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Sample records for bipolar led drive

  1. Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, James Evans [Monongahela, PA; West, Shawn Michael [West Mifflin, PA; Fabean, Robert J [Donora, PA

    2009-08-04

    A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

  2. Two phase interleaved buck converter for driving high power LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate an interleaved buck topology for driving high current light-emitting diodes. Low output capacitor value allows the use of non-electrolytic capacitors extending the lifetime of the converter. Converter is operated as a constant, regulated current source which...... increases luminous efficacy of LED compared to PWM dimmed system. Because of the low dynamic resistance of LEDs the duty cycle of the converter does not change greatly with controlled current. By setting the input voltage of the buck converter to around twice the voltage of diode strings, converter can...

  3. Control and Driving Methods for LED Based Intelligent Light Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon

    High power light-emitting diodes allow the creation of luminaires capable of generating saturated colour light at very high efficacies. Contrary to traditional light sources like incandescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, where colour is generated using filters, LEDs use additive light mixing......, where the intensity of each primary colour diode has to be adjusted to the needed intensity to generate specified colour. The function of LED driver is to supply the diode with power needed to achieve the desired intensity. Typically, the drivers operate as a current source and the intensity...... of the diode is controlled either by varying the magnitude of the current or by driving the LED with a pulsed current and regulate the width of the pulse. It has been shown previously, that these two methods yield different effects on diode's efficacy and colour point. A hybrid dimming strategy has been...

  4. Forward Conduction Mode Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer-Based PFC LED Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roedgaard, M. S.; Weirich, M.; Andersen, M. A. E.

    2013-01-01

    priced market. In this paper, a new forward conduction mode (FCM) control method for piezoelectric transformer (PT)-based power converters is proposed. A PT-based LED drive facilitating passive PFC is developed, utilizing and validating the FCM control method. The drive utilizes an inductorless half...... LED drive has been developed, supplied from 230-V 50-Hz ac mains, achieving a power factor of 0.96....

  5. Employing a youth-led adult-guided framework: "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko, Terry-Lynne; Watt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    The "Drugged Driving Kills project: Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign was developed and implemented by youth leaders and adult facilitators from public and community health to increase youth awareness of the adverse effects of marijuana on driving. The youth-led adult-guided project was founded on the Holden's youth empowerment conceptual model. This article reports on the results of the focus group evaluation, conducted to determine to what extent the tailored youth-led adult-guided framework for the "Why Drive High?" social marketing campaign provided an environment for youth leadership development.

  6. Development of constant-power driving control for light-emitting-diode (LED) luminaire

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2013-01-01

    The illumination of an LED may be affected by operating temperature even under constant-current condition. A constant-power driving technique is proposed in the present study for LED luminaire. A linear system dynamics model of LED luminaire is first derived and used in the design of the feedback control system. The PI controller was designed and tuned taking into account the control accuracy and robust properties with respect to plant uncertainty and variation of operating conditions. The control system was implemented on a microprocessor and used to control a 150W LED luminaire. The test result shows that the feedback system accurately controls the input power of LED luminaire to within 1.3 per cent error. As the ambient temperature changes from 0 to 40 °C, the LED illumination varies slightly (-1.7%) for constant-power driving, as compared to that of constant-current driving (-12%) and constant-voltage driving (+50%). The constant-power driving has revealed advantage in stabilizing the illumination of LED under large temperature variation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Outcome evaluation of a peer-led drinking and driving primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a peer-led drinking and driving (DD) prevention programme among 111 University of the North (UNIN) undergraduate students aged 17 to 24 years using a pre-post test intervention design. The results showed that the programme was generally effective in bringing about statistically

  8. Fully transparent conformal organic thin-film transistor array and its application as LED front driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Nan; Ren, Hang; Tang, Qingxin; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tong, Yanhong; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yichun

    2018-02-22

    A fully transparent conformal organic thin-film field-effect transistor array is demonstrated based on a photolithography-compatible ultrathin metallic grid gate electrode and a solution-processed C 8 -BTBT film. The resulting organic field-effect transistor array exhibits a high optical transparency of >80% over the visible spectrum, mobility up to 2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , on/off ratio of 10 5 -10 6 , switching current of >0.1 mA, and excellent light stability. The transparent conformal transistor array is demonstrated to adhere well to flat and curved LEDs as front driving. These results present promising applications of the solution-processed wide-bandgap organic semiconductor thin films in future large-scale transparent conformal active-matrix displays.

  9. Self-Excited Single-Stage Power Factor Correction Driving Circuit for LED Lighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Nong Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pa\tper proposes a self-excited single-stage high power factor LED lighting driving circuit. Being featured with power factor correction capability without needing any control devices, the proposed circuit structure is with low cost and suitable for commercial production. The power factor correction function is accomplished by using inductor in combination with a half-bridge quasi resonant converter to achieve active switching and yield out voltage regulation according to load requirement. Furthermore, the zero-voltage switching in the half-bridge converter can be attained to promote the overall performance efficiency of the proposed circuit. Finally, the validity and production availability of the proposed circuit will be verified as well.

  10. Driving Down HB-LED Costs. Implementation of Process Simulation Tools and Temperature Control Methods of High Yield MOCVD Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, William [Veeco Process Equipment, Inc., Plainview, NY (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The overall objective of this multi-faceted program is to develop epitaxial growth systems that meet a goal of 75% (4X) cost reduction in the epitaxy phase of HB-LED manufacture. A 75% reduction in yielded epitaxy cost is necessary in order to achieve the cost goals for widespread penetration of HB-LED's into back-lighting units (BLU) for LCD panels and ultimately for solid-state lighting (SSL). To do this, the program will address significant improvements in overall equipment Cost of Ownership, or CoO. CoO is a model that includes all costs associated with the epitaxy portion of production. These aspects include cost of yield, capital cost, operational costs, and maintenance costs. We divide the program into three phases where later phases will incorporate the gains of prior phases. Phase one activities are enabling technologies. In collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories we develop a Fluent-compatible chemistry predictive model and a set of mid-infrared and near-ultraviolet pyrometer monitoring tools. Where previously the modeling of the reactor dynamics were studied within FLUENT alone, here, FLUENT and Chemkin are integrated into a comprehensive model of fluid dynamics and the most advanced transport equations developed for Chemkin. Specifically, the Chemkin model offered the key reaction terms for gas-phase nucleation, a key consideration in the optimization of the MOCVD process. This new predictive model is used to design new MOCVD reactors with optimized growth conditions and the newly developed pyrometers are used monitor and control the MOCVD process temperature to within 0.5°C run-to-run and within each wafer. This portion of the grant is in collaboration with partners at Sandia National Laboratories. Phase two activities are continuous improvement projects which extend the current reactor platform along the lines of improved operational efficiency, improved systems control for throughput, and carrier modifications for increased yield

  11. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  12. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pleasure in activities once enjoyed Loss of self-esteem Thoughts of death or suicide Trouble getting to ... other. This is called rapid cycling. Exams and Tests To diagnose bipolar disorder, the provider may do ...

  13. Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Colin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD presents in different phases over time and is oftencomplicated by comorbid conditions such as substance-use disordersand anxiety disorders. Treatment usually involves pharmacotherapywith combinations of different classes of medications and frequentmedication revisions.

  14. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  15. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth / For Teens / Bipolar Disorder What's in this ... Disorder Print en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  16. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  17. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect friends and family? For More Information Share Bipolar Disorder Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  18. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  19. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  20. Bipolar disorder: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which is the reason that up to 69% of patients with BD are misdiagnosed.1 Bipolar ... Cyclothymic disorder. • Substance/medication induced bipolar and related disorder. • Bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition ... patients. Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, depression, pharmacological management.

  1. LED lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  2. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  3. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people have bipolar disorder along with another illness such as anxiety disorder, substance abuse, or an eating disorder. People with ... are sometimes misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. Anxiety and ADHD: ... such as bipolar disorder. Risk Factors Scientists are ...

  4. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients......BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...

  5. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  6. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  7. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management strategies. In addition to medications and other types of treatment, successful management of your bipolar disorder includes living a healthy lifestyle, such as getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and being physically active. ...

  9. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  10. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    mechanisms of pharmacological treatments used in bipolar disorder, in particular lithium carbonate. Several clinical, physiological and genetic data suggest that circadian rhythms dysregulations are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. The circadian model has led to the development of new therapeutic strategies such as chronotherapeutics or Inter Personal Social and Rhythms Therapies. Further studies are needed in this promising research field to keep exploring the relationship between these circadian markers, genes and the clinical aspects of the disease. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  12. LED driver for stroboscopic interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, T.; Heikkinen, V.; Kassamakov, I.; Hæggström, E.

    2012-04-01

    Three different types of white light emitting diodes (LEDs) and three types of single color LEDs were tested as light sources for stroboscopic scanning white light interferometry (SSWLI) for dynamic (MEMS) characterization. Short, intense, light pulses and low duty cycle (DC-10 MHz), and can drive single LEDs at 5A peak current (0.7% duty cycle at 1 MHz). The shortest measured electrical pulses were 6.2 +/- 0.1 ns FDHM. The minimum measured Full Duration at Half Maximum (FDHM) of the optical pulse was 8.4 +/- 0.1 ns using nonphosphor white LED and 32.1 +/- 0.1 ns using white phosphor-converted LED (0.7 % duty cycle at 1 MHz in both cases). The minimum optical pulse FDHM for a single color blue/green LED was 6.4 +/- 0.1 ns. The maximum intensity of these pulses was 630 +/- 40 μW and 540 +/- 30 μW, respectively. All types of white LEDs could be used for stroboscopic SWLI measurements at frequencies up to 2 MHz. For higher frequencies, non-phosphor white LEDs must be used together with a cyan LED to avoid ringing in the SWLI interferogram.

  13. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP4 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  14. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  15. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, M.; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  17. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  18. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar ...

  19. [Antidepressants in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtet, P; Samalin, L; Olié, E

    2011-12-01

    Whereas mania defines the bipolar disorder, depression is the major challenge of treatment. In general, depressions are more frequent, longer, with a major prognostic impact in terms of disability and suicide. How should we treat a patient with bipolar depression? Antidepressants are the treatment of choice for depression, but not in the bipolar disorder. In this context, we have traditionally accepted that antidepressants are effective but they were inducing a significant risk of destabilization of the bipolar disorder, because of the transitions to mania and rapid cycling. Current data reconsider both the two aspects of this risk-benefit ratio. The effectiveness of antidepressants finally seems very limited, especially after the more recent studies with a robust methodology. Manic switches and rapid cycling may not be increased, particularly with new antidepressants and mood stabilizer combinations. The current literature reminds us that these course's modalities are inherent to the disease, with numerous risk factors, and among them, exposure to antidepressants. Who are the bipolar patients who only get the benefits of antidepressant treatment? Research will tell. They are in any case limited. How to navigate in our treatment strategies ? By choosing first drugs that demonstrated efficacy in bipolar depression. When the situation is more complex, "primum non nocere" should lead to support the prescription of the antidepressant in association with mood stabilizer. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  1. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  2. ON Cone Bipolar Cell Axonal Synapses in the OFF Inner Plexiform Layer of the Rabbit Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, J. Scott; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Mohammed, Shoeb; Hoang, John V.; Marc, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells make non-canonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. Automated transmission electron microscope (ATEM) imaging, molecular tagging, tracing, and rendering of ≈ 400 bipolar cells reveals axonal ribbons in 36% of ON cone bipolar cells, throughout the OFF IPL. The targets include GABA-positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs) and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. Other targets include OFF γACs presynaptic to OFF bipolar cells, forming γAC-mediated crossover motifs. ON cone bipolar cell axonal ribbons drive bistratified ON-OFF ganglion cells in the OFF layer and provide ON drive to polarity-appropriate targets such as bistratified diving ganglion cells (bsdGCs). The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. Such joint distribution sampling is likely common when targets are sparser than sources and when sources are coupled, as are ON cone bipolar cells. PMID:23042441

  3. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  4. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  5. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...... hospitalization. METHOD: The Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire (ADCQ) was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder, representative of patients treated in hospital settings in Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9% responded to the letter. A large proportion....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations...

  6. Abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar Psychoterapeutic approach in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Knapp

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o tratamento farmacológico seja essencial para o tratamento do transtorno bipolar, apenas 40% de todos os pacientes que aderem às medicações permanecem assintomáticos durante o período de seguimento, o que tem levado ao desenvolvimento de intervenções psicoterápicas associadas. O objetivo deste artigo é examinar as evidências atuais da eficácia de intervenções psicoterápicas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica por meio do MedLine, PsychoINFO, Lilacs e Cochrane Data Bank, até o ano de 2004, em que foram procurados artigos originais e revisões sobre as abordagens psicoterápicas utilizadas no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. Há várias abordagens que podem se mostrar úteis no tratamento do transtorno bipolar. A psicoeducação e a terapia cognitivo-comportamental apresentam as evidências mais consistentes e são as técnicas mais amplamente estudadas. As intervenções envolvendo familiares e a terapia interpessoal e de ritmo social se mostram tratamentos eficazes em determinadas situações. Há alguns estudos empregando a terapia psicodinâmica no transtorno bipolar, mas são estudos com limitações metodológicas. Apesar de haver evidências demonstrando a eficácia de determinadas abordagens psicoterápicas no transtorno bipolar, ainda é necessária a realização de estudos posteriores que comprovem tais dados e que desenvolvam tratamentos baseados em modelos etiológicos e que identifiquem tratamentos específicos para as diferentes fases e tipos de transtorno bipolar.Although pharmacological treatment is essential for treating bipolar disorder, less than half of all medication compliant patients are non-symptomatic during follow-up, which has led to developments of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. This paper examines the current evidence for effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Searches were undertaken through Med

  7. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find the loss of driving privileges and the inherent loss of independence upsetting. Encourage the individual with ... to modify their driving. This can reduce the risk of an accident if the individual’s driving skills ...

  8. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  9. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neu trosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram; Musavarah Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we present certain notions of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We study the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  10. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  11. [Spouses and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F

    2011-02-01

    To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  12. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Broumi, Said; Talea, Mohamed; Bakali, Assia; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  13. Development and testing of a bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saakes, M.; Kluiters, E.; Schmal, D.; Mourad, S.; Have, P.T.J.H. ten

    1999-01-01

    An 80 V bipolar lead-acid battery was constructed and tested using hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) drive cycles. Drive cycles with a peak power of 6.7 kW, equal to 1/5 of the total power profile required for the HEV studied, were run successfully. Model calculations showed that the 80 V module

  14. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-01-24

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.

  15. LED-roulette : LED's vervangen balletje

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, P.

