WorldWideScience

Sample records for bipolar molecular outflow

  1. Unveiling the molecular bipolar outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinnaga, Hiroko; Claussen, Mark J.; Lim, Jeremy; Dinh-van-Trung; Tsuboi, Masato

    2003-04-01

    We carried out polarimetric spectral-line imaging of the molecular outflow of the peculiar red supergiant VY Canis Majoris in SiO J=1-0 line in the ground vibrational state, which contains highly linearly-polarized velocity components, using the Very Large Array. We succeeded in unveiling the highly linearly polarized bipolar outflow for the first time at subarcsecond spatial resolution. The results clearly show that the direction of linear polarization of the brightest maser components is parallel to the outflow axis. The results strongly suggest that the linear polarization of the SiO maser is closely related to the outflow phenomena of the star. Furthermore, the results indicate that the linear polarization observed in the optical and infrared also occur due to the outflow phenomena.

  2. Bipolar molecular outflows: T Tauri stars and Herbig-Haro objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, S.U.

    1984-01-01

    The relations of Herbig-Haro objects to the observed bipolar molecular outflows with T Tauri stars are studied. An evaporation disk model is proposed to obtain the shape of the disk where gas evaporates and to explain the collimation of the central T Tauri wind. In this case the collimation angle is about 10 0 . The collimated T Tauri wind making a form of de Laval nozzle viscously interacts with the surrounding medium. This interaction enhances the second collimation (about 40 0 ) of the resulting flow, mixing stellar and disk winds with external molecular gas. These viscous outflows are observed in the bipolar molecular outflow of the T Tauri stars. It is also proposed in the model that a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the throat of the de Laval nozzle produces clumps, which can be accelerated by the ram pressure of the collimated wind up to the wind speed. The clumps eventually pass through a shock in the outlfow, which results from its encounter with the ambient cloud. The clumps are then moving faster than the surrounding flow. These clumps are identified with Herbig-Haro objects

  3. DETECTION OF A BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Michael M.; Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Schnee, Scott; Enoch, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    We present new 230 GHz Submillimeter Array observations of the candidate first hydrostatic core Per-Bolo 58. We report the detection of a 1.3 mm continuum source and a bipolar molecular outflow, both centered on the position of the candidate first hydrostatic core. The continuum detection has a total flux density of 26.6 ± 4.0 mJy, from which we calculate a total (gas and dust) mass of 0.11 ± 0.05 M ☉ and a mean number density of 2.0 ± 1.6 × 10 7 cm –3 . There is some evidence for the existence of an unresolved component in the continuum detection, but longer-baseline observations are required in order to confirm the presence of this component and determine whether its origin lies in a circumstellar disk or in the dense inner envelope. The bipolar molecular outflow is observed along a nearly due east-west axis. The outflow is slow (characteristic velocity of 2.9 km s –1 ), shows a jet-like morphology (opening semi-angles ∼8° for both lobes), and extends to the edges of the primary beam. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the outflow in the standard manner and compare them to several other protostars and candidate first hydrostatic cores with similarly low luminosities. We discuss the evidence both in support of and against the possibility that Per-Bolo 58 is a first hydrostatic core, and we outline future work needed to further evaluate the evolutionary status of this object.

  4. Bipolar outflow in B335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Kameya, O.; Nakayama, M.; Takakubo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The high-velocity (C-12)O (J = 1-0) emission in B335 with a high angular resolution of 16 arcsec has been mapped. The high-velocity emission shows distinct bipolar pattern centered at IRAS 19345+0727, toward which a strong high-velocity (C-12)O emission has been detected. The bipolar lobes delineate remarkable collimation toward the IRAS source, indicating that the flow is focused within 0.02 pc of the driving source. Each lobe is accompanied by significant wing emission with the opposite velocity shift, which clearly shows the association with IRAS 19345+0727. This feature is well explained as a bipolar flow the axis of which is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight. There is no evidence of another evolved bipolar flow which does not associate with any dense core as previously suggested. This suggests that B335 is a site of very recent star formation, containing a single bipolar flow with an age of about 30,000 yr. 15 references

  5. Molecular outflows in protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Y.; Iwata, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Kawabata, K.; Sugitani, K.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular outflow is an energetic mass-ejection phenomenon associated with very early stage of stellar evolution. The large kinetic energy involved in the phenomenon indicates that outflow may play an essential role in the process of star formation, particularly by extracting angular momentum. Most of the previous searches have been strongly biased toward optical or near-infrared signposts of star formation. They are not able, therefore, to provide the complete database necessary for a statistical study of the evolutionary status of molecular outflow. To overcome this difficulty, it is of vital importance to make an unbiased search of single molecular clouds for molecular outflows; here we report the final result of such a survey of the Lynds 1641 dark cloud. We show that molecular outflows are characterized by a total luminosity significantly greater than that of T Tauri stars. This indicates that molecular outflow corresponds to the main accretion phase of protostellar evolution, in which the luminosity excess is due to the gravitational energy released by dynamical mass accretion onto the protostellar core. (author)

  6. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  7. From bipolar to quadrupolar - The collimation processes of the Cepheus A outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Results of new K-band observations of the (1, 1) and (2, 2) ammonia lines toward Cepheus A are reported. The lines are mapped with approximately 2 arcsec of angular resolution and 0.3 km/s of velocity resolution. A sensitivity of 10 mJy has been achieved. The observations reveal details of the spatial and kinematics structure of the ambient high-density gas. It is suggested that the interstellar high-density gas is diverting and redirecting the outflow in the sense that the quadrupolar structure of the molecular outflow is produced by the interaction with the ammonia condensationss, with Cep A-1 and Cep A-3 splitting in two halves, respectively the blue- and redshifted lobes of an east-west bipolar molecular outflow.

  8. Compact radio and infrared sources near the centre of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, E.E.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Chavarria-K, C.; Neri, L.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-frequency study of the central region of the bipolar outflow NGC 2264D in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud has been made in an attempt to localize and understand its driving source. We have detected a weak (≅ 0.6 mJy) radio continuum source at 6 cm, using the VLA; a bright (≅ 270 Jy) H 2 O maser, using the Haystack Observatory telescope; and near-infrared counterparts to these sources at San Pedro Martir Observatory. Stromgren and JHKL'M photometry of stellar objects in the region was also carried out at this observatory. The star-like object W166, a probable Herbig Be/Ae star, which has strong Hα emission and a near-infrared excess, is located closest to the centroid of the bipolar outflow and is probably its driving source. (author)

  9. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Li, Di

    2014-01-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M J , which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10 –6 M ☉ to 2.9 × 10 –5 M ☉ and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 to 4.1 × 10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 . These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M J in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  10. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong [Department of Physics, International University-Vietnam National University HCM, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Di, E-mail: pbngoc@hcmiu.edu.vn, E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Chaoyang District Datun Rd A20, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  11. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry as well as the kinematical information, allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. Aims: We aim to determine the spatial distribution of different species that are of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim to determine the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim to determine the physical properties of the outflow. Methods: Maps from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ are detected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud also have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as the destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west of the protostellar condensation and is not associated with the outflow. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than ~1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy, and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

  12. Molecular outflows in the L1641 region of Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction between molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects and the parent molecular cloud that produced them. This is because molecular outflows are a recently discovered phenomenon and, so, have not had their global properties studied in great detail and molecular clouds were not mapped to sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the interaction. The interaction between molecular outflows and the L1641 molecular cloud is addressed by both identifying and mapping all the molecular outflows as well as the detailed structure of the cloud. Candidate molecular outflows were found from single point 12-CO observations of young stellar objects identified from the IRAS survey data. The candidate sources were then mapped to confirm their molecular outflow nature. From these maps, molecular outflow characteristics such as their morphology, orientation, and energetics were determined. In addition, the Orion molecular cloud was mapped to compare directly with the molecular outflows. The molecular outflows identified were found to have rising infrared spectra, radio continuum emission that suggests a stellar wind or optically thick H II region, and molecular line strengths that indicate that they are embedded within a very dense environment. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggests that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggest that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The orientations of the molecular outflows appear to lie in no preferred direction and they have shapes that indicate that the molecular cloud is responsible for determining their direction and collimation

  13. Ammonia toroid aligned perpendicular to the HH 1 and HH 2 bipolar outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrelles, J.M.; Canto, J.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Ho, P.T.P.; Moran, J.M.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1985-01-01

    The ammonia emission from the region containing the Herbig-Haro objects 1 and 2, which mark the presence of a bipolar outflow, was mapped. The ammonia observations delineate an elongated structure aligned perpendicular to the bipolar outflow. This ammonia condensation is centered between HH 1 and HH 2 and coincides with the recently discovered central radio continuum source. This continuum source has no optical counterpart. The ammonia spectrum at the position of the continuum source shows a remarkable splitting. Based on the orientation of the bipolar outflow, which is known to be oriented nearly perpendicular to the line of sight, and on theoretical considerations, it is concluded that the ammonia source is part of a toroid, viewed edge-on, in slow expansion driven by the wind pressure of the central source. This toroid may be the focusing mechanism for the bipolar outflow. Searches for ammonia condensations in the vicinity of other HH objects may help localize the energy sources of these systems. 26 references

  14. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Brinch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The lineradiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of thesystem taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ aredetected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, thecircumstellar envelope...... and the surrounding cloud also have a profoundimpact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ isdetected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region,perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO andH3+ in the densest regions as well as thedestruction of N2H+ by CO.N2D+ is detected in a ridge south...

  15. DISCOVERY OF AN EXTREMELY WIDE-ANGLE BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN AFGL 5142

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Chang-Won; Cho, Se-Hyung [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wu, Yuefang [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Goldsmith, Paul F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Li, Di [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, A20 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tatematsu, Ken’ichi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Wang, Ke [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Lee, Jeong-Eun [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Qin, Sheng-Li [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, and Key Laboratory of Astroparticle Physics of Yunnan Province, Kunming 650091 (China); Mardones, Diego, E-mail: liutiepku@gmail.com [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-06-10

    Most bipolar outflows are associated with individual young stellar objects and have small opening angles. Here we report the discovery of an extremely wide-angle (∼180°) bipolar outflow (“EWBO”) in a cluster forming region AFGL 5142 from low-velocity emission of the HCN (3–2) and HCO{sup +} (3–2) lines. This bipolar outflow is along a north-west to south-east direction with a line of sight flow velocity of about 3 km s{sup −1} and is spatially connected to the high-velocity jet-like outflows. It seems to be a collection of low-velocity material entrained by the high-velocity outflows due to momentum feedback. The total ejected mass and mass loss rate due to both high-velocity jet-like outflows and the “EWBO” are ∼24.5 M {sub ⊙} and ∼1.7 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively. Global collapse of the clump is revealed by the “blue profile” in the HCO{sup +} (1–0) line. A hierarchical network of filaments was identified in NH{sub 3} (1, 1) emission. Clear velocity gradients of the order of 10 km s{sup −1} pc{sup −1} are found along filaments, indicating gas inflow along the filaments. The sum of the accretion rate along filaments and mass infall rate along the line of sight is ∼3.1 × 10{sup −3} M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, which exceeds the total mass loss rate, indicating that the central cluster is probably still gaining mass. The central cluster is highly fragmented and 22 condensations are identified in 1.1 mm continuum emission. The fragmentation process seems to be determined by thermal pressure and turbulence. The magnetic field may not play an important role in fragmentation.

  16. Energetic molecular outflow near AFGL 961: millimeter-wave and infrared observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lada, C.J.; Gautier, T.N. III

    1982-01-01

    We report detailed millimeter-wave and near-infrared spectroscopy of the dynamically active region around the infrared source AFGL 961, near the Rosette nebula. Millimeter-wave 12 CO observations are used to study the high-velocity molecular flow around AFGL 961. These observations show that the high-velocity flow has a maximum extent of at least 6' or 2.9 pc at the distance of AFGL 961. The flow is found to be anisotropic, with redshifted high-velocity emission considerably more extended than blueshifted high-velocity emission. However, the flow does not appear to be as highly collimated as some other sources of high-velocity bipolar outflow. We also find the emission profiles to be asymmetric in velocity such that the integrated intensity of the redshifted high-velocity emission is on average 2.5 times greater than that of the blueshifted emission. The mass of the gas involved in the flow is determined to be approximately 19 M/sub sun/, and the kinetic energy of this gas is estimated to be about 8 x 10 46 ergs. These observations are interpreted as evidence that an energetic bipolar outflow of molecular gas is occurring near AFGL 961. The momentum of the outflowing molecular gas is large, and it is shown that this places strong constraints on possible physical mechanisms which may be driving the outflow. The near-infrared spectrum of AFGL 961 from 1.4-2.4 μm was obtained in order to study the conditions immediately around the infrared source which may be driving the molecular outflow

  17. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion

  18. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Nyland, K. E.; Graves, G.; Deustua, S.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a

  19. Further studies of the role of dense molecular clouds around outflow sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Torrelles, J.M.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Anglada, G.; Lopez, R.

    1989-01-01

    The (J,K) = (1,1) and (2,2) ammonia inversion transitions toward six regions with active star formation and evidence of gas outflows have been observed. Ammonia emission has been detected and mapped in five of these regions: AFGL 5142, AFGL 5157, AFGL 6366S, HHL 73, and S140N. NH3 (2,2) emission was detected toward the peak of the NH3 (1,1) core of AFGL 5157 and S140N. A rotational temperature of T(R) (2,2;1,1) = about 16 K was estimated for the two regions. Two new H2O masers of intense emission, S(nu) greater or equal 40 Jy, were detected toward the ammonia cores of AFGL 5142 and AFGL 5157. It is clear that the dense NH3 gas is closely associated with the star formation activities, since the ammonia cores in all peak close to the centers of activity. In particular, the AFGL 5157 ammonia condensation coincides with the geometrical center of a bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that the exciting source is embedded in the ammonia core. In contrast, the molecular outflow in the AFGL 6366S region is located at the southeast edge of the NH3 condensation, suggesting that the exciting source is outside the ammonia core and that the morphology of the outflow may be influenced by the interaction with the dense ambient gas. 52 refs

  20. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND ρ OPHIUCHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and ρ Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M J , which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10 -5 M sun and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10 -10 M sun . These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  1. SPATIALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS OF THE BIPOLAR OPTICAL OUTFLOW FROM THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J12073347–3932540

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Comeron, F.; Bacciotti, F.; Kavanagh, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of brown dwarf (BD) outflows provide information pertinent to questions on BD formation, as well as allowing outflow mechanisms to be investigated at the lowest masses. Here new observations of the bipolar outflow from the 24 M JUP BD 2MASS J12073347–3932540 are presented. The outflow was originally identified through the spectro-astrometric analysis of the [O I]λ6300 emission line. Follow-up observations consisting of spectra and [S II], R-band and I-band images were obtained. The new spectra confirm the original results and are used to constrain the outflow position angle (P.A.) at ∼65°. The [O I]λ6300 emission line region is spatially resolved and the outflow is detected in the [S II] images. The detection is firstly in the form of an elongation of the point-spread function (PSF) along the direction of the outflow P.A. Four faint knot-like features (labeled A-D) are also observed to the southwest of 2MASS J12073347–3932540 along the same P.A. suggested by the spectra and the elongation in the PSF. Interestingly, D, the feature furthest from the source, is bow shaped with the apex pointing away from 2MASS J12073347–3932540. A color-color analysis allows us to conclude that at least feature D is part of the outflow under investigation while A is likely a star or galaxy. Follow-up observations are needed to confirm the origin of B and C. This is a first for a BD, as BD optical outflows have to date only been detected using spectro-astrometry. This result also demonstrates for the first time that BD outflows can be collimated and episodic.

  2. Studying the outflow-core interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Dunham, Michael; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Corder, Stuartt; Offner, Stella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow which is driven by a low-mass Class 0/I protostar. Previous ALMA Cycle 0 12CO observation showed outflow cavities produced by the entrainment of ambient gas by the protostellar jet and wide-angle wind. Here we present analysis of observation of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and other species using combined 12m array and ACA observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity allow us to detect details of the outflow structure. Specially, we see that the outflow cavity wall is composed of two or more layers of outflowing gas, which separately connect to different shocked regions along the outflow axis inside the cavity, suggesting the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells entrained by a series of jet bow-shock events. The new 13CO and C18O data also allow us to trace relatively denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1 to 2 km/s from the cloud velocity, tracing the outflow to lower velocities than what is possible using only the 12CO emission. Interestingly, the cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low outflow velocities (as low as ~0.2 km/s). In addition, 13CO and C18O allow us to correct for the CO optical depth, allowing us to obtain more accurate estimates of the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction significantly increases the previous mass estimate by a factor of 14. The outflow kinetic energy distribution shows that even though the red lobe is mainly entrained by jet bow-shocks, most of the outflow energy is being deposited into the cloud at the base of the outflow cavity rather than around the heads of the bow shocks. The estimated total mass, momentum, and energy of the outflow indicate that the outflow has the ability to disperse the parent core. We found possible evidence for a slowly moving rotating outflow in CS. Our 13CO and C18O observations also trace a

  3. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  4. DISCOVERY OF COLLIMATED BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA TH 2-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2015-12-10

    We present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, integral field spectroscopic mapping of the Wolf–Rayet planetary nebula Th 2-A, obtained using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. Velocity-resolved Hα channel maps with a resolution of 20 km s{sup −1} allow us to identify different kinematic components within the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the nebula using the interactive kinematic modeling tool shape. These results suggest that Th 2-A has a thick toroidal shell with an expansion velocity of 40 ± 10 km s{sup −1}, and a thin prolate ellipsoid with collimated bipolar outflows toward its axis reaching velocities in the range of 70–110 km s{sup −1}, with respect to the central star. The relationship between its morpho-kinematic structure and peculiar [WO]-type stellar characteristics deserves further investigation.

  5. MHOs toward HMOs: A Search for Molecular Hydrogen Emission-Line Objects toward High-mass Outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department Adler Planetarium 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Arvidsson, Kim [Trull School of Sciences and Mathematics Schreiner University 2100 Memorial Blvd. Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States); Smutko, Michael, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.org [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), and Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2017-07-20

    We present the results of a narrow-band near-infrared imaging survey for Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) toward 26 regions containing high-mass protostellar candidates and massive molecular outflows. We have detected a total of 236 MHOs, 156 of which are new detections, in 22 out of the 26 regions. We use H{sub 2} 2.12 μ m/H{sub 2} 2.25 μ m flux ratios, together with morphology, to separate the signatures of fluorescence associated with photo-dissociation regions (PDRs) from shocks associated with outflows in order to identify the MHOs. PDRs have typical low flux ratios of ∼1.5–3, while the vast majority of MHOs display flux ratios typical of C-type shocks (∼6–20). A few MHOs exhibit flux ratios consistent with expected values for J-type shocks (∼3–4), but these are located in regions that may be contaminated with fluorescent emission. Some previously reported MHOs have low flux ratios, and are likely parts of PDRs rather than shocks indicative of outflows. We identify a total of 36 outflows across the 22 target regions where MHOs were detected. In over half these regions, MHO arrangements and fluorescent structures trace features present in CO outflow maps, suggesting that the CO emission traces a combination of dynamical effects, which may include gas entrained in expanding PDRs as well as bipolar outflows. Where possible, we link MHO complexes to distinct outflows and identify candidate driving sources.

  6. DENSE CLUMPS AND CANDIDATES FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Hara, Chihomi; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sugitani, Kouji, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of the {sup 12}CO (J = 3−2) and HCO{sup +} (J = 4−3) observations of the W40 H ii region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope (HPBW ≃ 22″) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps. We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V{sub LSR} ≃ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km s{sup −1}. The ∼7 km s{sup −1} component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surrounding the entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the {sup 12}CO spectra over the velocity range 6 ≲ V{sub LSR} ≲ 9 km s{sup −1}. The ∼5 and ∼10 km s{sup −1} components exhibit high {sup 12}CO temperature (≳40 K) and are found mostly around the H ii region, suggesting that these components are likely to be tracing dense gas interacting with the expanding shell around the H ii region. Based on the {sup 12}CO data, we identified 13 regions of high velocity gas, which we interpret as candidate outflow lobes. Using the HCO{sup +} data, we also identified six clumps and estimated their physical parameters. On the basis of the ASTE data and near-infrared images from 2MASS, we present an updated three-dimensional model of this region. In order to investigate molecular outflows in W40, the SiO (J = 1−0, v = 0) emission line and some other emission lines at 40 GHz were also observed with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, but they were not detected at the present sensitivity.

  7. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We report the results from a systematic search for molecular (OH 119 micron) outflows with Herschel/PACS in a sample of 43 nearby (z 11.8 +/- 0.3]. The quasars in these systems play a dominant role in driving the molecular outflows. However, the most AGN dominated systems, where OH is seen purely in emission, show relatively modest OH line widths, despite their large AGN luminosities, perhaps indicating that molecular outflows subside once the quasar has cleared a path through the obscuring material.

  8. MULTIPLE FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Huang, Po-Sheng [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sánchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Tay, Jeremy Jian Hao [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2013-11-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. It has multiple highly collimated optical lobes, fast molecular outflows along the optical lobes, and an extended molecular envelope that consists of a dense torus in the equator and a tenuous round halo. Here we present our observations of this source in CO J = 3-2 and HCN J = 4-3 obtained with the Submillimeter Array at up to ∼0.''3 resolutions. We spatially resolve the fast molecular outflow region previously detected in CO near the central star and find it to be composed of multiple outflows that have similar dynamical ages and are oriented along the different optical lobes. We also detect fast molecular outflows further away from the central star near the tips of the extended optical lobes and a pair of equatorial outflows inside the dense torus. We find that two episodes of bullet ejections in different directions are needed, one producing the fast molecular outflows near the central star and one producing the fast molecular outflows near the tips of the extended optical lobes. One possibility to launch these bullets is a magneto-rotational explosion of the stellar envelope.

  9. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahai, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 183-900, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Patel, N. A., E-mail: raghvendra.sahai@jpl.nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  10. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN IRAS 16293–2422

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girart, Josep M.; Palau, Aina; Torrelles, José M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (UB-IEEC), Martí i Franquès, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Rao, Ramprasad, E-mail: girart@ice.cat [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 645 N. Aohoku Pl., Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    We present CO 3-2, SiO 8-7, C{sup 34}S 7-6, and 878 μm dust continuum subarcsecond angular resolution observations with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the IRAS 16293–2422 (I16293) multiple low-mass protostellar system. The C{sup 34}S emission traces the 878 μm dust continuum well, and in addition clearly shows a smooth velocity gradient along the major axis of component I16293A. CO shows emission at moderate high velocities arising from two bipolar outflows, which appear to be perpendicular with respect to each other. The high sensitivity and higher angular resolution of these observations allows us to pinpoint well the origin of these two outflows at the center of component I16293A. Interestingly, the most compact outflow appears to point toward I16293B. Our data show that the previously reported monopolar blueshifted CO outflow associated with component I16293B seems to be part of the compact outflow arising from component I16293A. In addition, the SiO emission is also tracing this compact outflow: on the one hand, the SiO emission appears to have a jet-like morphology along the southern redshifted lobe; on the other hand, the SiO emission associated with the blueshifted northern lobe traces a well-defined arc on the border of component I16293B facing I16293A. The blueshifted CO lobe of the compact outflow splits into two lobes around the position of this SiO arc. All these results lead us to propose that the compact outflow from component I16293A is impacting on the circumstellar gas around component I16293B, possibly being diverged as a consequence of the interaction.

  11. A 3D view of the outflow in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, H.D.; Cunningham, N.J.; Sherson, Maiken Gustafsson

    2012-01-01

    and proper motion data for near-IR emission of molecular hydrogen to obtain the first 3-dimensional (3D) structure of the OMC-1 outflow. Our work illustrates a new diagnostic tool for studies of star formation that will be exploited in the near future with the advent of high spatial resolution spectro...... Observatory, the Anglo-Australian Observatory and the Subaru Telescope. These data give the 3D velocity of ejecta yielding a 3D reconstruction of the outflows. This allows one to view the material from different vantage points in space giving considerable insight into the geometry. Our analysis indicates......The fast outflow emerging from a region associated with massive star formation in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1 (OMC-1), located behind the Orion Nebula, appears to have been set in motion by an explosive event. Here we study the structure and dynamics of outflows in OMC-1. We combine radial velocity...

  12. MAGNETIC NESTED-WIND SCENARIOS FOR BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS: PREPLANETARY AND YSO NEBULAR SHAPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, Timothy J.; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; DeMarco, Orsola; Balick, Bruce; Mitran, Sorin

    2009-01-01

    We present results of a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic (HD) 2.5 dimensional simulations of the morphology of outflows driven by nested wide-angle winds, i.e., winds that emanate from a central star as well as from an orbiting accretion disk. While our results are broadly relevant to nested-wind systems, we have tuned the parameters of the simulations to touch on issues in both young stellar objects and planetary nebula (PN) studies. In particular, our studies connect to open issues in the early evolution of PNs. We find that nested MHD winds exhibit marked morphological differences from the single MHD wind case along both dimensions of the flow. Nested HD winds, on the other hand, give rise mainly to geometric distortions of an outflow that is topologically similar to the flow arising from a single stellar HD wind. Our MHD results are insensitive to changes in ambient temperature between ionized and un-ionized circumstellar environments. The results are sensitive to the relative mass-loss rates and the relative speeds of the stellar and disk winds. We also present synthetic emission maps of both nested MHD and HD simulations. We find that nested MHD winds show knots of emission appearing on-axis that do not appear in the HD case.

  13. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan RD, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang, E-mail: cggan@shao.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radio Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China)

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  14. Bipolar outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon - Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG). This theory is built on Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown that the ASTG is capable of explaining, from a purely classical physics standpoint, the precession of the perihelion of solar planets as a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG, under some critical conditions determined by the spin, do possess repulsive gravitational fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG on an interesting pedestal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. Outflows are a ubiquitous phenomenon found in star forming systems and their true origin is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origin, the direction that the present paper takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift because gravitation is not at all associated with this process, but rather it is thought to be an all-attractive force that only tries to squash matter together onto a single point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at ∼ 8-10 M sun , radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk and from there, this material will be channeled onto the forming star via the equatorial plane, thus accretion of mass continues well past the value of ∼ 8-10 M sun , albeit via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included) on any

  15. Characterizing the origin and impact of the most extreme molecular outflows in the nearby universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowardhan, Avani; Riechers, Dominik A.; Spoon, Henrik; Farrah, Duncan

    2018-01-01

    Observations over the last decade have revealed that feedback in the form of molecular gas outflows is ubiquitous in local ultra luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Such outflows can clear the nuclear environments of gas and dust, quench star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth, and they are a key step in the evolution of dust-obscured AGN to optically luminous quasars. We here present multi-spectral line observations of feedback in the two most powerful molecular gas outflows in the local universe. We spatially resolve the outflows to determine their kinematics and structure and find that they can drive out the molecular gas and quench star formation within ~ few Myr. Applying mid-IR diagnostics to constrain the relative contributions of AGN and nuclear starburst activity, we find that starburst activity plays a significant role in driving the outflow. We discuss the implications for future studies of feedback in the local universe and obscured AGN at high redshift, which is a key target population for JWST and ALMA over the next decade.

  16. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg 2 . In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  17. Molecular Gas toward the Gemini OB1 Molecular Cloud Complex. II. CO Outflow Candidates with Possible WISE Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjie; Li, Fa-Cheng; Xu, Ye; Wang, Chen; Du, Xin-Yu; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    We present a large-scale survey of CO outflows in the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex and its surroundings, using the Purple Mountain Observatory Delingha 13.7 m telescope. A total of 198 outflow candidates were identified over a large area (∼58.5 square degrees), of which 193 are newly detected. Approximately 68% (134/198) are associated with the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex, including clouds GGMC 1, GGMC 2, BFS 52, GGMC 3, and GGMC 4. Other regions studied are: the Local arm (Local Lynds, West Front), Swallow, Horn, and Remote cloud. Outflow candidates in GGMC 1, BFS 52, and Swallow are mainly located at ring-like or filamentary structures. To avoid excessive uncertainty in distant regions (≳3.8 kpc), we only estimated the physical parameters for clouds in the Gem OB1 molecular cloud complex and in the Local arm. In those clouds, the total kinetic energy and the energy injection rate of the identified outflow candidates are ≲1% and ≲3% of the turbulent energy and the turbulent dissipation rate of each cloud, indicating that the identified outflow candidates cannot provide enough energy to balance turbulence of their host cloud at the scale of the entire cloud (several to dozens of parsecs). The gravitational binding energy of each cloud is ≳135 times the total kinetic energy of the identified outflow candidates within the corresponding cloud, indicating that the identified outflow candidates cannot cause major disruptions to the integrity of their host cloud at the scale of the entire cloud.

  18. Stellar feedback as the origin of an extended molecular outflow in a starburst galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, J E; Hickox, R C; Diamond-Stanic, A M; Krips, M; Rudnick, G H; Tremonti, C A; Sell, P H; Coil, A L; Moustakas, J

    2014-12-04

    Recent observations have revealed that starburst galaxies can drive molecular gas outflows through stellar radiation pressure. Molecular gas is the phase of the interstellar medium from which stars form, so these outflows curtail stellar mass growth in galaxies. Previously known outflows, however, involve small fractions of the total molecular gas content and have typical scales of less than a kiloparsec. In at least some cases, input from active galactic nuclei is dynamically important, so pure stellar feedback (the momentum return into the interstellar medium) has been considered incapable of rapidly terminating star formation on galactic scales. Molecular gas has been detected outside the galactic plane of the archetypal starburst galaxy M82 (refs 4 and 5), but so far there has been no evidence that starbursts can propel substantial quantities of cold molecular gas to the same galactocentric radius (about 10 kiloparsecs) as the warmer gas that has been traced by metal ion absorbers in the circumgalactic medium. Here we report observations of molecular gas in a compact (effective radius 100 parsecs) massive starburst galaxy at redshift 0.7, which is known to drive a fast outflow of ionized gas. We find that 35 per cent of the total molecular gas extends approximately 10 kiloparsecs, and one-third of this extended gas has a velocity of up to 1,000 kilometres per second. The kinetic energy associated with this high-velocity component is consistent with the momentum flux available from stellar radiation pressure. This demonstrates that nuclear bursts of star formation are capable of ejecting large amounts of cold gas from the central regions of galaxies, thereby strongly affecting their evolution by truncating star formation and redistributing matter.

  19. Study of Outflow and Molecular Lines from the Observations of BHR71 by The Herschel Key Program,``Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time" (DIGIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Lun; Green, Joel D.

    2014-07-01

    The infall and outflow processes initiated by the collapse a dense core are widely observed in Class 0 protostars, and significantly change the density and temperature structure of the prestellar core as well as the following disk and envelope evolution. Since the Class 0 protostars are usually embedded in the cold molecular envelope preventing them from being observed at visible or near-IR wavelengths, the spectral analyses of the far-IR spectra provide us a window to look through the envelope and constrain the physical properties of the envelope and the core. BHR71, a Class 0 embedded protostar, is located in an isolated neighborhood with a collimated bipolar outflow and shows a rich far-IR spectrum as observed in the DIGIT program (PI: Neal Evans) with Herschel. It has numerous molecular and atomic features that can constrain its physical properties and the density structure well. In this research, we developed a robust data reduction (Green et al. 2013a, b) and automatic line fitting package that ensures all of the molecular and atomic lines are extracted to the same standard and it can be easily used for any other protostars observed by Herschel as well. We found 44 and 28 emission lines in the central spaxel in the PACS and the SPIRE bands respectively, including CO, 13CO, OH, and H2O. The extended feature observed at low-J CO and several H2O lines are consistent to the outflow direction but less collimated and a heterogeneous environment is concluded from the rotational diagram analysis. A dust Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulation using RADMC-3D will reveal the embedded structure with a dust density profile of a flared disk and a spherical envelope with bipolar outflow cavity. We will use a line radiative transfer simulation for multiple species to constrain the chemical abundance distributions and their temperature profiles.With high sensitivity spatial resolved spectra and simulated internal structure analysis of BHR71 will provide a good test of

  20. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub int} {<=} 0.1 L{sub Sun }). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2 {yields} 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

  1. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L int ≤ 0.1 L ☉ ). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D 12 CO and 13 CO J = 2 → 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

  2. The Origin of Fast Molecular Outflows in Quasars: Molecule Formation in AGN-Driven Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richings, Alexander James; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    2017-07-01

    Observations of AGN host galaxies have detected fast molecular outflows, with velocities up to 1000 km s-1. However, the origin of these molecular outflows is currently unclear. One possibility is that they are formed from molecular gas that is swept up from the host galaxy by the AGN wind. However, previous studies have suggested that molecular clouds that are swept up by an AGN wind are unlikely to survive being accelerated to such high velocities. An alternative scenario is that molecules may form within the AGN wind material itself. We present a suite of 3D hydrodynamic simulations of an idealised AGN wind that we have run to explore this scenario. These simulations are coupled to a time-dependent chemical model to follow the creation and destruction of molecules, including H2, CO, OH and HCO+. We find that molecules do form within the wind, with molecular outflow rates up to 140 M⊙ yr-1 after 1 Myr. This is sensitive to the ambient ISM density, metallicity, and AGN luminosity. We also compute observable CO emission lines from these simulations using a radiative transfer code in post-processing. The CO-derived outflow rates are comparable to those seen in observations, although the maximum line of sight velocities are a factor ≍2 lower than observed. We find a CO (1-0) to H2 conversion factor of αCO = 0.15 M⊙ (K km s-1 pc2)-1 at solar metallicity, 5 times lower than is typically assumed in observations of such systems.

