM, TCD and CT examinations. RESULTS: All the 416 infant patients with HIE participated in the result analysis. ① Comparison of the detected results in infant patients with mild HIE at different

  14. The comparison of GEANT 4.8.2 and 4.9.2 results for the 25MeV protons in thick polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yevseyeva, Olga; Assis, Joaquim T. de; Ievsieieva, Ievgeniia [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico; Evseev, Ivan G.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Ahmann, Francielle; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Milhoretto, Edney [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Diaz, Katherin S. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, Havana (Cuba); Hormaza, Joel M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias; Lopes, Ricardo T. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The fidelity of Monte Carlo simulations is crucial, especially if for medical applications. Our earlier study has shown that the GEANT4 simulations of proton energy spectra after thick absorbers do not agree well with existing experimental data. Moreover, the spectra simulated for the Bethe-Bloch domain were showing an unexpected sensitivity to the choice of low-energy electromagnetic models during the code execution. These observations were done with the GEANT4 up to version 8.2 during our previous simulations for proton Computerized Tomography (pCT). As one of the probable reasons for these effects could be some specific feature in the code, or some specific implicit parameters in the GEANT4 manual, we have decided to continue our observations, but this time - with version 4.9.2 of the GEANT. This work describes in details the new simulations for 25 MeV protons passing through 6mm polyethylene absorber. As in our previous simulations, we have started from the Hadron therapy Example of GEANT4 official release by adjusting the geometry only. We have tested all available choices of the Electromagnetic Physics Models. The results are compared with our previous GEANT4, TRIM/SRIM and MCNPX simulations, with theoretical predictions and with experimental data. Some variations in comparison with our previous results were obtained. (author)

  15. Comparison of the results of the fifth dynamic AER benchmark-a benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal kinetic core models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifth dynamic benchmark was defined at seventh AER-Symposium, held in Hoernitz, Germany in 1997. It is the first benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal neutron kinetic core models. In this benchmark the interaction between the components of a WWER-440 NPP with the reactor core has been investigated. The initiating event is a symmetrical break of the main steam header at the end of the first fuel cycle and hot shutdown conditions with one control rod group stucking. This break causes an overcooling of the primary circuit. During this overcooling the scram reactivity is compensated and the scrammed reactor becomes re critical. The calculation was continued until the highly-borated water from the high pressure injection system terminated the power excursion. Each participant used own best-estimate nuclear cross section data. Only the initial subcriticality at the beginning of the transient was given. Solutions were received from Kurchatov Institute Russia with the code BIPR8/ATHLET, VTT Energy Finland with HEXTRAN/SMABRE, NRI Rez Czech Republic with DYN3/ATHLET, KFKI Budapest Hungary with KIKO3D/ATHLET and from FZR Germany with the code DYN3D/ATHLET.In this paper the results are compared. Beside the comparison of global results, the behaviour of several thermohydraulic and neutron kinetic parameters is presented to discuss the revealed differences between the solutions.(Authors)

  16. Comparisons of steady-state and transient thermal hydraulic results from SAS-DIF3DK and RELAP5 mod 3.2 for an RBMK reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SAS-DIF3DK code couples a detailed 3-D neutron kinetics treatment with a detailed thermal hydraulics treatment. One goal of the work on SAS-DIF3DK is to produce a detailed code that will run a wide range of transients in real time. Achieving this goal will require efficient numerical methods and efficient coding, and it will probably require the use of multiple processors for larger problems. In order to obtain clean code-to-code thermal hydraulics comparisons with a recognized and established code, a detailed thermal hydraulic model was set up for an RBMK assembly and its associated piping, The same identical input model was implemented in both SAS-DIF3DK and RELAP5 mod 3.2. Both steady-state and transient thermal hydraulics calculations were made with this model. Except for cladding temperatures in one transient, the SAS-DIF3DK results were similar to or almost identical to the RELAP5 results, and SAS-DIF3DK ran an order of magnitude or more faster than RELAP5. The cladding temperature differences can be explained in terms of different post-DNB models and heat transfer coefficients