    2007-01-01

    Iedereen waagt wel eens een gokje, in een loterij of misschien ook in een casino. Wie droomt er immers niet van om op een gemakkelijke manier rijk te worden? Met de hier beschreven LED-roulette valt weliswaar weinig te winnen, maar het is wel een uitstekende manier om het roulettespel thuis te

  16. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  18. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  19. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G P; Cooksey, C C; Yoon, H W; Hanssen, L M; Podobedov, V B; Vest, R E; Arp, U; Miller, C C

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  20. Behavioral family treatment for patients with bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklowitz, D J; Goldstein, M J

    1990-10-01

    Techniques of behavioral family management (BFM), which have been found to be highly effective in delaying relapse for schizophrenic patients when used as adjuncts to medication maintenance, are also applicable in the outpatient treatment of recently hospitalized bipolar, manic patients. The authors describe their adaptation of the educational, communication skills training, and problem-solving skills training modules of BFM to families containing a bipolar member. The observations that families of bipolar patients are often high functioning, and that these families seem to enjoy interchanges that are highly affective and spontaneous, led to certain modifications in the original BFM approach. The authors found it necessary to be (a) more flexible and less didactic, (b) more oriented toward dealing with affect and resistance to change, and (c) more focused on the patient's and family members' feelings about labeling, stigmatization, and medication usage. Research issues relevant to testing the efficacy of this approach are also discussed.

  1. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  2. The impact of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, intermittent illness that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, patients with bipolar disorder often have comorbid psychiatric conditions (such as anxiety disorders, alcohol or substance abuse, and eating disorders) or medical disorders (such as obesity), which result in increased burden of illness for the patients, family members, and treating clinicians. Although bipolar disorder consists of recurring episodes of mania and depression, patients spend more time depressed than manic. Bipolar depression is associated with a greater risk of suicide and of impairment in work, social, or family life than mania. This health burden also results in direct and indirect economic costs to the individual and society at large. Bipolar depression is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as unipolar depression, resulting in incorrect or inadequate treatment. Available treatments for bipolar depression include medications such as lithium, selected anticonvulsants, and the atypical antipsychotics. Traditional antidepressants are not recommended as monotherapy for bipolar depression as they can induce switching to mania. Early and accurate diagnosis, aggressive management, and earlier prophylactic treatment regimens are needed to overcome the impact of depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder.

  3. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  4. Large area LED package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullon, L.; Jordan, R.; Braun, T.; Bauer, J.; Becker, F.; Hutter, M.; Schneider-Ramelow, M.; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    Solid state lighting using LED-dies is a rapidly growing market. LED-dies with the needed increasing luminous flux per chip area produce a lot of heat. Therefore an appropriate thermal management is required for general lighting with LEDdies. One way to avoid overheating and shorter lifetime is the use of many small LED-dies on a large area heat sink (down to 70 μm edge length), so that heat can spread into a large area while at the same time light also appears on a larger area. The handling with such small LED-dies is very difficult because they are too small to be picked with common equipment. Therefore a new concept called collective transfer bonding using a temporary carrier chip was developed. A further benefit of this new technology is the high precision assembly as well as the plane parallel assembly of the LED-dies which is necessary for wire bonding. It has been shown that hundred functional LED-dies were transferred and soldered at the same time. After the assembly a cost effective established PCB-technology was applied to produce a large-area light source consisting of many small LED-dies and electrically connected on a PCB-substrate. The top contacts of the LED-dies were realized by laminating an adhesive copper sheet followed by LDI structuring as known from PCB-via-technology. This assembly can be completed by adding converting and light forming optical elements. In summary two technologies based on standard SMD and PCB technology have been developed for panel level LED packaging up to 610x 457 mm2 area size.

  5. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  6. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  7. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  8. LED roadway luminaires evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This research explores whether LED roadway luminaire technologies are a viable future solution to providing roadway lighting. Roadway lighting : enhances highway safety and traffic flow during limited lighting conditions. The purpose of this evaluati...

  9. Surface plasmon enhanced LED

    OpenAIRE

    Vučković, Jelena; Lončar, Marko; Painter, Oskar; Scherer, Axel

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. We designed and fabricated an LED based on a thin semiconductor membrane (λ/2) with silver mirrors. A large spontaneous emission enhancement and a high modulation speed are obtainable due to the strong localization of the electromagnetic field in the microcavity. The coupling to surface plasmon modes which are subsequently scattered out by means of a grating is used to improve the extraction efficiency of the LED. The bottom mirror is thick and unpatterned. The top mi...

  10. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  11. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  12. Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique, called Photodynamic Therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny, pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source that releases long wavelengths of light ) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. 'A young woman operated on in May 1999 has fully recovered with no complications and no evidence of the tumor coming back,' said Dr. Harry Whelan, a pediatric neurologist at the Medical Hospital of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The LEDs, developed and managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, have been used on seven Space Shuttle flights inside the Microgravity Astroculture Facility. This technology has also been successfully used to further commercial research in crop growth.

  13. Led-sukellusvalaisin

    OpenAIRE

    Saarelainen, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön aiheena on LED ja sen käyttö sukellusvalaisimissa. Työn tarkoitus oli tutkia miten LED toimii ja miten se soveltuu käytettäväksi sukellusvalaisimessa, sekä syventää omaa tietoutta valosta, mitä se on ja miten sitä mitataan. Työssä käydään läpi LEDin ominaisuuksia ja miten se eroaa muista sukellusvalaisimissa käytetyistä lampuista. Työ on toteutettu tutustumalla LEDiin ja valoon käyttämällä erilaisia lähteitä ja päivittämällä nykyinen sukellusvalaisimeni LED-sukellusvalaisime...

  14. [LED lights in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noé, C; Pelletier-Aouizerate, M; Cartier, H

    2017-04-01

    The use in dermatology of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) continues to be surrounded by controversy. This is due mainly to poor knowledge of the physicochemical phases of a wide range of devices that are difficult to compare to one another, and also to divergences between irrefutable published evidence either at the level of in vitro studies or at the cellular level, and discordant clinical results in a variety of different indications: rejuvenation, acne, wound healing, leg ulcers, and cutaneous inflammatory or autoimmune processes. Therapeutic LEDs can emit wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet, through visible light, to the near infrared (247-1300 nm), but only certain bands have so far demonstrated any real value. We feel certain that if this article remains factual, then readers will have a different, or at least more nuanced, opinion concerning the use of such LED devices in dermatology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. LEDs: revolution or evolution? Part One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roush, M.

    2000-11-01

    The historical evolution, the current state of light emitting diodes (LEDs), future implications and the promise of this technology for the lighting industry are explored. Some of the misconceptions relative to that promise are dispelled and some of the less obvious benefits that this technology could deliver in the future are discussed. As far as misconceptions are concerned, it is not true that LEDs will deliver light forever at a fraction of the energy of conventional light sources, or that they come in an infinite variety of colours and cost just pennies. Although LEDs per se may last a long time, the fact is that their true life expectancy is only as long as the wiring and the connection within the system, and they are certainly limited. Energy efficiency is another misconception. The truth is that white LEDs (the best for illumination purposes) are limited to less than 10 lumen per Watt, which is hardly a revolutionary improvement over incandescent light sources. Equally disappointing is the misconception concerning price. In actual fact, LEDs in lighting applications are very new and it would require mass production in the millions before LED lighting packages could become inexpensive. At the same time, LEDs have many advantages that are not commonly known. Compactness, very high level of light utilization, high life expectancy and nearly flat mortality curve are some of these. Operating on direct current lends LED installations to battery and solar applications (as for example solar LED road studs to aid in night driving). The absence of ultraviolet emissions in LEDs is another lesser known, but important feature, especially in applications where material degradation is a major concern (as in stores and museums). In general, all indicators point to a bright future for LEDs as their application progresses from decoration to illumination. This topic will be further explored in Part Two of this article. 4 figs.

  16. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  17. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  18. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  19. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a "risk" allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in

  20. Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2012-01-01

    Amplitude modulation is rarely used for dimming light-emitting diodes in polychromatic luminaires due to big color shifts caused by varying magnitude of LED driving current and nonlinear relationship between intensity of a diode and driving current. Current-voltage empirical model of light...

  1. Design Drives: materials innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, Raymond; Toomey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Design Drives Materials Innovation‘ outlines the potential of a D:STEM (Design, Science, Technology, Engineering amd Mathematics) approach to combining traditionally different fields through design-led, needs driven and technology anchored future products using electro/photo/bio-active polymers in physical formats defined in ‚dots, lines, surfaces and structures‘.It also identifies Ambient Assisted Living as a key driver for future applications.

  2. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  3. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  4. Feasibility of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale in Adolescents with Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Da-Young; Won, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Jung-Won; Min, Hye Ji; Kim, Jayoun; Ha, Kyooseob; Lee, Yunglyul; Chang, Jae Seung; Kim, Yeni

    2017-09-01

    This study explores the feasibility and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders. Fifty-three participants (aged 13-18) with early-onset bipolar disorders (40 depressed and 18 euthymic, 5 patients were assessed at depressed state and reassessed after remission) were recruited. All participants were assessed using the BDRS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Modified Overt Aggression scale (MOAS). BDRS exhibited good internal validity and significant correlations with the HAM-D and the MADRS. In item to scale correlations, all items on the BDRS were significantly correlated with the BDRS total scores except for 'increased motor drive' and 'increased speech', 'depressed mood' and 'worthlessness' showed the highest mean scores and endorsement rates. BDRS score of the depressed group was significantly higher compared with the euthymic group. Three factors (i.e., psychosomatic, mood, and mixed) were identified in the principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of the BDRS. In this study, we report that the Korean version of BDRS is a feasible and reliable tool for the assessment of depression in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders.

  5. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  6. Ions transfer modeling through monopolar and bipolar membranes: Treatment of wastewater containing ammonium nitrate by electrodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Amine Ben Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mathematical model was proposed to illustrate the different transport modes contributing in transfer of all involved species through anion, cation and bipolar membranes. This study was led on a wastewater containing ammonium nitrate treated by bipolar membrane electrodialysis (BPMED. In this electrodialysis, different species are involved, in particular, ammonium ions NH4+, nitrates NO3-, ammoniac NH3, water H2O and protons H+. Calculations led from the material balance sheets equations obtained in bath mode, allowed to validate the proposed transfer model and to check balance sheets material on all involved species during electrodialysis.

  7. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  8. Thermal management for LED applications

    CERN Document Server

    Poppe, András

    2014-01-01

    Thermal Management for LED Applications provides state-of-the-art information on recent developments in thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems and their applications. Coverage begins with an overview of the basics of thermal management including thermal design for LEDs, thermal characterization and testing of LEDs, and issues related to failure mechanisms and reliability and performance in harsh environments. Advances and recent developments in thermal management round out the book with discussions on advances in TIMs (thermal interface materials) for LED applications, advances in forced convection cooling of LEDs, and advances in heat sinks for LED assemblies. This book also: Presents a comprehensive overview of the basics of thermal management as it relates to LEDs and LED-based systems Discusses both design and thermal management considerations when manufacturing LEDs and LED-based systems Covers reliability and performance of LEDs in harsh environments Has a hands-on applications a...

  9. Advances in LEDs for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jy; Peddada, Rao; Spinger, Benno

    2016-03-01

    High power LEDs were introduced in automotive headlights in 2006-2007, for example as full LED headlights in the Audi R8 or low beam in Lexus. Since then, LED headlighting has become established in premium and volume automotive segments and beginning to enable new compact form factors such as distributed low beam and new functions such as adaptive driving beam. New generations of highly versatile high power LEDs are emerging to meet these application needs. In this paper, we will detail ongoing advances in LED technology that enable revolutionary styling, performance and adaptive control in automotive headlights. As the standards which govern the necessary lumens on the road are well established, increasing luminance enables not only more design freedom but also headlight cost reduction with space and weight saving through more compact optics. Adaptive headlighting is based on LED pixelation and requires high contrast, high luminance, smaller LEDs with high-packing density for pixelated Matrix Lighting sources. Matrix applications require an extremely tight tolerance on not only the X, Y placement accuracy, but also on the Z height of the LEDs given the precision optics used to image the LEDs onto the road. A new generation of chip scale packaged (CSP) LEDs based on Wafer Level Packaging (WLP) have been developed to meet these needs, offering a form factor less than 20% increase over the LED emitter surface footprint. These miniature LEDs are surface mount devices compatible with automated tools for L2 board direct attach (without the need for an interposer or L1 substrate), meeting the high position accuracy as well as the optical and thermal performance. To illustrate the versatility of the CSP LEDs, we will show the results of, firstly, a reflector-based distributed low beam using multiple individual cavities each with only 20mm height and secondly 3x4 to 3x28 Matrix arrays for adaptive full beam. Also a few key trends in rear lighting and impact on LED light

  10. Drowsy Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least 8 hours. 8-9 Develop good sleeping habits such as sticking to a sleep schedule. If ... K, Howard ME. Cognitive components of simulated driving performance: sleep loss effects and predictors. Accid Anal Prev. 2012; ...

  11. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communities Toolkit Best Practices Guide Publications Motorcycle Safety Bicycle Safety Publications Global Road Safety Get Email Updates ... study. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety keeps track of distracted driving laws. 7 As of June ...

  12. Development of Wireless Dimming Control System for LED Stage Light

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Hui Qin; Bai Shi Lei

    2016-01-01

    Compared with the existing wire dimming system of LED stage light which uses the heavy light operating console to adjust the brightness of stage light, a portable wireless dimming control system for LED stage lighting is proposed, fabricated and tested in this paper. The scheme with the core of ATmega16L microcontroller is composed of wireless transmission and reception units, constant current driving circuit of LED, and the control circuit between this two modules. Through the system present...

  13. Bipolar Disorder and/or Creative Bipolarity: Robert Schumann's Exemplary Psychopathology - Combining Symptomatological and Psychosocial Perspectives with Creativity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer Matthias; Koutsoukou-Argyraki, Asimina

    2017-01-01

    The psychopathological condition of Robert Schumann has been a prominent object of study in psychiatry since his hospitalization in 1854. Renowned psychiatrists have diagnosed Schumann with syphilis, schizophrenia, and bipolar and personality disorders. Until today, these analyses of his symptomatology have led to contradictory results. Recent discussion has suggested that his hospitalization was due to professional failure and separation wishes on the part of his wife, her family, and her friends. In line with this hypothesis is the opinion that the separation insisted upon by Clara Schumann was reinforced by the economic interests of the psychiatrist who kept Schumann in custody for 2 years until his death in 1856. In this article, we trace the complex interaction of bipolar vulnerability and pathogenic life events with hypersensitive talent and "creative bipolarity," defined as the capacity, motivation, and resilience to transform emotional stress and cognitive inconsistency into coherent artistic products. Finally, we present our conclusions about comprehensive psychiatric and psychotherapeutic treatment with respect to "creative bipolarity." © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder : A [C-11]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Bartholomeus C.M.; Riemersma -van der Lek, Rixt; de Groot, Jan Cees; Ruhe, Eric; Klein, Hans C; Zandstra, Tjitske E; Burger, Huibert; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Vries, Erik F.J.; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Nolen, Willem A.; Doorduin, Janine

    Background: The "monocyte-T-cell theory of mood disorders" regards neuroinflammation, i.e. marked activation of microglia, as a driving force in bipolar disorder. Microglia activation can be visualized in vivo using [C-11]-(R)-PK11195 PET. Indirect evidence suggests the hippocampus as a potential

  15. Deslumbramiento en dispositivos led

    OpenAIRE

    Ixtaina, Rubén Pablo; Presso, Matías; Ferreyra, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se presenta un estudio realizado en el LAL a dispositivos para señalización (semáforos, balizas, barrales lumínicos) con tecnología led. Las mediciones tradicionales de intensidad luminosa se complementaron con el análisis de la luminancia de los dispositivos, evaluada para diversas aperturas angula-res. Los resultados obtenidos marcan un notorio incre-mento en las luminancias puntuales, para valores de emisión globales comparables a los obtenidos en dispo-sitivos conve...