  3. Search for molecular outflows associated with peculiar nebulosities and regions of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles, J M; Rodriguez, L F; Canto, J; Marcaide, J; Gyulbudaghian, A L

    1983-01-01

    We surveyed an extensive list of peculiar nebulosities and regions of star formation searching for conspicuous cases of high-velocity carbon monoxide emission. We detected an apparently isotropic outflow associated with the star-forming region GL 2591. Among the other sources surveyed, the cometary nebula GM 24 is of interest since it is located in a very hot molecular spot where formation of massive stars took place recently.

  4. Massive Molecular Outflows and Evidence for AGN Feedback from CO Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    outflows of the molecular phase out of which stars form, which in most galaxies also represents the bulk of the ISM; moreover the spectro -imaging...method for estimating the integrated flux and the spa- tial extension of the CO(1–0) wings relies almost exclusively on the analysis of the uv ...the 3 mm continuum emission from the line-free frequency ranges in our wide-band (WideX) observations, and then subtract it directly from the uv data

  5. Circumstellar Disks and Outflows in Turbulent Molecular Cloud Cores: Possible Formation Mechanism for Misaligned Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Tomoaki [Faculty of Sustainability Studies, Hosei University, Fujimi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8160 (Japan); Machida, Masahiro N. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro, E-mail: matsu@hosei.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We investigate the formation of circumstellar disks and outflows subsequent to the collapse of molecular cloud cores with the magnetic field and turbulence. Numerical simulations are performed by using an adaptive mesh refinement to follow the evolution up to ∼1000 years after the formation of a protostar. In the simulations, circumstellar disks are formed around the protostars; those in magnetized models are considerably smaller than those in nonmagnetized models, but their size increases with time. The models with stronger magnetic fields tend to produce smaller disks. During evolution in the magnetized models, the mass ratios of a disk to a protostar is approximately constant at ∼1%–10%. The circumstellar disks are aligned according to their angular momentum, and the outflows accelerate along the magnetic field on the 10–100 au scale; this produces a disk that is misaligned with the outflow. The outflows are classified into two types: a magnetocentrifugal wind and a spiral flow. In the latter, because of the geometry, the axis of rotation is misaligned with the magnetic field. The magnetic field has an internal structure in the cloud cores, which also causes misalignment between the outflows and the magnetic field on the scale of the cloud core. The distribution of the angular momentum vectors in a core also has a non-monotonic internal structure. This should create a time-dependent accretion of angular momenta onto the circumstellar disk. Therefore, the circumstellar disks are expected to change their orientation as well as their sizes in the long-term evolutions.

  6. Model for collimated outflows in molecular clouds and the case of HH 7-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, G; Ferrari, A; Rosner, R; Trussoni, E; Tsinganos, K

    1987-01-15

    Modelling is carried out for collimated outflows of high-velocity gas in molecular clouds, which is often observed to be associated with linear chains of optical emission knots. A wind-flow model is proposed to account for the phenomenon, based on the structural similarities between the outflows and jets from active galactic nuclei and quasars. The chain of Herbig-Haro objects HH7-11 is used to illustrate the proposal. The model is based on flows in a channel of variable cross-sectional area due to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities between the flow and the ambient medium. Solutions of the Mach number equation for such a channel are presented, which possess multiple critical points and shocks identified with observed optical knots. (U.K.).

  7. Molecular Outflow and Feedback in an Obscured Quasar at z˜1.5 Revealed by ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusa, Marcella

    2017-11-01

    We imaged with ALMA and ARGOS/LUCI the molecular gas and the dust and stellar continuum in XID2028, an obscured QSO at z=1.593, where the presence of a massive outflow in the ionized gas component traced by the [O III]5007 emission has been resolved up to 10 kpc. This target does represent a unique test case to study QSO 'feedback in action' at the peak epoch of AGN- galaxy coevolution. The QSO has been detected both in the CO(5-4) transition and in the 1.3mm continuum, with emissions confined in the central ( consumption conditions in XID2028, possibly due to feedback effects on the host galaxy. Finally, we observe an asymmetric profile of the CO(5-4) line, which suggests the presence of high velocity gas up to 700 km/s. An image of the blueshfited and redshifted CO wings provides the first detection of a spatially resolved, galaxy-scale molecular outflow at high-z, extended in opposite directions with the approaching component spatially coincident with the ionised gas outflow. The resolved, molecular outflow appear to be cospatial with the component observed int the ionised gas. XID2028 therefore represents the first example of molecular and ionised kpc scales outflows at high-z.

  8. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COMPACT MOLECULAR OUTFLOW FROM A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT: L1521F-IRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Ohashi, Nagayoshi [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Bourke, Tyler L., E-mail: satoko.takahashi@nao.ac.jp [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Studying the physical conditions of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub bol} < 0.1 L{sub Sun }) is important for understanding the earliest evolutionary stage of protostars and brown dwarfs. We report interferometric observations of the VeLLO L1521F-IRS, in {sup 12}CO (2-1) line emission and the 1.3 mm continuum emission, using the Submillimeter Array. With the {sup 12}CO (2-1) high-resolution observations, we have spatially resolved a compact but poorly collimated molecular outflow associated with L1521F-IRS for the first time. The blueshifted and redshifted lobes are aligned along the east and west side of L1521F-IRS with a lobe size of Almost-Equal-To 1000 AU. The estimated outflow mass, maximum outflow velocity, and outflow force are (9.0-80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M{sub Sun }, 7.2 km s{sup -1}, and (7.4-66) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1} yr{sup -1}, respectively. The estimated outflow parameters such as size, mass, and momentum rate are similar to values derived for other VeLLOs, and are located at the lower end of values compared to previously studied outflows associated with low- to high-mass star-forming regions. Low-velocity less collimated (1.5 km s{sup -1}/1200 AU) and higher-velocity compact (4.0 km s{sup -1}/920 AU) outflow components are suggested by the data. These velocity structures are not consistent with those expected in the jet-driven or wind-driven outflow models, perhaps suggesting a remnant outflow from the first hydrostatic core as well as an undeveloped outflow from the protostar. Detection of an infrared source and compact millimeter continuum emission suggests the presence of the protostar, while its low bolometric luminosity (0.034-0.07 L{sub Sun }) and small outflow suggests that L1521F is in the earliest protostellar stage (<10{sup 4} yr) and contains a substellar mass object. The bolometric (or internal) luminosity of L1521F-IRS suggests that the current mass accretion rate is an order of

  9. CHEMICALLY DISTINCT NUCLEI AND OUTFLOWING SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS IN Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Garcia-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Planesas, P. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Carpio, J. Graciá; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5 mm and 1.2 mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, imaging the two nuclear disks in H{sup 13}CN(1-0) and (3-2), H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(1-0) and (3-2), and HN{sup 13}C(3-2) as well as SiO(2-1) and (6-5), HC{sup 15}N(3-2), and SO(6{sub 6}-5{sub 5}). The gas traced by SiO(6-5) has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO{sup +}(3-2). Spatial offsets 0.''1 north and south of the continuum center in the emission and absorption of the SiO(6-5) P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of ∼40 pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO(6-5) and H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(3-2) by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} emission throughout our analysis. Large velocity gradient modeling is used to constrain the physical conditions of the gas and to infer abundance ratios in the two nuclei. Our most conservative lower limit on the [H{sup 13}CN]/[H{sup 13}CO{sup +}] abundance ratio is 11 in the WN, compared with 0.10 in the eastern nucleus (EN). Comparing these ratios to the literature we argue on chemical grounds for an energetically significant active galactic nucleus in the WN driving either X-ray or shock chemistry, and a dominant starburst in the EN.

  10. The combined effect of AGN and supernovae feedback in launching massive molecular outflows in high-redshift galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernacki, Pawel; Teyssier, Romain

    2018-04-01

    We have recently improved our model of active galactic nucleus (AGN) by attaching the supermassive black hole (SMBH) to a massive nuclear star cluster (NSC). Here, we study the effects of this new model in massive, gas-rich galaxies with several simulations of different feedback recipes with the hydrodynamics code RAMSES. These simulations are compared to a reference simulation without any feedback, in which the cooling halo gas is quickly consumed in a burst of star formation. In the presence of strong supernovae (SN) feedback, we observe the formation of a galactic fountain that regulates star formation over a longer period, but without halting it. If only AGN feedback is considered, as soon as the SMBH reaches a critical mass, strong outflows of hot gas are launched and prevent the cooling halo gas from reaching the disc, thus efficiently halting star formation, leading to the so-called `quenching'. If both feedback mechanisms act in tandem, we observe a non-linear coupling, in the sense that the dense gas in the supernovae-powered galactic fountain is propelled by the hot outflow powered by the AGN at much larger radii than without AGN. We argue that these particular outflows are able to unbind dense gas from the galactic halo, thanks to the combined effect of SN and AGN feedback. We speculate that this mechanism occurs at the end of the fast growing phase of SMBH, and is at the origin of the dense molecular outflows observed in many massive high-redshift galaxies.

  11. Cortical GABA markers identify a molecular subtype of psychotic and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, D W; Sampson, A R; Zhang, Y; Edelson, J R; Lewis, D A

    2016-09-01

    Deficits in gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuron-related markers, including the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67, the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin, the neuropeptide somatostatin, and the transcription factor Lhx6, are most pronounced in a subset of schizophrenia subjects identified as having a 'low GABA marker' (LGM) molecular phenotype. Furthermore, schizophrenia shares degrees of genetic liability, clinical features and cortical circuitry abnormalities with schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder. Therefore, we determined the extent to which a similar LGM molecular phenotype may also exist in subjects with these disorders. Transcript levels for GAD67, parvalbumin, somatostatin, and Lhx6 were quantified using quantitative PCR in prefrontal cortex area 9 of 184 subjects with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 39), schizoaffective disorder (n = 23) or bipolar disorder (n = 35), or with a confirmed absence of any psychiatric diagnoses (n = 87). A blinded clustering approach was employed to determine the presence of a LGM molecular phenotype across all subjects. Approximately 49% of the subjects with schizophrenia, 48% of the subjects with schizoaffective disorder, and 29% of the subjects with bipolar disorder, but only 5% of unaffected subjects, clustered in the cortical LGM molecular phenotype. These findings support the characterization of psychotic and bipolar disorders by cortical molecular phenotype which may help elucidate more pathophysiologically informed and personalized medications.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Molecular Clouds Regulated by Radiation Feedback Forces. II. Radiation-Gas Interactions and Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskutti, Sudhir; Ostriker, Eve C.; Skinner, M. Aaron

    2017-12-01

    Momentum deposition by radiation pressure from young, massive stars may help to destroy molecular clouds and unbind stellar clusters by driving large-scale outflows. We extend our previous numerical radiation hydrodynamic study of turbulent star-forming clouds to analyze the detailed interaction between non-ionizing UV radiation and the cloud material. Our simulations trace the evolution of gas and star particles through self-gravitating collapse, star formation, and cloud destruction via radiation-driven outflows. These models are idealized in that we include only radiation feedback and adopt an isothermal equation of state. Turbulence creates a structure of dense filaments and large holes through which radiation escapes, such that only ˜50% of the radiation is (cumulatively) absorbed by the end of star formation. The surface density distribution of gas by mass as seen by the central cluster is roughly lognormal with {σ }{ln{{Σ }}}=1.3{--}1.7, similar to the externally projected surface density distribution. This allows low surface density regions to be driven outwards to nearly 10 times their initial escape speed {v}{esc}. Although the velocity distribution of outflows is broadened by the lognormal surface density distribution, the overall efficiency of momentum injection to the gas cloud is reduced because much of the radiation escapes. The mean outflow velocity is approximately twice the escape speed from the initial cloud radius. Our results are also informative for understanding galactic-scale wind driving by radiation, in particular, the relationship between velocity and surface density for individual outflow structures and the resulting velocity and mass distributions arising from turbulent sources.

  13. HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CO J = 7-6 EMISSION FROM THE ORION HOT CORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Ray S.; Shinnaga, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    Using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory 10.4 m telescope, we performed sensitive mapping observations of 12 CO J = 7-6 emission at 807 GHz toward Orion IRc2. The image has an angular resolution of 10'', which is the highest angular resolution data toward the Orion Hot Core published for this transition. In addition, thanks to the on-the-fly mapping technique, the fidelity of the new image is rather high, particularly in comparison with previous images. We have succeeded in mapping the northwest-southeast high-velocity molecular outflow, whose terminal velocity is shifted by ∼70-85 km s -1 with respect to the systemic velocity of the cloud. This yields an extremely short dynamical time scale of ∼900 years. The estimated outflow mass loss rate shows an extraordinarily high value, on the order of 10 -3 M sun yr -1 . Assuming that the outflow is driven by Orion IRc2, our result agrees with the picture so far obtained for a 20 M sun (proto)star in the process of formation.

  14. Geometry of anisotropic CO outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liseau, R.; Sandell, G.; Helsinki Univ., Observatory, Finland)

    1986-01-01

    A simple geometrical model for the space motions of the bipolar high-velocity CO outflows in regions of recent, active star formation is proposed. It is assumed that the velocity field of the neutral gas component can be represented by large-scale uniform motions. From observations of the spatial distribution and from the characteristics of the line shape of the high-velocity molecular gas emission the geometry of the line-emitting regions can be inferred, i.e., the direction in space and the collimating angle of the flow. The model has been applied to regions where a check on presently obtained results is provided by independent optical determinations of the motions of Herbig-Haro objects associated with the CO flows. These two methods are in good agreement and, furthermore, the results obtained provide convincingly strong evidence for the physical association of CO outflows and Herbig-Haro objects. This also supports the common view that a young stellar central source is responsible for the active phenomena observed in its environmental neighborhood. It is noteworthy that within the framework of the model the determination of the flow geometry of the high-velocity gas from CO measurements is independent of the distance to the source and, furthermore, can be done at relatively low spatial resolution. 32 references

  15. Probing the Molecular Outflows of the Coldest Known Object in the Universe: The Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.; Huggins, P.

    2012-05-01

    The Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, and an extreme member of the class of Pre-Planetary Nebulae, objects which represent a short-lived transitional phase between the AGB and Planetary Nebula evolutionary stages. The Boomerang's estimated prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar masses/year) and low-luminosity (300 Lsun) lack an explanation in terms of current paradigms for dusty mass-loss and standard evolutionary theory of intermediate-mass stars. Single-dish CO J=1-0 observations (with a 45 arcsec beam) show that the high-speed outflow in this object has cooled to a temperature significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We report on our high-resolution ALMA mapping of the CO lines in this ultra-cold nebula to determine the origin of these extreme conditions and robustly confirm current estimates of the fundamental physical properties of its ultra-cold outflow.

  16. The multi-phase winds of Markarian 231: from the hot, nuclear, ultra-fast wind to the galaxy-scale, molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Carniani, S.; Piconcelli, E.; Zappacosta, L.; Bongiorno, A.; Cicone, C.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Menci, N.; Puccetti, S.; Veilleux, S.

    2015-11-01

    Mrk 231 is a nearby ultra-luminous IR galaxy exhibiting a kpc-scale, multi-phase AGN-driven outflow. This galaxy represents the best target to investigate in detail the morphology and energetics of powerful outflows, as well as their still poorly-understood expansion mechanism and impact on the host galaxy. In this work, we present the best sensitivity and angular resolution maps of the molecular disk and outflow of Mrk 231, as traced by CO(2-1) and (3-2) observations obtained with the IRAM/PdBI. In addition, we analyze archival deep Chandra and NuSTAR X-ray observations. We use this unprecedented combination of multi-wavelength data sets to constrain the physical properties of both the molecular disk and outflow, the presence of a highly-ionized ultra-fast nuclear wind, and their connection. The molecular CO(2-1) outflow has a size of 1 kpc, and extends in all directions around the nucleus, being more prominent along the south-west to north-east direction, suggesting a wide-angle biconical geometry. The maximum projected velocity of the outflow is nearly constant out to 1 kpc, thus implying that the density of the outflowing material must decrease from the nucleus outwards as r-2. This suggests that either a large part of the gas leaves the flow during its expansion or that the bulk of the outflow has not yet reached out to 1 kpc, thus implying a limit on its age of 1 Myr. Mapping the mass and energy rates of the molecular outflow yields dot {M} OF = [500-1000] M⊙ yr-1 and Ėkin,OF = [7-10] × 1043 erg s-1. The total kinetic energy of the outflow is Ekin,OF is of the same order of the total energy of the molecular disk, Edisk. Remarkably, our analysis of the X-ray data reveals a nuclear ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with velocity -20 000 km s-1, dot {M}UFO = [0.3-2.1] M⊙ yr-1, and momentum load dot {P}UFO/ dot {P}rad = [0.2-1.6]. We find Ėkin,UFO Ėkin,OF as predicted for outflows undergoing an energy conserving expansion. This suggests that most of the UFO

  17. Quasar Feedback in the Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxy F11119+3257: Connecting the Accretion Disk Wind with the Large-scale Molecular Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Bolatto, A.; Tombesi, F.; Meléndez, M.; Sturm, E.; González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Rupke, D. S. N.

    2017-07-01

    In Tombesi et al., we reported the first direct evidence for a quasar accretion disk wind driving a massive (>100 M ⊙ yr-1) molecular outflow. The target was F11119+3257, an ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) with unambiguous type 1 quasar optical broad emission lines. The energetics of the accretion disk wind and molecular outflow were found to be consistent with the predictions of quasar feedback models where the molecular outflow is driven by a hot energy-conserving bubble inflated by the inner quasar accretion disk wind. However, this conclusion was uncertain because the mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of the outflowing molecular gas were estimated from the optically thick OH 119 μm transition profile observed with Herschel. Here, we independently confirm the presence of the molecular outflow in F11119+3257, based on the detection of ˜±1000 km s-1 blue- and redshifted wings in the CO(1-0) emission line profile derived from deep ALMA observations obtained in the compact array configuration (˜2.″8 resolution). The broad CO(1-0) line emission appears to be spatially extended on a scale of at least ˜7 kpc from the center. Mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and mechanical power of (80-200) {R}7-1 M ⊙ yr-1, (1.5-3.0) {R}7-1 L AGN/c, and (0.15-0.40)% {R}7-1 {L}{AGN}, respectively, are inferred from these data, assuming a CO-to-H2 conversion factor appropriate for a ULIRG (R 7 is the radius of the outflow normalized to 7 kpc, and L AGN is the AGN luminosity). These rates are time-averaged over a flow timescale of 7 × 106 yr. They are similar to the OH-based rates time-averaged over a flow timescale of 4 × 105 yr, but about a factor of 4 smaller than the local (“instantaneous” ≲105 yr) OH-based estimates cited in Tombesi et al. The implications of these new results are discussed in the context of time-variable quasar-mode feedback and galaxy evolution. The need for an energy-conserving bubble to explain the molecular outflow

  18. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES: JET AND MOLECULAR OUTFLOW ASSOCIATED WITH A YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT IN CORE A OF L1251

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Il-Suk; Choi, Yunhee; Lee, Ho-Gyu; Shinn, Jong-Ho; Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Kim, Chang Hee; Bourke, Tyler L.

    2010-01-01

    A long infrared jet has been discovered by the Spitzer c2d Legacy Program in core A of L1251. It is associated with a very embedded Class 0 object with an accretion luminosity of about 0.9 L sun derived by radiative transfer model fitting to the observed spectral energy distribution. Comparing the observed Infrared Array Camera colors along the infrared jet with those calculated from a model of an admixture of gas with a power-law temperature distribution indicates that the jet is possibly created by a paraboloidal bow shock propagating into the ambient medium of n(H 2 ) = 10 5 cm -3 . In addition, the variation of the power-law index along the jet suggests that the portion of hot gas decreases with distance from the jet engine. The molecular outflow in this region has been mapped for the first time using CO data. From the calculated outflow momentum flux, a very strong lower limit to the average accretion luminosity is 3.6 sin i/cos 3 i L sun , indicative of a decrease in the accretion rate with time.

  19. Molecular pathways involved in neuronal cell adhesion and membrane scaffolding contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dushlaine, C

    2011-03-01

    Susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may involve a substantial, shared contribution from thousands of common genetic variants, each of small effect. Identifying whether risk variants map to specific molecular pathways is potentially biologically informative. We report a molecular pathway analysis using the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ratio test, which compares the ratio of nominally significant (P<0.05) to nonsignificant SNPs in a given pathway to identify the \\'enrichment\\' for association signals. We applied this approach to the discovery (the International Schizophrenia Consortium (n=6909)) and validation (Genetic Association Information Network (n=2729)) of schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets. We investigated each of the 212 experimentally validated pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes in the discovery sample. Nominally significant pathways were tested in the validation sample, and five pathways were found to be significant (P=0.03-0.001); only the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway withstood conservative correction for multiple testing. Interestingly, this pathway was also significantly associated with bipolar disorder (Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (n=4847)) (P=0.01). At a gene level, CAM genes associated in all three samples (NRXN1 and CNTNAP2), which were previously implicated in specific language disorder, autism and schizophrenia. The CAM pathway functions in neuronal cell adhesion, which is critical for synaptic formation and normal cell signaling. Similar pathways have also emerged from a pathway analysis of autism, suggesting that mechanisms involved in neuronal cell adhesion may contribute broadly to neurodevelopmental psychiatric phenotypes.

  20. Ionised gas kinematics in bipolar H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgleish, Hannah S.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peters, Thomas; Henshaw, Jonathan D.; Veitch-Michaelis, Joshua L.; Urquhart, James S.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar feedback plays a fundamental role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Here we explore the use of ionised gas kinematics in young, bipolar H II regions as a probe of early feedback in these star-forming environments. We have undertaken a multi-wavelength study of a young, bipolar H II region in the Galactic disc, G316.81-0.06, which lies at the centre of a massive (˜103 M⊙) infrared-dark cloud filament. It is still accreting molecular gas as well as driving a ˜0.2 pc ionised gas outflow perpendicular to the filament. Intriguingly, we observe a large velocity gradient (47.81 ± 3.21 km s-1 pc-1) across the ionised gas in a direction perpendicular to the outflow. This kinematic signature of the ionised gas shows a reasonable correspondence with the simulations of young H II regions. Based on a qualitative comparison between our observations and these simulations, we put forward a possible explanation for the velocity gradients observed in G316.81-0.06. If the velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow is caused by rotation of the ionised gas, then we infer that this rotation is a direct result of the initial net angular momentum in the natal molecular cloud. If this explanation is correct, this kinematic signature should be common in other young (bipolar) H II regions. We suggest that further quantitative analysis of the ionised gas kinematics of young H II regions, combined with additional simulations, should improve our understanding of feedback at these early stages.

  1. Functional and Molecular Evidence for Kv7 Channel Subtypes in Human Detrusor from Patients with and without Bladder Outflow Obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svalø, Julie; Sheykhzade, Majid; Nordling, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expressi...... between Kv7 channels and β-adrenoceptors in the human urinary bladder. The performed gene expression analysis combined with the organ bath studies imply that compounds that activate Kv7 channels could be useful for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.......The aim of the study was to investigate whether Kv7 channels and their ancillary β-subunits, KCNE, are functionally expressed in the human urinary bladder. Kv7 channels were examined at the molecular level and by functional studies using RT-qPCR and myography, respectively. We found mRNA expression...... (activator of Kv7.1 channels, 10 μM) and ML213 (activator of Kv7.2, Kv7.4, Kv7.4/7.5 and Kv7.5 channels, 10 μM), reduced the tone of 1 μM carbachol pre-constricted bladder strips. XE991 (blocker of Kv7.1-7.5 channels, 10 μM) had opposing effects as it increased contractions achieved with 20 mM KPSS...

  2. Synapsin II is involved in the molecular pathway of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Cruceanu

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD is a debilitating psychiatric condition with a prevalence of 1-2% in the general population that is characterized by severe episodic shifts in mood ranging from depressive to manic episodes. One of the most common treatments is lithium (Li, with successful response in 30-60% of patients. Synapsin II (SYN2 is a neuronal phosphoprotein that we have previously identified as a possible candidate gene for the etiology of BD and/or response to Li treatment in a genome-wide linkage study focusing on BD patients characterized for excellent response to Li prophylaxis. In the present study we investigated the role of this gene in BD, particularly as it pertains to Li treatment. We investigated the effect of lithium treatment on the expression of SYN2 in lymphoblastoid cell lines from patients characterized as excellent Li-responders, non-responders, as well as non-psychiatric controls. Finally, we sought to determine if Li has a cell-type-specific effect on gene expression in neuronal-derived cell lines. In both in vitro models, we found SYN2 to be modulated by the presence of Li. By focusing on Li-responsive BD we have identified a potential mechanism for Li response in some patients.

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  4. Evolution of the outflow activity of protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, Sylvain

    1996-01-01

    After a first part describing the formation of low-mass stars (sites of stellar formation, protostellar evolution) and matter outflows from young objects (molecular flows and their origin, optical and radio jets, outflow mechanisms), this research thesis discusses the evolution of molecular flows by reprinting a published article (Evolution of outflow activity around low-mass embedded young stellar objects), and by outlining some remaining issues (differences between clouds of stellar formation, morphological evolution of molecular flows). The author then discusses the continuous radio centimetre emission: origin, systematic search for Class 0 objects by using the VLA (Very Large Array radio interferometer), presentation of a new Class 0 protostar (HH24MMS). The author reports the study of H_2 emission in the infrared: generalities on protostellar shocks, infrared jet by HH24MMS, H_2 emission at 10 microns by using the ISOCAM camera [fr

  5. The Coldest Place in the Universe: Probing the Ultra-cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Nyman, L.-Å.

    2017-06-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the cosmic background temperature. Our new CO 1-0 data reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of this ultra-cold outflow, out to ≳120,000 au. We find that in the ultra-cold outflow, the mass-loss rate (\\dot{M}) increases with radius, similar to its expansion velocity (V)—taking V\\propto r, we find \\dot{M}\\propto {r}0.9{--2.2}. The mass in the ultra-cold outflow is ≳ 3.3 M ⊙, and the Boomerang’s main-sequence progenitor mass is ≳ 4 M ⊙. Our high angular resolution (˜ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 3) CO J = 3-2 map shows the inner bipolar nebula’s precise, highly collimated shape, and a dense central waist of size (FWHM) ˜1740 au × 275 au. The molecular gas and the dust as seen in scattered light via optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging show a detailed correspondence. The waist shows a compact core in thermal dust emission at 0.87-3.3 mm, which harbors (4{--}7)× {10}-4 M ⊙ of very large (˜millimeter-to-centimeter sized), cold (˜ 20{--}30 K) grains. The central waist (assuming its outer regions to be expanding) and fast bipolar outflow have expansion ages of ≲ 1925 {years} and ≤slant 1050 {years}: the “jet-lag” (I.e., torus age minus the fast-outflow age) in the Boomerang supports models in which the primary star interacts directly with a binary companion. We argue that this interaction resulted in a common-envelope configuration, while the Boomerang’s primary was an RGB or early-AGB star, with the companion finally merging into the primary’s core, and ejecting the primary’s envelope that now forms the ultra-cold outflow.

  6. Bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieta, Eduard; Berk, Michael; Schulze, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease...... and accurate diagnosis is difficult in clinical practice as the onset of bipolar disorder is commonly characterized by nonspecific symptoms, mood lability or a depressive episode, which can be similar in presentation to unipolar depression. Moreover, patients and their families do not always understand...... a bipolar disorder from other conditions. Optimal early treatment of patients with evidence-based medication (typically mood stabilizers and antipsychotics) and psychosocial strategies is necessary....

  7. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn

    2012-01-01

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of ∼45°. They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions (∼220°) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of ∼190°) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H 2 emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  8. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, 1 University Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Marvel, Kevin B. [American Astronomical Society, 2000 Florida Avenue, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20009 (United States); Claussen, Mark J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Array Operations Center, P.O. Box 0, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Wootten, Alwyn, E-mail: bwilking@umsl.edu, E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu, E-mail: gibbe@umsl.edu, E-mail: marvel@aas.org, E-mail: mclausse@nrao.edu, E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  9. Glia and immune cell signaling in bipolar disorder: insights from neuropharmacology and molecular imaging to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, C C; Sawa, A; Pomper, M G

    2014-01-21

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating mental illness characterized by severe fluctuations in mood, sleep, energy and executive functioning. Pharmacological studies of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the monoamine system have helped us to clinically understand bipolar depression. Mood stabilizers such as lithium and valproic acid, the first-line treatments for bipolar mania and depression, inhibit glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and regulate the Wnt pathway. Recent investigations suggest that microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, provide a physiological link between the serotonin system and the GSK-3β/Wnt pathway through neuroinflammation. We review the pharmacological, translational and brain imaging studies that support a role for microglia in regulating neurotransmitter synthesis and immune cell activation. These investigations provide a model for microglia involvement in the pathophysiology and phenotype of BD that may translate into improved therapies.

  10. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  11. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  12. OH outflows in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Canto, J.; Universidad de Puer; Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1987-01-01

    The results from a survey for high-velocity OH in molecular outflows in star-forming regions are reported. High-velocity OH was detected in absorption in nine of these regions. When the telescope beam can resolve the outflows, they show similar anisotropic angular distribution as the redshifted and blueshifted CO. The OH transitions are markedly subthermal since for several sources it is found that the radiation that is being absorbed is a background continuum constituted by the cosmic component plus a small Galactic contribution. The absorbing OH appears to trace gas with higher velocities and lower densities than does the CO and, in some cases, provides information on the structure of the outflows at larger distances from the central source. At scales of 0.1 pc, the outflows are elongated in the direction of the steepest density gradient of the ambient cloud, suggesting that the large-scale collimation of the outflow is produced by the density structure of the ambient cloud. 29 references

  13. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Sharanya [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe-85287 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: sharanya.sur@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  14. Comparison of post-tonsillectomy pain with two different types of bipolar forceps: low temperature quantum molecular resonance device versus high temperature conventional electrocautery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyun; Hah, J Hun

    2012-06-01

    The low temperature device did not show any advantages over the conventional high temperature electrocautery in terms of the postoperative pain, operation time, and complications in pediatric tonsillectomy. To compare post-tonsillectomy pain following the use of two different instruments with the same bipolar forceps techniques: low temperature quantum molecular resonance (QMR) device versus conventional high temperature electrocautery. Pediatric patients admitted from July 2008 through January 2009 were included. The participants underwent bilateral tonsillectomy; one side by the QMR device and the other by the bipolar electrocautery. The sides for each instrument were counterbalanced by the order of presentation. The postoperative pain was measured using the faces pain rating scale. In all, 33 patients with a mean age of 7.6 years were enrolled. The postoperative pain, operation time, and complications in 33 sides dissected by the electrocautery and 33 sides by the QMR device were compared. The average operation times with each device were not statistically different. The mean ratings of the perception of pain related to each instrument were not different on operation day and postoperative day 1, day 4, and day 7 (p = 0.133, 0.057, 0.625, and 1.0, respectively). There was no postoperative complication in any of the patients.

  15. Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2001-04-01

    Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.

  16. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  17. The collapse of a molecular cloud core to stellar densities using radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, James; Bate, Matthew R.; Price, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    We present results from radiation non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations that follow the collapse of rotating, magnetized, molecular cloud cores to stellar densities. These are the first such calculations to include all three non-ideal effects: ambipolar diffusion, Ohmic resistivity, and the Hall effect. We employ an ionization model in which cosmic ray ionization dominates at low temperatures and thermal ionization takes over at high temperatures. We explore the effects of varying the cosmic ray ionization rate from ζcr = 10-10 to 10-16 s-1. Models with ionization rates ≳10-12 s-1 produce results that are indistinguishable from ideal MHD. Decreasing the cosmic ray ionization rate extends the lifetime of the first hydrostatic core up to a factor of 2, but the lifetimes are still substantially shorter than those obtained without magnetic fields. Outflows from the first hydrostatic core phase are launched in all models, but the outflows become broader and slower as the ionization rate is reduced. The outflow morphology following stellar core formation is complex and strongly dependent on the cosmic ray ionization rate. Calculations with high ionization rates quickly produce a fast (≈14 km s-1) bipolar outflow that is distinct from the first core outflow, but with the lowest ionization rate, a slower (≈3-4 km s-1) conical outflow develops gradually and seamlessly merges into the first core outflow.