  17. Ankle-Arm Index, Angiography, and Duplex Ultrasonography After Recanalization of Occlusions in Femoropopliteal Arteries: Comparison of Long-Term Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Comparison of the relative values of the ankle-arm index (AAI) at rest and after exercise, angiography, and duplex ultrasonography for the follow-up of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods: Thirty-two patients were prospectively followed after technically and clinically successful PTA of a femoropopliteal occlusion. The patency of the femoropopliteal artery was assessed for 1 year using AAI measurements at rest and after exercise; duplex ultrasonography at 4, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks; and angiography at 3 and 12 months after PTA. Results: Patency was highly dependent on the measurement technique. The cumulative patency after 1 year determined with the AAI at rest and during exercise, by angiography, and by duplex ultrasonography was 74%, 19%, 31%, and 32%, respectively. Seventy-five percent of the restenoses occurred at the site of the treated occlusion. Conclusion: Duplex ultrasonography is most suitable for this assessment, as it causes no patient discomfort and the specificity is better than AAI after exercise because vascular disease in other, proximal segments does not interfere with the results

  18. Irreversible kinetics on a one-dimensional lattice: Comparison of exact result with a point-process nucleation-growth-collision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.

    1983-02-01

    In this paper we discuss irreversible kinetics on a one-dimensional lattice. We compare the expectation value of the coverage of the lattice, as a function of time, with that predicted by a point-process nucleation-growth-collision model. We conclude that the nucleation-growth-collision model is only applicable to lattice kinetics when the spreading rate of clusters is much greater than their nucleation rate. Although the kinetics of coverage of a one-dimensional lattice are known exactly, the complete solution turns out to be rather complex. In order to facilitate comparison with the point-process nucleation and growth model, we calculate an approximation to the lattice kinetics which is valid when the collision rate of clusters is very fast. The result is complementary to an earlier approximation of McQuarrie, McTague and Reiss, which described the case when the collision rate of clusters was comparable with the spreading rate. We also consider an integral geometrical approach to discreteness effects in lattice models. The general approach which we suggest is to calculate coefficients of variation of the numbers of lattice sites covered by various geometric shapes as a measure of "discreteness". This method uses some mathematical results of Kendall et al.

  19. Comparison and analysis of 2-D simulation results with two implosion radiation experiments on the Los Alamos Pegasus I and Pegasus II capacitor banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments, PegI-41, conducted on the Los Alamos Pegasus I capacitor bank, and PegII-25, on the Pegasus II bank, consisted of the implosions of 13 mg (nominal), 5 cm radius, 2 cm high thin cylindrical aluminum foils resulting in soft x-ray radiation pulses from the plasma thermalization on axis. The implosions were conducted in direct-drive (no intermediate switching) mode with peak currents of about 4 MA and 5 MA respectively, and implosion times of about 2.5 micros and 2.0 micros. A radiation yield of about 250 kJ was measured for PegII-25. The purpose of these experiments was to examine the physics of the implosion and relate this physics to the production of the radiation pulse and to provide detailed experimental data which could be compared with 2-D radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations. Included in the experimental diagnostic suites were faraday rotation and dB/dt current measurements, a visible framing camera, an x-ray stripline camera, time-dependent spectroscopy, bolometers and XRD'S. A comparison of the results from these experiments shows agreement with 2-D simulation results in the instability development, current, and radiation pulse data, including the pulsewidth, shape, peak power and total radiation yield as measured by bolometry. Instabilities dominate the behavior of the implosion and largely determine the properties of the resulting radiation pulse. The 2-D simulations can be seen to be an important tool in understanding the implosion physics