  16. [Genetics of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M; Forstner, A J; Adorjan, K; Schaupp, S K; Nöthen, M M; Schulze, T G

    2017-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development. The results of recent studies suggest that copy number variants might contribute to BD development, although to a lesser extent than in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or autism. Results from the initial next generation sequencing studies indicate an enrichment of rare variants in pathways and genes that were previously found to be associated with BD. In the field of pharmacogenetics, a risk gene that influences the individual variance in the response to lithium treatment was identified for the first time in a recent large international GWAS. Currently the reported risk alleles do not sufficiently explain the phenotypic variance to be used for individual prediction of disease risk, disease course or response to medication. Future genetic research will provide important insights into the biological basis of BD by the identification of additional genes associated with BD. This knowledge of genetics will help identify potential etiological subgroups as well as cross-diagnostic disease mechanisms.

  17. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... Think about death or suicide Can children and teens with bipolar disorder have other problems? Young people ...

  18. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  20. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  1. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    . pp.155 ((http://www.infrastructure.gov.au/roads/safety/publications/2010/pdf/rsgr_2010001.pdf)) Nevile, M., Haddington, P., Heinemann, T., Rauniomaa, M. (Eds.) Interacting with objects: Language, materiality, and social activity. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Redshaw, S. (2008....... Interaction with objects reflects the car’s role beyond mere transport as a site of personal, social, and work life (Featherstone et al. 2005; Redshaw 2008). Studies of interaction examine this role as it is actually enacted, understood, and accomplished, in situ through participants’ practices (e.g. Laurier...... of in-car distractions, and how they impact driving activities (Nevile & Haddington 2010). Data are video recordings of ordinary journeys, capturing drivers and passengers in real-world real-time driving situations (27 hours, 90 journeys). For driving and road safety, research and experience has...

  2. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...... of living in the area. The paper discusses potentials and pitfalls of designing community-driven science gaming environments and how results from previous studies can form the project Community Drive....

  3. Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Marsal; Jorge, Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management o...

  4. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  5. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  6. Epidemiologia do transtorno bipolar Epidemiology of bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Silva de Lima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A formulação de políticas em saúde mental depende essencialmente de informações a respeito da freqüência e distribuição dos transtornos mentais. Nas últimas duas décadas, pesquisas de base populacional em epidemiologia psiquiátrica têm sido conduzidas, gerando informações detalhadas sobre freqüência, fatores de risco, incapacidade social e utilização de serviços de saúde. Neste artigo, dados sobre a epidemiologia do transtorno bipolar (TB são discutidos, a partir de resultados de recentes pesquisas populacionais: o estudo da Área de Captação Epidemiológica do Instituto Nacional de Saúde Mental dos Estados Unidos (ECA-NIMH, a Pesquisa Nacional de Comorbidade (NCS, a Pesquisa de Morbidade Psiquiátrica na Grã-Bretanha (OPCS, o Estudo Brasileiro Multicêntrico de Morbidade Psiquiátrica e os estudos longitudinais conduzidos por Angst, em Zurique. As estimativas de prevalências de transtorno bipolar são relativamente baixas, independentemente do lugar onde a pesquisa foi conduzida, do tipo de instrumento diagnóstico usado e dos períodos de tempo para os quais a prevalência se aplica. A partir da introdução do conceito de espectro bipolar, ampliando as fronteiras diagnósticas do TB, as estimativas de prevalências encontradas são substancialmente mais altas. Tais estimativas, entretanto, ainda carecem de validação em estudos populacionais. O transtorno afetivo bipolar é igualmente prevalente entre homens e mulheres, sendo mais freqüente entre solteiros ou separados. Indivíduos acometidos têm maiores taxas de desemprego e estão mais sujeitos a utilizarem serviços médicos e serem hospitalizados. O custo e a eficácia dos tratamentos do TB devem ser balanceados com o alto custo individual e social associados à enfermidade.Information about the epidemiology of bipolar disorders is essential for providing a framework for the formulation of effective mental health policy. In the last two decades, population

  7. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Frank; Akiskal, Hagop S; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2017-01-01

    Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available. Dimension reduction across two inventories identified 18 factors explaining 39% of the variance. The two largest factors reflected affective instability and general anxiety/worry, respectively. Subsequent analyses of the clinical features associated with bipolar disorder revealed specificity for the factors in a predictable pattern. Cluster analysis of the factors identified a subgroup defined by a strong lack of general anxiety and low affective instability represented by the first two factors. The remaining subjects could be distinguished into two clusters by the presence of either more positive characteristics, including persistence/drive, spirituality, expressivity, and humor, or more negative characteristics of depression and anxiety. These analyses involved bipolar I subjects only and must be extended to other bipolar spectrum diagnoses, unaffected relatives, and individuals at risk. These results suggest that temperament and personality measures access latent traits associated with important clinical features of bipolar disorder. By translating clinical variables into quantitative traits, we may identify subgroups of bipolar patients with distinct clinical profiles, thereby facilitating both individual treatment strategies and genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  9. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  10. Insight in bipolar mania: evaluation of its heterogeneity and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2016-07-15

    Studies on insight in bipolar mania are not numerous and usually consider insight as a unitary construct. Evaluate how different facets of insight are affected in bipolar mania and investigate correlations between insight for each specific object in bipolar disorder and manic symptomatology. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed during a year, with 51 patients having manic episodes according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. The study found that insight regarding symptoms is worse than insight of having bipolar disorder, social relationships and self esteem. Moreover, poor global insight (total ISAD) correlates with more severe changes in mood, speech and thought structure, with worse insight about symptoms correlating with the same alterations and also with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy. Although a large sample of bipolar patients was followed up, the final sample composed of patients with at least one manic episode was relatively smaller. Moreover, the fact that the study was performed in a university hospital may have led to selection biases. Results suggest that patients with BD are reasonably capable of identifying that their condition implies consequences but have more impaired awareness of their energy and activity levels. A lower level of insight specifically about symptoms correlates with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy, which suggests a psychomotor nucleus able to impair insight in mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  12. Fibromyalgia and Bipolar Disorder: Emerging Epidemiological Associations and Shared Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolato, B; Berk, M; Maes, M; McIntyre, R S; Carvalho, A F

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a prevalent disorder defined by the presence of chronic widespread pain in association with fatigue, sleep disturbances and cognitive dysfunction. Recent studies indicate that bipolar spectrum disorders frequently co-occur in individuals with FM. Furthermore, shared pathophysiological mechanisms anticipate remarkable phenomenological similarities between FM and BD. A comprehensive search of the English literature was carried out in the Pubmed/MEDLINE database through May 10th, 2015 to identify unique references pertaining to the epidemiology and shared pathophysiology between FM and bipolar disorder (BD). Overlapping neural circuits may underpin parallel clinical manifestations of both disorders. Fibromyalgia and BD are both characterized by functional abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, higher levels of inflammatory mediators, oxidative and nitrosative stress as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. An over-activation of the kynurenine pathway in both illnesses drives tryptophan away from the production of serotonin and melatonin, leading to affective symptoms, circadian rhythm disturbances and abnormalities in pain processing. In addition, both disorders are associated with impaired neuroplasticity (e.g., altered brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling). The recognition of the symptomatic and pathophysiological overlapping between FM and bipolar spectrum disorders has relevant etiological, clinical and therapeutic implications that deserve future research consideration.

  13. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Perlis, Roy H.

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder,

  14. Creativity and Bipolar Disorder: Igniting a Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sheri L; Moezpoor, Michelle; Murray, Greg; Hole, Rachelle; Barnes, Steven J; Michalak, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been related to heightened creativity, yet core questions remain unaddressed about this association. We used qualitative methods to investigate how highly creative individuals with BD understand the role of symptoms and treatment in their creativity, and possible mechanisms underpinning this link. Twenty-two individuals self-identified as highly creative and living with BD took part in focus groups and completed quantitative measures of symptoms, quality of life (QoL), and creativity. Using thematic analysis, five themes emerged: the pros and cons of mania for creativity, benefits of altered thinking, the relationship between creativity and medication, creativity as central to one's identity, and creativity's importance in stigma reduction and treatment. Despite reliance on a small sample who self-identified as having BD, findings shed light on previously mixed results regarding the influence of mania and treatment and suggest new directions for the study of mechanisms driving the creative advantage in BD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  16. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  17. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  18. [Bipolar disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013 the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) edited by the American Psychiatric Association was published. The DSM-5 has also brought some important changes regarding bipolar disorders. The goal of this manuscript is to review the novelties in DSM-5 and to evaluate the implications of these changes. The diagnostic criteria as well as the additional remarks provided in the running text of DSM-5 were carefully appraised. For the first time diagnostic criteria are provided for disorders which up to now have been considered as subthreshold bipolar disorders. Furthermore, mixed episodes were eliminated and instead a mixed specifier was introduced. An increase in goal-directed activity/energy is now one of the obligatory symptoms for a (hypo)manic episode. Diagnostic guidance is provided as to when a (hypo)manic episode that has developed during treatment with an antidepressant has to be judged to be causally related to antidepressants and when this episode has only occurred coincidentally with antidepressant use. While some of the novelties are clearly useful, e.g. addition of increased goal-directed activity/energy as obligatory symptom for (hypo)manic episodes, this remains to be demonstrated for others, such as the definition of various subthreshold bipolar disorders.

  19. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  20. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-01-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations. (paper)

  1. Nobel Prize for blue LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2015-05-01

    A brief review of lighting technologies is presented. Unavoidable restrictions for incandescent light bulbs caused by the Planck distribution and properties of the human eye are illustrated. The efficiency and luminous efficacy of thermal radiation are calculated for various temperatures; the results clearly show the limitations for thermal radiators. The only way to overcome these limitations is using non-thermal radiators, such as fluorescent lamps and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Unique advantages of LEDs undoubtedly made a revolution in this field. A crucial element of this progress is the blue LEDs (Nobel Prize 2014). Some experiments with a blue and a green LED are described: (i) the luminescence triggered in a green-yellow phosphor inside a white LED by the blue LED; (ii) radiant spectra and ‘efficiency droop’ in the LEDs; (iii) modulation of the blue LED up to 4 MHz; and (iv) the h/e ratio from the turn-on voltage of the green LED. The experiments are suitable for undergraduate laboratories and usable as classroom demonstrations.

  2. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Development of high-performance solar LED lighting system

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2010-08-01

    The present study developed a high-performance charge/discharge controller for stand-alone solar LED lighting system by incorporating an nMPPO system design, a PWM battery charge control, and a PWM battery discharge control to directly drive the LED. The MPPT controller can then be removed from the stand-alone solar system and the charged capacity of the battery increases 9.7%. For LED driven by PWM current directly from battery, a reliability test for the light decay of LED lamps was performed continuously for 13,200 h. It has shown that the light decay of PWM-driven LED is the same as that of constant-current driven LED. The switching energy loss of the MOSFET in the PWM battery discharge control is less than 1%. Three solar-powered LED lighting systems (18 W, 100 W and 150 W LED) were designed and built. The long-term outdoor field test results have shown that the system performance is satisfactory with the control system developed in the present study. The loss of load probability for the 18 W solar LED system is 14.1% in winter and zero in summer. For the 100 W solar LED system, the loss of load probability is 3.6% in spring. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Thinking organization and defense mechanisms in bipolar disorders. Clinical and psychopathological study on bipolar I and bipolar II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Baido, Rosa; Di Blasi, Marie; Alfano, Pietro; Audino, Palma; Bellavia, Carmela; Blando, Anna Antonia; Merendino, Adelaide; Messina, Rossana; Poma, Maria Luisa; La Grutta, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the psychical functioning in bipolar I or bipolar II disorder people through the analysis and comparison of their thought styles and defense patterns. 29 bipolar I and bipolar II people afferent to Palermo University Policlinical Psychriatic Hospital Department were selected during the whole 2009-2010 year. The following tests were administred: Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-R (WAIS-R) in order to measure the general cognitive function; Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) in order to measure defense patterns. Afterwards, the results of the two tests were analysed and compared. Bipolar disorder people use cognitive mechanisms and defense strategies that are very different from standard population. Bipolar I subjects show both wider and more serious cognitive deterioration and stricter defense mechanisms than bipolar II subjects. Generally bipolar patients show an immature personality based on archaic mechanisms that can be found in all the spheres of their personality: emotions, cognition, Ego-strength, adaptability to reality. The peculiar achieved cognitive and defense profile leads to important considerations about how psychological strategies can contribute to use "bespoke" treatments for these patients.

  5. Treating insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning in bipolar disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N

    2017-01-01

    to more complex pictures and might predict poor responseto treatment, violent or suicidal behavior and high comorbidity. Unipolar disorder diagnosis is oftenchanged due to the fact that a manic or mixed episode can occur after several years of treatment failure.In these cases the evaluation of temperament can prove to be effective in distinguishing betweenunipolar and bipolar depression and thus favoring treatment planning. In addition, temperament assessmentchanges the definition of bipolarity by supporting the concept of "bipolar spectrum". This isa factor that can lead to a rise in prevalence of bipolar cases. Furthermore, the evaluation of temperamenthas shifted our understanding of bipolarity towards the concept of the 'bipolar spectrum'. It hasalso led to an increase in the prevalence of bipolar disorder cases, notably bipolar II, and a decrease in unipolar cases. Finally, incorporating the concept of temperament in our understanding of bipolardisorder constitutes a challenging issue, which can lead to better treatment and outcome of patients.