  18. Alignment between Protostellar Outflows and Filamentary Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Lee, Katherine I.; Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vorobyov, Eduard I. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, TU Wien, Vienna, A-1060 (Austria); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kristensen, Lars E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Center for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Bourke, Tyler L. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Plunkett, Adele L., E-mail: ian.stephens@cfa.harvard.edu [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We present new Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of CO(2–1) outflows toward young, embedded protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud as part of the Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) survey. For 57 Perseus protostars, we characterize the orientation of the outflow angles and compare them with the orientation of the local filaments as derived from Herschel observations. We find that the relative angles between outflows and filaments are inconsistent with purely parallel or purely perpendicular distributions. Instead, the observed distribution of outflow-filament angles are more consistent with either randomly aligned angles or a mix of projected parallel and perpendicular angles. A mix of parallel and perpendicular angles requires perpendicular alignment to be more common by a factor of ∼3. Our results show that the observed distributions probably hold regardless of the protostar’s multiplicity, age, or the host core’s opacity. These observations indicate that the angular momentum axis of a protostar may be independent of the large-scale structure. We discuss the significance of independent protostellar rotation axes in the general picture of filament-based star formation.

  19. A Molecular-line Study of the Interstellar Bullet Engine IRAS05506+2414

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Lee, Chin-Fei; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Patel, Nimesh; Morris, Mark R.; Claussen, Mark

    2017-12-01

    We present interferometric and single-dish molecular line observations of the interstellar bullet-outflow source IRAS 05506+2414, whose wide-angle bullet spray is similar to the Orion BN/KL explosive outflow and likely arises from an entirely different mechanism than the classical accretion-disk-driven bipolar flows in young stellar objects. The bullet-outflow source is associated with a large pseudo-disk and three molecular outflows—a high-velocity outflow (HVO), a medium-velocity outflow (MVO), and a slow, extended outflow (SEO). The size (mass) of the pseudo-disk is 10,350 au × 6400 au (0.64-0.17 M ⊙) from a model-fit assuming infall and rotation, we derive a central stellar mass of 8-19 M ⊙. The HVO (MVO) has an angular size ˜5180 (˜3330) au and a projected outflow velocity of ˜140 km s-1 (˜30 km s-1). The SEO size (outflow speed) is ˜0.9 pc (˜6 km s-1). The HVO’s axis is aligned with (orthogonal to) that of the SEO (pseudo-disk). The velocity structure of the MVO is unresolved. The scalar momenta in the HVO and SEO are very similar, suggesting that the SEO has resulted from the HVO interacting with ambient-cloud material. The bullet spray shares a common axis with the pseudo-disk and has an age comparable to that of MVO (few hundred years), suggesting that these three structures are intimately linked. We discuss several models for the outflows in IRAS 05506+2414 (including dynamical decay of a stellar cluster, chance encounter of a runaway star with a dense cloud, and close passage of two protostars), and conclude that second-epoch imaging to derive proper motions of the bullets and nearby stars can help to discriminate between them.

  20. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one or other traumatic event Drug or alcohol abuse Complications Left untreated, bipolar disorder can result in serious problems that affect every area of your life, such as: Problems related to drug and alcohol use Suicide or suicide attempts Legal or financial problems Damaged ...

  1. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  2. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The diagnosis and management of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders: Clinical practice update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2017;92:1532. Haynes PL, et al. Social rhythm therapies for mood disorders: An update. Current Psychiatry Reports. ...

  3. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOWS IN IRDC G28.34+0.06: A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOSTAR CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou

    2011-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) λ = 0.88 mm observations of an infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06. Located in the quiescent southern part of the G28.34 cloud, the region of interest is a massive (>10 3 M sun ) molecular clump P1 with a luminosity of ∼10 3 L sun , where our previous SMA observations at 1.3 mm have revealed a string of five dust cores of 22-64 M sun along the 1 pc IR-dark filament. The cores are well aligned at a position angle (P.A.) of 48 deg. and regularly spaced at an average projected separation of 0.16 pc. The new high-resolution, high-sensitivity 0.88 mm image further resolves the five cores into 10 compact condensations of 1.4-10.6 M sun , with sizes of a few thousand AU. The spatial structure at clump (∼1 pc) and core (∼0.1 pc) scales indicates a hierarchical fragmentation. While the clump fragmentation is consistent with a cylindrical collapse, the observed fragment masses are much larger than the expected thermal Jeans masses. All the cores are driving CO (3-2) outflows up to 38 km s -1 , the majority of which are bipolar, jet-like outflows. The moderate luminosity of the P1 clump sets a limit on the mass of protostars of 3-7 M sun . Because of the large reservoir of dense molecular gas in the immediate medium and ongoing accretion as evident by the jet-like outflows, we speculate that P1 will grow and eventually form a massive star cluster. This study provides a first glimpse of massive, clustered star formation that currently undergoes through an intermediate-mass stage.

  4. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  6. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: soffner@astro.umass.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce {sup 12}CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  7. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce 12 CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  8. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log 10 [M * /M ☉ ] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log 10 [SFR/M ☉ yr –1 ] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ SFR ) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s –1 ∼–200 km s –1 and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M ☉ yr –1 and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot out /SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  9. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  10. Misalignment of outflow axes in the proto-multiple systems in Perseus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Katherine I.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the alignment between outflow axes in nine of the youngest binary/multiple systems in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. These systems have typical member spacing larger than 1000 au. For outflow identification, we use 12CO(2-1) and 12CO(3-2) data from a large survey with the Submillimet...

  11. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find...... the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI...... that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when...

  13. CYGNUS X-3: ITS LITTLE FRIEND’S COUNTERPART, THE DISTANCE TO CYGNUS X-3, AND OUTFLOWS/JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollough, M. L.; Dunham, M. M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Corrales, L., E-mail: mmccollough@cfa.harvard.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature within 16″ of Cygnus X-3 that varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule that is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report on observations made with the Submillimeter Array to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's “Little Friend.” We have found a counterpart in both {sup 12}CO (2-1) and {sup 13}CO (2-1) emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines we are able to find two probable distances based on the Bayesian model of Milky Way kinematics of Reid et al. For the LF velocity of −47.5 km s{sup −1}, we find distances of 6.1 ± 0.6 kpc (62% probability) and 7.8 ± 0.6 kpc (38% probability). This yields distances to Cyg X-3 of 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc and 10.2 ± 1.2 kpc, respectively. Based on the probabilities entailed, we take 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc as the preferred distance to Cyg X-3. We also report the discovery of bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that there is active star formation occurring within the Little Friend.

  14. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped 12 CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10 6 cm -3 ), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10 -4 M ⊙ yr -1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M ⊙ ) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  15. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN L1340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walawender, Josh [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Smutko, Michael [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); OLinger-Luscusk, JoAnn [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald, E-mail: jmwalawender@keck.hawaii.edu [National Research Council—Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5017 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    We have searched the L1340 A, B, and C clouds for shocks from protostellar outflows using the H{sub 2} 2.122 μ m near-infrared line as a shock tracer. Substantial outflow activity has been found in each of the three regions of the cloud (L1340 A, L1340 B, and L1340 C). We find 42 distinct shock complexes (16 in L1340 A, 11 in L1340 B, and 15 in L1340 C). We were able to link 17 of those shock complexes into 12 distinct outflows and identify candidate source stars for each. We examine the properties ( A {sub V}, T {sub bol}, and L {sub bol}) of the source protostars and compare them to the properties of the general population of Class 0/I and flat spectral energy distribution protostars and find that there is an indication, albeit at low statistical significance, that the outflow-driving protostars are drawn from a population with lower A {sub V}, higher L {sub bol}, and lower T {sub bol} than the general population of protostars.

  16. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  17. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Massive Outflows Associated with ATLASGAL Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A. Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Tian, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed {}13{CO} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses ({M}clump}), bolometric luminosities ({L}bol}), luminosity-to-mass ratios ({L}bol}/{M}clump}), and peak H2 column densities ({N}{{{H}}2}) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70 μ {{m}} weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, {L}bol}/{M}clump}, and {N}{{{H}}2}, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H II regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H II regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ∼ {10}-4 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, and {L}bol}/{M}clump} and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.

  19. High velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2-1 and J = 1-0 transitions of 12 CO and 13 CO reveal the presence of high velocity molecular gas associated with a low luminosity infrared source in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 7--11. The blueshifted and redshifted wings show peak intensities spatially separated by 1X5 (0.2 pc), suggesting an energetic bipolar outflow of gas from a young low mass star. The mass loss rate implied by these observations is 8 x 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1

  20. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  1. Regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 during bipolar mania treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Min; Cai, Zhuoji; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaohua

    2010-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a debilitating psychiatric illness presenting with recurrent mania and depression. The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder is poorly understood, and molecular targets in the treatment of bipolar disorder remain to be identified. Preclinical studies have suggested that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a potential therapeutic target in bipolar disorder, but evidence of abnormal GSK3 in human bipolar disorder and its response to treatment is still lacking. This study was conducted in acutely ill type I bipolar disorder subjects who were hospitalized for a manic episode. The protein level and the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of GSK3 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of bipolar manic and healthy control subjects were compared, and the response of GSK3 to antimanic treatment was evaluated. The levels of GSK3α and GSK3β in this group of bipolar manic subjects were higher than healthy controls. Symptom improvement during an eight-week antimanic treatment with lithium, valproate, and atypical antipsychotics was accompanied by a significant increase in the inhibitory serine phosphorylation of GSK3, but not the total level of GSK3, whereas concomitant electroconvulsive therapy treatment during a manic episode appeared to dampen the response of GSK3 to pharmacological treatment. Results of this study suggest that GSK3 can be modified during the treatment of bipolar mania. This finding in human bipolar disorder is in agreement with preclinical data suggesting that inhibition of GSK3 by increasing serine phosphorylation is a response of GSK3 to psychotropics used in bipolar disorder, supporting the notion that GSK3 is a promising molecular target in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder. © 2010 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  2. Ionized and Neutral Outflows in the QUEST QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    The role of galactic winds in gas-rich mergers is of crucial importance to understand galaxy and SMBH evolution. In recent months, our group has had three major scientific breakthroughs in this area: {1} The discovery with Herschel of massive molecular {OH-absorbing} outflows in several ULIRGs, including the nearest quasar, Mrk 231. {2} The independent discovery from mm-wave interferometric observations in the same object of a spatially resolved molecular {CO-emitting} wind with estimated mass outflow rate 3x larger than the star formation rate and spatially coincident with blueshifted neutral {Na ID-absorbing} gas in optical long-slit spectra. {3} The unambiguous determination from recent Gemini/IFU observations that the Na ID outflow in this object is wide-angle, thus driven by a QSO wind rather than a jet. This powerful outflow may be the long-sought "smoking gun" of quasar mechanical feedback purported to transform gas-rich mergers. However, our Herschel survey excludes all FIR-faint {UV-bright} "classic" QSOs by necessity. So here we propose a complementary FUV absorption-line survey of all FIR-bright -and- FIR-faint QSOs from the same parent sample. New {19 targets} and archival {11} spectra will be used to study, for the first time, the gaseous environments of QSOs as a function of host properties and age across the merger sequence ULIRG -> QSO. These data will allow us to distinguish between ionized & neutral quasar-driven outflows, starburst-driven winds, and tidal debris around the mergers. They will also be uniquely suited for a shallow but broad study of the warm & warm-hot intergalactic media, complementary to on-going surveys that are deeper but narrower.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme ...

  4. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  5. BIPOLAR DISORDER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan Dilnawaz N; Ziyaurrahaman A.R; Bhise K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in poor global functioning, reduced quality of life and high relapse rates. Research finds that many adults with bipolar disorder identify the onset of symptoms in childhood and adolescence, indicating the importance of early accurate diagnosis and treatment. Accurate diagnosis of mood disorders is critical for treatment to be effective. Distinguishing between major depression and bipolar disorders, especially the depressed p...

  6. Bipolar Disorder in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.

  7. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  8. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou; Li Huabai

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH 3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H 2 O and class I CH 3 OH masers. Multiple NH 3 transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH 3 (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH 3 (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  9. Observations of high-velocity molecular gas near Herbig-Haro objects: HH 24--27 and HH 1--2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snell, R.L.; Edwards, S.

    1982-01-01

    High-velocity CO has been detected in the vicinity of the Herbig-Haro objects HH 24--27. These observations indicate that there are two sources of high-velocity outflow; one centered on an infrared source near HH 26, and the second centered roughly 2' south of HH 24. The redshifted and blueshifted wings in both sources are spatially separated suggesting that the high-velocity gas is due to energetic bipolar outflow from young stars embedded in the molecular cloud. The association of Herbig-Haro objects with regions of high-velocity gas suggests a common origin for both in the interaction of a stellar wind with the ambient molecular cloud. The mass loss rates implied by our observations, assuming that the rate of mass loss has been constant throughout the dynamical lifetime of the bipolar lobes, are roughly 10 -6 M/sub sun/ yr -1 for both sources. We have also searched for high-velocity gas near HH 1--2 but found no evidence for mass outflow in this region

  10. The embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. II - Models for scattered light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Whitney, Barbara A.; Gomez, Mercedes; Hartmann, Lee

    1993-01-01

    We describe NIR imaging observations of embedded young stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud. We find a large range in J-K and H-K colors for these class I sources. The bluest objects have colors similar to the reddest T Tauri stars in the cloud; redder objects lie slightly above the reddening line for standard ISM dust and have apparent K extinctions of up to 5 mag. Most of these sources also show extended NIR emission on scales of 10-20 arcsec which corresponds to linear sizes of 1500-3000 AU. The NIR colors and nebular morphologies for this sample and the magnitude of linear polarization in several sources suggest scattered light produces most of the NIR emission in these objects. We present modeling results that suggest mass infall rates that agree with predictions for cold clouds and are generally consistent with rates estimated from radiative equilibrium models. For reasonable dust grain parameters, the range of colors and extinctions require flattened density distributions with polar cavities evacuated by bipolar outflows. These results support the idea that infall and outflow occur simultaneously in deeply embedded bipolar outflow sources. The data also indicate fairly large centrifugal radii and large inclinations to the rotational axis for a typical source.

  11. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Zapata, L. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico); Qiu, K., E-mail: manferna@illinois.edu, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  12. Comparative familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Romano, Mia; Graham, Rebecca K; Ricciardi, Tahlia

    2018-05-01

    We sought to quantify the prevalence and differential prevalence of a bipolar disorder among family members of patients with a bipolar I or II disorder. The sample comprised 1165 bipolar and 1041 unipolar patients, with the former then sub-typed as having either a bipolar I or II condition. Family history data was obtained via an online self-report tool. Prevalence of a family member having a bipolar disorder (of either sub-type) was distinctive (36.8%). Patients with a bipolar I disorder reported a slightly higher family history (41.2%) compared to patients with a bipolar II disorder (36.3%), and with both significantly higher than the rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar depressed patients (18.5%). Findings support the view that bipolar disorder is heritable. The comparable rates in the two bipolar sub-types support the positioning of bipolar II disorder as a valid condition with strong genetic underpinnings.

  13. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, M.; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  14. Outflows in the narrow-line region of bright Seyfert galaxies - I. GMOS-IFU data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, I. C.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Elvis, M.; Robinson, A.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Nagar, N. M.; Lena, D.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kraemer, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    We present two-dimensional maps of emission-line fluxes and kinematics, as well as of the stellar kinematics of the central few kpc of five bright nearby Seyfert galaxies - Mrk 6, Mrk 79, Mrk 348, Mrk 607, and Mrk 1058 - obtained from observations with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit on the Gemini North Telescope. The data cover the inner 3.5 arcsec × 5.0 arcsec - corresponding to physical scales in the range 0.6 × 0.9-1.5 × 2.2 kpc2 - at a spatial resolution ranging from 110 to 280 pc with a spectral coverage of 4300-7100 Å and velocity resolution of ≈90 km s-1. The gas excitation is Seyfert like everywhere but show excitation gradients that are correlated with the gas kinematics, reddening and/or the gas density. The gas kinematics show in all cases two components: a rotation one similar to that observed in the stellar velocity field, and an outflow component. In the case of Mrk607, the gas is counter-rotating relative to the stars. Enhanced gas velocity dispersion is observed in association with the outflows according to two patterns: at the locations of the highest outflow velocities along the ionization axis or perpendicularly to it in a strip centred at the nucleus that we attribute to an equatorial outflow. Bipolar outflows are observed in Mrk 348 and Mrk 79, while in Mrk 1058 only the blueshifted part is clearly observed, while in cases of Mrk 6 and Mrk 607, the geometry of the outflow needs further constraints from modelling to be presented in a forthcoming study, where the mass flow rate and powers will also be obtained.

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  16. CLASSICAL T TAURI-LIKE OUTFLOW ACTIVITY IN THE BROWN DWARF MASS REGIME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Podio, L.; Bacciotti, F.; Randich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last number of years, spectroscopic studies have strongly supported the assertion that protostellar accretion and outflow activity persist to the lowest masses. Indeed, previous to this work, the existence of three brown dwarf (BD) outflows had been confirmed by us. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigation of BD outflow activity and report on the discovery of two new outflows. Observations to date have concentrated on studying the forbidden emission line (FEL) regions of young BDs and in all cases data have been collected using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrometer (UVES) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Offsets in the FEL regions are recovered using spectro-astrometry. Here, ISO-Oph 32 is shown to drive a blueshifted outflow with a radial velocity of 10-20 km s -1 and spectro-astrometric analysis constrains the position angle of this outflow to 240 0 ± 7 0 . The BD candidate, ISO-ChaI 217 is found to have a bipolar outflow bright in several key forbidden lines (V RAD = -20 km s -1 , +40 km s -1 ) and with a P.A. of 193 0 -209 0 . A striking feature of the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow is the strong asymmetry between the red- and blueshifted lobes. This asymmetry is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (redshifted lobe is brighter), the factor of 2 difference in radial velocity (the redshifted lobe is faster) and the difference in the electron density (again higher in the red lobe). Such asymmetries are common in jets from low-mass protostars and the observation of a marked asymmetry at such a low mass ( sun ) supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from low-mass protostellar activity. Also note that although asymmetries are unexceptional, it is uncommon for the redshifted lobe to be the brightest as some obscuration by the accretion disk is assumed. This phenomenon has only been observed in one other source, the classical T Tauri (CTTS) star RW Aur. The physical mechanism responsible for the brightening of

  17. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... down” Have trouble sleeping Think about death or suicide Can someone have bipolar disorder along with other problems? Yes. Sometimes people having very strong mood episodes may have psychotic symptoms. Psychosis affects thoughts ...

  18. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Probst, Ron [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reipurth, Bo [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 640 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shirley, Yancy L. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stringfellow, Guy S., E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.edu, E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org, E-mail: probst@noao.edu, E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: yshirley@as.arizona.edu, E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  19. Evidence for genetic association of RORB with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mick Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bipolar disorder, particularly in children, is characterized by rapid cycling and switching, making circadian clock genes plausible molecular underpinnings for bipolar disorder. We previously reported work establishing mice lacking the clock gene D-box binding protein (DBP as a stress-reactive genetic animal model of bipolar disorder. Microarray studies revealed that expression of two closely related clock genes, RAR-related orphan receptors alpha (RORA and beta (RORB, was altered in these mice. These retinoid-related receptors are involved in a number of pathways including neurogenesis, stress response, and modulation of circadian rhythms. Here we report association studies between bipolar disorder and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in RORA and RORB. Methods We genotyped 355 RORA and RORB SNPs in a pediatric cohort consisting of a family-based sample of 153 trios and an independent, non-overlapping case-control sample of 152 cases and 140 controls. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is characterized by increased stress reactivity and frequent episodes of shorter duration; thus our cohort provides a potentially enriched sample for identifying genes involved in cycling and switching. Results We report that four intronic RORB SNPs showed positive associations with the pediatric bipolar phenotype that survived Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons in the case-control sample. Three RORB haplotype blocks implicating an additional 11 SNPs were also associated with the disease in the case-control sample. However, these significant associations were not replicated in the sample of trios. There was no evidence for association between pediatric bipolar disorder and any RORA SNPs or haplotype blocks after multiple-test correction. In addition, we found no strong evidence for association between the age-at-onset of bipolar disorder with any RORA or RORB SNPs. Conclusion Our findings suggest that clock genes in

  20. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  1. Discrete potentials guided radiofrequency ablation for idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enzhao; Xu, Gang; Liu, Tong; Ye, Lan; Zhang, Qitong; Zhao, Yanshu; Li, Guangping

    2015-03-01

    Discrete potentials (DPs) have been recorded and targeted as the site of ablation of the outflow tract arrhythmias. The aim of the present study was to investigate the significance of DPs with respect to mapping and ablation for idiopathic outflow tract premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) or ventricular tachycardias (VTs). Seventeen consecutive patients with idiopathic right or left ventricular outflow tract PVCs/VTs who underwent radiofrequency catheter ablation were included. Intracardiac electrograms during the mapping and ablation were analysed. During sinus rhythm, sharp high-frequency DPs that displayed double or multiple components were recorded following or buried in the local ventricular electrograms in all of the 17 patients, peak amplitude 0.51 ± 0.21 mV. The same potential was recorded prior to the local ventricular potential of the PVCs/VTs. Spontaneous reversal of the relationship of the DPs to the local ventricular electrogram during the arrhythmias was noted. The DPs were related to a region of low voltage showed by intracardiac high-density contact mapping. At the sites with DPs, lower unipolar and bipolar ventricular voltage of sinus beats were noted compared with the adjacent regions without DPs (unipolar: 6.1 ± 1.8 vs. 8.3 ± 2.3 mV, P Discrete potentials were not present in seven controls. Discrete potentials and related low-voltage regions were common in idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias. Discrete potential- and substrate-guided ablation strategy will help to reduce the recurrence of idiopathic outflow tract arrhythmias. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  3. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  4. Bipolar Disorder and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence studies and studies on causation relations have shown that the relation between psychiatric disorders and chronic physical diseases is neglected. For heterogeneous diseases an increasing number of susceptibility variants are being defined. Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, breast and prostate cancer, coronary artery disease, Chron's disease, systemic lupus eritematosus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are mentioned together with epigenetic concept. In acrocentric zone of chromosome 13, breast cancer, retinoblastoma, chronic Iymphocytic leukemia genes with B cells, dopamin loci of bipolar disorder are found together. Among bipolar and healthy individuals, an increase risk of breast cancer in female cases has been resported. On the other hand, psychosocial factors that affect stress and response to stress itself may be important variables in prognosis and progression of different cancer types. During the course of many cancer types –especially brain tumors- and during treatment of chemotherapeutic agents, bipolar symptomatology may appear. In this article, it is reviewed with relevant literature that whether an etiological relation between bipolar disorder and cancer exist and how both diseases affect each other's course and treatment.

  5. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  6. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  7. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  8. Champagne flutes and brandy snifters: modelling protostellar outflow-cloud chemical interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, R. P.; Rawlings, J. M. C.; Williams, D. A.; Redman, M. P.

    2014-10-01

    A rich variety of molecular species has now been observed towards hot cores in star-forming regions and in the interstellar medium. An increasing body of evidence from millimetre interferometers suggests that many of these form at the interfaces between protostellar outflows and their natal molecular clouds. However, current models have remained unable to explain the origin of the observational bias towards wide-angled `brandy snifter' shaped outflows over narrower `champagne flute' shapes in carbon monoxide imaging. Furthermore, these wide-angled systems exhibit unusually high abundances of the molecular ion HCO+. We present results from a chemodynamic model of such regions where a rich chemistry arises naturally as a result of turbulent mixing between cold, dense molecular gas and the hot, ionized outflow material. The injecta drives a rich and rapid ion-neutral chemistry in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the observations. The observational bias towards wide-angled outflows is explained naturally by the geometry-dependent ion injection rate causing rapid dissociation of CO in the younger systems.

  9. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Home Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us ... has a lot of money, or has special powers. Someone having psychotic symptoms ... Substance Abuse: People with bipolar disorder may also misuse alcohol ...

  10. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  11. El trastorno bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Freaza Rodríguez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Se exponen los aspectos más relevantes del trastorno bipolar, entender qué significa este concepto, conocer los tipos que existen, qué otros trastornos suelen aparecer al mismo tiempo y qué tratamientos son los que dan mejores resultados

  12. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  13. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  14. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  15. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW EVOLUTION IN TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2009-01-01

    The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.

  16. Turbulent mixing layers in supersonic protostellar outflows, with application to DG Tauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, M. C.; Bicknell, G. V.; Sutherland, R. S.; Salmeron, R.; McGregor, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulent entrainment processes may play an important role in the outflows from young stellar objects at all stages of their evolution. In particular, lateral entrainment of ambient material by high-velocity, well-collimated protostellar jets may be the cause of the multiple emission-line velocity components observed in the microjet-scale outflows driven by classical T Tauri stars. Intermediate-velocity outflow components may be emitted by a turbulent, shock-excited mixing layer along the boundaries of the jet. We present a formalism for describing such a mixing layer based on Reynolds decomposition of quantities measuring fundamental properties of the gas. In this model, the molecular wind from large disc radii provides a continual supply of material for entrainment. We calculate the total stress profile in the mixing layer, which allows us to estimate the dissipation of turbulent energy, and hence the luminosity of the layer. We utilize MAPPINGS IV shock models to determine the fraction of total emission that occurs in [Fe II] 1.644 μm line emission in order to facilitate comparison to previous observations of the young stellar object DG Tauri. Our model accurately estimates the luminosity and changes in mass outflow rate of the intermediate-velocity component of the DG Tau approaching outflow. Therefore, we propose that this component represents a turbulent mixing layer surrounding the well-collimated jet in this object. Finally, we compare and contrast our model to previous work in the field.

  17. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  18. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  19. Another piece of the puzzle: The fast H I outflow in Mrk 231

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Veilleux, Sylvain; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H.; Rupke, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast H I 21 cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow H I absorption blueshifted ~1300 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15 × 1018Tspin cm-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the corresponding H I densities are nHI ~ 10-100 cm-3. Our results complement previous findings and confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk 231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the H I outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by Na I and molecular gas in this source. Our results suggest that an H I component is present in fast outflows regardless of the acceleration mechanism (wind vs. jet driven) and that it must be connected with common properties of the pre-interaction gas involved. Considering the observed similarity of their column densities, the H I outflow likely represents the inner part of the broad wind identified on larger scales in atomic Na I. The mass outflow rate of the H I outflow (between 8 and 18 M⊙ yr-1) does not appear to be as large as that observed in molecular gas, partly owing to the smaller sizes of the outflowing region sampled by the H I absorption. These characteristics are commonly seen in other cases of outflows driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) suggesting that the H I may represent a short intermediate phase in the rapid cooling of the gas. The results further confirm H I as a good tracer for AGN-driven outflows not only in powerful radio sources. We also obtained deeper continuum

  20. [Bipolar disorder in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Julie; Milhet, Vanessa; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile mania is a concept widely developed but also highly debated since the 1990s. In the heart of this debate, Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and "Temper Dysregulation disorder with Dysphoria" (recently integrated in DSM-5) showed their interest. Actually, the objective is to distinguish two clinical phenotypes in order to avoid confusion between (1) what would raise more of mood dysregulation with chronic manic like symptoms, and (2) bipolar disorder type I with episodic and acute manic episodes. Therapeutic stakes are major. In adolescents, even if DSM adult diagnostic criteria can be used and bipolar disorder type I clearly established, differential diagnostic at onset between acute manic episode and schizophrenia onset remain sometimes difficult to assess. Furthermore, it is crucial to better assess outcome of these adolescents, in terms of morbidity and potential prognosis factors, knowing that a younger age at onset is associated with a poorer outcome according to several adult studies. Therapeutic implications could then be drawn.

  1. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...

  2. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  3. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei, E-mail: gbmou@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  4. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  5. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  6. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  7. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. A New Look at Speeding Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The compact centers of active galaxies known as active galactic nuclei, or AGN are known for the dynamic behavior they exhibit as the supermassive black holes at their centers accrete matter. New observations of outflows from a nearby AGN provide a more detailed look at what happens in these extreme environments.Outflows from GiantsThe powerful radio jets of Cygnus A, which extend far beyond the galaxy. [NRAO/AUI]AGN consist of a supermassive black hole of millions to tens of billions of solar masses surrounded by an accretion disk of in-falling matter. But not all the material falling toward the black hole accretes! Some of it is flung from the AGN via various types of outflows.The most well-known of these outflows are powerful radio jets collimated and incredibly fast-moving streams of particles that blast their way out of the host galaxy and into space. Only around 10% of AGN are observed to host such jets, however and theres another outflow thats more ubiquitous.Fast-Moving AbsorbersPerhaps 30% of AGN both those with and without observed radio jets host wider-angle, highly ionized gaseous outflows known as ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation emitted from the AGN is absorbed by the UFO, revealing the outflows presence: absorption lines appear in the ultraviolet and X-ray spectra of the AGN, blue-shifted due to the high speeds of the absorbing gas in the outflow.Quasar PG 1211+143, indicated by the crosshairs at the center of the image, in the color context of its surroundings. [SDSS/S. Karge]But what is the nature of UFOs? Are they disk winds? Or are they somehow related to the radio jets? And what impact do they have on the AGNs host galaxy?X-ray and Ultraviolet CooperationNew observations are now providing fresh information about one particular UFO. A team of scientists led by Ashkbiz Danehkar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) recently used the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes to make the first simultaneous observations

  9. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  10. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  11. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  12. Epidemiology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Mutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder diagnosis has been increasing recently. Since studies evaluating attempted suicide rates in children and adolescents have shown bipolarity to be a significant risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of bipolarity has become a very important issue. Since there is a lack of specific diagnostic criteria for especially preadolescent samples and evaluations are made mostly symptomatically, suspicions about false true diagnosis and increased prevalence rates have emerged. This situation leads to controversial data about the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder in community, inpatient and outpatient based samples in literature.

  13. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ 5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the H α emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the H α line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between H α velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in H α . The large H α velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the H α line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  14. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  15. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  16. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  17. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  18. ON Cone Bipolar Cell Axonal Synapses in the OFF Inner Plexiform Layer of the Rabbit Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, J. Scott; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Mohammed, Shoeb; Hoang, John V.; Marc, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells make non-canonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. Automated transmission electron microscope (ATEM) imaging, molecular tagging, tracing, and rendering of ≈ 400 bipolar cells reveals axonal ribbons in 36% of ON cone bipolar cells, throughout the OFF IPL. The targets include GABA-positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs) and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. Other targets include OFF γACs presynaptic to OFF bipolar cells, forming γAC-mediated crossover motifs. ON cone bipolar cell axonal ribbons drive bistratified ON-OFF ganglion cells in the OFF layer and provide ON drive to polarity-appropriate targets such as bistratified diving ganglion cells (bsdGCs). The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. Such joint distribution sampling is likely common when targets are sparser than sources and when sources are coupled, as are ON cone bipolar cells. PMID:23042441

  19. Mechanisms underlying the benefits of anticonvulsants over lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Alisa C; Walsh, John P

    2016-02-10

    Close to 3% of the world's population suffers from bipolar disease (I and II). Of this 3%, bipolar disease affects largely women (∼ 3 : 2 compared with men). The median age of diagnosis is 25 in women and even lower in men. A diagnosis of bipolar disease is an expensive psychiatric diagnosis, costing patients more than twice as much money as a diagnosis of unipolar depression. Bipolar I is characterized by one or more manic or mixed episodes, with both mania and depression occurring each day for at least 1 week, whereas bipolar II is characterized by one or more major depressive episode and at least one episode of hypomania. Bipolar I is the more severe diagnosis. A wide range of medications are available to help patients maintain a healthy lifestyle, including lithium, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Improved methods for identifying bipolar disease, including a more structured approach and a more complete use of medical records, have increased the rate of diagnosis, especially in children, which underscores the need for innovation in development and in practice of new treatment options for treating bipolar disease. Although lithium has been the 'gold standard' for treating bipolar disorder for decades, new research into other forms of treatment has shown anticonvulsants to be a particularly useful therapy for treating bipolar disease. Anticonvulsants have remarkable mood-stabilization abilities and they do not lead to serious side effects, which increases the tolerability, and consequently, patient adherence to this form of treatment. Recent studies have shown that anticonvulsants improve behavior in bipolar disease by modulating the balance of excitatory and inhibitory synapses through a number of complementary molecular cascades that affect gene expression and cell survival.

  20. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Ferland, G. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Peimbert, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo, Postal 70-264, 04510 México D. F., México (Mexico); García-Díaz, Ma. T. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B.C., México (Mexico); Rubin, Robert H., E-mail: cr.odell@vanderbilt.edu [NASA/Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database.