  20. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: A comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2x1011. Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigue experiments, pulsed laser and pulsed RF-heating, underwent postmortem Electron Backscattered Diffraction measurements. Samples fatigued by pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage behavior as samples fatigued by pulsed RF-heating. It is clearly observed that surface grains, oriented [1 1 1] with respect to the surface, show significantly more damage than surface grains oriented [1 0 0]. Results arising from a third fatigue experiment, the ultrasound (US) swinger, are compared to the results of the mentioned experiments. The US swinger is an uniaxial mechanical fatigue test enabling to apply within several days a total number of cycles representative of the life of the CLIC structures, thanks to a high repetition rate of 24 kHz. For comparison, laser fatigue experiments have much lower repetition rates. The dependence of surface degradation on grain orientation of samples tested by the US swinger was monitored during the fatigue life

  1. RESULTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL INTERLABORATORY COMPARISON OF MGMT PROMOTER METHYLATION ANALYSIS INVOLVING TWENTY-THREE ACADEMIC CENTERS IN GERMANY, AUSTRIA AND THE NETHERLANDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifenberger, Guido; Malzkorn, B.; Acker, T.; Bettstetter, M.; Buslei, R.; von Deimling, A.; Dietmaier, W.; Dubbink, H.J.; Eigenbrod, S.; Garvalov, B.K.; Gerstenmaier, U.; Giese, A.; Haase, D.; Hasselblatt, M.; Kirches, E.; Koch, A.; Marienfeld, R.; Mittelbronn, M.; Montesinos-Rongen, M.; Pagenstecher, A.; Riemenschneider, M.J.; Prinz, M.; Romeike, B.; Roos, A.; Spiegl-Kreinecker, S.; Schittenhelm, J.; Schlegel, J.; Thal, D.R.; Tops, B.B.J.; Weis, J.; Westphal, G.; Worm, K.; Felsberg, J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Molecular testing for MGMT promoter methylation has become of clinical importance in the diagnostic assessment of malignant gliomas since test results may guide therapeutic decision making, in particular in elderly patients with glioblastoma. However, the patterns and extent of MGMT promoter methylation may vary from tumor to tumor, and standardized approaches for its routine diagnostic assessment are lacking. Thus, external quality assessment (EQA) measures are required to ensure accuracy and reproducibility of results across different laboratories. METHODS: We performed an interlaboratory comparison of MGMT promoter methylation analysis involving twenty-three academic institutions in Germany, Austria and the Netherlands. Two different test rounds were carried out, the first one using high molecular weight DNA extracted from frozen tissue samples of 20 tumors and the second one using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 16 tumors. All samples were centrally retrieved from the CNS tumor tissue bank at Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf. Each participating center evaluated the same set of samples using the locally established methods. Results were centrally collected, together with information on the individual assays and the number of tests carried out per year. RESULTS: Methylation specific-PCR was the most commonly used method at the participating centers. Other less common techniques included pyrosequencing of bisulfite-modified DNA, MethyQESD (methylation-quantification of endonuclease-resistant DNA), MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification), and PCR-based fragment analysis. MGMT testing results showed a good overall concordance across the participating laboratories for those tumors that either had strongly methylated or clearly unmethylated MGMT promoter sequences. However, poor concordance was obtained for cases with only weak or partial MGMT promoter methylation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides an overview of the

  2. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J.; Abdelbary, Bassent; Klaas, Kelly; Tapia, Beatriz; Sexton, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI) and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008)) is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables) to (100—Healthy). These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border. PMID:24865399

  3. A comparison of geostatistically based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Results from Test Case No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.A. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallegos, D.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to describe flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A ``Geostatistics Test Problem`` is being developed to evaluate a number of inverse techniques that may be used for flow calculations in the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The Test Problem is actually a series of test cases, each being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets to span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity (possibly including measurement error) or other information such as drawdowns from pumping wells, and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No. 1.

  4. Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results related to the detection of enhanced CO over cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buchwitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important atmospheric constituent affecting air quality and climate. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is currently the only satellite instrument that can measure the vertical column of CO with nearly equal sensitivity at all altitudes down to the Earth's surface because of its near-infrared nadir observations of reflected solar radiation. Here we present three years' (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY CO columns consistently retrieved with the latest version of our retrieval algorithm (WFMDv0.6. We describe the retrieval method and discuss the multi-year global CO data set focusing on a comparison with the operational CO column data product of MOPITT. We found reasonable to good agreement (~20% with MOPITT, with the best agreement for 2004. We present detailed results for various regions (Europe, Middle East, India, China and discuss to what extent enhanced levels of CO can be detected over populated areas including individual cities. The expected CO signal from cities is close to or even below the detection limit of individual measurements. We show however that cities can be identified when averaging long time series.