  7. Next Generation Bipolar Plates for Automotive PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrianowycz, Orest; Norley, Julian; Stuart, David J; Flaherty, David; Wayne, Ryan; ; Williams, Warren; Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan H; Zawodzinski, Tom; Pietrasz, Patrick

    2010-04-15

    The results of a successful U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) funded two-year $2.9 MM program lead by GrafTech International Inc. (GrafTech) are reported and summarized. The program goal was to develop the next generation of high temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell bipolar plates for use in transportation fuel cell applications operating at temperatures up to 120 °C. The bipolar plate composite developed during the program is based on GrafTech’s GRAFCELL resin impregnated flexible graphite technology and makes use of a high temperature Huntsman Advanced Materials resin system which extends the upper use temperature of the composite to the DoE target. High temperature performance of the new composite is achieved with the added benefit of improvements in strength, modulus, and dimensional stability over the incumbent resin systems. Other physical properties, including thermal and electrical conductivity of the new composite are identical to or not adversely affected by the new resin system. Using the new bipolar plate composite system, machined plates were fabricated and tested in high temperature single-cell fuel cells operating at 120 °C for over 1100 hours by Case Western Reserve University. Final verification of performance was done on embossed full-size plates which were fabricated and glued into bipolar plates by GrafTech. Stack testing was done on a 10-cell full-sized stack under a simulated drive cycle protocol by Ballard Power Systems. Freeze-thaw performance was conducted by Ballard on a separate 5-cell stack and shown to be within specification. A third stack was assembled and shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for independent performance verification. Manufacturing cost estimate for the production of the new bipolar plate composite at current and high volume production scenarios was performed by Directed Technologies Inc. (DTI). The production cost estimates were consistent with previous DoE cost estimates performed by DTI for the

  8. Poorer sustained attention in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all information processing during cognitive processing takes place during periods of sustained attention. Sustained attention deficit is among the most commonly reported impairments in bipolar disorder (BP. The majority of previous studies have only focused on bipolar I disorder (BP I, owing to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of bipolar II disorder (BP II. With the refinement of the bipolar spectrum paradigm, the goal of this study was to compare the sustained attention of interepisode patients with BP I to those with BP II. Methods In all, 51 interepisode BP patients (22 with BP I and 29 with BP II and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants undertook Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II to evaluate sustained attention. Results After controlling for the severity of symptoms, age and years of education, BP I patients had a significantly longer reaction times (F(2,68 = 7.648, P = 0.001, worse detectability (d' values (F(2,68 = 6.313, P = 0.003 and more commission errors (F(2,68 = 6.182, P = 0.004 than BP II patients and healthy controls. BP II patients and controls scored significantly higher than BP I patients for d' (F = 6.313, P = 0.003. No significant difference was found among the three groups in omission errors and no significant correlations were observed between CPT-II performance and clinical characteristics in the three groups. Conclusions These findings suggested that impairments in sustained attention might be more representative of BP I than BP II after controlling for the severity of symptoms, age, years of education and reaction time on the attentional test. A longitudinal follow-up study design with a larger sample size might be needed to provide more information on chronological sustained attention deficit in BP patients, and to illustrate

  9. New dental applications with LEDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Argyraki, A.; Ou, Yiyu; Petersen, Paul Michael

    Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry.......Visible and ultraviolet LEDs will in the future give rise to new dental applications. Fluorescence imaging, photodynamic therapy and photoactivated disinfection are important future candidates for diagnostics and treatment in dentistry....

  10. Silicone materials for LED packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Maneesh; Norris, Ann W.; Zarisfi, Afrooz; Alger, James S.; Windiate, Christopher C.

    2006-08-01

    Silicone based materials have attracted considerable attention from light emitting diode (LED) manufacturers for use as encapsulants and lenses for many high brightness LED (HB LED) devices. Currently silicones function in two key roles in HB LED devices, (1) as protective lenses and (2) stress relieving encapsulants for wire bond protection. The key attributes of silicones that make them attractive as light path materials for high brightness HB LEDs include their high transparency in the UV-visible region, controlled refractive index (RI), stable thermo-mechanical properties, and tuneable modulus from soft gels to hard resins. This paper will describe recent developments in moldable silicone hard resin materials. Progress on cavity moldable and liquid injection moldable (LIM) silicone compositions for discreet components is described. Also, an example of liquid injection overmolding is presented.

  11. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  12. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  13. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  15. NO signaling in retinal bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, A; Vielma, A H; Cadiz, B; Couve, E; Schmachtenberg, O

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers. DAF fluorescence was observed in all types of bipolar cells that could be identified, but the most intense DAF fluorescence was observed in bipolar cells with severed processes, supporting pathological NO signaling. Among nNOS expressing bipolar cells, type 9 was confirmed unequivocally, while types 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 7, 8 and the rod bipolar cell were devoid of this enzyme. These results establish specific bipolar cell types as NO sources in the inner retina, and support the involvement of NO signaling in physiological and pathological processes in the inner retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  17. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register.RESULTS: Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis...... at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year...

  18. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  19. Nanofluidic diode and bipolar transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi; Oka, Yukiko; Shirono, Katsuhiro

    2005-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of ionic distribution and transport in a nanochannel containing a surface charge on its wall, 30 nm high and 5 microm long, suggests that ionic current can be controlled by locally modifying the surface charge density through a gate electrode, even if the electrical double layers are not overlapped. When the surface charge densities at the right and left halves of a channel are the same absolute value but of different signs, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic diode. When the surface charge density at the middle part of a channel is modified, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic bipolar transistor.

  20. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-09-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life: Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable

  1. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Comparison of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and in major depressive disorder within bipolar disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B; Frankland, Andrew; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Roberts, Gloria; Corry, Justine; Wright, Adam; Loo, Colleen K; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Although genetic epidemiological studies have confirmed increased rates of major depressive disorder among the relatives of people with bipolar affective disorder, no report has compared the clinical characteristics of depression between these two groups. To compare clinical features of depressive episodes across participants with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder from within bipolar disorder pedigrees, and assess the utility of a recently proposed probabilistic approach to distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression. A secondary aim was to identify subgroups within the relatives with major depression potentially indicative of 'genetic' and 'sporadic' subgroups. Patients with bipolar disorder types 1 and 2 (n = 246) and patients with major depressive disorder from bipolar pedigrees (n = 120) were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Logistic regression was used to identify distinguishing clinical features and assess the utility of the probabilistic approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the major depressive disorder sample. Bipolar depression was characterised by significantly higher rates of psychomotor retardation, difficulty thinking, early morning awakening, morning worsening and psychotic features. Depending on the threshold employed, the probabilistic approach yielded a positive predictive value ranging from 74% to 82%. Two clusters within the major depressive disorder sample were found, one of which demonstrated features characteristic of bipolar depression, suggesting a possible 'genetic' subgroup. A number of previously identified clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression were confirmed among participants from within bipolar disorder pedigrees. Preliminary validation of the probabilistic approach in differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression is consistent with dimensional distinctions between the two disorders and offers clinical utility in

  3. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Light pipes for LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Thomas, E. F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Light pipe directly couples LED optical output to single detector. Small area detector measures total optical output of diode. Technique eliminates thermal measurement problems and channels optical output to remote detector.

  5. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of Practical Lighting Design with LEDs has been revised and updated to provide the most current information for developing light-emitting diodes products. The authors, noted authorities in the field, offer a review of the most relevant topics including optical performance, materials, thermal design, and modeling and measurement. Comprehensive in scope, the text covers all the information needed to design LEDs into end products.

  6. Can neuroimaging disentangle bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  8. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  9. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  10. Volcanology: Volcanic bipolar disorder explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Eruptions come in a range of magnitudes. Numerical simulations and laboratory experiments show that rare, giant super-eruptions and smaller, more frequent events reflect a transition in the essential driving forces for volcanism.

  11. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  12. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  14. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Mackali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an early-onset, chronic disorder. It impairs occupational, social, and family functioning, which makes learning to adapt living with the disorder and its treatment critically important. Therefore, it has now become common knowledge that psychosocial interventions are also necessary in the treatment of bipolar disorder adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Thus, whichever psychosocial interventions are more effective in bipolar disorder is a crucial research question. In this article, cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is applied adjunctive to pharmacotherapy, will be addressed and the findings of research about the effectiveness of these applications will be reviewed.

  15. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  16. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... MAKE A COMMITTMENT TO SAFETY Teens also need to commit to being safe and responsible drivers in order to improve the odds in their favor. Reckless driving ...

  17. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  18. Semiconductor lasers and herterojunction leds

    CERN Document Server

    Kressel, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs presents an introduction to the subject of semiconductor lasers and heterojunction LEDs. The book reviews relevant basic solid-state and electromagnetic principles; the relevant concepts in solid state physics; and the p-n junctions and heterojunctions. The text also describes stimulated emission and gain; the relevant concepts in electromagnetic field theory; and the modes in laser structures. The relation between electrical and optical properties of laser diodes; epitaxial technology; binary III-V compounds; and diode fabrication are also consider

  19. Extracting light out of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschaweck, Julius; Wiesmann, Christopher

    2013-08-01

    `External quantum efficiency', that is, the number of photons generated per electron passing through the p-n junction of an LED is probably the most important number to quantify the performance of an LED chip. Although advances in epitaxy have increased the fraction of radiative recombination to extremely high values, the extraction of the precious photons that are trapped in a high refractive index crystal is still tricky. In this brief tutorial, we look at the physics of light extraction both from a geometrical optics/thermodynamic and a wave optics point of view, discussing both random and deterministic surface structures.

  20. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  1. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  2. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  3. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  4. Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, Peter

    2011-09-01

    It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study.

  5. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  6. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information...... for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage...

  7. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  8. Remotely Triggered Solar Blind Signaling Using Deep Ultraviolet (UV) LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    resistance is held constant, the voltage drop across the resistor is also proportional to the amount of light detected. This voltage was measured...distance from the LED to the photodiode was not held constant. To avoid the output voltage limit on the opamp , the intensity of the four HS LEDs was...period for driving voltages up to 8.0 volts. As before, a GaP photodiode was used in conjunction with an opamp , but the output voltage was read with an

  9. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and c...

  10. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  12. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: um enfoque transcultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches,Marsal; Jorge,Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.

  13. White LED motorcycle headlamp design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing

    2015-09-01

    The motorcycle headlamp is composed of a white LED module, an elliptical reflector, a parabolic reflector and a toric lens. We use non-sequential ray to improve the optical efficiency of the compound reflectors. Using the toric lens can meet ECE_113 regulation and obtain a good uniformity.

  14. UV-LED photopolymerised monoliths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abele, S.; Nie, F.; Foret, František; Paull, B.; Macka, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 7 (2008), s. 864-866 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN400310651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : photopolymerisation * UV-LED * polymethacrylate monolith Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  15. Architecture-Led Safety Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Contents Acknowledgments iv Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2 Architecture -Led Processes and ALSA 2 3 ALSA Practices 5 3.1 Example System 8 4 Identify... Architecture Models 13 5 Identify Operational Hazards and Hazard Contributors 15 5.1 System Partitioning 15 5.2 Operational Context as a Control

  16. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  17. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  18. Sexual health and women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Fiona; Sladen, Claire

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the importance of sexual health promotion strategies for women with bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sexual health promotion is an important aspect of holistic nursing care. However, the literature indicates that nurses are reluctant to discuss sexual health and sexual behaviour with their clients. People with bipolar disorder warrant special consideration with regards to sexual health because the nature of the manic, or hypomanic, mood state is associated in some cases with sexually risky behaviour. For women with bipolar disorder, the associated risks include the threat of unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. To ignore sexual health and sexual behaviour in mental health care increases the vulnerability of women who may already be at risk of sexual exploitation. CASE EXAMPLE: A brief case example is included to demonstrate how the sexual health of a young woman with bipolar disorder was promoted. The sexual health promotion that was incorporated into her care enabled her to make a choice about appropriate contraception, and also provided her with the opportunity to explore acceptable boundaries in different types of interpersonal relationships. As a result of the episodic nature of Bipolar disorder, it is impossible to state whether the positive outcomes from this strategy will be enduring or not. Consideration of sexual health is an essential element of the care of women with Bipolar disorder. To ignore it is to neglect an important sphere of human behaviour that can be affected by the condition.

  19. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  20. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  1. Early maladaptive schemas in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  3. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  4. LED lamp power management system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  5. LED lamp color control system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  6. Tratamento da depressão bipolar The treatment of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Lafer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da depressão bipolar tem sido tema de debate. O uso de antidepressivos, principalmente tricíclicos, nestes pacientes está associado a piores desfechos clínicos. Estudos apontam para uma eficácia limitada de estabilizadores tradicionais como lítio, valproato e carbamazepina no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Em casos de depressão mais grave, há indicativos de que os antidepressivos podem ser úteis, sendo recomendado o uso concomitante de um estabilizador do humor. Novos agentes como a lamotrigina têm sido propostos como efetivos no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Estudos recentes utilizando lamotrigina sugerem a sua eficácia e seguraça no tratamento da depressão bipolar.The treatment of bipolar depression has been an area of debate. The use of antidepressants, particularly the triciclics, has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Evidence points to a limited efficacy of traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar depression. In cases where depression is more severe, there is evidence that antidepressants may be useful. The use of antidepressants should be in association with a mood stabilizer. New agents such as lamotrigine have been put forward as effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Recent studies using lamotrigine suggest its efficacy and safety in the treatment of bipolar depression.

  7. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  8. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  9. Bipolar affective disorder: A review of novel forms of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziwota Ewelina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Normothymic, antidepressant and antipsychotic pharmaceutics are, in accordance with international guidelines, employed both in the therapy and the prevention of bipolar disorder (BD. Long-term studies on the mechanisms of action of such medications, as well as on the pathogenetic background of BD, have led to the discovery of effective, albeit unconventional pharmacotherapeutic approaches. These methods have the potential to successfully treat mania and depression, as well as to counter affective episode relapse. Allopurinol - commonly used to treat gout, secondary hyperuricemia and Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, acts by inhibiting the synthesis of uric acid, levels of which are often increased in manic patients. Due to this, an evaluation of the potential effect of allopurinol on the reduction of mania symptoms seems to be reasonable. Additionally, the numerable research papers coming out of research regarding the role of purine neurotransmitters in mood alterations, indicate that adenosine agonists act analogously to dopamine antagonists.

  10. Celebrity-led development organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budabin, Alexandra Cosima; Rasmussen, Louise Mubanda; Richey, Lisa Ann

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen a frontier open up in international development engagement with the entrance of new actors such as celebrity-led organisations. We explore how such organisations earn legitimacy with a focus on Madonna’s Raising Malawi and Ben Affleck’s Eastern Congo Initiative. The study...... draws from organisational materials, interviews, mainstream news coverage, and the texts of the celebrities themselves to investigate the construction of authenticity, credibility, and accountability. We find these organisations earn legitimacy and flourish rapidly amid supportive elite networks...... for funding, endorsements, and expertise. We argue that the ways in which celebrity-led organisations establish themselves as legitimate development actors illustrate broader dynamics of the machinery of development....