  1. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database

  2. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-06-10

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

  3. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  4. New noninvasive treatment for prostate outflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.; Milroy, E.; Chapple, C.; Eldin, A.; Wallstein, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with prostatic outflow obstruction underwent implantation of the Wallstent endoprothesis, a woven mesh of fine stainless steel, mounted on a 9-F delivery system with an unconstrained diameter of 14 mm. The stent was inserted under local anesthesia, and placement was guided by linear transrectal US and flexible urethroscopy. In no patient was the distal sphincter mechanism compromised. In four, stent balloon dilation was needed. Urodynamic parameters (especially flow rate, voiding detrusor pressure, and postvoid residual) improved in all patients. Our experience showed the Wallstent endoprosthesis to be a safe, clinically acceptable, and minimally invasive alternative to prostatectomy

  5. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ∼14 km s –1 , and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ∼200 km s –1 in a Galactic wind.

  6. Inferring Polar Ion Outflows from Topside Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Rice, D. D.; Eccles, V.; Schunk, R. W.; David, M.; Benson, R. F.; James, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The high-latitude topside ionosphere is dominated by O+ ions from the F-region peak around 300 km to over 1000 km altitude. The O+ profile shape provides information on the thermal structure, field aligned plasma dynamics, and outflows into the magnetosphere. Topside electron density profiles (EDP) are either obtained from topside sounders or Incoherent Scatter Radars. There is a large archive of topside sounder ionograms and hand scaled EDPs from the Alouette and ISIS satellites between 1962 and 1990. Recent NASA data enhancement efforts have augmented these EDP archives by producing digital topside ionograms both from the 7-track analog telemetry tapes and from 35 mm topside film ionograms. Rice et al [2017] in their 35 mm ionogram recovery emphasized high latitude ionograms taken during disturbed conditions. The figure below contrasts ISIS-II EDPs extracted from 35 mm films before and during a major storm (Dst -200nT) on 9 April 1972 (left panel: quiet period before the storm; right panel: during the peak of the storm). Both satellite passes used for these EDPs were centered on the Resolute Bay location that in 1972 was close to the magnetic pole. They begin at auroral latitudes around 2100 MLT and end on the dayside around 0900MLT. We will present results of how ionospheric models replicate both the quiet and disturbed conditions shown in the figure. Three types of models will be contrasted: an empirical ionosphere (IRI), a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and a fluid-based polar-wind model (PW). During the storm pass, when it is expected that substantial heating is present, the ISIS-II topside EDPs provide severe constraints on the usage of these models. These constraints enable estimates of the outflow fluxes as well as the heating that has occurred. The comparisons with the empirical model establish how well the pre-storm topside is modeled and identifies the challenges as the storm magnitude increases. The physics-based TDIM does have storm drivers

  7. GGD 37: AN EXTREME PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J. D.; Watson, D. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Kim, K. H.; Bergin, E.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Sargent, B. A.; Raines, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer-IRS spectral maps of the Herbig-Haro flow GGD 37 detected in lines of [Ne III], [O IV], [Ar III], and [Ne V]. The detection of extended [O IV] (55 eV) and some extended emission in [Ne V] (97 eV) indicates a shock temperature in excess of 100,000 K, in agreement with X-ray observations, and a shock speed in excess of 200 km s -1 . The presence of an extended photoionization or collisional ionization region indicates that GGD 37 is a highly unusual protostellar outflow.

  8. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  9. Compact binary merger and kilonova: outflows from remnant disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Kumar, Rajiv; Mu, Hui-Jun; Song, Cui-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Outflows launched from a remnant disc of compact binary merger may have essential contribution to the kilonova emission. Numerical calculations are conducted in this work to study the structure of accretion flows and outflows. By the incorporation of limited-energy advection in the hyper-accretion discs, outflows occur naturally from accretion flows due to imbalance between the viscous heating and the sum of the advective and radiative cooling. Following this spirit, we revisit the properties of the merger outflow ejecta. Our results show that around 10-3 ˜ 10-1 M⊙ of the disc mass can be launched as powerful outflows. The amount of unbound mass varies with the disc mass and the viscosity. The outflow-contributed peak luminosity is around 1040 ˜ 1041 erg s-1. Such a scenario can account for the observed kilonovae associated with short gamma-ray bursts, including the recent event AT2017gfo (GW170817).

  10. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erika; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of λ1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2."5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotati...

  11. DISCOVERY OF RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as Kα transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of ∼0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9σ, 6.2σ, and 4.7σ, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E-dot (outflow)/L bol lower limit of ≥0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved

  12. The energetics of AGN radiation pressure-driven outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Maiolino, R.

    2018-05-01

    The increasing observational evidence of galactic outflows is considered as a sign of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in action. However, the physical mechanism responsible for driving the observed outflows remains unclear, and whether it is due to momentum, energy, or radiation is still a matter of debate. The observed outflow energetics, in particular the large measured values of the momentum ratio (\\dot{p}/(L/c) ˜ 10) and energy ratio (\\dot{E}_k/L ˜ 0.05), seems to favour the energy-driving mechanism; and most observational works have focused their comparison with wind energy-driven models. Here, we show that AGN radiation pressure on dust can adequately reproduce the observed outflow energetics (mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and kinetic power), as well as the scalings with luminosity, provided that the effects of radiation trapping are properly taken into account. In particular, we predict a sublinear scaling for the mass outflow rate (\\dot{M} ∝ L^{1/2}) and a superlinear scaling for the kinetic power (\\dot{E}_k ∝ L^{3/2}), in agreement with the observational scaling relations reported in the most recent compilation of AGN outflow data. We conclude that AGN radiative feedback can account for the global outflow energetics, at least equally well as the wind energy-driving mechanism, and therefore both physical models should be considered in the interpretation of future AGN outflow observations.

  13. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  14. Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae (very energetic supernovae) are presented. These models provide a favorable situation to explain some unexpected features in observations of hypernovae, e.g., high velocity matter dominated by Fe and low velocity matter dominated by O. The overall abundance of these models gives a good fit, at least qualitatively, to abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. We suggest hypernovae be driven by bipolar jets and contribute significantly to the early Galactic chemical evolution

  15. Functional remediation for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Arán, Anabel, 1971-; Torrent, C.; Solé, B.; Bonnín, C.M.; Rosa, A.R.; Sánchez-Moreno, J.; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-

    2014-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediatio...

  16. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied

  17. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  18. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  19. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  20. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  1. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  2. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...

  3. Observations of far-infrared molecular emission lines from the Orion molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viscuso, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The Orion Nebula has been the subject of intensive study for over one hundred years. Far-infrared (FIR) molecular line observations of CO in the shock region surrounding the infrared source IRc2 have suggested that the molecular hydrogen density in the shocked and post-shock gas is roughly 3 x 10 6 cm -3 . The temperature of this gas is on the order of 750-2000K. IRc2, like other nearby infrared sources within the Nebula, is thought to be a site of recent star formation. This object is apparently at the center of a massive bipolar molecular outflow of gas, which is producing a shock front where it meets the ambient molecular cloud surrounding IRc2. Study of such regions is important for the understanding of the chemical and physical processes that are involved in the formation of stars from molecular clouds. Recently, several far-infrared transitions among the low-lying levels of OH have been observed toward IRc2. OH is thought to be abundant, and it plays an important role in the chemical evolution of the shock and post-shock regions. The OH emission serves as a sensitive probe of the temperature and density for the shock-processed gas. A rigorous treatment of the radiative transfer of these measured transitions is performed using the escape probability formalism. From this analysis, the author determines the temperature of the OH-emitting region to be on the order of 40K. This suggests that the gas is part of the post-shock gas that has cooled sufficiently, most likely by way of radiative cooling by CO

  4. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Filipa Araújo; Adriana Horta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1%) in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old) with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad different...

  6. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  7. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  8. Is bipolar always bipolar? Understanding the controversy on bipolar disorder in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Yvonne; Hohmann, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder—which can present differently in children and adolescents—or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders. So far, most findings suggest that the suspected symptoms, in particular chronic, non-episodic irritability (a mood symptom presenting with easy annoyance, temper tantrums and anger) do not constitute a developmental presentation of childhood bipolar disorder. Additional research based on prospective, longitudinal studies is needed to further clarify the developmental trajectories of bipolar disorder and the diagnostic status of chronic, non-episodic irritability. PMID:25580265

  9. AGN outflows as neutrino sources: an observational test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, P.; Turcati, A.; Resconi, E.

    2018-04-01

    We test the recently proposed idea that outflows associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) could be neutrino emitters in two complementary ways. First, we cross-correlate a list of 94 "bona fide" AGN outflows with the most complete and updated repository of IceCube neutrinos currently publicly available, assembled by us for this purpose. It turns out that AGN with outflows matched to an IceCube neutrino have outflow and kinetic energy rates, and bolometric powers larger than those of AGN with outflows not matched to neutrinos. Second, we carry out a statistical analysis on a catalogue of [O III] λ5007 line profiles using a sample of 23,264 AGN at z values (˜6 and 18 per cent respectively, pre-trial) for relatively high velocities and luminosities. Our results are consistent with a scenario where AGN outflows are neutrino emitters but at present do not provide a significant signal. This can be tested with better statistics and source stacking. A predominant role of AGN outflows in explaining the IceCube data appears in any case to be ruled out.

  10. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  11. Formation and spatial distribution of hypervelocity stars in AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We study star formation within outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a new source of hypervelocity stars (HVSs). Recent observations revealed active star formation inside a galactic outflow at a rate of ∼ 15M⊙yr-1 . We verify that the shells swept up by an AGN outflow are capable of cooling and fragmentation into cold clumps embedded in a hot tenuous gas via thermal instabilities. We show that cold clumps of ∼ 103 M⊙ are formed within ∼ 105 yrs. As a result, stars are produced along outflow's path, endowed with the outflow speed at their formation site. These HVSs travel through the galactic halo and eventually escape into the intergalactic medium. The expected instantaneous rate of star formation inside the outflow is ∼ 4 - 5 orders of magnitude greater than the average rate associated with previously proposed mechanisms for producing HVSs, such as the Hills mechanism and three-body interaction between a star and a black hole binary. We predict the spatial distribution of HVSs formed in AGN outflows for future observational probe.

  12. Density diagnostics of ionized outflows in active galacitc nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Mehdipour, M.; Raassen, T.; Gu, L.

    2017-10-01

    Ionized outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei are thought to influence their nuclear and local galactic environment. However, the distance of outflows with respect to the central engine is poorly constrained, which limits our understanding of the kinetic power by the outflows. Therefore, the impact of AGN outflows on their host galaxies is uncertain. Given the density of the outflows, their distance can be immediately obtained by the definition of the ionization parameter. Here we carry out a theoretical study of density diagnostics of AGN outflows using absorption lines from metastable levels in Be-like to F-like ions. With the new self-consistent photoionization model (PION) in the SPEX code, we are able to calculate ground and metastable level populations. This enable us to determine under what physical conditions these levels are significantly populated. We then identify characteristic transitions from these metastable levels in the X-ray band. Firm detections of absorption lines from such metastable levels are challenging for current grating instruments. The next generation of spectrometers like X-IFU onboard Athena will certainly identify the presence/absence of these density- sensitive absorption lines, thus tightly constraining the location and the kinetic power of AGN outflows.

  13. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup.

  14. Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Marsal; Jorge, Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management o...

  15. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  16. ALMA Studies of the Disk-Jet-Outflow Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougados, Catherine; Louvet, F.; Mardones, D.; Cabrit, S.

    2017-06-01

    I will describe in this contribution recent results obtained with ALMA on the origin of the disk/jet/outflow connexion in T Tauri stars. I will first present ALMA observations of the disk associated with the jet source Th 28, which question previous jet rotation measurements in this source and the implications drawn from them. I will then discuss Cycle 2 ALMA observations of the disk and small scale CO outflow associated with the prototypical edge-on HH 30 source. The unprecedented angular resolution of this dataset brings new constraints on the origin of the CO outflows in young stars.

  17. Investigation of cerebral venous outflow in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P

    2017-10-31

    The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.

  18. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  19. CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise K Sjöholm

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder patients often display abnormalities in circadian rhythm, and they are sensitive to irregular diurnal rhythms. CRY2 participates in the core clock that generates circadian rhythms. CRY2 mRNA expression in blood mononuclear cells was recently shown to display a marked diurnal variation and to respond to total sleep deprivation in healthy human volunteers. It was also shown that bipolar patients in a depressive state had lower CRY2 mRNA levels, nonresponsive to total sleep deprivation, compared to healthy controls, and that CRY2 gene variation was associated with winter depression in both Swedish and Finnish cohorts.Four CRY2 SNPs spanning from intron 2 to downstream 3'UTR were analyzed for association to bipolar disorder type 1 (n = 497, bipolar disorder type 2 (n = 60 and bipolar disorder with the feature rapid cycling (n = 155 versus blood donors (n = 1044 in Sweden. Also, the rapid cycling cases were compared with bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (n = 422. The haplotype GGAC was underrepresented among rapid cycling cases versus controls and versus bipolar disorder cases without rapid cycling (OR = 0.7, P = 0.006-0.02, whereas overrepresentation among rapid cycling cases was seen for AAAC (OR = 1.3-1.4, P = 0.03-0.04 and AGGA (OR = 1.5, P = 0.05. The risk and protective CRY2 haplotypes and their effect sizes were similar to those recently suggested to be associated with winter depression in Swedes.We propose that the circadian gene CRY2 is associated with rapid cycling in bipolar disorder. This is the first time a clock gene is implicated in rapid cycling, and one of few findings showing a molecular discrimination between rapid cycling and other forms of bipolar disorder.

  20. Uncovering the Protostars in Serpens South with ALMA: Continuum Sources and Their Outflow Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, Adele; Arce, H.; Corder, S.; Dunham, M.

    2017-06-01

    Serpens South is an appealing protostellar cluster to study due the combination of several factors: (1) a high protostar fraction that shows evidence for very recent and ongoing star formation; (2) iconic clustered star formation along a filamentary structure; (3) its relative proximity within a few hundred parsecs. An effective study requires the sensitivity, angular and spectral resolution, and mapping capabilities recently provided with ALMA. Here we present a multi-faceted data set acquired from Cycles 1 through 3 with ALMA, including maps of continuum sources and molecular outflows throughout the region, as well as a more focused kinematical study of the protostar that is the strongest continuum source at the cluster center. Together these data span spatial scales over several orders of magnitude, allowing us to investigate the outflow-driving sources and the impact of the outflows on the cluster environment. Currently, we focus on the census of protostars in the cluster center, numbering about 20, including low-flux, low-mass sources never before detected in mm-wavelengths and evidence for multiplicity that was previously unresolved.

  1. Discovering a misaligned CO outflow related to the red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292 (MSXG34), catalogued as a massive young stellar object, was observed in molecular lines with the aim of discovering and studying molecular outflows. Methods: We mapped a region of 3'× 3' centred at MSXG34 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2 and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. Additionally, public 13CO J = 1-0 and near-IR UKIDSS data obtained from the Galactic Ring Survey and the WFCAM Sciencie Archive were analysed. Results: We found that the 12CO spectra towards the YSO present a self-absorption dip, as is common in star-forming regions, and spectral wings that indicate outflow activity. The HCO+ was detected only towards the MSXG34 position at vLSR ~ 14.2 km s-1, in coincidence with the 12CO absorption dip and approximately with the velocity of previous ammonia observations. HCO+ and NH3 are known to be enhanced in molecular outflows. When we analysed the spectral wings of the 12CO line, we discovered misaligned red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows associated with MSXG34. The near-IR emission shows a cone-like nebulosity composed of two arc-like features related to the YSO, which might be due to a cavity cleared in the circumstellar material by a precessing jet. This can explain the misalignment in the molecular outflows. From the analysis of the 13CO J = 1-0 data we suggest that the YSO is very likely related to a molecular clump ranging between 10 and 14 km s-1. This suggests that MSXG34, with an associated central velocity of about 14 km s-1, may be located in the background of this clump. Thus, the blue-shifted outflow is probably deflected by the interaction with dense gas along the line of sight. From a spectral energy distribution analysis of MSXG34 we found that its central object probably is an intermediate-mass protostar.

  2. THE MOLECULAR WIND IN THE NEAREST SEYFERT GALAXY CIRCINUS REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschaechner, Laura K.; Walter, Fabian; Farina, Emanuele P.; Kruijssen, J. M. Diederik [Max Planck Institute für Astronomie—Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Bolatto, Alberto; Veilleux, Sylvain [Department of Astronomy and Joint Space Science Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20642 (United States); Leroy, Adam [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Meier, David S. [Department of Physics, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Ott, Jürgen, E-mail: zschaechner@mpia.de [National Radio Astronomy Observatory—P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We present ALMA observations of the inner 1′ (1.2 kpc) of the Circinus galaxy, the nearest Seyfert. We target CO (1–0) in the region associated with a well-known multiphase outflow driven by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). While the geometry of Circinus and its outflow make disentangling the latter difficult, we see indications of outflowing molecular gas at velocities consistent with the ionized outflow. We constrain the mass of the outflowing molecular gas to be 1.5 × 10{sup 5}−5.1 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ⊙}, yielding a molecular outflow rate of 0.35–12.3 M {sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The values within this range are comparable to the star formation (SF) rate in Circinus, indicating that the outflow indeed regulates SF to some degree. The molecular outflow in Circinus is considerably lower in mass and energetics than previously studied AGN-driven outflows, especially given its high ratio of AGN luminosity to bolometric luminosity. The molecular outflow in Circinus is, however, consistent with some trends put forth by Cicone et al., including a linear relation between kinetic power and AGN luminosity, as well as its momentum rate versus bolometric luminosity (although the latter places Circinus among the starburst galaxies in that sample). We detect additional molecular species including CN and C{sup 17}O.

  3. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  4. Social support and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mendonça Studart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.

  5. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had...

  6. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  7. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  8. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  9. Rapid growth of black holes accompanied with hot or warm outflows exposed to anisotropic super-Eddington radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Eishun; Inayoshi, Kohei; Ohsuga, Ken; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Mineshige, Shin

    2018-05-01

    We perform two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of accretion flows on to a black hole (BH) with a mass of 103 ≤ MBH/ M⊙ ≲ 106 in order to study rapid growth of BHs in the early Universe. For spherically symmetric flows, hyper-Eddington accretion from outside the Bondi radius can occur unimpeded by radiation feedback when MBH ≳ 104 M⊙(n∞/105 cm - 3) - 1(T∞/104 K)3/2, where the density and temperature of ambient gas are initially set to n∞ = 105 cm-3 and T∞ = 104 K. Here, we study accretion flows exposed to anisotropic radiation from a nuclear accretion disc with a luminosity higher than the Eddington value (LEdd) due to collimation towards the bipolar directions. We find that, unlike the spherically symmetric case, even less massive BHs with MBH ionized regions expand towards the poles producing hot outflows with T ˜ 105 K. For more massive BHs with MBH ≳ 5 × 105 M⊙, intense inflows of neutral gas through the equator totally cover the central radiating region due to the non-radial gas motions. Because of efficient recombination by hydrogen, the entire flow settles in neutral and warm gas with T ≃ 8000 K. The BH is fed at a rate of ˜5 × 104LEdd/c2 (a half of the inflow rate from the Bondi radius). Moreover, radiation momentum absorbed by neutral hydrogen produces warm outflows towards the bipolar directions at ˜ 10 per cent of the BH feeding rate and with a velocity several times higher than the escaping value.

  10. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  11. The Mass Outflow Rate of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The balance between gaseous inflow and outflow regulates star formation in spiral galaxies. This paradigm can be tested in the Milky Way, but whereas the star formation rate and inflow rate have both been measured, the outflow rate has not. We propose an archival COS program to determine the Galactic outflow rate in cool gas ( 10^4 K) by surveying UV absorption line high-velocity clouds (HVCs). This project will make use of the newly updated Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive, which contains a uniformly reduced sample of 233 COS G130M spectra of background AGN. The outflow rate will be determined by (1) searching for redshifted HVCs; (2) modeling the clouds with photoionization simulations to determine their masses and physical properties; (3) combining the cloud masses with their velocities and distances. We will measure how the outflow is distributed spatially across the sky, calculate its mass loading factor, and compare the line profiles to synthetic spectra extracted from new hydrodynamic simulations. The distribution of HVC velocities will inform us what fraction of the outflowing clouds will escape the halo and what fraction will circulate back to the disk, to better understand how and where gas enters and exits the Milky Way.

  12. Spitzer spectral line mapping of the HH211 outflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionatos, Odyssefs; Nisini, Brunella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    of emission line diagnostics and an existing grid of molecular shock models. The physical properties of the warm gas are compared against other molecular jet tracers and to the results of a similar study towards the L1448-C outflow. Results: We have detected and mapped the v=0-0 S(0) - S(7) H2 lines and fine...... compared to solar abundances by a factor ~10-50. Conclusions: Spitzer spectral mapping observations reveal for the first time a cool H$_2$ component towards the CO jet of HH211 consistent with the CO material being fully molecular and warm at ~ 300 K. The maps also reveal for the first time the existence...... uncertainties on jet speed and shock conditions are too large for a definite conclusion....

  13. Structure of Ion Outflow in the Martian Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D.; Luhmann, J. G.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    The Suprathermal And Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) sensor on the MAVEN spacecraft provides a detailed look at the structure of ion outflow in the Martian magnetotail including ion composition, energization, and flow. Mars' magnetotail contains a mixture of cold (multi-species ions, tailward-moving cold multi-species ions, suprathermal ions of a few tens of eV, warm (about 100 eV) proton populations, and heavy (primarily O+) pickup ions at energies from 1 to 10 keV which may display several simultaneous peaks in energy flux. The cold tailward-moving ions represent a significant fraction of the Martian ion loss, perhaps comparable to loses from molecular oxygen dissociation. The suprathermal tail that accompanies the cold ions varies greatly and provides clues to ion escape. The warm protons, on first examination, appear to be of sheath origin, displaying a similar energy distribution and accompanied by a tenuous warm population at M/Q=2 (which could be either solar wind alphas or molecular hydrogen ions of ionospheric origin). STATIC produces a weak ghost peak at M/Q=11-12 when observing molecular hydrogen ions, but not alphas, often allowing the instrument to distinguish the source of protons. Measurements show the warm protons are of ionospheric origin in the central tail and transition to sheath plasma in the umbra. Energetic (1-10 keV) pickup oxygen in the magnetotail is produced on the nightside, near the pole where the IMF convection electric field points toward the planet, the same hemisphere where sputtering occurs. When two spectral peaks are observed, these tailward-moving ions differ in direction by relatively small angles (about 20 degrees). These peaks can persist for tens of minutes indicating approximately time-stationary acceleration, and therefore acceleration in potential fields. Magnetotail structure and geometry can be inferred not only from the local magnetic field, but also from the measured electron distributions which indicate source

  14. The Coldest Object in the Universe: Probing the Mass Distribution of the Ultra-Cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L.

    2015-12-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the Universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background (CMB). The Boomerang's prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001M⊙) and low-luminosity (300L⊙) make it a key object for understanding the remarkable transition of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. We have obtained new ACA CO 1-0 data that recover much of the flux lost in the Cycle 0 data, and reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of the ultra-cold outflow re-heated to temperatures above the CMB. Our CO J=3-2 data reveal the precise, highly collimated shape of an inner bipolar structure and its dense central waist, with unprecedented angular resolution (0.4”). The waist shows a core-halo structure in the thermal dust emission at 0.88 mm, and its derived flux at this wavelength, compared with the 3.3, 2.6, and 1.3 mm fluxes support the presence of about 5×10-4 M⊙ of very large (˜mm-sized), cold (˜30K) grains. We also find the unexpected presence of weak SO emission, possibly resulting from the release of S from grains due to high-speed shocks.

  15. The Coldest Object in the Universe: Probing the Mass Distribution of the Ultra-Cold Outflow and Dusty Disk in the Boomerang Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.; Nyman, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Our Cycle 0 ALMA observations confirmed that the Boomerang Nebula is the coldest known object in the universe, with a massive high-speed outflow that has cooled significantly below the temperature of the cosmic background (CMB). The Boomerang's prodigious mass-loss rate (0.001 solar mass M yr (exp -1) and low-luminosity (300L ) make it a key object for understanding the remarkable transition of the circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars into bipolar planetary nebulae. We have obtained new ACA CO 1-0 data that recover much of the flux lost in the Cycle O data, and reveal heretofore unseen distant regions of the ultra-cold outflow reheated to temperatures above the CMB. Our CO J=3-2 data reveal the precise, highly collimated shape of an inner bipolar structure and its dense central waist, with unprecedented angular resolution (0.4 in). The waist shows a core-halo structure in the thermal dust emission at 0.88 millimeter, and its derived flux at this wavelength, compared with the 3.3, 2.6, and 1.3 millimeter fluxes support the presence of about 5 x 10 (exp -4) solar mass of very large (approximately millimeter-sized), cold (approximately 30K) grains. We also find the unexpected presence of weak SO emission, possibly resulting from the release of S from grains due to high-speed shocks.

  16. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Perlis, Roy H.

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder,

  17. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  18. Three-dimensional Shock Structure of the Orion KL Outflow with IGRINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Heeyoung; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Kaplan, Kyle; Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon; Mace, Gregory; Park, Chan; Chun, Moo-Young; Pak, Soojong; Kim, Kang-Min; Sok Oh, Jae; Jeong, Ueejeong; Yu, Young Sam; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Hwihyun; Hwang, Narae; Lee, Hye-In; Nguyen Le, Huynh Anh; Lee, Sungho; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2016-12-01

    We report a study of the three-dimensional (3D) outflow structure of a 15″ × 13″ area around the H2 peak 1 in Orion KL with slit-scan observations (13 slits) using the Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph. The datacubes have a high-velocity resolution (˜7.5 km s-1), provide high-contrast imaging within ultra-narrow bands, and enable the detection of the main stream of the previously reported H2 outflow fingers. We identified 31 distinct fingers in the H2 1-0 S(1) λ2.122 μm emission. The line profile at each finger shows multiple-velocity peaks with a strong low-velocity component around the systemic velocity at {V}{LSR} = +8 km s-1 and high-velocity emission (| {V}{LSR}| = 45-135 km s-1), indicating a typical bow-shock. The observed radial velocity gradients of ˜4 km s-1 arcsec-1 agree well with the velocities inferred from large-scale proper motions, where the projected motion is proportional to the distance from a common origin. We construct a conceptual 3D map of the fingers with estimated inclination angles of 57°-74°. The extinction difference (ΔA v > 10 mag) between blueshifted and redshifted fingers indicates high internal extinction. The extinction, the overall angular spread, and the scale of the flow argue for an ambient medium with a very high density (105-106 cm-3), consistent with molecular line observations of the Orion Molecular Cloud core. The radial velocity gradients and the 3D distributions of the fingers together support the hypothesis of a simultaneous radial explosion of the Orion KL outflow. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.

  19. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  20. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  1. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  2. [Bipolar disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013 the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) edited by the American Psychiatric Association was published. The DSM-5 has also brought some important changes regarding bipolar disorders. The goal of this manuscript is to review the novelties in DSM-5 and to evaluate the implications of these changes. The diagnostic criteria as well as the additional remarks provided in the running text of DSM-5 were carefully appraised. For the first time diagnostic criteria are provided for disorders which up to now have been considered as subthreshold bipolar disorders. Furthermore, mixed episodes were eliminated and instead a mixed specifier was introduced. An increase in goal-directed activity/energy is now one of the obligatory symptoms for a (hypo)manic episode. Diagnostic guidance is provided as to when a (hypo)manic episode that has developed during treatment with an antidepressant has to be judged to be causally related to antidepressants and when this episode has only occurred coincidentally with antidepressant use. While some of the novelties are clearly useful, e.g. addition of increased goal-directed activity/energy as obligatory symptom for (hypo)manic episodes, this remains to be demonstrated for others, such as the definition of various subthreshold bipolar disorders.

  3. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  4. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J.; Lykou, F.; DE Buizer, J.; Morris, M. R.; Keller, L.; Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J.

    2014-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  5. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  6. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  7. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  8. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1% in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and pharmacologic management when approaching new-onset manic/depressive symptoms among geriatric patients.

  9. Dysfunctional gaze processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berchio

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides neurophysiological evidence for abnormal gaze processing in BP and suggests dysfunctional processing of direct eye contact as a prominent characteristic of bipolar disorder.

  10. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  11. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan Pan Bennett Au

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we

  12. Bipolar electrochemistry: from materials science to motion and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Zigah, Dodzi; Bouffier, Laurent; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-19

    Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity on the surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems. Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape. In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the

  13. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Plasma Outflows: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and The Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    A brief summary is given of i) what we know from observing ionospheric outflows and ii) how outflow parameterizations are being used in global simulations to evaluate their effects on magnetospheric dynamics. Then, a list of unanswered questions and issues to be resolved is given, followed by a description of the known future mission plans expressed in the Heliophysics Roadmap, such as Origin of Near-Earth Plasmas (ONEP), and Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere (INCA). Finally, a set of requirements for definitive plasma outflow observations are identified, along with possible methods for fulfilling them in future missions. Since results of the current Heliophysics Decadal Survey are expected soon, it is hoped that future plans can be summarized and discussed without speculation at the GEM 2012 meeting.

  15. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  16. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  17. CORONAL MASS EJECTION INDUCED OUTFLOWS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, M.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Imada, S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the outflows associated with two halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2006 December 13 and 14 in NOAA 10930, using the Hinode/EIS observations. Each CME was accompanied by an EIT wave and coronal dimmings. Dopplergrams in the dimming regions are obtained from the spectra of seven EIS lines. The results show that strong outflows are visible in the dimming regions during the CME eruption at different heights from the lower transition region to the corona. It is found that the velocity is positively correlated with the photospheric magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the dimming. We estimate the mass loss based on height-dependent EUV dimmings and find it to be smaller than the CME mass derived from white-light observations. The mass difference is attributed partly to the uncertain atmospheric model, and partly to the transition region outflows, which refill the coronal dimmings.

  18. Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schillings

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004 and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003.

  19. The long lives of giant clumps and the birth of outflows in gas-rich galaxies at high redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bournaud, Frédéric; Renaud, Florent; Daddi, Emanuele; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared M.; Juneau, Stéphanie; Kraljic, Katarina; Le Floch' , Emeric [CEA, IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Perret, Valentin; Amram, Philippe; Epinat, Benoit [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), F-13388 Marseille (France); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States); Teyssier, Romain [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-01-01

    Star-forming disk galaxies at high redshift are often subject to violent disk instability, characterized by giant clumps whose fate is yet to be understood. The main question is whether the clumps disrupt within their dynamical timescale (≤50 Myr), like the molecular clouds in today's galaxies, or whether they survive stellar feedback for more than a disk orbital time (≈300 Myr) in which case they can migrate inward and help building the central bulge. We present 3.5-7 pc resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of high-redshift disks including photoionization, radiation pressure, and supernovae feedback. Our modeling of radiation pressure determines the mass loading and initial velocity of winds from basic physical principles. We find that the giant clumps produce steady outflow rates comparable to and sometimes somewhat larger than their star formation rate, with velocities largely sufficient to escape the galaxy. The clumps also lose mass, especially old stars, by tidal stripping, and the stellar populations contained in the clumps hence remain relatively young (≤200 Myr), as observed. The clumps survive gaseous outflows and stellar loss, because they are wandering in gas-rich turbulent disks from which they can reaccrete gas at high rates compensating for outflows and tidal stripping, overall keeping realistic and self-regulated gaseous and stellar masses. The outflow and accretion rates have specific timescales of a few 10{sup 8} yr, as opposed to rapid and repeated dispersion and reformation of clumps. Our simulations produce gaseous outflows with velocities, densities, and mass loading consistent with observations, and at the same time suggest that the giant clumps survive for hundreds of Myr and complete their migration to the center of high-redshift galaxies. These long-lived clumps are gas-dominated and contain a moderate mass fraction of stars; they drive inside-out disk evolution, thickening, spheroid growth, and fueling of the central

  20. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  1. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  2. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  3. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  4. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  5. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  6. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  7. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  8. Misalignment of magnetic fields and outflows in protostellar cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Tobin, John J.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, N. H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of lambda 1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with similar to 2 ''.5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of similar to 1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the

  9. Cardiac outflow tract malformations in chick embryos exposed to homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Boot (Marit); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); L. van Iperen (Liesbeth); A.C. Gittenberger-De Groot (Adriana)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreased homocysteine concentrations have been associated with cardiac outflow tract defects. It has been hypothesized that cardiac neural crest cells were the target cells in these malformations. Cardiac neural crest cells migrate from the neural tube and contribute to the condensed

  10. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflow rates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, ...