  5. Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results related to the detection of enhanced CO over cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Buchwitz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important atmospheric constituent affecting air quality and climate. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT is currently the only satellite instrument that can measure the vertical column of CO with nearly equal sensitivity at all altitudes down to the Earth's surface because of its near-infrared nadir observations of reflected solar radiation. Here we present three years' (2003–2005 of SCIAMACHY CO columns consistently retrieved with the latest version of our retrieval algorithm (WFMDv0.6. We describe the retrieval method and discuss the multi-year global CO data set focusing on a comparison with the operational CO column data product of MOPITT. We found reasonable to good agreement (~20% with MOPITT, with the best agreement for 2004. We present detailed results for various regions (Europe, Middle East, India, China and discuss to what extent enhanced levels of CO can be detected over populated areas including individual cities. The expected CO signal from cities is close to or even below the detection limit of individual measurements. We show that cities can be identified when averaging long time series.

  6. Uranium comparison by means of AMS and ICP-MS and Pu and 137Cs results around an Italian Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Cesare M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy built and commissioned 4 nuclear power plants between 1958-1978, which delivered a total of 1500 MW. All four were closed down after the Chernobyl accident following a referendum in 1987. One of the plants was Garigliano, commissioned in 1959. This plant used a 160 MW BWR1 (SEU of 2.3 % and was operational from 1964 to 1979, when it was switched off for maintenance. It was definitively stopped in 1982, and is presently being decommissioned. We report here details on the chemistry procedure and on the measurements for soil samples, collected up to 4.5 km from the Nuclear Plant. A comparison between uranium (238U concentration as determined by means of AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry techniques respectively at the ANU (Australian National University and at the Ecowise company in Canberra, Australia, is reported, as well as 236U and 239;240Pu concentration results detected by AMS. 236U/238U and 240Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios by means of AMS are also provided. A contamination from Chernobyl is visible in the 137Cs/239+240Pu activity ratio measurements.

  7. Sensitivity of simulated Martian atmospheric temperature to prescribed dust opacity distribution: Comparison of model results with reconstructed data from Mars Exploration Rover missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Murali; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Fairlie, T. Duncan; Richardson, Mark I.; McConnochie, Timothy H.

    2015-11-01

    We use the Mars Weather Research and Forecasting (MarsWRF) general circulation model to simulate the atmospheric structure corresponding to the landing location and time of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit (A) and Opportunity (B) in 2004. The multiscale capability of MarsWRF facilitates high-resolution nested model runs centered near the landing site of each of the rovers. Dust opacity distributions based on measurements by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, and those from an old version of the Mars Climate Database (MCD v3.1 released in 2001) are used to study the sensitivity of the model temperature profile to variations in the dust prescription. The reconstructed entry, descent, and landing (EDL) data from the rover missions are used for comparisons. We show that the model using dust opacity from TES limb and nadir data for the year of MER EDL, Mars Year 26 (MY26), yields temperature profiles in closer agreement with the reconstructed data than the prelaunch EDL simulations and models using other dust opacity specifications. The temperature at 100 Pa from the model (MY26) and the reconstruction are within 5°K. These results highlight the role of vertical dust opacity distribution in determining the atmospheric thermal structure. Similar studies involving data from past missions and models will be useful in understanding the extent to which atmospheric variability is captured by the models and in developing realistic preflight characterization required for future lander missions to Mars.