  11. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais, no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatura sobre possíveis alterações do processamento Teoria da Mente no transtorno afetivo bipolar. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline por trabalhos publicados em língua inglesa, alemã, espanhola ou portuguesa nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando a frase de busca "Bipolar Disorder"[Mesh] AND "Theory of Mind". Foram procurados por estudos clínicos envolvendo indivíduos bipolares e que empregaram uma ou mais tarefas cognitivas desenvolvidas para a avaliação de habilidades Teoria da Mente. Foram excluídos os relatos de caso e cartas ao editor. A busca inicial resultou em cinco artigos, sendo selecionados quatro. Outros quatro foram também selecionados a partir da leitura dos artigos acima. DISCUSSÃO: Os artigos selecionados avaliaram populações de bipolares adultos e pediátricos, incluindo indivíduos eutímicos, maníacos e deprimidos. A maioria dos trabalhos avaliados sugere que existam prejuízos no processamento Teoria da Mente em portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar e que estes podem estar por trás dos sintomas e dos déficits funcionais do transtorno afetivo bipolar. CONCLUSÃO: Pesquisas futuras a respeito do tema em questão poderão esclarecer muito acerca do papel das alterações sociocognitivas no surgimento dos sintomas do transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como ajudar no desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas do mesmo.OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is associated to persistent functional

  12. Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukas, M.; Wei, G.; Bergenek, K.; Kelso, J.; Zink, N.; Zheng, Y.; Hannah, M.; Stough, M.; Wirth, R.; Linkov, A.; Jermann, F.; Eisert, D.

    2011-03-01

    Many LED-based applications would benefit from more efficient and/or high lumen output devices that enable usage in both white and single color illumination schemes. In the present article we briefly review the materials research history leading to optical ceramic converters and discuss their typical characteristics. Recently demonstrated high performance values in terms of efficacy and external quantum efficiency in orange (amber) spectral region are described.

  13. Automotive LED lamp lighted appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Lawrence G.; Bennett, Larry R.

    2001-05-01

    The automotive optical engineer has an entirely new set of rules to follow for a 'smooth lighted appearance' with the introduction of LEDs into the automotive signal lighting market. To move away from the 'polka-dot' appearance long associated with the usage of LEDs as the light source for automotive lighting, and give the consumer a smooth lighted appearance to his lamp, there are several optical parameters that must be observed. The number and type of LEDs used, the size of the optical elements used, the spacing of the optical elements, plus many other factors all play a critical role and must be considered in the solution to the 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp. The 'smooth lighted appearance' in an automotive signal lamp has long been a difficult problem to which there is more than one solution. The most visually pleasing and effective solution is not always the most easily obtainable solution since photometry requirements and smooth lighted appearance can be diametric goals. Subsequently the most cost effective and the easily 'doable' solution may not give the ultimate in aesthetically pleasing results for the consumer. Therefore, it is the purpose and intent of this paper to outline the parameters that need to be considered to obtain a 'smooth lighted appearance' for an automotive signal lamp, and to clarify the methods and 'tools' that are required to meet this goal.

  14. Values-Led Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Halskov, Kim; Leong, Tuck Wah

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of participatory design (PD) has meant that different approaches and conceptualisations exist in this field today. In this article, it is argued that one fruitful approach is to rekindle a concern for values in design, focusing upon values as the engine that drives activities...... in PD. Drawing from the authors‘ own PD projects, this article shows how this can be accomplished: through designers enacting their appreciative judgement of values by engaging in a dynamic and dialogical process of cultivating the emergence of values, developing them and supporting their grounding....

  15. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  16. Bipolar postpartum depression: An update and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Doobay, Minakshi; Baczynski, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been a surge of interest in the study of bipolar postpartum depression (PPD); however, questions remain about its prevalence, screening, clinical features, and treatment. Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-2016), PsycINFO (1806-2016), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, were searched using a combination of the keywords bipolar, depression, postpartum, peripartum, prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, drugs, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant articles published in English were included. Depending on the population studied, 21.4-54% of women with PPD have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Characteristic clinical features include younger age at illness onset, first onset of depression after childbirth, onset immediately after delivery, atypical depressive symptoms, psychotic features, mixed features, and history of BD in first-degree family members. Treatment should be guided by symptom acuity, safety concerns, the patient's response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. In the absence of controlled treatment data, preference should be given to drugs normally indicated for bipolar depression including lithium, quetiapine and lamotrigine. Although antidepressants have been studied in combination with mood stabilizers in bipolar depression, these drugs should be avoided due to likelihood of elevated risk of induction of manic symptoms in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, bipolar PPD is common, can be differentiated from unipolar PPD, and needs to be identified promptly in order to expedite appropriate treatment. Future studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on the acute and preventative treatment of bipolar PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  18. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  19. Bipolar disorder: an update | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by alternating discrete episodes of (hypo)mania and depression, provides unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Updated diagnostic (DSM-5) and current pharmacological treatment recommendations are briefly reviewed here. Keywords: bipolar disorder; diagnosis; evidence-based ...

  20. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  1. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  2. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, U.M.H.; Boom, K.; Janssen, F.M.G.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in bipolar patients is much higher than in the general population. It is unclear whether lithium treatment contributes to this cardiovascular morbidity. Methods: The cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder on

  4. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  5. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.

  6. [Drug Abuse Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Óscar Medina

    2012-06-01

    Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  7. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  8. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  9. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  10. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  11. Distinguishing bipolar II depression from major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder: demographic, clinical, and family history differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Martinez, Jennifer H; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the potential treatment implications, it is clinically important to distinguish between bipolar II depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder. The high frequency of diagnostic co-occurrence and resemblance of phenomenological features has led some authors to suggest that borderline personality disorder is part of the bipolar spectrum. Few studies have directly compared patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. In the present study from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we compared these 2 groups of patients on demographic, clinical, and family history variables. From December 1995 to May 2012, 3,600 psychiatric patients presenting to the outpatient practice at Rhode Island Hospital (Providence, Rhode Island) were evaluated with semistructured diagnostic interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders. The focus of the present study is the 206 patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder and borderline personality disorder (MDD-BPD) and 62 patients with DSM-IV bipolar II depression without borderline personality disorder. The patients with MDD-BPD were significantly more often diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (P depression had a significantly higher morbid risk for bipolar disorder in their first-degree relatives than the MDD-BPD patients (P depression and major depressive disorder with comorbid borderline personality disorder differed on a number of clinical and family history variables, thereby supporting the validity of this distinction. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  12. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  13. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouws, S.N.T.M.; Paans, N.P.G.; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Stek, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar

  14. Dealing with bipolar disorder in general practice | Rodseth | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... it is in the general realm of specialist diagnosis and care, general practitioners can play an important role in early identification of the disorder and long-term management, in shared care with the psychiatrist. Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, hypomania, depression, DSM-IV criteria, bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder ...

  15. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  16. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, the key issue consists in identifying the semantic opposition characterizing the meaning of concepts...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  17. Fenomenologia do tempo vivido no transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Moreira

    Full Text Available Com base na tradição da psicopatologia fenomenológica, este artigo se propõe a contribuir para a compreensão do mundo vivido do paciente bipolar, marcado por uma forte alteração do tempo vivido. Realizamos uma descrição deste tempo vivido significado de forma diferente nas oscilações de humor chamadas de fase maníaca e fase melancólica. Pensado a partir da temporalidade, na fase melancólica, o bipolar parece parar no tempo, não se lança em um devir. Na fase maníaca, o sujeito vive demasiadamente um agora como se tivesse explodido sua biografia. Concluímos que estas fases, ou dois pólos opostos no funcionamento temporal patológico do sofrimento bipolar, constituem fundamentalmente um mesmo mundo vivido.

  18. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  19. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Kunio; Nakamura, Akira; Mizuguchi, Koji; Sakai, Kazuhito; Mitsui, Hisayasu.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns upper-built-in type control rod drives of a BWR type reactor. Namely, high temperature linear motor driving type control rod drives are disposed in an upper space of the reactor pressure vessel, which generates electromagnetic power. In usual driving of control rods, driving shafts connected with control rods by a high temperature linear motor driving system comprising a driving shaft having an iron core inserted therein and electromagnetic coils is vertically moved to insert/withdraw the control rods to and from the reactor core. Upon occurrence of reactor scram, electric power source is interrupted, and the control rods are rapidly inserted to the reactor core. According to the present invention, since the control rod drives are disposed in the space above the reactor pressure vessel, pipelines or equipments passing through the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel can be saved. As a result, operation for maintenance and inspection is facilitated. (I.S.)

  20. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  1. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Aglio Jr.,José Caetano; Basso,Lissia Ana; Argimon,Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche,Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-c...

  2. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  3. Exercise in bipolar patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Matias Carvalho Aguiar; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Albuquerque, Saulo Giovanni Castor; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales

    2016-07-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is frequent in psychiatric disorders, however the directions of this association and benefits of physical activity are unclear. This is a systematic review about exercise in patients with bipolar disorder. We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English (1995 Jan to 2016 Jan) in PubMed, and Cochrane Library combining the medical terms 'physical activity' or 'sedentary' or 'physical exercise' with 'bipolar disorder' or 'mania' or 'bipolar depression'. Thirty-one studies were selected and included 15,587 patients with bipolar disorder. Sedentary lifestyle varied from 40% to 64.9%. Physical activity was associated with less depressive symptoms, better quality of life and increased functioning. Some evidence indicates a relationship between vigorous exercises and mania. Three prospective cohorts were reported; and no prospective randomized controlled trial was identified. Three studies focused on biomarkers in bipolar patients; and one reported the relationship between exercise and sleep in this group. Two assessed physical exercise in adolescents. (1) Differences between studies preventing a unified analysis; (2) most studies were cross-sectional; (3) motivation for exercising is a selection bias in most studies; (4) no intervention study assessing only physical exercise; (5) lack of studies comparing exercise across mood states. Generally, exercise was associated with improved health measures including depressive symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Evidence was insufficient to establish a cause-effect relationship between mood and physical exercise. Future research including randomized trials is needed to clarify the role of physical activity in bipolar patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  5. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  6. Practical lighting design with LEDs

    CERN Document Server

    Lenk, Ron

    2011-01-01

    "This book covers all of the information needed to design LEDs into end-products. It is a practical guide, primarily explaning how things are done by practicing engineers. Equations are used only for practical calculations, and are kept to the level of high-school algebra. There are numerous drawings and schematics showing how things such as measurements are actually made, and showing curcuits that actually work. There are practical notes and examples embedded in the text that give pointers and how-to guides on many of the book's topics. After reading each chapter of the book, readers will have the knowledge to implement practical designs. This book will be kept as a reference tool for years to come"--

  7. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHO...

  8. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were

  9. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for

  10. POWER, METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING THERMOELECTRIC EVENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING BIPOLAR SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Magomedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The development of light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures having a low level of parasitic heat release.Methods. A method for converting thermoelectric heat in bipolar semiconductor structures into optical radiation to divert the excess energy into the environment was developed. At the same time, the cooling effect on thermoelectric junctions remains. Instead of an inertial process of conductive or convective heat transfer, practically instantaneous heat removal from electronic components to the environment takes place.Results. As a result, light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will allow more powerful devices with greater speed and degree of integration to be created. It is possible to produce transparent LED matrices with a two-way arrangement of transparent solar cells and mirror metal electrodes along the perimeter. When current is applied, the LED matrix on one of the transitions will absorb thermal energy; on other electrodes, it will emit radiation that is completely recovered into electricity by means of transparent solar cells following repeated reflection between the mirror electrodes. The low efficiency of solar cells will be completely compensated for with the multiple passages of photons through these batteries.Conclusion. Light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will not only improve the reliability of electronic components in a wide range of performance characteristics, but also improve energy efficiency through the use of optical radiation recovery. Semiconductor thermoelectric devices using optical phenomena in conjunction with the Peltier effect allow a wide range of energy-efficient components of radio electronic equipment to be realised, both for discrete electronics and for microsystem techniques. Systems for obtaining ultra-low temperatures in order to achieve superconductivity are of particular value. 

  11. High performance AC drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Mukhtar

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive view of high performance ac drives. It may be considered as both a text book for graduate students and as an up-to-date monograph. It may also be used by R & D professionals involved in the improvement of performance of drives in the industries. The book will also be beneficial to the researchers pursuing work on multiphase drives as well as sensorless and direct torque control of electric drives since up-to date references in these topics are provided. It will also provide few examples of modeling, analysis and control of electric drives using MATLAB/SIMULIN

  12. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: um enfoque transcultural Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsal Sanches

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management of bipolar disorder. This article provides a review of the evidence regarding the main aspects of transcultural psychiatry and bipolar disorder.

  13. Using music to change mood while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Janssen, Joris H; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a relatively happy mood was induced with personally selected music during an eight-minute simulated high-demand drive. The drive then continued and the mood was changed either gradually or abruptly. Subjective results showed successful music mood induction irrespective of gradual or abrupt changes. The results further showed lower skin conductance (less arousal) and more facial corrugator muscle tension (more sadness) during the abrupt music change. Fewer accidents occurred during the abrupt music mood change. To conclude, the results support the abrupt way of changing music type to down-regulate one's mood: during high-demand driving, abrupt changes in music led to more physiological calmness and improved driving performance, and were thus safer and more effective. The current study shows that during high-demand drives, drivers are calmed more effectively using abrupt music changes compared to gradual music changes. This is illustrated by reductions in physiological arousal and improved driving behaviour. Hence, in-car music presentation can be used as a tool to improve driver's mood and behaviour.

  14. BIPOLAR DISORDER AND METABOLIC SYNDROME: COMORBIDITY OR SIDE EFFECTS OF TREATMENT OF BIPOLAR DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Babić, Dragan; Maslov, Boris; Nikolić, Katica; Martinac, Marko; Uzun, Suzana; Kozumplik, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence that people with mental disorders are more likely to suffer from metabolic syndrome. In the last decades there has been an increase in interest for researching metabolic syndrome in psychiatric patients and plenty of evidence about their association. However, investigations on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder are still surprisingly rare. The aim of this paper is to analyze comorbidity of bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome...

  15. LEDs light up the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mather, N.

    2004-06-30

    A lighting system using light-emitting diodes, and privately financed by a Canadian engineering professor at the University of Calgary, has been set up in a village in Nepal in 2000. Since then, through the efforts of the 'Light Up The World' Foundation, established by Dr. Irvine-Halliday, projects have lit up thousands of homes in the Philippines, India, Afghanistan, the Galapagos Islands, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Angola. Although the goal of the project is primarily to provide lighting for reading and writing for school-children, the project has been the source of many other advantages; creation of enterprise, increased employment, enhanced income, gender equality, and improvements in health and safety among them. Since LED lamps in most cases replace kerosene lamps, the system also has significant environmental benefits. The system as originally envisioned creates electricity by pedal-powered generator, or by solar panels connected to a battery, depending on what is available at each home. Each home is connected to the power supply and supplied with low-energy diode lamps. The lights are extremely efficient and many homes can be equipped with them using less energy than it takes to power a single 100-watt light bulb. 5 photos.