  12. Reconstructing Global-scale Ionospheric Outflow With a Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Welling, D. T.; Jahn, J. M.; Valek, P. W.; Elliott, H. A.; Ilie, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Zou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The question of how many satellites it would take to accurately map the spatial distribution of ionospheric outflow is addressed in this study. Given an outflow spatial map, this image is then reconstructed from a limited number virtual satellite pass extractions from the original values. An assessment is conducted of the goodness of fit as a function of number of satellites in the reconstruction, placement of the satellite trajectories relative to the polar cap and auroral oval, season and universal time (i.e., dipole tilt relative to the Sun), geomagnetic activity level, and interpolation technique. It is found that the accuracy of the reconstructions increases sharply from one to a few satellites, but then improves only marginally with additional spacecraft beyond 4. Increased dwell time of the satellite trajectories in the auroral zone improves the reconstruction, therefore a high-but-not-exactly-polar orbit is most effective for this task. Local time coverage is also an important factor, shifting the auroral zone to different locations relative to the virtual satellite orbit paths. The expansion and contraction of the polar cap and auroral zone with geomagnetic activity influences the coverage of the key outflow regions, with different optimal orbit configurations for each level of activity. Finally, it is found that reconstructing each magnetic latitude band individually produces a better fit to the original image than 2-D image reconstruction method (e.g., triangulation). A high-latitude, high-altitude constellation mission concept is presented that achieves acceptably accurate outflow reconstructions.

  13. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The association between Darier disease, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia revisited: a population-based family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Bergen, Sarah E; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik; Boman, Marcus; Craddock, Nick; Östberg, Per; Lundström, Sebastian; Sjölander, Arvid; Nordlind, Klas; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Darier disease is an autosomal dominant skin disorder caused by mutations in the ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 (ATP2A2) gene and previously reported to cosegregate with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in occasional pedigrees. It is, however, unknown whether these associations exist also in the general population, and the objective of this study was to examine this question. We compared a national sample of individuals with Darier disease and their first-degree relatives with matched unexposed individuals from the general population and their first-degree relatives, respectively. To examine risks for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regressions. Individuals with Darier disease had a 4.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with bipolar disorder (95% CI: 2.6-7.3) and a 2.3 times higher risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia (95% CI: 1.1-5.2) than matched individuals from the general population. Relatives of individuals with Darier disease had a 1.6 times higher risk of having bipolar disorder (95% CI: 1.1-2.5) than relatives of matched individuals from the general population, but no increased risk of schizophrenia (risk ratio = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4-1.8). The association between Darier disease and bipolar disorder is manifest also in the population, and our data suggest that genetic variability within the ATP2A2 gene that causes Darier disease also confers susceptibility for bipolar disorder. The Darier-causing mutations merit additional attention in molecular genetic research on bipolar disorder. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts: relationships to bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, temperament and character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Peter R; Light, Katrina J; Rowe, Sarah L; Cloninger, C Robert; Kennedy, Martin A

    2010-03-01

    Self-mutilation has traditionally been associated with borderline personality disorder, and seldom examined separately from suicide attempts. Clinical experience suggests that self-mutilation is common in bipolar disorder. A family study was conducted on the molecular genetics of depression and personality, in which the proband had been treated for depression. All probands and parents or siblings were interviewed with a structured interview and completed the Temperament and Character Inventory. Fourteen per cent of subjects interviewed reported a history of self-mutilation, mostly by wrist cutting. Self-mutilation was more common in bipolar I disorder subjects then in any other diagnostic groups. In multiple logistic regression self-mutilation was predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance, but not by borderline personality disorder. Furthermore, the relatives of non-bipolar depressed probands with self-mutilation had higher rates of bipolar I or II disorder and higher rates of self-mutilation. Sixteen per cent of subjects reported suicide attempts and these were most common in those with bipolar I disorder and in those with borderline personality disorder. On multiple logistic regression, however, only mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance predicted suicide attempts. Suicide attempts, unlike self-mutilation, were not familial. Self-mutilation and suicide attempts are only partially overlapping behaviours, although both are predicted by mood disorder diagnosis and harm avoidance. Self-mutilation has a particularly strong association with bipolar disorder. Clinicians need to think of bipolar disorder, not borderline personality disorder, when assessing an individual who has a history of self-mutilation.

  16. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    2016-09-01

    This dissertation focuses on placing observational constraints on outflows and accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the purpose of better understanding the physics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) and their evolution with the host galaxy over cosmic time. Quasar outflows and their importance in SMBH-host galaxy co-evolution can be further understood by analyzing broad absorption lines (BALs) in rest-frame UV spectra that trace a range of wind conditions. We quantify the properties of the flows by conducting BAL variability studies using multiple-epoch spectra acquired primarily from MDM Observatory and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Iron low-ionization BALs (FeLoBALs) are a rare type of outflow that may represent a transient phase in galaxy evolution, and we analyze the variations in 12 FeLoBAL quasars with redshifts between 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 1.9 and rest frame timescales between ˜10 d to 7.6 yr. We investigate BAL variability in 71 quasar outflows that exhibit P V absorption, a tracer of high column density gas (i.e. NH ≥ 1022 cm -2), in order to quantify the energies and momenta of the flows. We also characterize the variability patterns of 26 quasars with mini-BALs, an interesting class of absorbers that may represent a distinct phase in the evolution of outflows. Low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) are important objects to study since their prominence in the local Universe suggest a possible evolution from the quasar era, and their low radiative outputs likely indicate a distinct mode of accretion onto the SMBH. We probe the accretion conditions in the LLAGN NGC 4203 by estimating the SMBH mass, which is obtained by modeling the 2-dimensional velocity field of the nebular gas using spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect significant BAL and mini-BAL variability in a subset of quasars from each of our samples, with measured rest-frame variability time-scales from days to years and over multiple years on average. Variable wavelength

  18. Are X-ray emitting coronae around supermassive black holes outflowing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Zhou, You-Yuan, E-mail: liuteng@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact coronae near the supermassive black hole. However, the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics, and dynamics, remain poorly known. In this work, taking [O IV] 25.89 μm emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGNs' intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We compile a sample of 130 Compton-thin Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 μm line luminosities measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, or Swift. Known radio-loud sources are excluded. We fit the X-ray spectra to obtain the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV continuum luminosities. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are intrinsically brighter in intrinsic 2-10 keV emission by a factor of 2.8{sub −0.4}{sup +0.5} (2.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.9} in Swift Burst Alert Telescope 14-195 keV emission), compared with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference in X-ray emission between the two populations is thus unlikely to be due to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ∼0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. Other consequences of outflowing coronae are also discussed.

  19. Atmospheric outflow of nutrients to the Bay of Bengal: Impact of anthropogenic sources..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, B.; Sarin, M.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    outflow show pronounced temporal variability. The inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + -N: ~90% of NInorg) dominates the total soluble nitrogen (NTot). Although the contribution of organic nitrogen is not significant, the mass ratio of NOrg/NTotin the outflow varied...

  20. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  1. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  2. VALPROATE, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Milana; Zivanović, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction with the principal features of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. A large number of studies conducted on this topic have suggested a possible role of anticonvulsants, particularly valproate, in the pathogenesis or risk factors associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Bipolar treatment guidelines from Canada and the United States of America recommend valproate as the first line strategy in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder. Most persons with bipolar disorder require maintenance treatment. Long-term administration of valproate in women with bipolar disorder or epilepsy is believed to result in the increased risk of hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovaries. Valproate may also increase the risk of infertility and other associated symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Therefore, particular caution is indicated in the use of valproate in women of reproductive age. The treatment of the female patients with bipolar disorder presents various challenges for the clinician. Every woman of reproductive age needs to know the risk and benefits of her pharmacologic treatment options. Bipolar disorder should be considered chronic disorder, whose development is largely affected by hormonal changes and reproductive cycle in women. These issues should be researched more thoroughly in order to opt for the most appropriate treatment in women with bipolar disorder.

  3. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  4. Distinctions of bipolar disorder symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Devika; Leskauskas, Darius; Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Klimavicius, Dalius; Adomaitiene, Virginija

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder in adolescents is a serious mental illness with problematic diagnosis that adversely affects social, academic, emotional, and family functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze features of premorbid and clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and course of bipolar disorder in adolescence. Data for analysis were collected from all case histories (N=6) of 14-18-year-old patients, hospitalized with diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the Unit of Children's and Adolescents' Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Analysis of bipolar disorder course showed that five patients previously had been diagnosed with an episode of depression. The most frequent symptoms typical to bipolar disorder were disobedience and impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood. The most common premorbid features were frequent changes of mood, being active in communication, hyperactive behavior. Adolescence-onset bipolar disorder was frequently comorbid with emotionally instable personality disorder, borderline type. Findings of the study confirm the notion that oppositional or impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood without any reason, dysphoric mood and euphoric mood episodes with increased energy were cardinal symptoms of bipolar disorder with mania in adolescents. Most frequent premorbid features of these patients were quite similar to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder making differential diagnosis problematic.

  5. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  6. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  7. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  8. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  10. The Gaseous Environments of Quasars: Outflows, Feedback & Cold Mode Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred

    2018-06-01

    The early stages of massive galaxy evolution can involve galaxy-scale outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar and cold-mode accretion (infall) that adds to the mass buildup in the galaxies. I will describe three related studies that use quasar absorption lines to measure outflows, infall, and the general gaseous environments of quasars across a range of spatial scales. The three studies are: 1) High-resolution spectroscopy with Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES to study associated absorption lines (AALs) that have redshifts greater than the emission redshifts indicating infall and/or rich multi-component AAL complexes that might be interstellar clouds in the host galaxies that have been shredded and dispersed by a fast unseen quasar-driven wind. The data provide strong constraints on the gas kinematics, spatial structure, column densities, metallicities, and energetics. 2) A complete inventory of high-velocity CIV 1548,1550 mini-BAL outflows in quasars using high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra in the public VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES archives. This sensitive mini-BAL survey fills an important niche between previous work on narrow absorption lines (NALs) and the much-studied broad absorption lines (BALs) to build a more complete picture of quasar outflows. I will report of the mini-BAL statistics, the diversity of lines detected, and some tests for correlations with the quasar properties. We find, for example, that mini-BALs at v > 4000 km/s in at least 10% of 511 quasars studied, including 1% at v > 0.1 c. Finally, 3) Use the much larger database of NALs measured in 262,449 BOSS quasars by York et al. (in prep.) to study their potential relationships to the quasars and, specifically, their origins in quasar outflows. This involves primarily comparisons of the incidence and properties of NALs at different velocity shifts to other measured properties of the quasars such as BAL outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and red colors. We find

  11. The thermodynamics of bipolarity: a bifurcation model of bipolar illness and bipolar character and its psychotherapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H C; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Javaid, J I

    1990-11-01

    Two models dominate current formulations of bipolar illness: the homeostatic model implicit in Freud's psychodynamics and most neuroamine deficit/excess theories; and the oscillatory model of exaggerated biological rhythms. The homeostatic model is based on the closed systems approach of classic thermodynamics, while the oscillatory model requires the open systems approach of modern thermodynamics. Here we present a thermodynamic model of bipolarity that includes both homeostatic and oscillatory features and adds the most important feature of open systems thermodynamics: the creation of novel structures in bifurcation processes. According to the proposed model, bipolarity is the result of exaggerated biological energy that augments homeostatic, oscillatory and creative psychological processes. Only low-energy closed systems tend to rest ("point attractor") and entropic disorder. Open processes containing and exchanging energy fluctuate between opposite states ("periodic attractors"); they are characteristic of most physiological rhythms and are exaggerated in bipolar subjects. At higher energies, their strong fluctuations destroy pre-existing patterns and structures, produce turbulence ("chaotic attractors"), which sudden switches between opposite states, and create new and more complex structures. Likewise, high-energy bipolars develop high spontaneity, great fluctuations between opposite moods, internal and interpersonal chaos, and enhanced creativity (personal, artistic, professional) as well as psychopathology (personality deviations, psychotic delusions). Offered here is a theoretical explanation of the dual--creative and destructive--nature of bipolarity in terms of the new enantiodromic concept of entropy generalized by process theory. Clinically, this article offers an integrative model of bipolarity that accounts for many clinical features and contributes to a definition of the bipolar personality.

  12. Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Hunt, Heather D.; Price, James F.

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data and a numerical plume model are used to investigate the initial transformation, dynamics, and spreading pathways of Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflow waters where they enter the Indian Ocean. The annual mean transport of these outflows is relatively small (outflows in that they flow over very shallow sills (depth Red Sea outflow exhibits strong seasonal variability in transport. The four main results of this study are as follows. First, on the basis of observed temperature-salinity (T-S) characteristics of the outflow source and product waters we estimate that the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows are diluted by factors of ˜2.5 and 4, respectively, as they descend from sill depth to their depth of neutral buoyancy. The high-dilution factor for the Persian Gulf outflow results from the combined effects of large initial density difference between the outflow source water and oceanic water and low outflow transport. Second, the combination of low latitude and low outflow transport (and associated low outflow thickness) results in Ekman numbers for both outflows that are O(1). This indicates that they should be thought of as frictional density currents modified by rotation rather than geostrophic density currents modified by friction. Third, different mixing histories along the two channels that direct Red Sea outflow water into the open ocean result in product waters with significantly different densities, which probably contributes to the multilayered structure of the Red Sea product waters. In both outflows, seasonal variations in source water and oceanic properties have some effect on the T-S of the product waters, but they have only a minor impact on equilibrium depth. Fourth, product waters from both outflows are advected away from the sill region in narrow boundary currents, at least during part of the year. At other times, the product water appears more in isolated patches.

  13. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  14. 1H-NMR, 1H-NMR T2-edited, and 2D-NMR in bipolar disorder metabolic profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sumit; Pedrini, Mariana; Rizzo, Lucas B; Zeni-Graiff, Maiara; Mas, Caroline Dal; Cassinelli, Ana Cláudia; Noto, Mariane N; Asevedo, Elson; Cordeiro, Quirino; Pontes, João G M; Brasil, Antonio J M; Lacerda, Acioly; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Poppi, Ronei; Tasic, Ljubica; Brietzke, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify molecular alterations in the human blood serum related to bipolar disorder, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and chemometrics. Metabolomic profiling, employing 1 H-NMR, 1 H-NMR T 2 -edited, and 2D-NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics of human blood serum samples from patients with bipolar disorder (n = 26) compared with healthy volunteers (n = 50) was performed. The investigated groups presented distinct metabolic profiles, in which the main differential metabolites found in the serum sample of bipolar disorder patients compared with those from controls were lipids, lipid metabolism-related molecules (choline, myo-inositol), and some amino acids (N-acetyl-L-phenyl alanine, N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamic acid, L-glutamine). In addition, amygdalin, α-ketoglutaric acid, and lipoamide, among other compounds, were also present or were significantly altered in the serum of bipolar disorder patients. The data presented herein suggest that some of these metabolites differentially distributed between the groups studied may be directly related to the bipolar disorder pathophysiology. The strategy employed here showed significant potential for exploring pathophysiological features and molecular pathways involved in bipolar disorder. Thus, our findings may contribute to pave the way for future studies aiming at identifying important potential biomarkers for bipolar disorder diagnosis or progression follow-up.

  15. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  16. Bipolar or unipolar? : A brain teasing question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the depressed or remitted states, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically. Treatments for both disorders differ, and inadequate treatment may lead to chronicity, poor psychosocial functioning, or even suicide. Although early

  17. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information...... on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online...

  18. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  19. Efficient cold outflows driven by cosmic rays in high-redshift galaxies and their global effects on the IGM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samui, Saumyadip; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Srianand, Raghunathan

    2018-05-01

    We present semi-analytical models of galactic outflows in high-redshift galaxies driven by both hot thermal gas and non-thermal cosmic rays. Thermal pressure alone may not sustain a large-scale outflow in low-mass galaxies (i.e. M ˜ 108 M⊙), in the presence of supernovae feedback with large mass loading. We show that inclusion of cosmic ray pressure allows outflow solutions even in these galaxies. In massive galaxies for the same energy efficiency, cosmic ray-driven winds can propagate to larger distances compared to pure thermally driven winds. On an average gas in the cosmic ray-driven winds has a lower temperature which could aid detecting it through absorption lines in the spectra of background sources. Using our constrained semi-analytical models of galaxy formation (that explains the observed ultraviolet luminosity functions of galaxies), we study the influence of cosmic ray-driven winds on the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at different redshifts. In particular, we study the volume filling factor, average metallicity, cosmic ray and magnetic field energy densities for models invoking atomic cooled and molecular cooled haloes. We show that the cosmic rays in the IGM could have enough energy that can be transferred to the thermal gas in presence of magnetic fields to influence the thermal history of the IGM. The significant volume filling and resulting strength of IGM magnetic fields can also account for recent γ-ray observations of blazars.

  20. The Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study: Protocol and sample description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Parra, Jose; Rivas, Fabio; Strohmaier, Jana; Forstner, Andreas; Streit, Fabian; Auburger, Georg; Propping, Peter; Orozco-Diaz, Guillermo; González, Maria José; Gil-Flores, Susana; Cabaleiro-Fabeiro, Francisco Javier; Del Río-Noriega, Francisco; Perez-Perez, Fermin; Haro-González, Jesus; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Mayoral, Fermin

    2017-06-12

    Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suicide in bipolar disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. Risk factors and prevention of suicide in this illness are the focus of considerable current research. MEDLINE data base was searched for the key words "bipolar disorder" with "suicide", "lithium" with "suicide", "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder", and "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder" and with "suicide". No language or time constraints were applied. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. It is estimated that 25% to 50% of patients with bipolar disorder will attempt suicide at least once over their lifetime, and that 8% to 19% will complete suicide. Mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are elevated in bipolar disorder. Risk factors for suicide include younger age of onset of the illness, history of past suicidal behavior, family history of suicide acts, comorbid borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders, and hopelessness. The warning signs calling for immediate action include the patients threatening to harm themselves, or looking for ways to kill themselves (seeking access to pills or weapons), or the patient talking or writing about death. Robust evidence supports the effects of lithium treatment in reducing suicidal attempts and completions in bipolar disorder. The evidence for antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsants is weaker. Nevertheless, valproate and other anticonvulsants are frequently prescribed as mood stabilizers. There have been controversial suggestions that this treatment may elevate the risk of suicide, but the data supporting this are not convincing. Psychoeducation can reduce the number of suicide attempts and completions. Suicide in bipolar disorder is a major public health problem. Recent research has expanded our knowledge of risk factors and warning signs. Nevertheless, it appears that the introduction of lithium treatment in the 1970s was the most recent important breakthrough in the prevention

  3. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT OUTFLOWS FROM CHINA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. FUNG; ALICIA GARCIA-HERRERO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the determinants of Indian and Chinese FDI outflows. There are three sets of results. First, Chinese investment is attracted to more corrupt countries, while India is attracted to economies with better rule of law. Further analysis suggests that our result of China investing in more corrupt destinations is mostly driven by Chinese investment in the sub-sample of African countries. While we do not conduct economic welfare analysis, several studies in the literature re...

  4. Effects of Energetic Ion Outflow on Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Lund, E. J.; Menz, A.; Nowrouzi, N.

    2016-12-01

    There are two dominant regions of energetic ion outflow: the nightside auroral region and the dayside cusp. Processes in these regions can accelerate ions up to keV energies. Outflow from the nightside has direct access to the plasma sheet, while outflow from the cusp is convected over the polar cap and into the lobes. The cusp population can enter the plasma sheet from the lobe, with higher energy ions entering further down the tail than lower energy ions. During storm times, the O+ enhanced plasma sheet population is convected into the inner magnetosphere. The plasma that does not get trapped in the inner magnetosphere convects to the magnetopause where reconnection is taking place. An enhanced O+ population can change the plasma mass density, which may have the effect of decreasing the reconnection rate. In addition O+ has a larger gyroradius than H+ at the same velocity or energy. Because of this, there are larger regions where the O+ is demagnetized, which can lead to larger acceleration because the O+ can move farther in the direction of the electric field. In this talk we will review results from Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and MMS, on how outflow from the two locations affects magnetospheric dynamics. We will discuss whether enhanced O+ from either population has an effect on the reconnection rate in the tail or at the magnetopause. We will discuss how the two populations impact the inner magnetosphere during storm times. And finally, we will discuss whether either population plays a role in triggering substorms, particularly during sawtooth events.

  5. The Role of Ionospheric Outflow Preconditioning in Determining Storm Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Ridley, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is now well accepted that ionospheric outflow plays an important role in the development of the plasma sheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, even during quiet times, ionospheric plasma populates the magnetospheric lobes, producing a reservoir of hydrogen and oxygen ions. When the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns southward, this reservoir is connected to the plasma sheet and ring current through magnetospheric convection. Hence, the conditions of the ionosphere and magnetospheric lobes leading up to magnetospheric storm onset have important implications for storm development. Despite this, there has been little research on this preconditioning; most global simulations begin just before storm onset, neglecting preconditioning altogether. This work explores the role of preconditioning in determining the geoeffectiveness of storms using a coupled global model system. A model of ionospheric outflow (the Polar Wind Outflow Model, PWOM) is two-way coupled to a global magnetohydrodynamic model (the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), which in turn drives a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model, RAM). This unique setup is used to simulate an idealized storm. The model is started at many different times, from 1 hour before storm onset to 12 hours before. The effects of storm preconditioning are examined by investigating the total ionospheric plasma content in the lobes just before onset, the total ionospheric contribution in the ring current just after onset, and the effects on Dst, magnetic elevation angle at geosynchronous, and total ring current energy density. This experiment is repeated for different solar activity levels as set by F10.7 flux. Finally, a synthetic double-dip storm is constructed to see how two closely spaced storms affect each other by changing the preconditioning environment. It is found that preconditioning of the magnetospheric lobes via ionospheric

  6. MULTIPLE OUTFLOWS IN THE GIANT ERUPTION OF A MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Jones, Terry J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St. SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C., E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The supernova impostor PSN J09132750+7627410 in NGC 2748 reached a maximum luminosity of ≈−14 mag. It was quickly realized that it was not a true supernova, but another example of a nonterminal giant eruption. PSN J09132750+7627410 is distinguished by multiple P Cygni absorption minima in the Balmer emission lines that correspond to outflow velocities of −400, −1100, and −1600 km s{sup −1}. Multiple outflows have been observed in only a few other objects. In this paper we describe the evolution of the spectrum and the P Cygni profiles for 3 months past maximum, the post-maximum formation of a cool, dense wind, and the identification of a possible progenitor. One of the possible progenitors is an infrared source. Its pre-eruption spectral energy distribution suggests a bolometric luminosity of −8.3 mag and a dust temperature of 780 K. If it is the progenitor, it is above the AGB limit, unlike the intermediate-luminosity red transients. The three P Cygni profiles could be due to ejecta from the current eruption, the wind of the progenitor, or previous mass-loss events. We suggest that they were all formed as part of the same high-mass-loss event and are due to material ejected at different velocities or energies. We also suggest that multiple outflows during giant eruptions may be more common than reported.

  7. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-González, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M ☉ . This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s –1 ) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s –1 ) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  8. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [IFSI-INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  9. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  10. VY Canis Majoris: Observational Studies of the Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.

    2001-12-01

    A number of recent studies carried out with the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, SWAS, provide new information on the chemical composition of the dust and the geometry of the outflow. With ISO, we have obtained a near-, mid-, and far-infrared spectrum of VY CMa that shows the strong preponderance of amorphous, as contrasted to crystalline, silicates. The sharp spectral slope in the near-infrared suggests the presence also of iron grains. While an excellent theoretical fit to the data is obtained, we emphasize that this is far from unique. A resolution of ambiguities will require a self-consistent model that considers not only radiative transfer, but also plausible elemental abundances, laboratory studies of chemical condensation sequences, and gas dynamics. With SWAS we have obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the 557GHz ground state transition of ortho-water. The spectral profile enables us to rule out a number of outflow geometries proposed in the literature. With ISO we also obtained the intensities and velocity structure of several other spectral lines of water. Most of these lines must be optically thick but effectively thin, a circumstance that permits us to make use of recent gas-dynamic models to locate the radial position in the outflow where individual lines are emitted.

  11. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  12. Ultrafast outflows disappear in high-radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, L. C.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Walton, D. J.; Kara, E.; Jiang, J.; Lohfink, A.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) are the most extreme winds launched by active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to their mildly relativistic speeds (˜0.1-0.3c) and are thought to significantly contribute to galactic evolution via AGN feedback. Their nature and launching mechanism are however not well understood. Recently, we have discovered the presence of a variable UFO in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 IRAS 13224-3809. The UFO varies in response to the brightness of the source. In this work we perform flux-resolved X-ray spectroscopy to study the variability of the UFO and found that the ionization parameter is correlated with the luminosity. In the brightest states the gas is almost completely ionized by the powerful radiation field and the UFO is hardly detected. This agrees with our recent results obtained with principal component analysis. We might have found the tip of the iceberg: the high ionization of the outflowing gas may explain why it is commonly difficult to detect UFOs in AGN and possibly suggest that we may underestimate their actual feedback. We have also found a tentative correlation between the outflow velocity and the luminosity, which is expected from theoretical predictions of radiation-pressure-driven winds. This trend is rather marginal due to the Fe XXV-XXVI degeneracy. Further work is needed to break such degeneracy through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  13. Fluid outflows from Venus impact craters - Analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, Paul D.; Wood, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Many impact craters on Venus have unusual outflow features originating in or under the continuous ejecta blankets and continuing downhill into the surrounding terrain. These features clearly resulted from flow of low-viscosity fluids, but the identity of those fluids is not clear. In particular, it should not be assumed a priori that the fluid is an impact melt. A number of candidate processes by which impact events might generate the observed features are considered, and predictions are made concerning the rheological character of flows produce by each mechanism. A sample of outflows was analyzed using Magellan images and a model of unconstrained Bingham plastic flow on inclined planes, leading to estimates of viscosity and yield strength for the flow materials. It is argued that at least two different mechanisms have produced outflows on Venus: an erosive, channel-forming process and a depositional process. The erosive fluid is probably an impact melt, but the depositional fluid may consist of fluidized solid debris, vaporized material, and/or melt.

  14. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  15. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  16. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  17. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  18. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  19. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  20. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  1. A genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder with comorbid eating disorder replicates the SOX2-OT region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous mood disorder associated with several important clinical comorbidities, such as eating disorders. This clinical heterogeneity complicates the identification of genetic variants contributing to bipolar susceptibility. Here we investigate comorbidity of eating disorders as a subphenotype of bipolar disorder to identify genetic variation that is common and unique to both disorders. We performed a genome-wide association analysis contrasting 184 bipolar subjects with eating disorder comorbidity against both 1370 controls and 2006 subjects with bipolar disorder only from the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS). The most significant genome-wide finding was observed bipolar with comorbid eating disorder vs. controls within SOX2-OT (p=8.9×10(-8) for rs4854912) with a secondary peak in the adjacent FXR1 gene (p=1.2×10(-6) for rs1805576) on chromosome 3q26.33. This region was also the most prominent finding in the case-only analysis (p=3.5×10(-7) and 4.3×10(-6), respectively). Several regions of interest containing genes involved in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection processes were also identified. While our primary finding did not quite reach genome-wide significance, likely due to the relatively limited sample size, these results can be viewed as a replication of a recent study of eating disorders in a large cohort. These findings replicate the prior association of SOX2-OT with eating disorders and broadly support the involvement of neurodevelopmental/neuroprotective mechanisms in the pathophysiology of both disorders. They further suggest that different clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may reflect differential genetic contributions and argue for the utility of clinical subphenotypes in identifying additional molecular pathways leading to illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. THE EXPANDING BIPOLAR SHELL OF THE HELIUM NOVA V445 PUPPIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woudt, P. A.; Warner, B.; Steeghs, D.; Marsh, T. R.; Karovska, M.; Roelofs, G. H. A.; Groot, P. J.; Nelemans, G.; Nagayama, T.; Smits, D. P.; O'Brien, T.

    2009-01-01

    From multi-epoch adaptive optics imaging and integral field unit spectroscopy, we report the discovery of an expanding and narrowly confined bipolar shell surrounding the helium nova V445 Puppis (Nova Puppis 2000). An equatorial dust disc obscures the nova remnant, and the outflow is characterized by a large polar outflow velocity of 6720 ± 650 km s -1 and knots moving at even larger velocities of 8450 ± 570 km s -1 . We derive an expansion parallax distance of 8.2 ± 0.5 kpc and deduce a pre-outburst luminosity of the underlying binary of log L/L sun = 4.34 ± 0.36. The derived luminosity suggests that V445 Puppis probably contains a massive white dwarf accreting at high rate from a helium star companion making it part of a population of binary stars that potentially lead to supernova Ia explosions due to accumulation of helium-rich material on the surface of a massive white dwarf.

  3. The Expanding Bipolar Shell of the Helium Nova V445 Puppis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudt, P. A.; Steeghs, D.; Karovska, M.; Warner, B.; Groot, P. J.; Nelemans, G.; Roelofs, G. H. A.; Marsh, T. R.; Nagayama, T.; Smits, D. P.; O'Brien, T.

    2009-11-01

    From multi-epoch adaptive optics imaging and integral field unit spectroscopy, we report the discovery of an expanding and narrowly confined bipolar shell surrounding the helium nova V445 Puppis (Nova Puppis 2000). An equatorial dust disc obscures the nova remnant, and the outflow is characterized by a large polar outflow velocity of 6720 ± 650 km s-1 and knots moving at even larger velocities of 8450 ± 570 km s-1. We derive an expansion parallax distance of 8.2 ± 0.5 kpc and deduce a pre-outburst luminosity of the underlying binary of log L/L sun = 4.34 ± 0.36. The derived luminosity suggests that V445 Puppis probably contains a massive white dwarf accreting at high rate from a helium star companion making it part of a population of binary stars that potentially lead to supernova Ia explosions due to accumulation of helium-rich material on the surface of a massive white dwarf.

  4. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University and Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schirmer, Mischa, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-02-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q {sub ion} derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q {sub ion} values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10{sup 4} yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and

  5. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Lintott, Chris J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F.; Urry, C. Megan; Pancoast, Anna; Schirmer, Mischa

    2017-01-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q ion derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q ion values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10 4 yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and loops of emission

  6. Magnetic Topology and Ion Outflow in Mars' Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Xu, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Hara, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mazelle, C. X.; Andersson, L.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ion outflow down the Martian magnetotail could be an important atmospheric loss mechanism. This process depends on magnetic connectivity to the day-side ionosphere and on acceleration of ions to escape velocity. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has obtained comprehensive ion, electron, and magnetic field data in Mars' magnetotail. The spacecraft is in a 75°-inclination, elliptical orbit that samples altitudes from 150 to 6200 km. As the orbit precesses, it sweeps through the tail at a variety of altitudes in this range. Data from the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) and Magnetometer (MAG) are used to determine the magnetic field topology in the tail at high cadence (every 2-4 seconds), and in particular whether field lines are open, closed, or draped, and if open whether they have access to the day-side or night-side ionosphere. Simultaneous observations by the Supra-Thermal and Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument and the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) experiment are used to measure the density, composition, and velocity of planetary plasma on these field lines. We find that magnetic topology in the tail is complex and variable, and is influenced by the IMF polarity and the orientation of Mars' crustal magnetic fields with respect to the Sun. We find that planetary ion outflow occurs on both open and draped field lines. On open field lines, outflow tends to occur parallel to the field line, with colder, denser, and slower outflow on field lines connected to the day-side ionosphere (Fig. 1). On these same field lines (after correction for the spacecraft potential) a shift in the position of the He-II photoelectron feature indicates a 1-Volt parallel electric potential directed away from the planet. Except for H+ and occasionally O+, this potential is insufficient by itself to accelerate planetary ions to escape velocity. Outflow is warmer, less dense, and faster moving on draped field lines. In this case, the ion bulk

  7. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  8. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  9. A RING/DISK/OUTFLOW SYSTEM ASSOCIATED WITH W51 NORTH: A VERY MASSIVE STAR IN THE MAKING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schilke, Peter; Menten, Karl; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Garrod, Robin T.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive and high angular resolution (∼0.''4) SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] and SiO[5 → 4] line and 1.3 and 7 mm continuum observations made with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA) toward the young massive cluster W51 IRS2 are presented. We report the presence of a large (of about 3000 AU) and massive (40 M sun ) dusty circumstellar disk and a hot gas molecular ring around a high-mass protostar or a compact small stellar system associated with W51 North. The simultaneous observations of the silicon monoxide molecule, an outflow gas tracer, further revealed a massive (200 M sun ) and collimated (∼14 0 ) outflow nearly perpendicular to the dusty and molecular structures suggesting thus the presence of a single very massive protostar with a bolometric luminosity on the order of 10 5 L sun . A molecular hybrid local thermodynamic equilibrium model of a Keplerian and infalling disk with an inner cavity and a central stellar mass of more than 60 M sun agrees well with the SO 2 [22 2,20 → 22 1,21 ] line observations. Finally, these results suggest that mechanisms, such as mergers of low- and intermediate-mass stars, might not be necessary for forming very massive stars.