  8. Comparison of 3D and 2D FSE T2-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of deep pelvic endometriosis: Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To evaluate image quality and diagnostic accuracy of two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the evaluation of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Materials and methods: One hundred and ten consecutive patients with suspicion of endometriosis were recruited at two institutions over a 5-month period. Twenty-three women underwent surgery, 18 had DIE at histology. Two readers independently evaluated 3D and 2D MRI for image quality and diagnosis of DIE. Descriptive analysis, chi-square test for categorical or nominal variables, McNemar test for comparison between 3D and 2D T2-weighted MRI, and weighted “statistics” for intra- and interobserver agreement were used for statistical analysis. Results: Both readers found that 3D yielded significantly lower image quality than 2D MRI (p < 0.0001). Acquisition time for 3D was significantly shorter than 2D MRI (p < 0.01). 3D offered similar accuracy to diagnose DIE compared to 2D MRI. For all locations of endometriosis, a high or variable intra-observer agreement was observed for reader 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusions: Despite a lower overall image quality, 3D provides significant time saving and similar accuracy than multiplanar 2D MRI in the diagnosis of specific DIE locations.

  9. A comparison of geostatistically based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: Results from Test Case No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to describe flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A ''Geostatistics Test Problem'' is being developed to evaluate a number of inverse techniques that may be used for flow calculations in the WIPP performance assessment (PA). The Test Problem is actually a series of test cases, each being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets to span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity (possibly including measurement error) or other information such as drawdowns from pumping wells, and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No. 1

  10. Summary of the results of the comparison of calculations and measurements for the TN12 flask carried out under the NEACRP intercomparison of shielding codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of neutron and gamma-ray dose-rates made outside a TN-12 flask loaded with 12 PWR fuel elements were chosen as an experimental benchmark for the NEACRP Intercomparison of Codes. The results of calculations carried out by eight participants are compared with the measured dose-rates. The agreement is mostly very good for the dose-points at the mid-height of the flask, although at positions opposite the top and bottom of the fuel there are bigger discrepancies. The latter are attributed to the greater uncertainties in defining the sources and the shield materials in these regions. The study demonstrated the need to use an accurate response function for the dosimeter rather than assuming it to have a true dose response. One area of inconsistency in the conclusions drawn by participants was in the need for explicit modelling of the copper fins on the outside of the steel flask. Further work is needed to resolve this. Overall the comparison shows that the methods of calculation are accurate in most cases, and gives confidence in their application to flask design

  11. Comparison of constant-rate pumping test and slug interference test results at the Hanford Site B pond multilevel test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), as part of the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, is responsible for monitoring the movement and fate of contamination within the unconfined aquifer to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring and assessment of contamination migration on the Hanford Site, a sitewide 3-dimensional groundwater flow model is being developed. Providing quantitative hydrologic property data is instrumental in development of the 3-dimensional model. Multilevel monitoring facilities have been installed to provide detailed, vertically distributed hydrologic characterization information for the Hanford Site unconfined aquifer. In previous reports, vertically distributed water-level and hydrochemical data obtained over time from these multi-level monitoring facilities have been evaluated and reported. This report describes the B pond facility in Section 2.0. It also provides analysis results for a constant-rate pumping test (Section 3.0) and slug interference test (Section 4.0) that were conducted at a multilevel test facility located near B Pond (see Figure 1. 1) in the central part of the Hanford Site. A hydraulic test summary (Section 5.0) that focuses on the comparison of hydraulic property estimates obtained using the two test methods is also presented. Reference materials are listed in Section 6.0

  12. Socioeconomic Context and the Food Landscape in Texas: Results from Hotspot Analysis and Border/Non-Border Comparison of Unhealthy Food Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J. Salinas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the food landscape of Texas using the CDC’s Modified Retail Food Environment (mRFEI and to make comparisons by border/non-border. Methods: The Modified Retail Food Environment index (mRFEI (2008 is an index developed by the CDC that measures what percent of the total food vendors in a census track sell healthy food. The range of values is 0 (unhealthy areas with limited access to fruits and vegetables to (100—Healthy. These data were linked to 2010 US Census socioeconomic and ethnic concentration data. Spatial analysis and GIS techniques were applied to assess the differences between border and non-border regions. Variables of interest were mRFEI score, median income, total population, percent total population less than five years, median age, % receiving food stamps, % Hispanic, and % with a bachelor degree. Results: Findings from this study reveal that food environment in Texas tends to be characteristic of a “food desert”. Analysis also demonstrates differences by border/non-border location and percent of the population that is foreign born and by percent of families who receive food stamps. Conclusions: Identifying the relationship between socioeconomic disparity, ethnic concentration and mRFEI score could be a fundamental step in improving health in disadvantage communities, particularly those on the Texas-Mexico border.