  16. Unblending Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giacomo, Ester; Aspesi, Flora; Fotiadou, Maria; Arntz, Arnoud; Aguglia, Eugenio; Barone, Lavinia; Bellino, Silvio; Carpiniello, Bernardo; Colmegna, Fabrizia; Lazzari, Marina; Lorettu, Liliana; Pinna, Federica; Sicaro, Aldo; Signorelli, Maria Salvina; Clerici, Massimo

    2017-08-01

    Borderline Personality (BPD) and Bipolar (BP) disorders stimulate an academic debate between their distinction and the inclusion of Borderline in the Bipolar spectrum. Opponents to this inclusion attribute the important differences and possible diagnostic incomprehension to overlapping symptoms. We tested 248 Borderline and 113 Bipolar patients, consecutively admitted to the Psychiatric Unit, through DSM-IV Axis I and II Disorders (SCID-I/II), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV (BPDSI-IV). All the tests statistically discriminated the disorders (p Borderline patients with manic features offer a privileged point of view for a deeper analysis. This allows for the possibility of a more precise examination of the nature and load of each symptom. Borderline Personality and Bipolar Disorders can be distinguished with high precision using common and time-sparing tests. The importance of discriminating these clinical features may benefit from this evidence. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  18. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiation Damage In Advanced Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Goben, Charles A.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes measurements of common-emitter current gains (hFE) of advanced bipolar silicon transistors before, during, and after irradiation with 275-MeV bromine ions, 2.5-MeV electrons, and conductivity rays from cobalt-60 atoms.

  20. Facial affect recognition deficits in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Glen E; Shear, Paula K; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2003-05-01

    Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BPD), by definition, have problems with emotional regulation. However, it remains uncertain whether these patients are also deficient at processing other people's emotions, particularly while manic. The present study examined the ability of 25 manic bipolar patients and 25 healthy participants on tasks of facial recognition and facial affect recognition at three different presentation durations: 500 ms, 750 ms, and 1000 ms. The groups did not differ in terms of age, education, sex, ethnicity, or estimated IQ. The groups did not differ significantly on either a novel computerized facial recognition task or the Benton Facial Recognition Test. In contrast, the bipolar group performed significantly more poorly than did the comparison group on a novel facial affect labeling task. Although the patient group had slower reaction times on all 3 computerized tasks, the presentation duration did not have an effect on performance in the patients. This study suggests that patients with bipolar disorder are able to recognize faces, but have difficulty processing facial affective cues.

  1. Heart rate variability in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart rate variability (HRV) has been suggested reduced in bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy individuals (HC). This meta-analysis investigated: HRV differences in BD compared with HC, major depressive disorder or schizophrenia; HRV differences between affective states; HRV...

  2. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  3. Toward a Valid Animal Model of Bipolar Disorder: How the Research Domain Criteria Help Bridge the Clinical-Basic Science Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Victoria E; Kelsoe, John R; Suppes, Trisha

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a diagnostically heterogeneous disorder, although mania emerges as a distinct phenotype characterized by elevated mood and increased activity or energy. While bipolar disorder's cyclicity is difficult to represent in animals, models of mania have begun to decode its fundamental underlying neurobiology. When psychostimulants such as amphetamine or cocaine are administered to rodents, a resulting upsurge of motor activity is thought to share face and predictive validity with mania in humans. Studying black Swiss mice, which inherently exhibit proclivity for reward seeking and risk taking, also has yielded some insight. Further, translating the biology of bipolar disorder in humans into animal models has led to greater understanding of roles for candidate biological systems such as the GRIK2 and CLOCK genes, as well as the extracellular signal-related kinase pathway involved in the pathophysiology of the illness. The National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative seeks to identify building blocks of complex illnesses like bipolar disorder in hopes of uncovering the neurobiology of each, as well as how each fits together to produce syndromes like bipolar disorder or why so many mental illnesses co-occur together. Research Domain Criteria-driven preclinical models of isolated behaviors and domains involved in mania and bipolar disorder will ultimately inform movement toward nosology supported by neurobiology. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  4. A Difficult Journey: Reflections on Driving and Driving Cessation From a Team of Clinical Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jacki; Gustafsson, Louise; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Pachana, Nancy A

    2017-02-01

    Recognizing the clinical importance and safety and well-being implications for the population, a multidisciplinary team has been researching older drivers and driving cessation issues for more than 15 years. Using empirical approaches, the team has explored quality of life and participation outcomes related to driving and nondriving for older people and has developed interventions to improve outcomes after driving cessation. The team members represent occupational therapists, medical practitioners, and clinical and neuropsychologists. While building the evidence base for driving- and driving cessation-related clinical practice, the researchers have also had first-hand experiences of interruptions to their own or parents' driving; involvement of older family members in road crashes; and provision of support during family members' driving assessment and cessation. This has led to reflection on their understandings and re-evaluation and refocusing of their perspectives in driving cessation research. This work will share the narratives of the authors and note their developing perspectives and foci within research as well as their clinical practice. Personal reflections have indicated the far-reaching implications for older drivers and family members of involvement in road crashes: the potential for interruptions to driving as a time for support and future planning and the conflicting and difficult roles of family members within the driving cessation process. Overall the lived, personal experience of the authors has reinforced the complex nature of driving and changes to driving status for the driver and their support team and the need for further research and support. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Bipolar disorder with comorbid anxiety disorders: impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychoeducation

    OpenAIRE

    Hawke, Lisa D; Velyvis, Vytas; Parikh, Sagar V

    2013-01-01

    Background Comorbid anxiety disorders are extremely prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD) and have substantial impact on the course of illness. Limited evidence regarding treatment factors has led to a renewal of research efforts examining both the impact of treatments on comorbid anxiety and the impact of comorbid anxiety on treatments. The current study examines the impact of comorbid anxiety disorders on response to two psychosocial interventions for BD. Methods A sample of 204 patients with ...

  6. Improved InGaN LED System Efficacy and Cost via Droop Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildeson, Isaac; Armitage, Robert

    2017-11-29

    Efficiency droop is a non-thermal process intrinsic to indium gallium nitride light emitting diodes (LEDs) in which the external quantum efficiency (EQE) decreases with increasing drive current density. Mitigating droop would allow one to reduce the size of LEDs driven at a given current or to drive LEDs of given size at higher current while maintaining high efficiencies. In other words, droop mitigation can lead to significant gains in light output per dollar and/or light output per watt of input power. This project set an EQE improvement goal at high drive current density which was to be attained by improving the LED active region design and growth process following a droop mitigation strategy. The interactions between LED active region design parameters and efficiency droop were studied by modeling and experiments. The crystal defects that tend to form in more complex LED designs intended to mitigate droop were studied with advanced characterization methods that provided insight into the structural and electronic properties of the material. This insight was applied to improve the epitaxy process both in terms of active region design and optimization of growth parameters. The final project goals were achieved on schedule and an epitaxy process leading to LEDs with EQE exceeding the project target was demonstrated.

  7. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10% had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20% of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10% of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is nontheless diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80% to 90%). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are also more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. PMID:24174890

  8. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  9. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Koichi.

    1994-01-01

    In control rod drives, differential pressure sensors are disposed at the inlet and the exit of a driving water pressure control valve disposed in a driving water supply device and, when deviation of fluctuation of the differential pressure from a set value is detected, a pressure control valve for driving water is controlled so as to make the differential pressure constant. The differential pressure sensors detect the differential pressure between the pressure of the control rod drives at the inlet and the exit of the driving water pressure control valve and a pressure in a reactor dome. A judging circuit judges whether the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control valve is deviated from a set value or not and, if it deviates from the set value, outputs of judging signal to the control device. In the control device, the opening degree of the driving water pressure control valve is controlled, so that the differential pressure between both sides of the driving water pressure control value is constant and does not deviate from the set value. There are provided advantageous effects of preventing abnormal control rod withdrawing phenomenon to improve safety and reliability for the control of the reactor operation. (N.H.)

  11. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  12. Fokusgruppeinterview som led i en evalueringsproces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen-Mølgaard, Hanna; Harrit, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Teoretiske begrundelser og perspektiver, responsiv-konstruktivistisk evaluering, fokusgruppeinterview som led i BIKVAmodellen, eksempler, vurdering og perspektivering......Teoretiske begrundelser og perspektiver, responsiv-konstruktivistisk evaluering, fokusgruppeinterview som led i BIKVAmodellen, eksempler, vurdering og perspektivering...

  13. Evaluation of LED vehicular and pedestrian modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to verify the compliance of vehicular and pedestrian LED traffic signal modules with the Institute : of Transportation Engineers specifications; and to assess drivers preferences of the LED modules. Four vehicular modules ...

  14. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...

  15. Goniometric characterization of LED based greenhouse lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Corell, Dennis Dan

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a demonstration of goniospectroradiometry for characterizations of new light emitting diode (LED) based luminaries for enhanced photosynthesis in greenhouses. It highlights the differences between measurement of the traditional high pressure sodium (HPS) luminaries and the LED...... based luminaries. The LED based luminaries are compared to traditional HPS luminaries; in terms of energy efficiency with regard to the photosynthetic photon flux, and the LED luminaries were found to be more effective than the HPS luminaries...

  16. Aqueous based asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor with a 2.4 V operating voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn

    2018-02-01

    A novel asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor system leveraging the contributions of a Zn-CNT asymmetrical electrode and a KOH-H2SO4 dual-pH electrolyte was developed. The positive and negative electrodes operated in electrolytes with different pH, exploiting the maximum potential of both electrodes, which led to a cell voltage of 2.4 V. The potential tracking of both electrodes revealed that the Zn negative electrode could maintain a potential at -1.2 V, while the CNT positive electrode can be charged to +1.2 V without significant irreversible reactions. A bipolar ion exchange membrane has effectively separated the acid and alkaline from neutralization, which resulted in stable performance of the device with capacitance retention of 94% and coulombic efficiency of 99% over 10,000 cycles. This asymmetrical-bipolar design overcomes the thermodynamic limit of water decomposition, opening a new avenue towards high energy and high power density aqueous-based ECs.

  17. LED belichting tijdens het voortrekken van lelie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, B.J.; Wildschut, J.

    2010-01-01

    De laatste jaren staat het gebruik van LED-lampen in de tuinbouw in de belangstelling. Uit vele onderzoeken is al gebleken dat LED-lampen op dit moment nog geen alternatief zijn voor de SON-T lampen. Het grote voordeel van LED-lampen is dat ze monochromatisch licht van alle mogelijke golflengtes

  18. ‘No Blue’ White LED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Corell, Dennis Dan; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper explored the feasibility of making a white LED light source by color mixing method without using the blue color. This ‘no blue’ white LED has potential applications in photolithography room illumination, medical treatment and biophotonics research. A no-blue LED was designed, and the p...

  19. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Aglio, José Caetano; Basso, Lissia Ana; Argimon, Irani Iracema de Lima; Arteche, Adriane

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  20. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  1. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  2. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  3. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  4. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  5. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  6. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  7. Clinical status of comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Bayes, Adam; McClure, Georgia; Del Moral, Yolanda Romàn Ruiz; Stevenson, Janine

    2016-09-01

    The status and differentiation of comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder is worthy of clarification. To determine whether comorbid borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder are interdependent or independent conditions. We interviewed patients diagnosed with either a borderline personality disorder and/or a bipolar condition. Analyses of participants grouped by DSM diagnoses established that those with comorbid conditions scored similarly to those with a borderline personality disorder alone on all key variables (i.e. gender, severity of borderline personality scores, developmental stressors, illness correlates, self-injurious behaviour rates) and differed from those with a bipolar disorder alone on nearly all non-bipolar item variables. Similar findings were returned for groups defined by clinical diagnoses. Comorbid bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder is consistent with the formal definition of comorbidity in that, while coterminous, individuals meeting such criteria have features of two independent conditions. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  8. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  9. Nitride micro-LEDs and beyond--a decade progress review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H X; Lin, J Y

    2013-05-06

    Since their inception, micro-size light emitting diode (µLED) arrays based on III-nitride semiconductors have emerged as a promising technology for a range of applications. This paper provides an overview on a decade progresses on realizing III-nitride µLED based high voltage single-chip AC/DC-LEDs without power converters to address the key compatibility issue between LEDs and AC power grid infrastructure; and high-resolution solid-state self-emissive microdisplays operating in an active driving scheme to address the need of high brightness, efficiency and robustness of microdisplays. These devices utilize the photonic integration approach by integrating µLED arrays on-chip. Other applications of nitride µLED arrays are also discussed.

  10. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    to the pacemaker can. METHODS: Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from two healthy subjects. Platelet reactivity to the agonist ADP was tested in paired samples in an aggregometer in a case/control setup. RESULTS: Eighteen of 46 tested pairs of platelet-rich plasma showed increased reactivity in the paced sample......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  12. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed/Medline, E......BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed....../Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states...

  13. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  14. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  15. Plant growth with Led lighting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campiotti, C.A.; Bernardini, A.; Di Carlo, F.; Scoccianti, M.; Alonzo, G.; Carlino, M.; Dondi, F.; Bibbiani, C.

    2009-01-01

    Leds lighting is highly relevant for the horticultural industry. Compared to other light sources used for plant production, leds have several properties which are potentially useful in relation to horticulture. However, although LEDs technology has raised strong interest in research for extraterrestrial agriculture, current LEDs panel costs are still too high for commercial adoption in greenhouse sector, and their electrical efficacies do not compete with those of high-pressure sodium lamps, but several manufactures are working to address these issues. When LEDs become practical, their ability to based light sources specifically suitable for photosynthesis and other horticulturally relevant plant properties (i.e. low radiated heat; lighting from within the canopy) will render the narrow band spectrum of LEDs of particular interest for providing light to greenhouse horticulture. A general description of LEDs application and their technical characteristics is briefly reported. [it

  16. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  17. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  18. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  19. The relationship between borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A.

    2013-01-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. Research considering whether BPD should be considered part of a bipolar spectrum reaches differing conclusions. We reviewed the most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder: their diagnostic concordance. Across studies, approximately 10% of patients with BPD had bi...

  20. Bipolar Disorder: What Can Psychotherapists Learn From the Cognitive Research?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Sheri; Tran, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    Randomized controlled trials of psychological treatment, principally cognitive therapy, for bipolar disorder have yielded inconsistent results. Given the status of this evidentiary base, we provide a more fine-grained analysis of the cognitive profiles associated with bipolar disorder to inform clinical practice. In this practice-friendly review, we consider evidence that both negative and positive cognitive styles are related to bipolar disorder. Cross-sectional and prospective evidence sugg...

  1. Smartphone based treatment in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M.; Bardram, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    During this symposium, results from a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of smartphone based electronic self-monitoring on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms will be presented and discussed.Further, we will present and discuss the use of automatically generated...... objective smartphone data on behavioral activities (eg social activities, mobility and physical activity) as electronic biomarkers of illness activity in bipolar disorder....

  2. Circadian Phase Preference in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kerri L. Kim; Alexandra B. Weissman; Megan E. Puzia; Grace K. Cushman; Karen E. Seymour; Ezra Wegbreit; Mary A. Carskadon; Daniel P. Dickstein

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) rates have notably increased over the past three decades. Given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with BD, efforts are needed to identify factors useful in earlier detection to help address this serious public health concern. Sleep is particularly important to consider given the sequelae of disrupted sleep on normative functioning and that sleep is included in diagnostic criteria for both Major Depressive and Manic Episodes. Here, we examine on...