  10. Decision making in euthymic bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, D J; Strejilevich, S A; Torralva, T; Manes, F

    2011-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare a large population of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) types I and II strictly defined as euthymic with healthy controls on measures of decision making. An additional aim was to compare performance on a decision-making task between patients with and without a history of suicide attempt. Eighty-five euthymic patients with BD-I or BD-II and 34 healthy controls were included. All subjects completed tests to assess verbal memory, attention and executive functions, and a decision-making paradigm (the Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). Both groups of patients had worse performance than healthy controls on measures of verbal memory, attention and executive function. No significant differences were found between BD-I, BD-II and healthy controls on measures of decision making. By contrast, patients with a history of suicide attempt had lower performance in the IGT than patients without a history of suicide attempt. Patients with euthymic BD-I and BD-II had intact decision-making abilities, suggesting that this does not represent a reliable trait marker of the disorder. In addition, our results provide further evidence of an association between impairments in decision making and vulnerability to suicidal behavior.

  11. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  12. Bipolar postpartum depression: An update and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Doobay, Minakshi; Baczynski, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been a surge of interest in the study of bipolar postpartum depression (PPD); however, questions remain about its prevalence, screening, clinical features, and treatment. Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-2016), PsycINFO (1806-2016), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, were searched using a combination of the keywords bipolar, depression, postpartum, peripartum, prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, drugs, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant articles published in English were included. Depending on the population studied, 21.4-54% of women with PPD have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Characteristic clinical features include younger age at illness onset, first onset of depression after childbirth, onset immediately after delivery, atypical depressive symptoms, psychotic features, mixed features, and history of BD in first-degree family members. Treatment should be guided by symptom acuity, safety concerns, the patient's response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. In the absence of controlled treatment data, preference should be given to drugs normally indicated for bipolar depression including lithium, quetiapine and lamotrigine. Although antidepressants have been studied in combination with mood stabilizers in bipolar depression, these drugs should be avoided due to likelihood of elevated risk of induction of manic symptoms in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, bipolar PPD is common, can be differentiated from unipolar PPD, and needs to be identified promptly in order to expedite appropriate treatment. Future studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on the acute and preventative treatment of bipolar PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Spectrum and the structure of the bipolar nebula S 106

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solf, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.)

    1980-12-01

    Optically the compact region S 106 appears as a bipolar nebula with the exciting stellar source located between the lobes and embedded in a flat disk of material of high visual extinction. Associated with the nebula is a massive molecular cloud exhibiting a rotating disk-like structure, the axis of rotation being observed in the same direction as the bipolar axis of the nebula. We analyse new optical and near-infrared spectra obtained with an image-tube spectrograph. The emission line spectrum of both lobes resembles that of the Orion nebula and indicates high electron density throughout. The nebular continuum discovered in both lobes is interpreted as originating from an early-type stellar source between the lobes, and scattered by dust particles coexisting with the ionized gas within the lobes. The Hsub(..cap alpha..) radial velocity field indicates supersonic motion of ionized material flowing radially outward through the lobes. The shape and kinematic structure of the lobes are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the champagne model of Tenorio-Tagle (1979) applied to the case of star formation near the center of a disk-shaped dense cloud.

  15. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  16. Hydrodynamic ejection of bipolar flows from objects undergoing disk accretion: T Tauri stars, massive pre-main-sequence objects, and cataclysmic variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torbett, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    A general mechanism is presented for generating pressure-driven winds that are intrinsically bipolar from objects undergoing disk accretion. The energy librated in a boundary layer shock as the disk matter impacts the central object is shown to be sufficient to eject a fraction βapprox.10 -2 to 10 -3 of the accreted mass. These winds are driven by a mechanism that accelerates the flow perpendicular to the plane of the disk and can therefore account for the bipolar geometry of the mass loss observed near young stars. The mass loss contained in these winds is comparable to that inferred for young stars. Thus, disk accretion-driven winds may constitute the T Tauri phase of stellar evolution. This mechanism is generally applicable, and thus massive pre-main-sequence objects as well as cataclysmic variables at times of enhanced accretion are predicted to eject bipolar outflows as well. Unmagnetized accreting neutron stas are also expected to eject bipolar flows. Since this mechanism requires stellar surfaces, however, it will not operate in disk accretion onto black holes

  17. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  18. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, U.M.H.; Boom, K.; Janssen, F.M.G.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in bipolar patients is much higher than in the general population. It is unclear whether lithium treatment contributes to this cardiovascular morbidity. Methods: The cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder on

  20. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  1. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  2. Smartphone-based objective monitoring in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Bauer, Michael; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2018-01-01

    , anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been developed and used. The present paper presents the status and findings from studies using automatically generated objective smartphone data in the monitoring of bipolar disorder, and addresses considerations...

  3. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized

  4. Bipolar disorder: an update | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by alternating discrete episodes of (hypo)mania and depression, provides unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Updated diagnostic (DSM-5) and current pharmacological treatment recommendations are briefly reviewed here. Keywords: bipolar disorder; diagnosis; evidence-based ...

  5. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  6. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  7. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  8. [Drug Abuse Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Óscar Medina

    2012-06-01

    Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.

  10. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  11. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  12. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study: 12-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other psychopathology. Method: The Dutch bipolar offspring cohort is a fixed cohort initiated in 1997 (N=140; age range at baseline, 12-21 years). Bipolar offspring were psychiatrically evaluated at baseline and a...

  13. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  14. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  15. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  16. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Sibilski, Piotr; Lepczyńska, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been given to determine risk factors for suicide among adults with bipolar disorder. Such studies concerning children and youths, which would also take into account the specificity of the developmental age, are still too few. The ability to identify risk factors for children and youths with mood disorders, as well as the possibility to monitor them, is an essential element in preventing suicidal behaviours. Previous studies have clearly indicated that in the group of patients with an early onset of the bipolar disorder the occurrence of suicidal thoughts and intentions were significantly increased. Identifying the risk of suicide is hindered further by the complexity of the phenomenon, which is a compound interaction of various factors: biological, environmental, sociological, psychological and clinical. This is especially true with young adults suffering from mental illness and presenting a number of other psychopathological symptoms. The following paper introduces and reviews the results of current studies, which analysed the risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum or already diagnosed with bipolar disorder. For this purpose we conducted the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  17. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT {approx}500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, 08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Fuente, Asuncion; Alonso-Albi, Tomas [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, 28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Boissier, Jeremie [Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Via Gobetti 101, Bologna (Italy); Pietu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto [IRAM, 300 Rue de la piscine, 38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut Ciencies Cosmos, Universitat Barcelona, Marti Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Audard, Marc, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Ch. des Maillettes 51, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)

    2011-12-20

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at {approx}500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH, (CH{sub 2}OH){sub 2}, CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}, and CH{sub 3}OH, with, additionally, CH{sub 3}CHO, CH{sub 3}OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C{sub 6}H and O{sup 13}CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of {approx}300 and {approx}600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass {approx}> 4 M{sub Sun }. As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated {approx}1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H{sub 2}O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  18. INTERMEDIATE-MASS HOT CORES AT ∼500 AU: DISKS OR OUTFLOWS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M.; Fuente, Asunción; Alonso-Albi, Tomás; Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Boissier, Jérémie; Piétu, Vincent; Neri, Roberto; Busquet, Gemma; Estalella, Robert; Zapata, Luis A.; Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P.; Audard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Observations with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration toward two intermediate-mass star-forming regions, IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, reveal the presence of several complex organic molecules at ∼500 AU scales, confirming the presence of hot cores in both regions. The hot cores are not rich in CN-bearing molecules, as often seen in massive hot cores, and are mainly traced by CH 3 CH 2 OH, (CH 2 OH) 2 , CH 3 COCH 3 , and CH 3 OH, with, additionally, CH 3 CHO, CH 3 OD, and HCOOD for IRAS 22198+6336, and C 6 H and O 13 CS for AFGL 5142. The emission of complex molecules is resolved down to sizes of ∼300 and ∼600 AU, for IRAS 22198+6336 and AFGL 5142, respectively, and most likely is tracing protostellar disks rather than flattened envelopes or toroids as is usually found. This is especially clear for the case of IRAS 22198+6336, where we detect a velocity gradient for all the mapped molecules perpendicular to the most chemically rich outflow of the region, yielding a dynamic mass ∼> 4 M ☉ . As for AFGL 5142, the hot core emission is resolved into two elongated cores separated ∼1800 AU. A detailed comparison of the complex molecule peaks to the new CO (2-1) data and H 2 O maser data from the literature suggests also that for AFGL 5142 the complex molecules are mainly associated with disks, except for a faint and extended molecular emission found to the west, which is possibly produced in the interface between one of the outflows and the dense surrounding gas.

  19. Ionized Outflows in 3-D Insights from Herbig-Haro Objects and Applications to Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Gerald

    1999-01-01

    HST shows that the gas distributions of these objects are complex and clump at the limit of resolution. HST spectra have lumpy emission-line profiles, indicating unresolved sub-structure. The advantages of 3D over slits on gas so distributed are: robust flux estimates of various dynamical systems projected along lines of sight, sensitivity to fainter spectral lines that are physical diagnostics (reddening-gas density, T, excitation mechanisms, abundances), and improved prospects for recovery of unobserved dimensions of phase-space. These advantages al- low more confident modeling for more profound inquiry into underlying dynamics. The main complication is the effort required to link multi- frequency datasets that optimally track the energy flow through various phases of the ISM. This tedium has limited the number of objects that have been thoroughly analyzed to the a priori most spectacular systems. For HHO'S, proper-motions constrain the ambient B-field, shock velocity, gas abundances, mass-loss rates, source duty-cycle, and tie-ins with molecular flows. If the shock speed, hence ionization fraction, is indeed small then the ionized gas is a significant part of the flow energetics. For AGN'S, nuclear beaming is a source of ionization ambiguity. Establishing the energetics of the outflow is critical to determining how the accretion disk loses its energy. CXO will provide new constraints (especially spectral) on AGN outflows, and STIS UV-spectroscopy is also constraining cloud properties (although limited by extinction). HHO's show some of the things that we will find around AGN'S. I illustrate these points with results from ground-based and HST programs being pursued with collaborators.

  20. On Bipolar Valued Fuzzy k-Ideals in Hermirings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Ejaz, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some results associated with bipolar valued fuzzy k -ideals of hermirings. We also define bipolar valued fuzzy k-intrinsic product and characterize k-hemiregular hermirings by using their bipolar valued fuzzy k -ideals. (author)

  1. Dose enhancement effects of X ray radiation in bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Panxun

    1997-01-01

    The author has presented behaviour degradation and dose enhancement effects of bipolar transistors in X ray irradiation environment. The relative dose enhancement factors of X ray radiation were measured in bipolar transistors by the experiment methods. The mechanism of bipolar device dose enhancement was investigated

  2. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  3. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (U)LIRGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Sara, E-mail: sara@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (U)LIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback) being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback). In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (U)LIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  4. Ion transport Modeling in a Bipolar Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2010-01-01

    The COL(Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching) process is an environmentally-friendly technique for collecting only uranium from spent fuel with oxidation leaching/ precipitation of carbonate solution. The bipolar membrane used for the electrolyte circulation of the salt used in the COL process is a special form of ion exchange membrane which combines CEM(cation exchange membrane) and AEM(anion exchange membrane). After arranging positive ion exchange layer toward negative terminal and positive ion exchange layer toward positive terminal, then supply electricity, water molecules are decomposed into protons and hydroxyl ions by a strong electric field in the transition region inside bipolar membrane.1) In this study, a theoretical approach to increase the efficiency of Na + and NO3 - ion collecting device using bipolar membrane was taken and simulating using the COMSOL program was tried. The details of results are also discussed

  5. Neuronal migration, apoptosis and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Ezequiel; Wix, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, like the majority of psychiatric disorders, is considered a neurodevelopment disease of neurodevelopment. There is an increased rate of neuronal birth and death during this development period. In the particular case of the processes that determine neuronal death, it is known that those neurons that establish connections have to be removed from the central nervous system. There is a deficit of GABAergic interneurons in the cerebral cortex in bipolar disorder, accompanied by overexpression of proapoptic genes. There is also an alteration in the expression of molecules that mediate in the migration of these neurons and their inclusion in functional synapsis during the foetal stage. The role of these molecules in the neuronal death pathways by apoptosis will be reviewed here in an attempt to establish biological hypotheses of the genesis of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  7. Fenomenologia do tempo vivido no transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Moreira

    Full Text Available Com base na tradição da psicopatologia fenomenológica, este artigo se propõe a contribuir para a compreensão do mundo vivido do paciente bipolar, marcado por uma forte alteração do tempo vivido. Realizamos uma descrição deste tempo vivido significado de forma diferente nas oscilações de humor chamadas de fase maníaca e fase melancólica. Pensado a partir da temporalidade, na fase melancólica, o bipolar parece parar no tempo, não se lança em um devir. Na fase maníaca, o sujeito vive demasiadamente um agora como se tivesse explodido sua biografia. Concluímos que estas fases, ou dois pólos opostos no funcionamento temporal patológico do sofrimento bipolar, constituem fundamentalmente um mesmo mundo vivido.

  8. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  9. Nanosecond bipolar pulse generators for bioelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu; Zhou, Chunrong; Yang, Enbo; Rajulapati, Sambasiva R

    2018-04-26

    Biological effects caused by a nanosecond pulse, such as cell membrane permeabilization, peripheral nerve excitation and cell blebbing, can be reduced or cancelled by applying another pulse of reversed polarity. Depending on the degree of cancellation, the pulse interval of these two pulses can be as long as dozens of microseconds. The cancellation effect diminishes as the pulse duration increases. To study the cancellation effect and potentially utilize it in electrotherapy, nanosecond bipolar pulse generators must be made available. An overview of the generators is given in this paper. A pulse forming line (PFL) that is matched at one end and shorted at the other end allows a bipolar pulse to be produced, but no delay can be inserted between the phases. Another generator employs a combination of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor to form an RLC resonant circuit so that a bipolar pulse with a decaying magnitude can be generated. A third generator is a converter, which converts an existing unipolar pulse to a bipolar pulse. This is done by inserting an inductor in a transmission line. The first phase of the bipolar pulse is provided by the unipolar pulse's rising phase. The second phase is formed during the fall time of the unipolar pulse, when the inductor, which was previously charged during the flat part of the unipolar pulse, discharges its current to the load. The fourth type of generator uses multiple MOSFET switches stacked to turn on a pre-charged, bipolar RC network. This approach is the most flexible in that it can generate multiphasic pulses that have different amplitudes, delays, and durations. However, it may not be suitable for producing short nanosecond pulses (<100 ns), whereas the PFL approach and the RLC approach with gas switches are used for this range. Thus, each generator has its own advantages and applicable range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios P Kozobolis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM.Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on the fundamental design of a typical Schiotz tonographer with a series of improvements, including corneal indentation, which was converted to an electrical signal via a linear variable differential transducer, an analog signal which was converted to digital via ADC circuitry, and digital data acquisition and processing which was made possible by a serial port interface. Phase 2 comprised development of software for automated assessment of the outflow facility. Automated outflow facility assessment incorporated a series of fundamental improvements in comparison with traditional techniques, including software-based filtering of ripple noise and extreme variations, rigidity impact analysis, and evaluation of the impact of patient age, central corneal thickness, and ocular axial length. Phase 3 comprised characterization and validation of DAHOM, for which we developed an experimental setup using porcine cadaver eyes. DAHOM’s repeatability was evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The level of agreement with a standard Schiotz tonographer was evaluated by means of paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analysis in human eyes.Results: The experimental setup provided the necessary data for the characterization of DAHOM. A fourth order polynomial equation provided excellent fit (R square >0.999. DAHOM demonstrated high repeatability (Cronbach’s alpha ≥0.997; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.987 and an adequate level of

  11. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were

  12. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for

  13. The Red Sea outflow regulated by the Indian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Keiko; Yamagata, Toshio

    2006-08-01

    To investigate why the Red Sea water overflows less in summer and more in winter, we have developed a locally high-resolution global OGCM with transposed poles in the Arabian peninsula and India. Based on a series of sensitivity experiments with different sets of idealized atmospheric forcing, the present study shows that the summer cessation of the strait outflow is remotely induced by the monsoonal wind over the Indian Ocean, in particular that over the western Arabian Sea. During the southwest monsoon (May-September), thermocline in the Gulf of Aden shoals as a result of coastal Ekman upwelling induced by the predominantly northeastward wind in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Because this shoaling is maximum during the southwest summer monsoon, the Red Sea water is blocked at the Bab el Mandeb Strait by upwelling of the intermediate water of the Gulf of Aden in late summer. The simulation also shows the three-dimensional evolution of the Red Sea water tongue at the mid-depths in the Gulf of Aden. While the tongue meanders, the discharged Red Sea outflow water (RSOW) (incoming Indian Ocean intermediate water (IOIW)) is always characterized by anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity, as suggested from the potential vorticity difference.

  14. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  15. Device for preventing coolant outflow in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Mochizuki, Keiichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent outflow of coolant from a reactor vessel even in an occurrence of leaking trouble at a low position in a primary cooling system or the like in the reactor vessel. Structure: An inlet at the foremost end of a coolant inlet pipe inserted into a reactor vessel is arranged at a level lower than a core, and a check valve is positioned at a level higher than the core in a rising portion of the inlet. In normal condition, the check valve is pushed up by discharge pressure of a main circulating pump and remains closed, and hence, producing no flow loss of coolant, sodium. However, when a trouble such as rupture occurs at the lower position in the primary cooling system, the attractive force for allowing the coolant to back-flow outside the reactor vessel and the load force of the coolant within the reactor vessel cause the check valve to actuate, as a consequence of which a liquid level of the coolant downwardly moves to the position of the check valve to intake the cover gases into a gas intake, thereby cutting off a flow passage of the coolant to stop outflow thereof. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  17. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  18. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  19. The sacral autonomic outflow is parasympathetic: Langley got it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John P

    2018-04-01

    A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance. In reaction to this heated exchange, I now examine both sides to the controversy, together with purported errors by the pioneers in the field. I then explain, once more, why the sacral outflow should remain known as parasympathetic, and outline suggestions for future experimentation to advance the understanding of cellular identity in the autonomic motor system.

  20. Advection-dominated Inflow/Outflows from Evaporating Accretion Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla; Dullemond

    2000-03-01

    In this Letter we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) fed by the evaporation of a Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk (SSD). In our picture, the ADAF fills the central cavity evacuated by the SSD and extends beyond the transition radius into a coronal region. We find that, because of global angular momentum conservation, a significant fraction of the hot gas flows away from the black hole, forming a transsonic wind, unless the injection rate depends only weakly on radius (if r2sigma&d2;~r-xi, xiBernoulli number of the inflowing gas is negative if the transition radius is less, similar100 Schwarzschild radii, so matter falling into the hole is gravitationally bound. The ratio of inflowing to outflowing mass is approximately 1/2, so in these solutions the accretion rate is of the same order as in standard ADAFs and much larger than in advection-dominated inflow/outflow models. The possible relevance of evaporation-fed solutions to accretion flows in black hole X-ray binaries is briefly discussed.

  1. Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F; Nevin, R; Comerford, J M; Davies, R I; Privon, G C; Treister, E

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content 1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows 4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the relative contributions of star formation and black hole activity to galactic feedback remain unknown 7-9 . Here we report observations of dual outflows in the central region of the prototypical merger NGC 6240. We find a black-hole-driven outflow of [O III] to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of Hα to the northwest. The orientations and positions of the outflows allow us to isolate them spatially and study their properties independently. We estimate mass outflow rates of 10 and 75 solar masses per year for the Hα bubble and the [O III] cone, respectively. Their combined mass outflow is comparable to the star formation rate 10 , suggesting that negative feedback on star formation is occurring.

  2. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G

    2001-01-01

    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  3. Watching AGN feedback at its birth: HST observations of nascent outflow host IC860

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-10-01

    IC860 is a nearby IR-luminous early-type spiral with a unique set of properties: it is a shocked, poststarburst galaxy that hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact core of molecular gas. IC860 can serve as a rosetta stone for the early stages of triggering AGN feedback. We propose to use WFC3 on HST to obtain NUV, optical and near-IR imaging of IC860. We will create a spatially-resolved history of star formation quenching through SED-fitting of 7 requested broadband filters, and compare the spatially resolved star formation histories to in different positions within the underlying stellar features (such as spiral structure) that might define a narrative of how star formation is quenching in IC860. These observations will also resolve the super-star cluster sites to trace the most recent star formation. Finally, these observations will trace the mass of the outflow by building an absorption map of the dust. IC860 presents a unique opportunity to study a galaxy at an early stage of transitioning from blue spiral to red early-type galaxy, that also hosts an AGN-driven neutral wind and a compact, turbulent molecular gas core.

  4. Prediction of transition from common adolescent bipolar experiences to bipolar disorder: 10-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijssen, Marijn J A; van Os, Jim; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lieb, Roselind; Beesdo, Katja; Mengelers, Ron; Wichers, Marieke

    2010-02-01

    Although (hypo)manic symptoms are common in adolescence, transition to adult bipolar disorder is infrequent. To examine whether the risk of transition to bipolar disorder is conditional on the extent of persistence of subthreshold affective phenotypes. In a 10-year prospective community cohort study of 3021 adolescents and young adults, the association between persistence of affective symptoms over 3 years and the 10-year clinical outcomes of incident DSM-IV (hypo)manic episodes and incident use of mental healthcare was assessed. Transition to clinical outcome was associated with persistence of symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. Around 30-40% of clinical outcomes could be traced to prior persistence of affective symptoms. In a substantial proportion of individuals, onset of clinical bipolar disorder may be seen as the poor outcome of a developmentally common and usually transitory non-clinical bipolar phenotype.

  5. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  6. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: rolf.chini@astro.ruhr-uni-bochum.de [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H{sub 2} 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  7. The Launch Region of the SVS 13 Outflow and Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  8. The launch region of the SVS 13 outflow and jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, Klaus W.; Chini, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of Keck telescope laser adaptive-optics integral field spectroscopy with OSIRIS of the innermost regions of the NGC 1333 SVS 13 outflow that forms the system of Herbig-Haro objects 7-11. We find a bright 0.''2 long microjet traced by the emission of shock-excited [Fe II]. Beyond the extent of this jet, we find a series of bubbles and fragments of bubbles that are traced in the lower excitation H 2 1-0 S(1) line. While the most recent outflow activity is directed almost precisely (P.A. ≈ 145°) to the southeast of SVS 13, there is clear indication that prior bubble ejections were pointed in different directions. Within these variations, a clear connection between the newly observed bubble ejection events and the well-known, poorly collimated HH 7-11 system of Herbig-Haro objects is established. The astrometry of the youngest of the expanding shock fronts at three epochs, covering a timespan of over 2 yr, gives kinematic ages for two of these bubbles. The kinematic age of the youngest bubble is slightly older than the historically observed last photometric outburst of SVS 13 in 1990, consistent with that event, launching the bubble and some deceleration of its expansion. A re-evaluation of historic infrared photometry and new data show that SVS 13 has not yet returned to its brightness before that outburst and thus reveal behavior similar to FUor outbursts, albeit with a smaller amplitude. We postulate that the creation of a series of bubbles and the changes in outflow direction are indicative of a precessing disk and accretion events triggered by a repetitive phenomenon possibly linked to the orbit of a close binary companion. However, our high-resolution images in the H and K bands do not directly detect any companion object. We have tried, but failed, to detect the kinematic rotation signature of the microjet in the [Fe II] emission line at 1.644 μm.

  9. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... separation anxiety. Sometimes behavior problems go along with mood episodes. Young people may take a lot of risks, such as driving too fast or spending too much money. Some young people with bipolar disorder think about suicide. Watch for any signs of suicidal thinking. Take ...

  10. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  11. Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Liana R.; Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Vale, Antônio M. O.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inc...

  12. Bipolar Disorder in Adolescence: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Great Buyck; Taylor, Priscilla; Holt, Jan R.

    2002-01-01

    Due to developmental issues and overlapping symptoms with other disorders, diagnosing bipolar disorder in adolescents is often a confusing and complex process. This article highlights diagnostic criteria, symptoms and behaviors, and the differential diagnosis process. Treatment options are also discussed. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  13. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  15. A new bipolar nebula in Centaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, G.; Glass, I.S.

    1979-01-01

    A new bipolar or butterfly-shaped nebula has been discovered and shown to have an infrared excess. The spectra of the central object and wings are of similar type, around G0. No emission lines are apparent. The infrared excess appears to be due to thermal emission from dust. (U.K.)

  16. Aggression and substance abuse in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunebaum, Michael F; Galfalvy, Hanga C; Nichols, C Matthew; Caldeira, Nathilee A; Sher, Leo; Dervic, Kanita; Burke, Ainsley K; Mann, J John; Oquendo, Maria A

    2006-10-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to examine factors differentiating persons with bipolar disorder who did or did not have comorbid lifetime substance use disorders (SUD) at an index assessment. We also explored the chronology of onset of mood and SUD. We studied 146 subjects with DSM-defined bipolar disorder. Subgroups with and without lifetime SUD were compared on demographic and clinical measures. Substance abuse disorders in this bipolar sample were associated with male sex, impulsive-aggressive traits, comorbid conduct and Cluster B personality disorders, number of suicide attempts and earlier age at onset of a first mood episode. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, male sex and aggression and possibly earlier age at mood disorder onset were associated with SUD. In those with or without SUD, the first mood episode tended to be depressive and to precede the onset of SUD. In persons with bipolar disorder, an earlier age of onset and aggressive traits appear to be factors associated with later development of comorbid SUD.

  17. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; Von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-01-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo 2 O 4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization. (topical review)

  18. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  19. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  20. Clinical practice recommendations for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, G S; Adams, D; Lampe, L; Paton, M; O'Connor, N; Newton, L A; Walter, G; Taylor, A; Porter, R; Mulder, R T; Berk, M

    2009-01-01

    To provide clinically relevant evidence-based recommendations for the management of bipolar disorder in adults that are informative, easy to assimilate and facilitate clinical decision-making. A comprehensive literature review of over 500 articles was undertaken using electronic database search engines (e.g. MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Cochrane reviews). In addition articles, book chapters and other literature known to the authors were reviewed. The findings were then formulated into a set of recommendations that were developed by a multidisciplinary team of clinicians who routinely deal with mood disorders. These preliminary recommendations underwent extensive consultative review by a broader advisory panel that included experts in the field, clinical staff and patient representatives. The clinical practice recommendations for bipolar disorder (bipolar CPR) summarise evidence-based treatments and provide a synopsis of recommendations relating to each phase of the illness. They are designed for clinical use and have therefore been presented succinctly in an innovative and engaging manner that is clear and informative. These up-to-date recommendations provide an evidence-based framework that incorporates clinical wisdom and consideration of individual factors in the management of bipolar disorder. Further, the novel style and practical approach should promote their uptake and implementation.

  1. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed/Medline, E...

  2. Novel antipsychotics in bipolar and schizoaffective mania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff, CJ

    Objective: Novel antipsychotics are increasingly used in the treatment of bipolar and schizoaffective mania. This paper presents an overview of the controlled studies in this field. Method: Using cross-references, a computerized search was performed on MEDLINE and EMBASE psychiatry covering the

  3. Supernova blast wave within a stellar cluster outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J. C.; Raga, A. C.; Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Toledo-Roy, J. C.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a semi-analytic model of a supernova which goes off in the centre of a stellar cluster. The supernova remnant interacts with a stratified, pre-existent outflow produced by the winds of the cluster stars. We compare our semi-analytic model with numerical simulations using the spherically symmetric Euler equations with appropriate mass and energy source terms. We find good agreement between these two approaches, and we find that for typical parameters the blast wave is likely to reach the Taylor-Sedov regime outside the cluster radius. We also calculate the predicted X-ray luminosity of the flow as a function of time, and we obtain its dependence on the outer radius and the number of stars of the cluster.

  4. Inflammatory Pseudotumor Originating from the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Inflammatory pseudotumor is an uncommon entity, and its cardiac origin is exceedingly rare. Case History. A previously healthy 27-year-old man was found to have a systolic murmur during preemployment screening evaluation. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a 4 × 2.5 cm mass originating from the right ventricle (RV outflow tract extending into the aortic root. A computed tomography guided biopsy confirmed an IgG4-related inflammatory pseudotumor. Patient was started on oral prednisone with subsequent reduction in mass size. Conclusion. Cardiac inflammatory pseudotumors are markedly rare tumors that should be considered in the differential of intracardiac tumors which otherwise includes cardiac fibromas, myxomas, and sarcomas.

  5. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, E. [ESA-ESTEC (SRE-SA), Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk ZH (Netherlands); Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Megeath, S. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Ave., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gutermuth, R., E-mail: ewinston@rssd.esa.int [Five Colleges Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01027 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  6. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-01

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 μm. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 μm. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 μm observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of ∼3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s –1 for the jet material gives an age of 3 × 10 4 yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  7. Modeling the outflow of liquid with initial supercritical parameters using the relaxation model for condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhnin Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-temperature model of the outflow from a vessel with initial supercritical parameters of medium has been realized. The model uses thermodynamic non-equilibrium relaxation approach to describe phase transitions. Based on a new asymptotic model for computing the relaxation time, the outflow of water with supercritical initial pressure and super- and subcritical temperatures has been calculated.

  8. Coastal circulations driven by river outflow in a variable-density 1.5-layer model

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Zhang, S.; Shetye, S.R.

    A variable-density, 1.5-layer model is used to investigate the dynamics of the fresher-water plumes generated by river outflow. Solutions are found in a north-south channel, and the transport M sub(tau) and salinity S sub(tau) of the outflow...

  9. The effect of outflowing water coolant with supercritical parameters on a barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alekseev Maksim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The outflow of supercritical coolant with different initial parameters and its impact on the barrier have been numerically simulated. Spatial and axial distributions of pressure and steam quality are presented. The force acting on the barrier at different parameters of the outflow has been calculated.

  10. Superposed epoch analysis of O+ auroral outflow during sawtooth events and substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, N.; Kistler, L. M.; Lund, E. J.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Sawtooth events are repeated injection of energetic particles at geosynchronous orbit. Studies have shown that 94% of sawtooth events occurred during magnetic storm times. The main factor that causes a sawtooth event is still an open question. Simulations have suggested that heavy ions like O+ may play a role in triggering the injections. One of the sources of the O+ in the Earth's magnetosphere is the nightside aurora. O+ ions coming from the nightside auroral region have direct access to the near-earth magnetotail. A model (Brambles et al. 2013) for interplanetary coronal mass ejection driven sawtooth events found that nightside O+ outflow caused the subsequent teeth of the sawtooth event through a feedback mechanism. This work is a superposed epoch analysis to test whether the observed auroral outflow supports this model. Using FAST spacecraft data from 1997-2007, we examine the auroral O+ outflow as a function of time relative to an injection onset. Then we determine whether the profile of outflow flux of O+ during sawtooth events is different from the outflow observed during isolated substorms. The auroral region boundaries are estimated using the method of (Andersson et al. 2004). Subsequently the O+ outflow flux inside these boundaries are calculated and binned as a function of superposed epoch time for substorms and sawtooth "teeth". In this way, we will determine if sawtooth events do in fact have greater O+ outflow, and if that outflow is predominantly from the nightside, as suggested by the model results.

  11. Radio Jets as Driving Mechanism of Fast Outflows: The HI View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Maccagni, Filippo; Oosterloo, Tom; Schulz, Robert; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The complex and multi-phase nature of gas outflows is one of the properties highlighted by the work in recent years on AGN-driven outflows. In particular, the cold gas is found to play a more important role than previously expected. Surprisingly, HI has been shown to be a good tracer of fast

  12. Financial Crisis, Capital Outflows, and Policy Responses: Examples from East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Ramkishen S.

    2007-01-01

    Financial crises seem to have become the norm rather than the exception since 1992. The author examines the impact of a crisis of confidence and resultant capital outflows from a small and open economy and the possible policy options in response to such outflows, using simple tools and definitions that will be familiar to any money and banking or…

  13. The Simbol-X Perspective on the Physics of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustini, M.; Cappi, M.; Vignali, C.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Fiore, F.; Malaguti, G.

    2009-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that quasar outflows may play a key role in providing the feedback between AGN/QSOs and their surrounding (and feeding) media, in regulating the central supermassive black hole growth and the galaxy formation and, on larger scales, in shaping the growth of cosmic structures (see e.g. [1]). X-ray observations of quasar outflows are crucial to probe their innermost parts and assess the global energetics entrained in the outflow by studying its most extreme (in terms of velocity, ionization state, mass outflow rate) phases. Simbol-X-with its high effective area in the Fe K energy band and above-will allow the detection and the characterization of powerful outflows in bright, nearby AGN and notably also in moderately faint AGN, thus shedding light on feedback processes in these objects.

  14. Quantitation of uveoscleral outflow in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles by 3H-labeled dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, K.P.; Gum, G.G.; Samuelson, D.A.; Gelatt, K.N.