  13. Retrospective analysis of quantitative parameters obtained on myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging (ECTB software) in heart failure patients and their comparison with 2D-echocardiography results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the study are to study the quantitative parameters obtained on Gated MPI SPECT on ECTB software in patients of fixed defects on myocardial perfusion imaging and their comparison between individuals showing evidence of hibernating myocardium and patients without any evidence of hibernating myocardium and to do the comparative analysis of quantitative parameters such as LVEF, EDV, ESV and SV obtained in the aforementioned patients on Gated MPI SPECT (ECTB) and 2D ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY. It is concluded that the present findings are consistent with the nature of hibernating myocardium i.e. non-contractile and dysfunctional myocardium. The noticeable difference in the EDV and ESV in category 'SRS 0-10' is indicative of evidence of early diastolic dysfunction in this group of patients. The trends in the LVEF, EDV and ESV are suggestive of deteriorating myocardial function with increasing extent of ischemia. The increase in left ventricular EDV and ESV with increasing ischemia is suggestive of increasing incidence of gross morphological LV cavity dilatation or 'Dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy (DCMP)' in these patients. The quantitative parameters obtained on ECTB software on MPI study shows good correlation with 2D Echocardiography results

  14. Planck Intermediate Results II: Comparison of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements from Planck and from the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager for 11 galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Planck,; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Balbi, A; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Battaner, E; Battye, R; Benabed, K; Benoît, A; Bersanelli, M; Bhatia, R; Bikmaev, I; Böhringer, H; Bonaldi, A; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Bourdin, H; Brown, M L; Bucher, M; Burenin, R; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Cabella, P; Carvalho, P; Catalano, A; Cayón, L; Chamballu, A; Chary, R -R; Chiang, L -Y; Chon, G; Clements, D L; Colafrancesco, S; Colombi, S; Crill, B P; Cuttaia, F; Da Silva, A; Dahle, H; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Gasperis, G; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Démoclès, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dolag, K; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Dupac, X; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Feroz, F; Finelli, F; Flores-Cacho, I; Forni, O; Fosalba, P; Frailis, M; Franceschi, E; Fromenteau, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Giard, M; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Grainge, K J B; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Hansen, F K; Harrison, D; Henrot-Versillé, S; Hernández-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Hobson, M; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Hurley-Walker, N; Jagemann, T; Juvela, M; Keihänen, E; Khamitov, I; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lasenby, A; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Leach, S; Leonardi, R; Liddle, A; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vørnle, M; López-Caniego, M; Luzzi, G; Macías-Pérez, J F; MacTavish, C J; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Marleau, F; Marshall, D J; Martínez-González, E; Masi, S; Massardi, M; Matarrese, S; Matthai, F; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Melin, J -B; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Munshi, D; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Noviello, F; Olamaie, M; Osborne, S; Pajot, F; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Patanchon, G; Pearson, T J; Perdereau, O; Perrott, Y C; Perrotta, F; Piacentini, F; Pierpaoli, E; Platania, P; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Popa, L; Poutanen, T; Pratt, G W; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ricciardi, S; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, C; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Rusholme, B; Saunders, R D E; Savini, G; Schammel, M P; Scott, D; Shimwell, T W; Smoot, G F; Starck, J -L; Stivoli, F; Stolyarov, V; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Valenziano, L; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2012-01-01