  3. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  4. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning (implying land-use plan and policy orientation) on one hand, and a similar gap between design (associated with artistic activity, concerned with aesthetics as well as science) and research (considere...

  5. Generation of solar spectrum by using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pengzhi; Yang, Hua; Pei, Yanrong; Li, Jing; Xue, Bin; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2016-09-01

    Light emitting diode (LED) has been recognized as an applicable light source for indoor and outdoor lighting, city beautifying, landscape facilities, and municipal engineering etc. Conventional LED has superior characteristics such as long life time, low power consumption, high contrast, and wide viewing angle. Recently, LED with high color-rendering index and special spectral characteristics has received more and more attention. This paper is intended to report a solar spectrum simulated by multichip LED light source. The typical solar spectrum of 5500k released by CIE was simulated as a reference. Four types of LEDs with different spectral power distributions would be used in the LED light source, which included a 430nm LED, a 480nm LED, a 500nm LED and a white LED. In order to obtain better simulation results, the white LED was achieved by a 450nm LED chip with the mixture of phosphor. The phosphor combination was prepared by mixing green phosphor, yellow phosphor and red phosphor in a certain proportion. The multichip LED light source could provide a high fidelity spectral match with the typical solar spectrum of 5500k by adjusting injection current to each device. The luminous flux, CIE chromaticity coordinate x, y, CCT, and Ra were 104.7 lm, 0.3337, 0.3681, 5460K, and 88.6, respectively. Because of high color-rendering index and highly match to the solar spectrum, the multichip LED light source is a competitive candidate for applications where special spectral is required, such as colorimetric measurements, visual inspection, gemstone identification and agriculture.

  6. Formation of Bipolar Lobes by Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2002-04-01

    I conduct an analytical study of the interaction of jets, or a collimated fast wind (CFW), with a previously blown asymptotic giant branch (AGB) slow wind. Such jets (or CFWs) are supposedly formed when a compact companion, a main-sequence star, or a white dwarf accretes mass from the AGB star, forms an accretion disk, and blows two jets. This type of flow, which I think shapes bipolar planetary nebulae (PNs), requires three-dimensional gasdynamical simulations, which are limited in the parameter space they can cover. By imposing several simplifying assumptions, I derive simple expressions which reproduce some basic properties of lobes in bipolar PNs and which can be used to guide future numerical simulations. I quantitatively apply the results to two proto-PNs. I show that the jet interaction with the slow wind can form lobes which are narrow close to, and far away from, the central binary system, and which are wider somewhere in between. Jets that are recollimated and have constant cross section can form cylindrical lobes with constant diameter, as observed in several bipolar PNs. Close to their source, jets blown by main-sequence companions are radiative; only further out they become adiabatic, i.e., they form high-temperature, low-density bubbles that inflate the lobes.

  7. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  8. Group interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, Astrid A; Ponto, Julie; Nelson, Pamela J; Frye, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 2-week interpersonal and social rhythm therapy group (IPSRT-G) for bipolar depression. Participants with bipolar depression received two individual sessions, six IPSRT-G sessions, and a 12-week telephone call. The Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Clinician Rated (IDS-C), Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Clinical Global Impressions-Bipolar Version (CGI-BP) were used. IDS-C and SDS scores improved significantly at 12 weeks. YMRS and CGI-BP scores improved but did not reach statistical significance. The promising antidepressive response supports further study of IPSRT-G for bipolar depression. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The relationship between bipolar disorder and biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Rhythm disruption is a core feature of bipolar disorder and it has been hypothesized that disturbances of the circadian timing system play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disorder. We sought to investigate (1) theoretical models for biological rhythm disruptions in bipolar disorder, (2) physiological disturbances of biological rhythms in bipolar disorder, (3) clinical and therapeutic implications of biological rhythm disturbances in bipolar disorder, and (4) associations between circadian gene variations and bipolar disorder. PubMed database was searched systematically for articles that were published on or before May 5, 2013, and were written in English using the terms bipolar disorder, clock genes, endogenous clock, molecular clock, biological rhythms, circadian, suprachiasmatic nucleus, circadian rhythm, melatonin, and sleep. Seventy-four articles highlighting the objectives were included in the review. Data regarding exploring the association between bipolar disorder and circadian and chronobiological phenomena were reviewed and findings summarized. The literature reviewed suggests that circadian rhythm disturbance may be a feature of bipolar disorder. In toto, the literature suggests that circadian rhythm disturbances may be a feature of bipolar disorder. This area of research has received theoretical consideration as playing a significant role in the pathophysiology of the illness but has been understudied to this point. Further research in the field is warranted. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with bipolar membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, Adrian; Jumari, Arif; Budiman, Anatta Wahyu; Puspitaningtyas, Stella Febianti; Cahyaningrum, Suci; Nazriati, Nazriati; Fajaroh, Fauziatul

    2018-02-01

    The electrochemical method with bipolar membrane has been successfully used for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. In this work, we have developed 2 chambers electrolysis system separated by a bipolar membrane. The membrane was used to separate cations (H+ ions produced by the oxidation of water at the anode) and anions (OH- ions produced by the reduction of water at the cathode). With this system, we have designed that OH- ions still stay in the anions chamber because OH- ions was very substantial in the hydroxyapatite particles formation. The aim of this paper was to compare the electrolysis time on electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis was performed at 500 mA/cm2 for 0.5 to 2 hours at room temperature and under ultrasonic cleaner to void agglomeration with and without the bipolar membrane. The electrosynthesis of hydroxyapatite with the bipolar membrane more effective than without the bipolar membrane. The hydroxyapatite has been appeared at 0.5 h of the electrolysis time with the bipolar membrane (at the cathode chamber) while it hasn't been seen without the bipolar membrane. The bipolar membrane prevents OH- ions migrate to the cation chamber. The formation of HA becomes more effective because OH- ions just formed HA particle.

  12. "Is it menopause or bipolar?": a qualitative study of the experience of menopause for women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Parton, Chloe

    2017-11-16

    Menopause can be a time of change for women and may be marked by disturbances in mood. For women living with a mental illness, such as bipolar disorder, little is known about how they experience mood changes during menopause. This study aimed to explore how women with bipolar disorder constructed mood changes during menopause and how this impacted on treatment decisions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with fifteen women who reported they had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Data was analysed using thematic analysis guided by a social constructionist framework. Themes identified included 'Constructions of mood change: menopause or bipolar disorder?',' Life events, bipolar disorder and menopause coming together'; 'Treatment choices for mood change during menopause'. The accounts suggested that women related to the experience of mood changes during menopause through the lens of their existing framework of bipolar disorder, with implications for understanding of self and treatment choices.

  13. Testing Finance-Led, Export-Led and Import-Led Growth Hypotheses on Four Sub-Saharan African Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Olaniyi

    2013-01-01

    This study carries out an empirical examination of the finance-led, export-led and import-led growth hypothesis for four of the largest Sub-Saharan African economies namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Kenya. Within a multivariate Vector-Auto Regressive (VAR) framework, the concept of Granger causality is employed to determine the direction of causation between exports and output, duly taking into account the stationarity properties of the time series data. With further substantiation fro...

  14. The bipolarity of light and dark: A review on Bipolar Disorder and circadian cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, T; Bragança, M

    2015-10-01

    Bipolar Disorder is characterized by episodes running the full mood spectrum, from mania to depression. Between mood episodes, residual symptoms remain, as sleep alterations, circadian cycle disturbances, emotional deregulation, cognitive impairment and increased risk for comorbidities. The present review intends to reflect about the most recent and relevant information concerning the biunivocal relation between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles. It was conducted a literature search on PubMed database using the search terms "bipolar", "circadian", "melatonin", "cortisol", "body temperature", "Clock gene", "Bmal1 gene", "Per gene", "Cry gene", "GSK3β", "chronotype", "light therapy", "dark therapy", "sleep deprivation", "lithum" and "agomelatine". Search results were manually reviewed, and pertinent studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Several studies support the relationship between bipolar disorder and circadian cycles, discussing alterations in melatonin, body temperature and cortisol rhythms; disruption of sleep/wake cycle; variations of clock genes; and chronotype. Some therapeutics for bipolar disorder directed to the circadian cycles disturbances are also discussed, including lithium carbonate, agomelatine, light therapy, dark therapy, sleep deprivation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy. This review provides a summary of an extensive research for the relevant literature on this theme, not a patient-wise meta-analysis. In the future, it is essential to achieve a better understanding of the relation between bipolar disorder and the circadian system. It is required to establish new treatment protocols, combining psychotherapy, therapies targeting the circadian rhythms and the latest drugs, in order to reduce the risk of relapse and improve affective behaviour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Access to Finance for Female-led Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Qasim, Qursum

    2018-01-01

    Female-led Micro, Small, and Medium-Sized Enterprises (MSMEs), play a vital role as job creators, driving female participation in the economy, and boosting inclusive GDP growth. In addition to the direct economic impact of MSMEs, research shows that female-led enterprises employ more women, and that increased control over resources by women leads to improved health and education outcomes f...

  16. Toward the Definition of a Bipolar Prodrome: Dimensional Predictors of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in At-Risk Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-07-01

    The authors sought to assess dimensional symptomatic predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in youths at familial risk of bipolar disorder ("at-risk" youths). Offspring 6-18 years old of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (N=359) and community comparison offspring (N=220) were recruited. At baseline, 8.4% of the offspring of bipolar parents had a bipolar spectrum disorder. Over 8 years, 14.7% of offspring for whom follow-up data were available (44/299) developed a new-onset bipolar spectrum disorder (15 with bipolar I or II disorder). Measures collected at baseline and follow-up were reduced using factor analyses, and factors (both at baseline and at the visit prior to conversion or last contact) were assessed as predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders. Relative to comparison offspring, at-risk and bipolar offspring had higher baseline levels of anxiety/depression, inattention/disinhibition, externalizing, subsyndromal manic, and affective lability symptoms. The strongest predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders were baseline anxiety/depression, baseline and proximal affective lability, and proximal subsyndromal manic symptoms (prisk of conversion. While youths without anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania (and with a parent with older age at mood disorder onset) had a 2% predicted chance of conversion to a bipolar spectrum disorder, those with all risk factors had a 49% predicted chance of conversion. Dimensional measures of anxiety/depression, affective lability, and mania are important predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in at-risk youths. These symptoms emerged from among numerous other candidates, underscoring the potential clinical and research utility of these findings.

  17. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  18. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W; Smoller, Jordan W; Perlis, Roy H

    2014-09-01

    Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder, derived from a large genome-wide association meta-analysis, was generated for each subject of European-American ancestry (n = 1,274) in the Sequential Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression study (STAR*D) outpatient major depressive disorder cohort. A hypothesis-driven approach was used to test for association between bipolar disorder risk score and features of depression associated with bipolar disorder in the literature. Follow-up analyses were performed in two additional cohorts. A generalized linear mixed model including seven features hypothesized to be associated with bipolar spectrum illness was significantly associated with bipolar polygenic risk score [F = 2.07, degrees of freedom (df) = 7, p = 0.04]. Features included early onset, suicide attempt, recurrent depression, atypical depression, subclinical mania, subclinical psychosis, and severity. Post-hoc univariate analyses demonstrated that the major contributors to this omnibus association were onset of illness at age ≤ 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, p = 0.003], history of suicide attempt (OR = 1.21, p = 0.03), and presence of at least one manic symptom (OR = 1.16, p = 0.02). The maximal variance in these traits explained by polygenic score ranged from 0.8% to 1.1%. However, analyses in two replication cohorts testing a five-feature model did not support this association. Bipolar genetic loading appeared to be associated with bipolar-like presentation in major depressive disorder in the primary analysis. However, the results were at most inconclusive because of lack of replication. Replication efforts were challenged by different ascertainment and assessment strategies in the different cohorts. The methodological approach

  19. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  20. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  1. LEDs for general and horticultural lighting

    OpenAIRE

    Girón González, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    The work begins with an introductory part about Light Emitting Diode (or LEDs) and how these devices work. This report also shows an overview of different artificial light sources such as incandescent lamps, fluorescents tube and high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps. The LED lighting is more energy-efficient than other artificial lighting, since they require less energy to operate. The following part of the work reports LEDs for General Lighting that describes some basic concepts such as spec...

  2. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  3. Solid State Lighting LED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of LED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  4. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  5. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  6. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  7. Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, Part 3: LED Environmental Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.; Hollomon, Brad; Dillon, Heather E.; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.

    2013-03-01

    This report covers the third part of a larger U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project to assess the life-cycle environmental and resource impacts in the manufacturing, transport, use, and disposal of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting products in relation to incumbent lighting technologies. All three reports are available on the DOE website (www.ssl.energy.gov/tech_reports.html). • Part 1: Review of the Life-Cycle Energy Consumption of Incandescent, Compact Fluorescent and LED Lamps; • Part 2: LED Manufacturing and Performance; • Part 3: LED Environmental Testing. Parts 1 and 2 were published in February and June 2012, respectively. The Part 1 report included a summary of the life-cycle assessment (LCA) process and methodology, provided a literature review of more than 25 existing LCA studies of various lamp types, and performed a meta-analysis comparing LED lamps with incandescent and compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Drawing from the Part 1 findings, Part 2 performed a more detailed assessment of the LED manufacturing process and used these findings to provide a comparative LCA taking into consideration a wider range of environmental impacts. Both reports concluded that the life-cycle environmental impact of a given lamp is dominated by the energy used during lamp operation—the upstream generation of electricity drives the total environmental footprint of the product. However, a more detailed understanding of end-of-life disposal considerations for LED products has become increasingly important as their installation base has grown. The Part 3 study (reported herein) was undertaken to augment the LCA findings with chemical analysis of a variety of LED, CFL, and incandescent lamps using standard testing procedures. A total of 22 samples, representing 11 different models, were tested to determine whether any of 17 elements were present at levels exceeding California or Federal regulatory thresholds for hazardous waste. Key findings include: • The selected

  8. CONTROL ROD DRIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapellier, R.A.

    1960-05-24

    BS>A drive mechanism was invented for the control rod of a nuclear reactor. Power is provided by an electric motor and an outside source of fluid pressure is utilized in conjunction with the fluid pressure within the reactor to balance the loadings on the motor. The force exerted on the drive mechanism in the direction of scramming the rod is derived from the reactor fluid pressure so that failure of the outside pressure source will cause prompt scramming of the rod.