    1985-01-01

    In uveoscleral outflow, aqueous humor leaves the anterior chamber and passes caudally through the trabecular meshwork and the sclerociliary cleft to enter the supraciliary and suprachoroidal spaces. The fluid is then absorbed by choroidal and scleral circulations. Using 3 H-labeled dextran, uveoscleral outflow was quantitated in normotensive and glaucomatous Beagles under general anesthesia. The intrascleral plexus was isolated and 3 H-labeled dextran was injected into the anterior chamber. Intrascleral plexus contents were sampled every 5 minutes over a 30- to 60-minute period. The eyes were enucleated, sectioned, and prepared for scintillation counting. Uveoscleral outflow accounted for 15% and 3% of the total aqueous humor outflow in the normotensive dogs and in the advanced glaucomatous dogs, respectively. In the advanced glaucomatous Beagle, conventional and uveoscleral outflow pathways were reduced and contributed to the etiopathogenesis of glaucoma

  15. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  16. Exploring molecular complexity with ALMA (EMoCA): Detection of three new hot cores in Sagittarius B2(N)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfand, M.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.

    2017-08-01

    Context. The Sagittarius B2 molecular cloud contains several sites forming high-mass stars. Sgr B2(N) is one of its main centers of activity. It hosts several compact and ultra-compact HII regions, as well as two known hot molecular cores (Sgr B2(N1) and Sgr B2(N2)) in the early stage of the high-mass star formation process, where complex organic molecules (COMs) are detected in the gas phase. Aims: Our goal is to use the high sensitivity of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to characterize the hot core population in Sgr B2(N) and thereby shed new light on the star formation process in this star-forming region. Methods: We use a complete 3 mm spectral line survey conducted with ALMA to search for faint hot cores in the Sgr B2(N) region. The chemical composition of the detected sources and the column densities are derived by modeling the whole spectra under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. Population diagrams are constructed to fit rotational temperatures. Integrated intensity maps are produced to derive the peak position and fit the size of each molecule's emission distribution. The kinematic structure of the hot cores is investigated by analyzing the line wing emission of typical outflow tracers. The H2 column densities are computed from ALMA and SMA continuum emission maps. Results: We report the discovery of three new hot cores in Sgr B2(N) that we call Sgr B2(N3), Sgr B2(N4), and Sgr B2(N5). The three sources are associated with class II methanol masers, well known tracers of high-mass star formation, and Sgr B2(N5), also with a UCHII region. Their H2 column densities are found to be between approximately 16 and 36 times lower than the one of the main hot core Sgr B2(N1). The spectra of these new hot cores have spectral line densities of 11 up to 31 emission lines per GHz above the 7σ level, assigned to 22-25 molecules plus 13-20 less abundant isotopologs. We derive rotational temperatures of approximately 140-180 K for

  17. [Towards a molecular psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J R

    1988-06-01

    Recent research data from psychopharmacology, brain imaging and molecular genetics support the notion of a new psychiatric frontier: that of molecular psychiatry. Identification of different subtypes of neurotransmitter receptors and their changes in density and sensitivity in response to endogenous ligands and/or psychotropic drugs may account for the clinical expression of various behavioral phenomena, including some psychiatric disorders. Brain imaging, in particular positron-emission tomographic evaluations, are likely to change psychiatric nosology. New diagnostic elements derived from these scanners will allow to associate psychotic states to neuroreceptor changes. Molecular genetics has shown that bipolar affective disorder can be caused by a single gene. A strong linkage seems to exist between a gene locus on chromosome 11 and bipolar illness. An amyloid gene located on chromosome 21 has also been shown to be strongly related to familial Alzheimer's disease. While genetic heterogeneity limits the screening value of these findings, the powerful techniques of molecular biology have entered the field of psychiatry. Ethical issues regarding DNA immortality, gene cloning and gene therapy will strengthen this relationship.

  18. Thwarted interpersonal needs and suicide ideation: Comparing psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nathanael J; Mitchell, Sean M; Roush, Jared F; Brown, Sarah L; Jahn, Danielle R; Cukrowicz, Kelly C

    2016-12-30

    Psychiatric inpatients are at heightened risk for suicide, and evidence suggests that psychiatric inpatients with bipolar mood disorders may be at greater risk for suicide ideation compared to those with non-bipolar mood disorders. There is a paucity of research directly comparing risk factors for suicide ideation in bipolar versus non-bipolar mood disorders in an inpatient sample. The current study sought to clarify the association between two constructs from the interpersonal theory of suicide (i.e., perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) in leading to suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with bipolar and non-bipolar mood disorders. Participants were (N=90) psychiatric inpatients with a bipolar (n = 20) or non-bipolar mood disorder (n=70; per their medical charts). Perceived burdensomeness, but not thwarted belongingness, was significantly associated with suicide ideation after adjusting for other covariates. This suggests perceived burdensomeness may play a key role in suicide ideation among psychiatric inpatients with any mood disorder and highlights the importance of assessment and intervention of perceived burdensomeness in this population. Contrary to our hypothesis, mood disorder group (i.e., bipolar versus non-bipolar) did not moderate the relations between perceived burdensomeness/thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  20. Abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar Psychoterapeutic approach in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o tratamento farmacológico seja essencial para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar, apenas 40% de todos os pacientes que aderem às medicações permanecem assintomáticos durante o período de seguimento, o que tem levado ao desenvolvimento de intervenções psicoterápicas associadas. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar as evidências atuais da eficácia de intervenções psicoterápicas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica por meio do MedLine, PsychoINFO, Lilacs e Cochrane Data Bank, até o ano de 2004, em que foram procurados artigos originais e revisões sobre as abordagens psicoterápicas utilizadas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Há várias abordagens que podem se mostrar úteis no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. A psicoeducação e a terapia cognitivo-comportamental apresentam as evidências mais consistentes e são as técnicas mais amplamente estudadas. As intervenções envolvendo familiares e a terapia interpessoal e de ritmo social se mostram tratamentos eficazes em determinadas situações. Há alguns estudos empregando a terapia psicodinâmica no transtorno bipolar, mas são estudos com limitações metodológicas. Apesar de haver evidências demonstrando a eficácia de determinadas abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar, ainda é necessária a realização de estudos posteriores que comprovem tais dados e que desenvolvam tratamentos baseados em modelos etiológicos e que identifiquem tratamentos específicos para as diferentes fases e tipos de transtorno bipolar.Although pharmacological treatment is essential for treating bipolar disorder, less than half of all medication compliant patients are non-symptomatic during follow-up, which has led to developments of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. This paper examines the current evidence for effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Searches were undertaken through Med

  1. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audibert, Anelise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France); College de France, Paris (France); García-Burillo, Santiago [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Salomé, Philippe, E-mail: anelise.audibert@obspm.fr [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSL University, Sorbonne University, UPMC, Paris (France)

    2017-12-12

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  2. Probing the gas fuelling and outflows in nearby AGN with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, Anelise; Combes, Françoise; García-Burillo, Santiago; Salomé, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fuelling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g. the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history) under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5-1”) CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  3. Probing the Gas Fueling and Outflows in Nearby AGN with ALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Audibert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding and feedback in AGN play a very important role to gain a proper understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The interaction between activity mechanisms in the nucleus and its influence in the host galaxy are related to the physical processes involved in feedback and the gas fueling of the black hole. The discovery of many massive molecular outflows in the last few years have been promoting the idea that winds may be major actors in sweeping the gas out of galaxies. Also, the widely observed winds from the central regions of AGN are promising candidates to explain the scaling relations (e.g., the black hole-bulge mass relation, BH accretion rate tracking the star formation history under the AGN feedback scenario. Out goal is to probe these phenomena through the kinematic and morphology of the gas inside the central kpc in nearby AGN. This has recently been possible due to the unprecedented ALMA spatial resolution and sensitivity. We present results on NGC7213 and NGC1808, the latter is part of a new ALMA follow-up of the NuGa project, a previous high-resolution (0.5–1″ CO survey of low luminosity AGN performed with the IRAM PdBI.

  4. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  5. Storm in My Brain: Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Brain Kids and Mood Disorders (Bipolar Disorder and Depression) What is a mood disorder? Everyone feels sad, ... one part of bipolar disorder, also called manic depression. In bipolar disorder, moods change between mania (excited ...

  6. Bipolar Jets Launched by a Mean-field Accretion Disk Dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendt, Christian; Gaßmann, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    By applying magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the launching of jets driven by a disk magnetic field generated by a mean-field disk dynamo. Extending our earlier studies, we explore the bipolar evolution of the disk α 2Ω-dynamo and the outflow. We confirm that a negative dynamo-α leads to a dipolar field geometry, whereas positive values generate quadrupolar fields. The latter remain mainly confined to the disk and cannot launch outflows. We investigate a parameter range for the dynamo-α ranging from a critical value below which field generation is negligible, {α }0,{crit}=-0.0005, to α 0 = ‑1.0. For weak | {α }0| ≤slant 0.07, two magnetic loop structures with opposite polarity may arise, which leads to reconnection and disturbs the field evolution and accretion-ejection process. For a strong dynamo-α, a higher poloidal magnetic energy is reached, roughly scaling with {E}mag}∼ | {α }0| , which also leads to higher accretion and ejection rates. The terminal jet speed is governed by the available magnetic energy and increases with the dynamo-α. We find jet velocities on the order of the inner disk Keplerian velocity. For a strong dynamo-α, oscillating dynamo modes may occur that can lead to a pulsed ejection. This is triggered by an oscillating mode in the toroidal field component. The oscillation period is comparable to the Keplerian timescale in the launching region, thus too short to be associated with the knots in observed jets. We find a hemispherically asymmetric evolution for the jet and counter-jet in the mass flux and field structure.

  7. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  8. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...

  9. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Tomusiak, E.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schroedinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3 He Coulomb energy

  10. Customization in prescribing for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Dominic; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Merrick, Elizabeth L; Horgan, Constance M; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Frank, Richard G; Lee, Sue

    2012-06-01

    For many disorders, patient heterogeneity requires physicians to customize their treatment to each patient's needs. We test for the existence of customization in physicians' prescribing for bipolar disorder, using data from a naturalistic clinical effectiveness trial of bipolar disorder treatment (STEP-BD), which did not constrain physician prescribing. Multinomial logit is used to model the physician's choice among five combinations of drug classes. We find that our observed measure of the patient's clinical status played only a limited role in the choice among drug class combinations, even for conditions such as mania that are expected to affect class choice. However, treatment of a patient with given characteristics differed widely depending on which physician was seen. The explanatory power of the model was low. There was variation within each physician's prescribing, but the results do not suggest a high degree of customization in physicians' prescribing, based on our measure of clinical status. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  12. Suicide attempts and clinical features of bipolar patients

    OpenAIRE

    Berkol, Tongu? D.; ?slam, Serkan; K?rl?, Ebru; P?narba??, Rasim; ?zy?ld?r?m, ?lker

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods: This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition...

  13. Assessing and addressing cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cognition is a new treatment target to aid functional recovery and enhance quality of life for patients with bipolar disorder. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Targeting Cognition Task Force aimed to develop consensus-based clinical recommendations on whether, when...... in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment, and (III) evaluate the impact of medication and comorbidity, refer patients for comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation when clinically indicated, and encourage patients to build cognitive reserve. Regarding question (IV), there is limited evidence for current...

  14. Bipolar Disorder: What Can Psychotherapists Learn From the Cognitive Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri; Tran, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials of psychological treatment, principally cognitive therapy, for bipolar disorder have yielded inconsistent results. Given the status of this evidentiary base, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive profiles associated with bipolar disorder to inform clinical practice. In this practice-friendly review, we consider evidence that both negative and positive cognitive styles are related to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional and prospective evidence sugg...

  15. Olfactocentric paralimbic cortex morphology in adolescents with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together, these factors implicate a central role for the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex in the development of bipolar disorder and suggest that abnormalitie...

  16. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  17. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  18. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  19. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  20. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, R M

    2014-12-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder spend approximately half of their lives symptomatic and the majority of that time suffering from symptoms of depression, which complicates the accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Challenges in the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are reviewed, and the clinical utility of several screening instruments is evaluated. The estimated lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder (i.e., unipolar depression) is over 3 and one-half times that of bipolar spectrum disorders. The clinical presentation of a major depressive episode in a bipolar disorder patient does not differ substantially from that of a patient with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Therefore, it is not surprising that without proper screening and comprehensive evaluation many patients with bipolar disorder may be misdiagnosed with major depressive disorder (unipolar depression). In general, antidepressants have demonstrated little or no efficacy for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines recommend using antidepressants only as an adjunct to mood stabilizers for patients with bipolar disorder. Thus, correct identification of bipolar disorder among patients who present with depression is critical for providing appropriate treatment and improving patient outcomes. Clinical characteristics indicative of bipolar disorder versus major depressive disorder identified in this review are based on group differences and may not apply to each individual patient. The overview of demographic and clinical characteristics provided by this review may help medical professionals distinguish between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Several validated, easily administered screening instruments are available and can greatly improve the recognition of bipolar disorder in patients with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear System Analysis in Bipolar Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    H2 (fl,f 6), H2 (f2,f4), and H2 (f3,f4) are all equal, Equation (7-8) can be written as v M(t) = mA2 H2 (fl’-f 2) cos[27(f ,-f2)t] (7-9) The AF...and R. A. AMADORI: Micro- wave Interference Effect in Bipolar Transistors, IEEE Trans. EMC, Vol. EMC-17, pp. 216-219, November 1975. 55. KAPLAN , G

  3. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  4. The Boomerang Nebula: a highly polarized bipolar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, K.N.R.; Scarrott, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    An optical linear polarization map of a bipolar nebula is presented. Polarizations of approximately 60 per cent are observed in the optically thin lobes. The map leads to a geometry of the object consisting of a central star with an equatorial disc of dust and optically thin lobes illuminated by the central star. The grains in the disc are aligned. The object is a protoplanetary nebula. (author)

  5. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  6. Smartphone based treatment in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M.; Bardram, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    During this symposium, results from a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of smartphone based electronic self-monitoring on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms will be presented and discussed.Further, we will present and discuss the use of automatically generated...... objective smartphone data on behavioral activities (eg social activities, mobility and physical activity) as electronic biomarkers of illness activity in bipolar disorder....

  7. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  9. THE ROLE OF COSMIC-RAY PRESSURE IN ACCELERATING GALACTIC OUTFLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Marinacci, Federico [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Glover, Simon C. O. [Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, ITA, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Clark, Paul C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Smith, Rowan J., E-mail: Christine.Simpson@h-its.org [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-20

    We study the formation of galactic outflows from supernova (SN) explosions with the moving-mesh code AREPO in a stratified column of gas with a surface density similar to the Milky Way disk at the solar circle. We compare different simulation models for SN placement and energy feedback, including cosmic rays (CRs), and find that models that place SNe in dense gas and account for CR diffusion are able to drive outflows with similar mass loading as obtained from a random placement of SNe with no CRs. Despite this similarity, CR-driven outflows differ in several other key properties including their overall clumpiness and velocity. Moreover, the forces driving these outflows originate in different sources of pressure, with the CR diffusion model relying on non-thermal pressure gradients to create an outflow driven by internal pressure and the random-placement model depending on kinetic pressure gradients to propel a ballistic outflow. CRs therefore appear to be non-negligible physics in the formation of outflows from the interstellar medium.

  10. THE ORION FINGERS: NEAR-IR SPECTRAL IMAGING OF AN EXPLOSIVE OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, Allison; Bally, John [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ginsburg, Adam, E-mail: allison.youngblood@colorado.edu [ESO Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany)

    2016-06-01

    We present near-IR (1.1–2.4 μ m) position–position–velocity cubes of the 500 year old Orion BN/KL explosive outflow with spatial resolution 1″ and spectral resolution 86 km s{sup −1}. We construct integrated intensity maps free of continuum sources of 15 H{sub 2} and [Fe ii] lines while preserving kinematic information of individual outflow features. Included in the detected H{sub 2} lines are the 1-0 S(1) and 1-0 Q(3) transitions, allowing extinction measurements across the outflow. Additionally, we present dereddened flux ratios for over two dozen outflow features to allow for the characterization of the true excitation conditions of the BN/KL outflow. All of the ratios show the dominance of the shock excitation of the H{sub 2} emission, although some features exhibit signs of fluorescent excitation from stellar radiation or J-type shocks. We also detect tracers of the PDR/ionization front north of the Trapezium stars in [O i] and [Fe ii] and analyze other observed outflows not associated with the BN/KL outflow.

  11. UNRAVELLING THE COMPLEX STRUCTURE OF AGN-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS. II. PHOTOIONIZATION AND ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karouzos, Marios; Woo, Jong-Hak [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Astronomy and Center for Galaxy EVolution Research, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    Outflows have been shown to be prevalent in galaxies hosting luminous active galactic nuclei (AGNs); they present a physically plausible way to couple the AGN energy output with the interstellar medium of their hosts. Despite their prevalence, accurate characterization of these outflows has been challenging. In the second of a series of papers, we use Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU) data of six local ( z  < 0.1) and moderate-luminosity Type 2 AGNs to study the ionization properties and energetics of AGN-driven outflows. We find strong evidence connecting the extreme kinematics of the ionized gas to the AGN photoionization. The kinematic component related to the AGN-driven outflow is clearly separated from other kinematic components, such as virial motions or rotation, on the velocity and velocity dispersion diagram. Our spatially resolved kinematic analysis reveals that 30 to 90% of the total mass and kinetic energy of the outflow is contained within the central kpc of the galaxy. The spatially integrated mass and kinetic energy of the gas entrained in the outflow correlate well with the AGN bolometric luminosity and results in energy conversion efficiencies between 0.01% and 1%. Intriguingly, we detect ubiquitous signs of ongoing circumnuclear star formation. Their small size, the centrally contained mass and energy, and the universally detected circumnuclear star formation cast doubts on the potency of these AGN-driven outflows as agents of galaxy-scale negative feedback.

  12. Multipoint analysis of the spatio-temporal coherence of dayside O+ outflows with Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Puhl-Quinn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of ionospheric ion outflow from the dayside cusp/cleft has previously been studied in great detail with numerous satellite missions, but only statistically. Between July and November 2001, the orbit configuration of the Cluster multi-satellite system close to its perigee (4 Earth radii allows for delay times between spacecraft of about 4 and 35min in crossing the cusp/cleft. This enables for the first time to assess the spatial and temporal coherence of O+ ion outflow on time scales of the order of the satellite time lag. After presenting two contrasting events in detail, O+ velocities and outflow intensities from three spacecraft, available on 18 events, all with a similar orbit, have been cross-correlated to quantify the degree of coherence in the outflow. The main result from the analysis is that, although dayside outflows are a permanent feature, steady-state conditions are surprisingly never achieved. In particular, a significant variability is found for convection drift and local outflow intensities on small time scales. This variability of local intensities is not found to depend on the total strenghth of the outflow, which is much more stable and increases with the dynamic solar wind pressure.

  13. AGN feedback in action? - outflows and star formation in type 2 AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jong-Hak

    2017-01-01

    We present the statistical constraints on the ionized gas outflows and their connection to star formation, using a large sample of ~110,000 AGNs and star-forming galaxies at z dispersion of star forming galaxies can be entirely accounted by the gravitational potential of host galaxies, AGNs clearly show non-gravitational kinematics, which is comparable to or stronger than the virial motion caused by the gravitational potential. Second, the distribution in the [OIII] velocity - velocity dispersion diagram dramatically expands toward large values with increasing AGN luminosity, implying that the outflows are AGN-driven. Third, the fraction of AGNs with a signature of outflow kinematics, steeply increases with AGN luminosity and Eddington ratio. In particular, the majority of luminous AGNs presents strong non-gravitational kinematics in the [OIII] profile. Interestingly, we find that the specific star formation of non-outflow AGNs is much lower than that of strong outflow AGNs, while the star formation rate of strong outflow AGNs is comparable to that of star forming galaxies. We interpret this trend as a delayed AGN feedback as it takes dynamical time for the outflows to suppress star formation in galactic scales.

  14. Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gh Mousavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

  15. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  16. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2002-04-01

    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  17. The electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with bipolar membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Adrian; Jumari, Arif; Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Puspitaningtyas, Stella Febianti; Cahyaningrum, Suci; Nazriati, Nazriati; Fajaroh, Fauziatul

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical method with bipolar membrane has been successfully used for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In this work, we have developed 2 chambers electrolysis system separated by a bipolar membrane. The membrane was used to separate cations (H+ ions produced by the oxidation of water at the anode) and anions (OH- ions produced by the reduction of water at the cathode). With this system, we have designed that OH- ions still stay in the anions chamber because OH- ions was very substantial in the hydroxyapatite particles formation. The aim of this paper was to compare the electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis was performed at 500 mA/cm2 for 0.5 to 2 hours at room temperature and under ultrasonic cleaner to void agglomeration with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with the bipolar membrane more effective than without the bipolar membrane. The hydroxyapatite has been appeared at 0.5 h of the electrolysis time with the bipolar membrane (at the cathode chamber) while it hasn't been seen without the bipolar membrane. The bipolar membrane prevents OH- ions migrate to the cation chamber. The formation of HA becomes more effective because OH- ions just formed HA particle.

  18. Suprasensory phenomena in those with a bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Paterson, Amelia; Romano, Mia; Granville Smith, Isabelle

    2018-03-01

    To increase awareness of the sensory changes experienced during hypo/manic and depressive states by those with a bipolar disorder and determine if the prevalence of such features is similar across differing bipolar sub-types. We interviewed 66 patients who acknowledged sensory changes during hypo/manic states. They were allocated to bipolar I, bipolar II and soft bipolar diagnostic categories and the prevalence of 10 differing sensory changes was quantified during hypo/manic and depressive phases. Bipolar I patients were just as likely, if not more likely, to report suprasensory changes which typically involved enhancement of senses during hypo/manic phases and muting or blunting during depressive phases. The high prevalence of changes in intuition, empathy, appreciation of danger and predictive capacities suggests that these are more part of the intrinsic bipolar mood domain states and not necessarily suprasensory, while changes in primary senses of smell, taste, vision, touch and hearing appear to more commonly define the suprasensory domain. It is important for clinicians and patients with a bipolar disorder to be aware of non-psychotic, suprasensory phenomena. Identification of such features may aid diagnosis and also explain the recognised increased creativity in those with a bipolar condition.

  19. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Group interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  2. "Is it menopause or bipolar?": a qualitative study of the experience of menopause for women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Parton, Chloe

    2017-11-16

    Menopause can be a time of change for women and may be marked by disturbances in mood. For women living with a mental illness, such as bipolar disorder, little is known about how they experience mood changes during menopause. This study aimed to explore how women with bipolar disorder constructed mood changes during menopause and how this impacted on treatment decisions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with fifteen women who reported they had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Data was analysed using thematic analysis guided by a social constructionist framework. Themes identified included 'Constructions of mood change: menopause or bipolar disorder?',' Life events, bipolar disorder and menopause coming together'; 'Treatment choices for mood change during menopause'. The accounts suggested that women related to the experience of mood changes during menopause through the lens of their existing framework of bipolar disorder, with implications for understanding of self and treatment choices.

  3. The bipolarity of light and dark: A review on Bipolar Disorder and circadian cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, T; Bragança, M

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar Disorder is characterized by episodes running the full mood spectrum, from mania to depression. Between mood episodes, residual symptoms remain, as sleep alterations, circadian cycle disturbances, emotional deregulation, cognitive impairment and increased risk for comorbidities. The present review intends to reflect about the most recent and relevant information concerning the biunivocal relation between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles. It was conducted a literature search on PubMed database using the search terms "bipolar", "circadian", "melatonin", "cortisol", "body temperature", "Clock gene", "Bmal1 gene", "Per gene", "Cry gene", "GSK3β", "chronotype", "light therapy", "dark therapy", "sleep deprivation", "lithum" and "agomelatine". Search results were manually reviewed, and pertinent studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Several studies support the relationship between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles, discussing alterations in melatonin, body temperature and cortisol rhythms; disruption of sleep/wake cycle; variations of clock genes; and chronotype. Some therapeutics for bipolar disorder directed to the circadian cycles disturbances are also discussed, including lithium carbonate, agomelatine, light therapy, dark therapy, sleep deprivation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. This review provides a summary of an extensive research for the relevant literature on this theme, not a patient-wise meta-analysis. In the future, it is essential to achieve a better understanding of the relation between bipolar disorder and the circadian system. It is required to establish new treatment protocols, combining psychotherapy, therapies targeting the circadian rhythms and the latest drugs, in order to reduce the risk of relapse and improve affective behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cognitive vulnerability to bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Turnbull, Oliver; Bentall, Richard P

    2014-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable illness, with a positive family history robustly predictive of its onset. It follows that studying biological children of parents with bipolar disorder may provide information about developmental pathways to the disorder. Moreover, such studies may serve as a useful test of theories that attribute a causal role in the development of mood disorders to psychological processes. Psychological style (including self-esteem, coping style with depression, domain-specific risk-taking, sensation-seeking, sensitivity to reward and punishment, and hypomanic personality and cognition) was assessed in 30 offspring of bipolar parents and 30 children of well parents. Parents of both child groups completed identical assessments. Although expected differences between parents with bipolar disorder and well parents were detected (such as low self-esteem, increased rumination, high sensitivity to reward and punishment), offspring of bipolar parents were, as a group, not significantly different from well offspring, apart from a modest trend towards lower adaptive coping. When divided into affected and non-affected subgroups, both groups of index children showed lower novelty-seeking. Only affected index children showed lower self-esteem, increased rumination, sensitivity to punishment, and hypomanic cognitions. Notably, these processes were associated with symptoms of depression. Psychological abnormalities in index offspring were associated with having met diagnostic criteria for psychiatric illnesses and the presence of mood symptoms, rather than preceding them. Implications of the present findings for our understanding of the development of bipolar disorder, as well as for informing early interventions, are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. [Surgical treatment of congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biocina, B; Sutlić, Z; Husedinović, I; Letica, D; Sokolić, J

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the classification and all types of left ventricular outflow tract obstructions. The possibilities of operative therapies are surveyed as well. Results of surgical treatment in 34 patients with obstruction to left ventricular outflow are shown. The majority of patients underwent operation under extracorporeal circulation (84.4%), while the rest were operated by means of the inflow occlusion technique (14.7%). The obtained results were compared with those from the literature. The importance of echocardiographic evaluation of location of the left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and the appropriate choice of a surgical technique according to the patient's age are emphasized.

  6. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  7. Modeling the Quiet Time Outflow Solution in the Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocer, Alex

    2011-01-01

    We use the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM) to study the geomagnetically quiet conditions in the polar cap during solar maximum, The PWOM solves the gyrotropic transport equations for O(+), H(+), and He(+) along several magnetic field lines in the polar region in order to reconstruct the full 3D solution. We directly compare our simulation results to the data based empirical model of Kitamura et al. [2011] of electron density, which is based on 63 months of Akebono satellite observations. The modeled ion and electron temperatures are also compared with a statistical compilation of quiet time data obtained by the EISCAT Svalbard Radar (ESR) and Intercosmos Satellites (Kitamura et al. [2011]). The data and model agree reasonably well. This study shows that photoelectrons play an important role in explaining the differences between sunlit and dark results, ion composition, as well as ion and electron temperatures of the quiet time polar wind solution. Moreover, these results provide validation of the PWOM's ability to model the quiet time ((background" solution.

  8. Estimation of future outflows of e-waste in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedy, Maheshwar; Mittal, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct an approach and a methodology to estimate the future outflows of electronic waste (e-waste) in India. Consequently, the study utilizes a time-series multiple lifespan end-of-life model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos for estimating the current and future quantities of e-waste in India. The model estimates future e-waste generation quantities by modeling their usage and disposal. The present work considers two scenarios for the approximation of e-waste generation based on user preferences to store or to recycle the e-waste. This model will help formal recyclers in India to make strategic decisions in planning for appropriate recycling infrastructure and institutional capacity building. Also an extension of the model proposed by Peralta and Fontanos is developed with the objective of helping decision makers to conduct WEEE estimates under a variety of assumptions to suit their region of study. During 2007-2011, the total WEEE estimates will be around 2.5 million metric tons which include waste from personal computers (PC), television, refrigerators and washing machines. During the said period, the waste from PC will account for 30% of total units of WEEE generated.

  9. AGN Outflow Shocks on Bonnor–Ebert Spheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, Zachary; Silk, Joseph; Rahman, Mubdi [The Johns Hopkins University Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Room 366, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gaibler, Volker [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bieri, Rebekka [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris VI, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2017-04-20

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and subsequent jet cocoons and outflow bubbles can have a significant impact on star formation in the host galaxy. To investigate feedback physics on small scales, we perform hydrodynamic simulations of realistically fast AGN winds striking Bonnor–Ebert spheres and examine gravitational collapse and ablation. We test AGN wind velocities ranging from 300 to 3000 km s{sup −1} and wind densities ranging from 0.5 to 10 m {sub p} cm{sup −3}. We include heating and cooling of low- and high-temperature gas, self-gravity, and spatially correlated perturbations in the shock, with a maximum resolution of 0.01 pc. We find that the ram pressure is the most important factor that determines the fate of the cloud. High ram pressure winds increase fragmentation and decrease the star formation rate, but they also cause star formation to occur on a much shorter timescale and with increased velocities of the newly formed stars. We find a threshold ram pressure of ∼2 × 10{sup −8} dyn cm{sup −2} above which stars are not formed because the resulting clumps have internal velocities large enough to prevent collapse. Our results indicate that simultaneous positive and negative feedback will be possible in a single galaxy, as AGN wind parameters will vary with location within a galaxy.

  10. Physical Conditions in Ultra-fast Outflows in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. B.; Tombesi, F.; Bottorff, M. C.

    2018-01-01

    XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) have revealed highly ionized gas, in the form of absorption lines from H-like and He-like Fe. Some of these absorbers, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs), have radial velocities of up to 0.25c. We have undertaken a detailed photoionization study of high-ionization Fe absorbers, both UFOs and non-UFOs, in a sample of AGN observed by XMM-Newton. We find that the heating and cooling processes in UFOs are Compton-dominated, unlike the non-UFOs. Both types are characterized by force multipliers on the order of unity, which suggest that they cannot be radiatively accelerated in sub-Eddington AGN, unless they were much less ionized at their point of origin. However, such highly ionized gas can be accelerated via a magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) wind. We explore this possibility by applying a cold MHD flow model to the UFO in the well-studied Seyfert galaxy, NGC 4151. We find that the UFO can be accelerated along magnetic streamlines anchored in the accretion disk. In the process, we have been able to constrain the magnetic field strength and the magnetic pressure in the UFO and have determined that the system is not in magnetic/gravitational equipartition. Open questions include the variability of the UFOs and the apparent lack of non-UFOs in UFO sources.

  11. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European–American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. Results A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04). Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8–1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five feature model did not support this association. Conclusions Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, results are at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts are challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts

  12. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...

  13. Six years of evidence-based adult dissection tonsillectomy with ultrasonic scalpel, bipolar electrocautery, bipolar radiofrequency or 'cold steel' dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, S M

    2012-10-01

    To conduct an adequately powered, prospective, randomised, controlled trial comparing adult dissection tonsillectomy using either ultrasonic scalpel, bipolar electrocautery, bipolar radiofrequency or 'cold steel' dissection. Three hundred patients were randomised into four tonsillectomy technique groups. The operative time, intra-operative bleeding, post-operative pain, tonsillar fossa healing, return to full diet, return to work and post-operative complications were recorded. The bipolar radiofrequency group had a shorter mean operative time. The mean intra-operative blood loss during bipolar radiofrequency tonsillectomy was significantly less compared with cold dissection and ultrasonic scalpel tonsillectomy. Pain scores were significantly higher after bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy. Patients undergoing bipolar electrocautery tonsillectomy required significantly more days to return to full diet and work. The bipolar electrocautery group showed significantly reduced tonsillar fossa healing during the first and second post-operative weeks. In this adult series, bipolar radiofrequency tonsillectomy was superior to ultrasonic, bipolar electrocautery and cold dissection tonsillectomies. This method combines the advantages of 'hot' and 'cold' tonsillectomy.

  14. RP58 Regulates the Multipolar-Bipolar Transition of Newborn Neurons in the Developing Cerebral Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Ohtaka-Maruyama

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that many brain diseases are associated with defects in neuronal migration, suggesting that this step of neurogenesis is critical for brain organization. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal migration remain largely unknown. Here, we identified the zinc-finger transcriptional repressor RP58 as a key regulator of neuronal migration via multipolar-to-bipolar transition. RP58−/− neurons exhibited severe defects in the formation of leading processes and never shifted to the locomotion mode. Cre-mediated deletion of RP58 using in utero electroporation in RP58flox/flox mice revealed that RP58 functions in cell-autonomous multipolar-to-bipolar transition, independent of cell-cycle exit. Finally, we found that RP58 represses Ngn2 transcription to regulate the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway; Ngn2 knockdown rescued migration defects of the RP58−/− neurons. Our findings highlight the critical role of RP58 in multipolar-to-bipolar transition via suppression of the Ngn2-Rnd2 pathway in the developing cerebral cortex.