    A comparison is presented of Sunyaev-Zeldovich measurements for 11 galaxy clusters as obtained by Planck and by the ground-based interferometer, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager. Assuming a universal spherically-symmetric Generalised Navarro, Frenk & White (GNFW) model for the cluster gas pressure profile, we jointly constrain the integrated Compton-Y parameter (Y_500) and the scale radius (theta_500) of each cluster. Our resulting constraints in the Y_500-theta_500 2D parameter space derived from the two instruments overlap significantly for eight of the clusters, although, overall, there is a tendency for AMI to find the Sunyaev-Zeldovich signal to be smaller in angular size and fainter than Planck. Significant discrepancies exist for the three remaining clusters in the sample, namely A1413, A1914, and the newly-discovered Planck cluster PLCKESZ G139.59+24.18. The robustness of the analysis of both the Planck and AMI data is demonstrated through the use of detailed simulations, which also discount confu...

  15. A comparison of geostatistically-based inverse techniques for use in performance assessment analysis at the WIPP site results from test case No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The groundwater flow pathway in the Culebra Dolomite aquifer at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been identified as a potentially important pathway for radionuclide migration to the accessible environment. Consequently, uncertainties in the models used to described flow and transport in the Culebra need to be addressed. A 'Geostatistics Test Problem' is being developed as a highly complex synthetic data set; the intent is for the ensemble of these data sets span the range of possible conceptual models of groundwater flow at the WIPP site. The Test Problem analysis approach is to use a comparison of the probabilistic groundwater travel time (GWTT) estimates produced by each technique as the basis for the evaluation. Participants are given observations of head and transmissivity and are asked to develop stochastic models of groundwater flow for the synthetic system. Cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) of groundwater flow (computed via particle tracking) are constructed using the head and transmissivity data generated through the application of each technique; one semi-analytical method generates the CDFs of groundwater flow directly. This paper describes the results from Test Case No 1. Of the five techniques compared, those based on the linearized form of the groundwater flow equation exhibited less bias and less spread in their GWTT distribution functions; the semi-analytical method had the least bias. While the results are not sufficient to make generalizations about which techniques may be better suited for the WIPP PA (only one test case has been exercised), analysis of the data from this test case provides some indication about the relative importance of other aspects of the flow modeling (besides inverse method or geostatistical approach) in PA. These ancillary analyses examine the effect of gridding and the effect of boundary conditions on the groundwater travel time estimates

  16. Comparison of FDG-PET, PET/CT and MRI for follow-up of colorectal liver metastases treated with radiofrequency ablation: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Morphologic imaging after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver metastases is hampered by rim-like enhancement in the ablation margin, making the identification of local tumor progression (LTP) difficult. Follow-up with PET/CT is compared to follow-up with PET alone and MRI after RFA. Methods and materials: Sixteen patients showed 25 FDG-positive colorectal liver metastases in pre-interventional PET/CT. Post-interventional PET/CT was performed 24 h after ablation and was repeated after 1, 3 and 6 months and then every 6 months. PET and PET/CT data were compared with MR data sets acquired within 14 days before or after these time points. Either histological proof by biopsy or resection, or a combination of contrast-enhanced CT at fixed time points and clinical data served as a reference. Results: The 25 metastases showed a mean size of 20 mm and were treated with 39 RFA sessions. Ten lesions which developed LTP received a second round of RFA; four lesions received three rounds of treatment. The mean follow-up time was 22 months. Seventy-two PET/CT and 57 MR examinations were performed for follow-up. The accuracy and sensitivity for tumor detection was 86% and 76% for PET alone, 91% and 83% for PET/CT and 92% and 75% for MRI, respectively. Conclusions: In comparison to PET alone, PET/CT was significantly better for detecting LTP after RFA. There were no significant differences between MRI and PET/CT. These preliminary results, however, need further verification

  17. Long-term follow-up for bimanual microincision cataract surgery: comparison of results obtained by surgeons in training and experienced surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Verdina, Tommaso; Forlini, Matteo; Volante, Veronica; De Maria, Michele; Torlai, Giulio; Benatti, Caterina; Delvecchio, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    experienced surgeons. Corneal incisions were shorter and less angled in surgeons in training in comparison with results obtained by expert surgeons. PMID:27307701

  18. BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Eu-152 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 152Eu for the VNIIM (Russia), the LNE-LNHB (France) and the CNEA (Argentina), with linked results for the COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new participants in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Eu-152 comparison have been added to the previous results and this has produced a revised value for the key comparison reference value (KCRV), calculated using the power-moderated weighted mean. A link has been made to the COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison held in 2010 through the VNIIM who participated in both comparisons. Three National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) used the K1 or K2 comparisons to update their degree of equivalence. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the International Reference System (SIR) and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table for four NMIs in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Eu-152 comparison, three participants in the COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison and the 18 other participants in the previous CCRI(II)-K2.Eu-152 comparison. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  19. Comparison of {sup 18}F-FACBC and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT in patients with radically treated prostate cancer and biochemical relapse: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina; Boschi, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo; Ambrosini, Valentina; Brunocilla, Eugenio; Martorana, Giuseppe; Fanti, Stefano [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Urology, Bologna (Italy); Pettinato, Cinzia [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, OU Medical Physics, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    We assessed the rate of detection rate of recurrent prostate cancer by PET/CT using anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC, a new synthetic amino acid, in comparison to that using {sup 11}C-choline as part of an ongoing prospective single-centre study. Included in the study were 15 patients with biochemical relapse after initial radical treatment of prostate cancer. All the patients underwent anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT and {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT within a 7-day period. The detection rates using the two compounds were determined and the target-to-background ratios (TBR) of each lesion are reported. No adverse reactions to anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT were noted. On a patient basis, {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT was positive in 3 patients and negative in 12 (detection rate 20 %), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT was positive in 6 patients and negative in 9 (detection rate 40 %). On a lesion basis, {sup 11}C-choline detected 6 lesions (4 bone, 1 lymph node, 1 local relapse), and anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC detected 11 lesions (5 bone, 5 lymph node, 1 local relapse). All {sup 11}C-choline-positive lesions were also identified by anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC PET/CT. The TBR of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC was greater than that of {sup 11}C-choline in 8/11 lesions, as were image quality and contrast. Our preliminary results indicate that anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC may be superior to {sup 11}C-choline for the identification of disease recurrence in the setting of biochemical failure. Further studies are required to assess efficacy of anti-3-{sup 18}F-FACBC in a larger series of prostate cancer patients. (orig.)

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of the amino acid-ZnO (10-10) interface: A comparison between density functional theory and density functional tight binding results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holthaus, Svea große; Köppen, Susan, E-mail: koeppen@hmi.uni-bremen.de; Frauenheim, Thomas; Ciacchi, Lucio Colombi [Bremen Centre for Computational Materials Science, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the adsorption behavior of four different amino acids (glutamine, glutamate, serine, cysteine) on the zinc oxide (101{sup ¯}0) surface, comparing the geometry and energy associated with a number of different adsorption configurations. In doing this, we highlight the benefits and limits of using density-functional tight-binding (DFTB) with respect to standard density functional theory (DFT). The DFTB method is found to reliably reproduce the DFT adsorption geometries. Analysis of the adsorption configurations emphasizes the fundamental role of the first hydration layer in mediating the interactions between the amino acids and the surface. Direct surface-molecule bonds are found to form predominantly via the carboxylate groups of the studied amino acids. No surface-mediated chemical reactions are observed, with the notable exception of a proton transfer from the thiol group of cysteine to a hydroxyl group of the surface hydration layer. The adsorption energies are found to be dominated both by the formation of direct or indirect surface-molecule hydrogen bonds, but also by the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network in surface proximity in a non-intuitive way. Energetic comparisons between DFTB and DFT are made difficult on one side by the long time necessary to achieve convergence of potential energy values in MD simulations and on the other side by the necessity of including higher-order corrections to DFTB to obtain a good description of the hydrogen bond energetics. Overall, our results suggest that DFTB is a good reference method to set the correct chemical states and the initial geometries of hybrid biomolecule/ZnO systems to be simulated with non-reactive force fields.