  15. Results of cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty for fracture of the femoral neck - 10 year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maini P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : One of the most common treatments of displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly is bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Method : Two hundred and seventy patients of displaced fracture of femoral neck were treated by bipolar hemiarthroplasty. The Mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was 69.80 years. Results : Follow up ranged between 12 months and 120 months. There were 8 cases each of acetabular erosion and protrusion with 10 cases of femoral stem loosening. Eight cases had post operative dislocation requiring open reduction. Eighteen patients got revision surgery to total hip replacement. The overall incidence of DVT/PE was 9.9% which declined after regular use of low molecular weight heparin. Eleven patients had post operative infection. There were 54.2 % excellent results, 21.0 % good results, 10.7 % fair and 3.7% poor results. Conclusion : Elderly patients with displaced fracture of neck femur are able to ambulate early after Cemented bipolar hemi arthroplasty. The complication rate is low, the component survival long and pre injury functional status is restored in majority of patients.

  16. Mef2d is essential for the maturation and integrity of retinal photoreceptor and bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Tamiki; Yoshida, Satoyo; Kuwahara, Ryusuke; Chaya, Taro; Irie, Shoichi; Furukawa, Takahisa

    2015-05-01

    Mef2 transcription factors play a crucial role in cardiac and skeletal muscle differentiation. We found that Mef2d is highly expressed in the mouse retina and its loss causes photoreceptor degeneration similar to that observed in human retinitis pigmentosa patients. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were severely impaired in Mef2d-/- mice. Immunohistochemistry showed that photoreceptor and bipolar cell synapse protein levels severely decreased in the Mef2d-/- retina. Expression profiling by microarray analysis showed that Mef2d is required for the expression of various genes in photoreceptor and bipolar cells, including cone arrestin, Guca1b, Pde6h and Cacna1s, which encode outer segment and synapse proteins. We also observed that Mef2d synergistically activates the cone arrestin (Arr3) promoter with Crx, suggesting that functional cooperation between Mef2d and Crx is important for photoreceptor cell gene regulation. Taken together, our results show that Mef2d is essential for photoreceptor and bipolar cell gene expression, either independently or cooperatively with Crx. © 2015 Institution for Protein Research. Genes to Cells published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and the Molecular Biology Society of Japan.

  17. Prostaglandin D2 effects and DP1 /DP2 receptor distribution in guinea pig urinary bladder out-flow region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Na N; Svennersten, Karl; de Verdier, Petra J; Wiklund, N Peter; Gustafsson, Lars E

    2017-02-01

    The proximal urethra and urinary bladder trigone play important roles in continence. We have previously shown that PGD 2 is released from guinea pig bladder urothelium/suburothelium and can inhibit detrusor contractile responses. We presently wished to investigate PGD 2 actions in guinea pig out-flow region and the distribution of DP 1 /DP 2 receptors. The effects of PGD 2 on urothelium-intact trigone and proximal urethra contractility were studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of DP 1 /DP 2 receptor proteins was analysed by western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify distribution of DP 1 /DP 2 receptors. PGD 2 in a dose-dependent manner inhibited trigone contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and inhibited spontaneous contractions of the proximal urethra. PGD 2 was equally (trigone) or slightly less potent (urethra) compared with PGE 2 . Expression of DP 1 and DP 2 receptors was found in male guinea pig bladder trigone, neck and proximal urethra. In the trigone and proximal urethra, DP 1 receptors were found on the membrane of smooth muscle cells and weak immunoreactivty was observed in the urothelium. DP 2 receptors were distributed more widespread, weakly and evenly in the urothelium and smooth muscles. Inhibitory effects by PGD 2 on motor activity of guinea pig trigone and proximal urethra are consistent with finding DP 1 and DP 2 receptors located in the urothelium and smooth muscle cells of the trigone and proximal urethra, and PGD 2 may therefore be a modulator of the bladder out-flow region, possibly having a function in regulation of micturition and a role in overactive bladder syndrome. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  18. Is impulsivity a common trait in bipolar and unipolar disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henna, Elaine; Hatch, John P; Nicoletti, Mark; Swann, Alan C; Zunta-Soares, Giovana; Soares, Jair C

    2013-03-01

      Impulsivity is increased in bipolar and unipolar disorders during episodes and is associated with substance abuse disorders and suicide risk. Impulsivity between episodes predisposes to relapses and poor therapeutic compliance. However, there is little information about impulsivity during euthymia in mood disorders. We sought to investigate trait impulsivity in euthymic bipolar and unipolar disorder patients, comparing them to healthy individuals and unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder patients.   Impulsivity was evaluated by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11A) in 54 bipolar disorder patients, 25 unipolar disorder patients, 136 healthy volunteers, and 14 unaffected relatives. The BIS-11A mean scores for all four groups were compared through the Games-Howell test for all possible pairwise combinations. Additionally, we compared impulsivity in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients with and without a history of suicide attempt and substance abuse disorder.   Bipolar and unipolar disorder patients scored significantly higher than the healthy controls and unaffected relatives on all measures of the BIS-11A except for attentional impulsivity. On the attentional impulsivity measures there were no differences among the unaffected relatives and the bipolar and unipolar disorder groups, but all three of these groups scored higher than the healthy participant group. There was no difference in impulsivity between bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with and without suicide attempt. However, impulsivity was higher among bipolar and unipolar disorder subjects with past substance use disorder compared to patients without such a history.   Questionnaire-measured impulsivity appears to be relatively independent of mood state in bipolar and unipolar disorder patients; it remains elevated in euthymia and is higher in individuals with past substance abuse. Elevated attentional and lower non-planning impulsivity in unaffected relatives of bipolar disorder

  19. Recognition and treatment of outflow tract stenosis during and after endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qingsheng; Jing Zaiping; Zhao Zhiqing; Bao Junmin; Zhao Jun; Feng Xiang; Feng Rui; Huang Sheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the cognition and treatment of outflow tract stenosis in and after endovascular exclusion for abdominal aortic aneurysm. Methods: From Mar 1997 to Oct 2002, in 136 patients undergoing abdominal aortic aneurysm endovascular exclusion, 8 patients had outflow tract stenosis during the operation, and 3 patients had outflow tract stenosis after operation. The stenosis of 5 patients occurred at the crotch of the graft-stent. PTA was done in 7 patients and stents were placed in stenotic segment in 2 patients. 2 patients were treated with crossover operation. Results: Following up 1 month to 2 years, all patients have no lower limbs ischemia. Conclusions: The diagnosis of outflow tract stenosis during and after abdominal endovascular exclusion for aortic aneurysm must be in time. The treatment should be according to the different causes of stenosis

  20. Low-energy ion outflow modulated by the solar wind energy input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Wei, Yong; Andre, Mats; Eriksson, Anders; Haaland, Stein; Kronberg, Elena; Nilsson, Hans; Maes, Lukas

    2017-04-01

    Due to the spacecraft charging issue, it has been difficult to measure low-energy ions of ionospheric origin in the magnetosphere. A recent study taking advantage of the spacecraft electric potential has found that the previously 'hidden' low-energy ions is dominant in the magnetosphere. This comprehensive dataset of low-energy ions allows us to study the relationship between the ionospheric outflow and energy input from the solar wind (ɛ). In this study, we discuss the ratios of the solar wind energy input to the energy of the ionospheric outflow. We show that the ɛ controls the ionospheric outflow when the ɛ is high, while the ionospheric outflow does not systematically change with the ɛ when the ɛ is low.

  1. Dysregulated endocardial TGFβ signaling and mesenchymal transformation result in heart outflow tract septation failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mancheong; Li, Peng; Shen, Hua; Estrada, Kristine D; Xu, Jian; Kumar, S Ram; Sucov, Henry M

    2016-01-01

    Heart outflow tract septation in mouse embryos carrying mutations in retinoic acid receptor genes fails with complete penetrance. In this mutant background, ectopic TGFβ signaling in the distal outflow tract is responsible for septation failure, but it was uncertain what tissue was responsive to ectopic TGFβ and why this response interfered with septation. By combining RAR gene mutation with tissue-specific Cre drivers and a conditional type II TGFβ receptor (Tgfbr2) allele, we determined that ectopic activation of TGFβ signaling in the endocardium is responsible for septation defects. Ectopic TGFβ signaling results in ectopic mesenchymal transformation of the endocardium and thereby in improperly constituted distal OFT cushions. Our analysis highlights the interactions between myocardium, endocardium, and neural crest cells in outflow tract morphogenesis, and demonstrates the requirement for proper TGFβ signaling in outflow tract cushion organization and septation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Primary cardiac tumor presenting as left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and complex arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Achen, S; O'Brien, M T; Jackson, N D; Gordon, S

    2017-10-01

    An adult female mixed breed dog presented for recurrent collapsing episodes over several weeks. Holter evaluation revealed periods of sinus arrest and echocardiography identified a soft tissue mass with subsequent severe dynamic obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract. The patient was euthanized five days after presentation for severe dyspnea. Necropsy revealed an irregular mass circumferentially lining the left ventricular outflow tract as well as multiple myocardial metastases. The final diagnosis was an undifferentiated pleomorphic endocardial sarcoma. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. FEATURES OF OUTFLOW OF INTRAOCULAR LIQUID AFTER AN EKSIMERLAZER SKLEREKTOMY (PILOT STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Korchuganova; O. A. Rumyantseva; S. B. Gudkova

    2017-01-01

    Modern approaches to surgical glaucoma treatment is based on the safe and effective methods. In recent years, great attention is paid to the techniques of stimulating uveoscleral path outtake aqueous humor from the eye. Uveoscleral space in the extended outflow pathways is dominant and constitutes about 72%. Sclera is a field of the greatest interest, as the end stages of the outflow of aqueous humor via the uveoscleral path. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of excimer la...

  4. Dissecting the Butterfly: Dual Outflows in the Dual AGN NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julie; Nevin, Rebecca; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George

    2018-01-01

    Current theories of galaxy evolution invoke some kind of feedback (from the stars or the supermassive black hole) to explain the properties of galaxies. However, numerical simulations and observations have not been able to evaluate the real impact of feedback in galaxies. This is largely because most studies have focused on studying stellar feedback or AGN feedback alone, instead of considering the combined effect of both. In fact, this is an unexplored territory for observations due to the difficulty of separating the contribution from the two sources.In this contribution I present the discovery of a dual outflow of different species of gas in the prototypical merging galaxy NGC 6240 using HST imaging, long-slit and integral-eld spectroscopy: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. The AGN outflow extends up to 4 kpc along a position angle of 56 degrees, has a conical shape with an opening angle of 52 degrees and a maximum line-of-sight velocity of 350 km/s. The WFC3 images also reveal a bubble of Halpha emission in the northwest, which has no counterpart in [O III], consistent with a scenario in which the starburst is ionizing and driving outflowing winds which inflate the bubble at an expansion velocity of 380 km/s. Assuming a spherical geometry for the starburst-driven bubble and a conical geometry for the AGN-driven outflow, we estimate mass outflow rates of 26 Msun/yr and 62 Msun/yr, respectively. We conclude that the AGN contribution to the evolution of the merger remnant and the formation of outflowing winds is signicant in the central 5 kpc of NGC 6240.

  5. THE SINS/zC-SINF SURVEY of z {approx} 2 GALAXY KINEMATICS: OUTFLOW PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Foerster-Schreiber, Natascha M.; Buschkamp, Peter; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Kurk, Jaron; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dellOsservatorio 5, Padova, I-35122 (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella; Peng, Yingjie [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, ETH Zuerich, CH-8093 (Switzerland); Bouche, Nicolas [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie (IRAP), Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Berlin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Burkert, Andreas [Department fuer Physik, Universitaets-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, Muenchen, D-81679 (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di AstrofisicaOsservatorio Astronomico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschildstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-12-10

    Using SINFONI H{alpha}, [N II], and [S II] AO data of 27 z {approx} 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from the SINS and zC-SINF surveys, we explore the dependence of outflow strength (via the broad flux fraction) on various galaxy parameters. For galaxies that have evidence for strong outflows, we find that the broad emission is spatially extended to at least the half-light radius ({approx}a few kpc). Decomposition of the [S II] doublet into broad and narrow components suggests that this outflowing gas probably has a density of {approx}10-100 cm{sup -3}, less than that of the star-forming gas (600 cm{sup -3}). There is a strong correlation of the H{alpha} broad flux fraction with the star formation surface density of the galaxy, with an apparent threshold for strong outflows occurring at 1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. Above this threshold, we find that SFGs with log m{sub *} > 10 have similar or perhaps greater wind mass-loading factors ({eta} = M-dot{sub out}/SFR) and faster outflow velocities than lower mass SFGs, suggesting that the majority of outflowing gas at z {approx} 2 may derive from high-mass SFGs. The mass-loading factor is also correlated with the star formation rate (SFR), galaxy size, and inclination, such that smaller, more star-forming, and face-on galaxies launch more powerful outflows. We propose that the observed threshold for strong outflows and the observed mass loading of these winds can be explained by a simple model wherein break-out of winds is governed by pressure balance in the disk.

  6. The bipolar puzzle, adding new pieces. Factors associated with bipolar disorder, Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schot, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. The first part will discuss the structural brain abnormalities and schoolperformance associated with bipolar disorder and the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors to this association. It is part of a large twin study investigating several potential

  7. MASS OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT 1 GALAXY NGC 5548

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Kaastra, J. S.; Arav, N.; Gabel, J. R.; Korista, K. T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of the intrinsic UV absorption and emission lines in an historically low-state spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548, which we obtained in 2004 February at high spatial and spectral resolution with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We isolate a component of emission with a width of 680 km s -1 that arises from an 'intermediate-line region' (ILR), similar to that we discovered in NGC 4151, at a distance of ∼1 pc from the central continuum source. From a detailed analysis of the five intrinsic absorption components in NGC 5548 and their behavior over a span of eight years, we present evidence that most of the UV absorbers only partially cover the ILR and do not cover an extended region of UV continuum emission, most likely from hot stars in the circumnuclear region. We also find that four of the UV absorbers are at much greater distances (greater than 70 pc) than the ILR, and none have sufficient N V or C IV column densities to be the ILR in absorption. At least a portion of the UV absorption component 3, at a radial velocity of -530 km s -1 , is likely responsible for most of the X-ray absorption, at a distance less than 7 pc from the central source. The fact that we see the ILR in absorption in NGC 4151 and not in NGC 5548 suggests that the ILR is located at a relatively large polar angle (∼45 deg.) with respect to the narrow-line region outflow axis.

  8. Monte Carlo Simulations of Photospheric Emission in Relativistic Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Mukul; Lu, Wenbin; Kumar, Pawan; Santana, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    We study the spectra of photospheric emission from highly relativistic gamma-ray burst outflows using a Monte Carlo code. We consider the Comptonization of photons with a fast-cooled synchrotron spectrum in a relativistic jet with a realistic photon-to-electron number ratio {N}γ /{N}{{e}}={10}5, using mono-energetic protons that interact with thermalized electrons through Coulomb interaction. The photons, electrons, and protons are cooled adiabatically as the jet expands outward. We find that the initial energy distributions of the protons and electrons do not have any appreciable effect on the photon peak energy {E}γ ,{peak} and the power-law spectrum above {E}γ ,{peak}. The Coulomb interaction between the electrons and the protons does not affect the output photon spectrum significantly as the energy of the electrons is elevated only marginally. {E}γ ,{peak} and the spectral indices for the low- and high-energy power-law tails of the photon spectrum remain practically unchanged even with electron-proton coupling. Increasing the initial optical depth {τ }{in} results in a slightly shallower photon spectrum below {E}γ ,{peak} and fewer photons at the high-energy tail, although {f}ν \\propto {ν }-0.5 above {E}γ ,{peak} and up to ∼1 MeV, independent of {τ }{in}. We find that {E}γ ,{peak} determines the peak energy and the shape of the output photon spectrum. Finally, we find that our simulation results are quite sensitive to {N}γ /{N}{{e}}, for {N}{{e}}=3× {10}3. For almost all our simulations, we obtain an output photon spectrum with a power-law tail above {E}γ ,{peak} extending up to ∼1 MeV.

  9. Regulation of Breathing and Autonomic Outflows by Chemoreceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2016-01-01

    Lung ventilation fluctuates widely with behavior but arterial PCO2 remains stable. Under normal conditions, the chemoreflexes contribute to PaCO2 stability by producing small corrective cardiorespiratory adjustments mediated by lower brainstem circuits. Carotid body (CB) information reaches the respiratory pattern generator (RPG) via nucleus solitarius (NTS) glutamatergic neurons which also target rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) presympathetic neurons thereby raising sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Chemoreceptors also regulate presympathetic neurons and cardiovagal preganglionic neurons indirectly via inputs from the RPG. Secondary effects of chemoreceptors on the autonomic outflows result from changes in lung stretch afferent and baroreceptor activity. Central respiratory chemosensitivity is caused by direct effects of acid on neurons and indirect effects of CO2 via astrocytes. Central respiratory chemoreceptors are not definitively identified but the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is a particularly strong candidate. The absence of RTN likely causes severe central apneas in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. Like other stressors, intense chemosensory stimuli produce arousal and activate circuits that are wake- or attention-promoting. Such pathways (e.g., locus coeruleus, raphe, and orexin system) modulate the chemoreflexes in a state-dependent manner and their activation by strong chemosensory stimuli intensifies these reflexes. In essential hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea and congestive heart failure, chronically elevated CB afferent activity contributes to raising SNA but breathing is unchanged or becomes periodic (severe CHF). Extreme CNS hypoxia produces a stereotyped cardiorespiratory response (gasping, increased SNA). The effects of these various pathologies on brainstem cardiorespiratory networks are discussed, special consideration being given to the interactions between central and peripheral chemoreflexes. PMID:25428853

  10. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  11. [Bipolar disorders and anorexia nervosa: A clinical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, M; Radon, L; Duclos, J; Curt, F; Godart, N

    2018-06-20

    Anorexia nervosa is often accompanied by comorbid mood disorders, in particular depression, but individual or family history of bipolar disorders has not frequently been explored in anorexia nervosa. The objectives of the present study were: (1) to assess the frequency of bipolar disorders in patients with anorexia nervosa hospitalized in adolescence and in their parents, (2) to determine whether the patients with a personal or family history of bipolar disorders present particular characteristics in the way in which anorexia nervosa manifests itself, in their medical history, in the secondary diagnoses established, and in the treatments prescribed. Overall, 97 female patients aged 13 to 20 hospitalized for anorexia nervosa and their parents were assessed. The diagnoses of anorexia nervosa and bipolar disorders were established on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria. A high frequency of type II and type V bipolar disorders was observed. The patients with anorexia nervosa and presenting personal or family histories of bipolar disorder had an earlier onset of anorexia nervosa, more numerous hospitalizations, a longer time-lapse between anorexia nervosa onset and hospitalization, more suicide attempts and more psychiatric comorbidities. The occurrence of anorexia nervosa-bipolar disorders comorbidity appears to be considerable and linked to the severity of anorexia nervosa, raising the issue of the relationship between anorexia nervosa and bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Treatment outcomes of acute bipolar depressive episode with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Dufour, Steven; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gao, Keming; Ketter, Terence A; Bobo, William V; Walsh, Samantha; Janos, Jessica; Tohen, Mauricio; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; McElroy, Susan L; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2018-05-01

    The impact of psychosis on the treatment of bipolar depression is remarkably understudied. The primary aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes of bipolar depressed individuals with and without psychosis. The secondary aim was to compare the effect of lithium and quetiapine, each with adjunctive personalized treatments (APTs), in the psychotic subgroup. We assessed participants with DSM-IV bipolar depression included in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine with APTs (the Bipolar CHOICE study). Severity was assessed by the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and by the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity-Bipolar Version (CGI-S-BP). Mixed models were used to assess the course of symptom change, and Cox regression survival analysis was used to assess the time to remission. Psychotic features were present in 10.6% (n = 32) of the depressed participants (n = 303). Those with psychotic features had higher scores on the BISS before (75.2 ± 17.6 vs. 54.9 ± 16.3; P Bipolar depressive episodes with psychotic features are more severe, and compared to nonpsychotic depressions, present a similar course of improvement. Given the small number of participants presenting psychosis, the lack of statistically significant difference between lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment of psychotic bipolar depressive episodes needs replication in a larger sample. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  14. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pfamilies where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  15. People-Things and Data-Ideas: Bipolar Dimensions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Su, Rong; Rounds, James

    2011-01-01

    We examined a longstanding assumption in vocational psychology that people-things and data-ideas are bipolar dimensions. Two minimal criteria for bipolarity were proposed and examined across 3 studies: (a) The correlation between opposite interest types should be negative; (b) after correcting for systematic responding, the correlation should be…

  16. Bipolar Disorder: not only in the Brain - immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Knijff (Esther)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to obtain more insight in the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder by investigating various aberrancies in the immune system of patients with bipolar disorder. In Chapter 1 some general concepts, important for the

  17. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  18. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  19. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  20. Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Sabet, Julia A; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Melinder, Carren; Brummer, Robert J; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations. A total of 213,693 men born between 1952 and 1956, who participated in compulsory military conscription assessments in late adolescence were followed up to 2009, excluding men with any psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. Cox regression estimated risk of bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety in adulthood associated with body mass index, asthma, allergy, muscular strength stress resilience and cognitive function in adolescence. BMI, asthma and allergy were not associated with bipolar disorder. Higher grip strength, cognitive function and stress resilience were associated with a reduced risk of bipolar disorder and the other disease outcomes. The sample consisted only of men; even though the characteristics in adolescence pre-dated disease onset, they may have been the consequence of prodromal disease. Associations with body mass index and asthma found by previous studies may be consequences of bipolar disorder or its treatment rather than risk factors. Inverse associations with all the outcome diagnoses for stress resilience, muscular strength and cognitive function may reflect general risks for these psychiatric disorders or intermediary factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  2. Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Management of Mixed States in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagiolini, Andrea; Coluccia, Anna; Maina, Giuseppe; Forgione, Rocco N; Goracci, Arianna; Cuomo, Alessandro; Young, Allan H

    2015-09-01

    Approximately 40% of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed episodes, defined as a manic state with depressive features, or manic symptoms in a patient with bipolar depression. Compared with bipolar patients without mixed features, patients with bipolar mixed states generally have more severe symptomatology, more lifetime episodes of illness, worse clinical outcomes and higher rates of comorbidities, and thus present a significant clinical challenge. Most clinical trials have investigated second-generation neuroleptic monotherapy, monotherapy with anticonvulsants or lithium, combination therapy, and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Neuroleptic drugs are often used alone or in combination with anticonvulsants or lithium for preventive treatment, and ECT is an effective treatment for mixed manic episodes in situations where medication fails or cannot be used. Common antidepressants have been shown to worsen mania symptoms during mixed episodes without necessarily improving depressive symptoms; thus, they are not recommended during mixed episodes. A greater understanding of pathophysiological processes in bipolar disorder is now required to provide a more accurate diagnosis and new personalised treatment approaches. Targeted, specific treatments developed through a greater understanding of bipolar disorder pathophysiology, capable of affecting the underlying disease processes, could well prove to be more effective, faster acting, and better tolerated than existing therapies, therefore providing better outcomes for individuals affected by bipolar disorder. Until such time as targeted agents are available, second-generation neuroleptics are emerging as the treatment of choice in the management of mixed states in bipolar disorder.

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Rapid Cycling Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Knauz, Robert O.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Between 10% and 24% of bipolar patients experience a rapid cycling course, with 4 or more mood episodes occurring per year. Characterized by nonresponse to standard mood-stabilizing medications, rapid cyclers are…

  4. Tiagabine in treatment refractory bipolar disorder : a clinical case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppes, T; Chisholm, KA; Dhavale, D; Frye, MA; Atshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Keck, PE; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Denicoff, KD; Leverich, GS; Rush, AJ; Post, RM

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Anticonvulsants have provided major treatment advances for patients with bipolar disorder. Many of these drugs, including several with proven efficacy in bipolar mania or depression, enhance the activity of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system. A new

  5. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  6. The poor prognosis of childhood-onset bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverich, Gabriele S.; Post, Robert M.; Keck, Paul E.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Frye, Mark A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Denicoff, Kirk; Moravec, Maria K. M.; Luckenbaugh, David

    Objective We examined age of onset of bipolar disorder as a potential course-of-iflness modifier with the hypothesis that early onset will engender more severe illness. Study design A total of 480 carefully diagnosed adult outpatients with bipolar disorder (mean age, 42.5 +/- 11.6 years) were

  7. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  8. [Differences in Subjective Experience Between Unipolar and Bipolar Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco; Bustos, Andrés; Molina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    It is important to make distinction between bipolar and unipolar depression because treatment and prognosis are different. Since the diagnosis of the two conditions is purely clinical, find symptomatic differences is useful. Find differences in subjective experience (first person) between unipolar and bipolar depression. Phenomenological-oriented qualitative exploratory study of 12 patients (7 with bipolar depression and 5 with unipolar depression, 3 men and 9 women). We used a semi-structured interview based on Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The predominant mood in bipolar depression is emotional dampening, in unipolar is sadness. The bodily experience in bipolar is of a heavy, tired body; an element that inserts between the desires of acting and performing actions and becomes an obstacle to the movement. In unipolar is of a body that feels more comfortable with the stillness than activity, like laziness of everyday life. Cognition and the stream of consciousness: in bipolar depression, compared with unipolar, thinking is slower, as if to overcome obstacles in their course. There are more difficult to understand what is heard or read. Future perspective: in bipolar depression, hopelessness is stronger and broader than in unipolar, as if the very possibility of hope was lost. Qualitative differences in predominant mood, bodily experience, cognition and future perspective were found between bipolar and unipolar depression. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. New types of bipolar fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Yaqoob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The notion of bipolar fuzzy set was initiated by Lee (2000 as a generalization of the notion fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which have drawn attention of many mathematicians and computer scientists. In this paper, we initiate a study on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. By using the concept of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets (Yaqoob and Ansari, 2013, we introduce the notion of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroups (-hyperideals and bi--hyperideals and discuss some basic results on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. Furthermore, we define the bipolar fuzzy subset ,               and prove that if  ,       is a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H; then ,               is also a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H.

  10. Cortisol exposure, cognition and clinical course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, Anne Titia

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation, we aimed to identify the influence of cortisol exposure and cognitive performance on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Data regarding sociodemographics, disease characteristics and genetic analysis of the cortisol receptors, were collected of 366 patients with bipolar

  11. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  12. Combinations of genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole A; Bennike, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to find genetic variants that in combination are significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In previous studies of bipolar disorder, combinations of three and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and five...... clusters of combinations were found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In the present study, combinations of ten SNP genotypes taken from the same 803 SNPs were analyzed, and one cluster of combinations was found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. Combinations from......, heterozygote or variant homozygote. In the combinations containing 10 SNP genotypes almost all the genotypes were the normal homozygote. Such a finding may indicate that accumulation in the genome of combinations containing few SNP genotypes may be a risk factor for bipolar disorder when those combinations...

  13. Are working memory deficits in bipolar disorder markers for psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N; Randall, Carol; Bello, Danielle; Armstrong, Christina; Frantom, Linda; Cross, Chad; Kinney, Jefferson

    2010-03-01

    Working memory deficits have been identified in bipolar disorder, but there is evidence suggesting that these deficits may be markers for psychosis rather than affective disorder. The current study examined this issue by comparing two groups of individuals with bipolar disorder, one with psychotic features and one without psychotic features, with a group of normal controls. Working memory was conceptualized as a multicomponent system that includes auditory and visuospatial short-term stores, executive control processes, and an episodic buffer that allows for communication between short- and long-term memory stores (Baddeley & Logie, 1999). Results indicated that only executive control processes significantly differentiated the psychotic and nonpsychotic bipolar groups, although visuospatial working memory differentiated both bipolar groups from controls. The results support the idea that some aspects of working memory performance are markers for psychosis, while others may be more general markers for bipolar disorders. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Progress and challenges in bipolar lead-acid battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Kathryn R.

    1995-05-01

    Bipolar lead-acid batteries have higher power densities than any other aqueous battery system. Predicted specific powers based on models and prototypes range from 800 kW/kg for 100 ms discharge times to 1.6 kW/kg for 10 s. A 48 V automotive bipolar battery could have 2 1/2 times the cold cranking rate of a monopolar 12 V design in the same size. Problems which have precluded the development of commercial bipolar designs include the instability of substrate materials and enhanced side reactions. Design approaches include pseudo-bipolar configurations, as well as true bipolar designs in planar and tubular configurations. Substrate materials used include lead and lead alloys, carbons, conductive ceramics, and tin-oxide-coated glass fibers. These approaches are reviewed and evaluated.

  15. Bipolar disorders and Wilson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta Mauro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD in Wilson’s disease (WD and to measure the impaired Quality of Life (QL in BD with WD using standardized psychiatric diagnostic tools and a case control design. Methods This was a case control study. The cases were 23 consecutive patients with WD treated at the University Hospital in Cagliari, Italy, and the controls were 92 sex- and age-matched subjects with no diagnosis of WD who were randomly selected from a database used previously for an epidemiological study. Psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria were determined by physicians using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID. QL was measured by means of SF-12. Results Compared to controls, WD patients had lower scores on the SF-12 and higher lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV major depressive disorders (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.4–17.3 and bipolar disorders (OR = 12.9, 95% CI 3.6–46.3. BD was associated with lower SF-12 in WD patients. Conclusions This study was the first to show an association between BD and WD using standardized diagnostic tools and a case control design. Reports in the literature about increased schizophrenia-like psychosis in WD and a lack of association with bipolar disorders may thus have been based on a more inclusive diagnosis of schizophrenia in the past. Our findings may explain the frequent reports of loss of emotional control, hyperactivity, loss of sexual inhibition, and irritability in WD patients. This study was limited by a small sample size.

  16. FROM THE CONVERGENCE OF FILAMENTS TO DISK-OUTFLOW ACCRETION: MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN W33A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan-Madrid, Roberto; Zhang Qizhou; Keto, Eric; Ho, Paul T. P.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Zapata, Luis A.; RodrIguez, Luis F.; Vazquez-Semadeni, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric observations of the W33A massive star formation region, performed with the Submillimeter Array and the Very Large Array at resolutions from 5'' (0.1 pc) to 0.''5 (0.01 pc), are presented. Our three main findings are: (1) parsec-scale, filamentary structures of cold molecular gas are detected. Two filaments at different velocities intersect in the zone where the star formation is occurring. This is consistent with triggering of the star formation activity by the convergence of such filaments, as predicted by numerical simulations of star formation initiated by converging flows. (2) The two dusty cores (MM1 and MM2) at the intersection of the filaments are found to be at different evolutionary stages, and each of them is resolved into multiple condensations. MM1 and MM2 have markedly different temperatures, continuum spectral indices, molecular-line spectra, and masses of both stars and gas. (3) The dynamics of the 'hot-core' MM1 indicates the presence of a rotating disk in its center (MM1-Main) around a faint free-free source. The stellar mass is estimated to be ∼10 M sun . A massive molecular outflow is observed along the rotation axis of the disk.

  17. Fractura bipolar de clavícula

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Navas, P.; Collado Torres, Francisco; Torre Solís, F. de la

    1994-01-01

    Se presenta un caso de fractura que afecta a ambos extremos de la clavícula. Fractura tipo II de Neer del fragmento distal y fractura del extremo esternal de la clavícula. Se realizó tratamiento quirúrgico mediante reducción abierta y osteosíntesis con agujas de Kirschner en ambas. El resultado a largo plazo ha sido satisfactorio cosmética y funcionalmente. A case of bipolar fracture affecting both ends of the clavicle is reported. The lesion consisted of a Neer type II fractur...

  18. Multikilowatt Bipolar Nickel/Hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    High energy densities appear feasible. Nickel/hydrogen battery utilizing bipolar construction in common pressure vessel, addressing needs for multikilowatt storage for low-Earth-orbit applications, designed and 10-cell prototype model tested. Modular-concept-design 35-kW battery projected energy densities of 20 to 24 Wh/b (160 to 190 kj/kg) and 700 to 900 Wh/ft3 (90 to 110 MJ/m3) and incorporated significant improvements over state-of-the-art storage systems.

  19. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  20. Bipolar nebulae and type I planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvet, N.; Peimbert, M.

    1983-01-01

    It is suggested that the bipolar nature of PN of type I can be explained in terms of their relatively massive progenitors (Msub(i) 2.4 Msub(o)), that had to lose an appreciable fraction of their mass and angular momentum during their planetary nebulae stage. The following objects are discussed in relation with this suggestion: NGC 6302, NGC 2346, NGC 2440, CRL 618, Mz-3 and M2-9. It is found that CRL 618 is overbundant in N/O by a factor of 5-10 relative to the Orion Nebula. (author)