  9. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  10. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  11. Driving and Multitasking: The Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Menno; Borst, Jelmer P; van Rijn, Hedderik; Taatgen, Niels A

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver's ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver's lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  12. Driving and Multitasking: the Good, the Bad, and the Dangerous.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno Nijboer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that multitasking can have a positive or a negative influence on driving performance. The aim of this study was to determine how the interaction between driving circumstances and cognitive requirements of secondary tasks affect a driver’s ability to control a car. We created a driving simulator paradigm where participants had to perform one of two scenarios: one with no traffic in the driver’s lane, and one with substantial traffic in both lanes, some of which had to be overtaken. Four different secondary task conditions were combined with these driving scenarios. In both driving scenarios, using a tablet resulted in the worst, most dangerous, performance, while passively listening to the radio or answering questions for a radio quiz led to the best driving performance. Interestingly, driving as a single task did not produce better performance than driving in combination with one of the radio tasks, and even tended to be slightly worse. These results suggest that drivers switch to internally focused secondary tasks when nothing else is available during monotonous or repetitive driving environments. This mind wandering potentially has a stronger interference effect with driving than non-visual secondary tasks.

  13. Application of high-brightness LEDs in aircraft position lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, Nicolo; Mangum, Scott; Singer, Jeffrey M.

    2004-10-01

    Solid state lighting devices have made their way into a number of niche markets and continue to make inroads into other markets as their price / performance ratios improve. One of these markets is aviation lighting. Although this paper will focus on the use of LEDs for aircraft position lights, much of the discussion is applicable to other installations on the interior and exterior of the aircraft. The color, light distribution and intensity levels for a position light are all closely regulated through Code of Federal Regulation (CFR; formerly Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR)) documents. These lighting requirements, along with harsh thermal and environmental requirements, drive the design. In this paper, we will look at these requirements and discuss what is required in order to use LEDs for this type of application. We will explore the optical, thermal and electrical issues associated with the use of LEDs for position lights and examine the specific case study of the Astreon forward position lights. Finally, we will discuss some of the challenges that we see with solid state lighting in current and future aircraft applications.

  14. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  15. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  16. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Sector-Led Improvement in Children's Services: A Lever for Evidence-Informed Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dez; Brookes, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The drive for sector-led improvement within children's services has a more prominent place in improving outcomes for children and young people than ever before. Concurrently, the imperative to access and utilise evidence to inform practice has become increasingly important, enabling scarce resources to be allocated according to "what…

  18. Risperidone Mono - Therapy as Prophylaxis in Bipolar Affective Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Trivedi, Mohit; Pinto, Denzil; Safeekh, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Risperidone has been found to be useful in the treatment of acute bipolar disorders. This is a case report where risperidone mono therapy has been found to be effective in prophylaxis of bipolar affective disorder. The pharmacological and clinical implications of risperidone in the management of BPAD are discussed

  19. Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Woogen, Michelle; Glahn, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as a disease involving episodic rather than chronic dysfunction. However, increasing evidence indicates that bipolar disorder is associated with substantial inter-episode psychosocial and vocational impairment. Here we review the contributions of neurocognitive deficits and structural and functional neuroanatomic alterations to the observed functional impairments. In particular, compelling evidence now suggests that neurocognitive impairm...

  20. Olfactocentric Paralimbic Cortex Morphology in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Womer, Fay Y.; Edmiston, Erin E.; Chepenik, Lara G.; Chen, Rachel; Spencer, Linda; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactocentric paralimbic cortex plays a critical role in the regulation of emotional and neurovegetative functions that are disrupted in core features of bipolar disorder. Adolescence is thought to be a critical period in both the maturation of the olfactocentric paralimbic cortex and in the emergence of bipolar disorder pathology. Together,…

  1. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Evidence for Prodromal States and Early Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Navsaria, Neha

    2010-01-01

    Background: Childhood bipolar disorder remains a controversial but increasingly diagnosed disorder that is associated with significant impairment, chronic course and treatment resistance. Therefore, the search for prodromes or early markers of risk for later childhood bipolar disorder may be of great importance for prevention and/or early…

  2. The Enigma of Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been a proliferation in the number of children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Except in rare cases, the young people who receive this diagnosis do not meet the strict diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder I or II in the DSM-IV-TR. Many pediatric psychiatrists insist there are important development…

  3. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…

  4. Bipolar-FET combinational power transistors for power conversion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.; Chin, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four bipolar-FET (field-effect transistor) combinational transistor configurations are compared from the application point of view. The configurations included are FET-Darlington (cascade), emitter-open switch (cascode), parallel configuration, and FET-gated bipolar transistors (FGT).

  5. A Scalable Mextram Model for Advanced Bipolar Circuit Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, H.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, a referenced based scaling approach and its parameter extraction for the bipolar transistor model Mextram is proposed. It is mainly based on the physical properties of the Mextram parameters, which scale with the junction temperature and geometry of the bipolar transistor. The

  6. New types of bipolar fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Yaqoob

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The notion of bipolar fuzzy set was initiated by Lee (2000 as a generalization of the notion fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, which have drawn attention of many mathematicians and computer scientists. In this paper, we initiate a study on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. By using the concept of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets (Yaqoob and Ansari, 2013, we introduce the notion of bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroups (-hyperideals and bi--hyperideals and discuss some basic results on bipolar ( , -fuzzy sets in -semihypergroups. Furthermore, we define the bipolar fuzzy subset ,               and prove that if  ,       is a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H; then ,               is also a bipolar ( , -fuzzy sub -semihypergroup (resp., -hyperideal and bi--hyperideal of H.

  7. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pconflict (pfamilies where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  8. Tailoring the interface layer of the bipolar membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Srinkantharajah, S.; Sumbharaju, R.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates various parameters affecting the water splitting of bipolar ion-exchange membranes. We show that the amount of functional groups and the water content of the interface layer have a strong influence on the bipolar membrane resistance. Use of anion exchange layers containing

  9. Major Ups and Downs: Bipolar Disorder Brings Extreme Mood Swings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are severe—making it hard for you to sleep, stay focused or go to work—it may be a sign of bipolar disorder. Not only can bipolar disorder damage relationships, affect your grades and make it hard to keep a job; ...

  10. Risk Factors of Attempted Suicide in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Suicide rates of bipolar patients are among the highest of any psychiatric disorder, and improved identification of risk factors for attempted and completed suicide translates into improved clinical outcome. Factors that may be predictive of suicidality in an exclusively bipolar population are examined. White race, family suicide history, and…

  11. Premorbid intelligence and educational level in bipolar and unipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Sæbye, Ditte; Urfer-Parnas, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups.......Registry-based studies have found no or weak associations between premorbid intelligence and the broad entity of affective spectrum disorder, but none of the studies compared bipolar/unipolar subgroups....

  12. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study : 12-Year Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other

  13. Treatment outcomes of acute bipolar depressive episode with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Dufour, Steven; Sylvia, Louisa G; Gao, Keming; Ketter, Terence A; Bobo, William V; Walsh, Samantha; Janos, Jessica; Tohen, Mauricio; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; McElroy, Susan L; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2018-01-12

    The impact of psychosis on the treatment of bipolar depression is remarkably understudied. The primary aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes of bipolar depressed individuals with and without psychosis. The secondary aim was to compare the effect of lithium and quetiapine, each with adjunctive personalized treatments (APTs), in the psychotic subgroup. We assessed participants with DSM-IV bipolar depression included in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium and quetiapine with APTs (the Bipolar CHOICE study). Severity was assessed by the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and by the Clinical Global Impression Scale-Severity-Bipolar Version (CGI-S-BP). Mixed models were used to assess the course of symptom change, and Cox regression survival analysis was used to assess the time to remission. Psychotic features were present in 10.6% (n = 32) of the depressed participants (n = 303). Those with psychotic features had higher scores on the BISS before (75.2 ± 17.6 vs. 54.9 ± 16.3; P Bipolar depressive episodes with psychotic features are more severe, and compared to nonpsychotic depressions, present a similar course of improvement. Given the small number of participants presenting psychosis, the lack of statistically significant difference between lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment of psychotic bipolar depressive episodes needs replication in a larger sample. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The CBCL Bipolar Profile and Attention, Mood, and Behavior Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Leonard A.; Connor, Daniel F.; Toscano, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Biederman and colleagues reported that a CBCL profile identified youngsters who were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Some studies found that this CBCL profile does not reliably identify children who present with bipolar disorder, but nonetheless this CBCL does identify youngsters with severe dysfunction. However, the nature of the impairment of…

  15. Bipolar Disorder: not only in the Brain - immunological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Knijff (Esther)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe main objective of this thesis was to obtain more insight in the role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder by investigating various aberrancies in the immune system of patients with bipolar disorder. In Chapter 1 some general concepts, important for the

  16. Precursors in adolescence of adult-onset bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Sabet, Julia A; Sjöqvist, Hugo; Melinder, Carren; Brummer, Robert J; Montgomery, Scott

    2017-08-15

    Although the estimated contribution of genetic factors is high in bipolar disorder, environmental factors may also play a role. This Swedish register-based cohort study of men examined if physical and psychological characteristics in late adolescence, including factors previously linked with bipolar disorder (body mass index, asthma and allergy), are associated with subsequent bipolar disorder in adulthood. Unipolar depression and anxiety are analysed as additional outcomes to identify bipolar disorder-specific associations. A total of 213,693 men born between 1952 and 1956, who participated in compulsory military conscription assessments in late adolescence were followed up to 2009, excluding men with any psychiatric diagnoses at baseline. Cox regression estimated risk of bipolar disorder, depression and anxiety in adulthood associated with body mass index, asthma, allergy, muscular strength stress resilience and cognitive function in adolescence. BMI, asthma and allergy were not associated with bipolar disorder. Higher grip strength, cognitive function and stress resilience were associated with a reduced risk of bipolar disorder and the other disease outcomes. The sample consisted only of men; even though the characteristics in adolescence pre-dated disease onset, they may have been the consequence of prodromal disease. Associations with body mass index and asthma found by previous studies may be consequences of bipolar disorder or its treatment rather than risk factors. Inverse associations with all the outcome diagnoses for stress resilience, muscular strength and cognitive function may reflect general risks for these psychiatric disorders or intermediary factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychodynamics of hypersexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelson, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    It has recently become evident that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents. The criteria for making the diagnosis of juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD) are in the process of being proposed for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V). In adults, a criterion for bipolar disorder is excessive involvement in pleasurable activities including hypersexuality. Recently, some clinicians and researchers have suggested that hypersexuality be included as a criterion for JBD as well. Although abnormal sexuality has been reported to be present in some youth thought to have JBD, the reason for this association is not yet clear. Hypersexuality may be primary and intrinsic to bipolar disorder in youth, secondary and associated with it as the result of psychosocial influences or psychodynamic factors, or due to general aggression and disruptive behavior. Not only have developmental psychosocial factors that may influence sexuality in children and adolescence not been fully investigated, but psychodynamic influences have been omitted from modern etiological constructs as well. This report discusses the importance of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexual experience and activity of bipolar children. It is proposed that a developmental, psychodynamically informed model is helpful in understanding sexuality in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. It is also suggested that assessment of psychosocial and psychodynamic influences on the sexuality of bipolar children is necessary in order to adequately assess whether hypersexuality should be a criterion of bipolar disorder in youth.

  18. On the switching speed of SOI LEDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan; de Vries, R.; Salm, Cora; Hoang, T.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart; Holleman, J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we presented a novel design for a silicon LED in SmartCUT™ SOI wafers. It exhibits a record quantum efficiency for SOI-based silicon LEDs and opens the way to the integration of light emitters in a VLSI process on SOI. In this paper, we present first experimental and modeling results

  19. Led-licht biedt mogelijkheden in broeierij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neefjes, H.; PPO Bomen-bollen,

    2010-01-01

    Onderzoekers van PPO Lisse hebben de mogelijkheden van led-licht verkend bij met name lelie en tulp. Bij lelie bieden leds perspectief in de voortrek. Tulp kan er bijna de hele broeifase van profiteren. Veel licht is niet nodig, maar meerlagenteelt is een voorwaarde.

  20. Led Zeppelin reklaamib Narvat / Anti Ronk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ronk, Anti

    2007-01-01

    Ilmus Narva-teemaline kahest CD-st koosnev album, kus ühel plaadil on 60 minutit videot linna vaatamisväärsuste ja informatsiooniga, teisel - briti rockansambli Led Zeppelini teosed Narva sümfooniaorkestri ja rockansambli Led R esituses

  1. [Artistic creativity and bipolar mood disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2004-08-15

    Several studies and theories propose a connection between psychopathology and artistic creativity i.e. madness and genius characters share common roots. Employing scientific research data, the objective of this review is to elucidate the frequency of psychopathological alterations among writers and artists and to analyse the possible influence of bipolar mood disorder spectrum on the artistic creativity. Reviewing studies a) on retrospective investigations, based on biographies of famous persons with high creative achievements, b) on psychiatric examinations of living writers and artists, c) on individual examples of geniuses in the light of their mental status and work output correlations, and d) on creative traits and skills of diagnosed psychiatric patient populations. Beyond the practical experiences and impressions being held for ages from ancient times, the scientific observations and surveys indicate that psychopathological symptoms, especially those belonging to the bipolar mood disorder (bipolar I and II), major depression and cyclothymia categories occur more frequently among writers, poets, visual artists and composers, compared to the rates in the general population. Self-reports of writers and artists describe symptoms in their intensively creative periods which are reminiscent and characteristic of hypomanic states. Further, cognitive styles of hypomania (e.g. overinclusive thinking, richness of associations) and originality-prone creativity share many common as indicated by several authors. Among the eminent artists showing most probably manic-depressive or cyclothymic symptoms were: E. Dickinson, E. Hemingway, N. Gogol, A. Strindberg, V. Woolf, Lord Byron (G. Gordon), J. W. Goethe, V. van Gogh, F. Goya, G. Donizetti, G. F. Händel, O. Klemperer, G. Mahler, R. Schumann, and H. Wolf. Based on biographies and other studies, brief descriptions are given in the present article on the personality character of Gogol; Strindberg, Van Gogh, H

  2. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  3. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Lukash, V. S.; Stepanov, S. A.; Yangyang, Ju

    2016-01-01

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  4. White LEDs with limit luminous efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, V. M.; Stepanov, S. A., E-mail: stepanovsa@tpu.ru; Yangyang, Ju [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Av., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Lukash, V. S. [JSC Research Institute of Semiconductor Devices, 99a Krasnoarmeyskaja St., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    In most promising widespread gallium nitride based LEDs emission is generated in the blue spectral region with a maximum at about 450 nm which is converted to visible light with the desired spectrum by means of phosphor. The thermal energy in the conversion is determined by the difference in the energies of excitation and emission quanta and the phosphor quantum yield. Heat losses manifest themselves as decrease in the luminous efficacy. LED heating significantly reduces its efficiency and life. In addition, while heating, the emission generation output and the efficiency of the emission conversion decrease. Therefore, the reduction of the energy losses caused by heating is crucial for LED development. In this paper, heat losses in phosphor-converted LEDs (hereinafter chips) during spectrum conversion are estimated. The limit values of the luminous efficacy for white LEDs are evaluated.

  5. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  6. Multi-LED parallel transmission for long distance underwater VLC system with one SPAD receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Hong-Yi; Zhu, Yi-Jun; Wang, Tao; Ji, Ya-Wei

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a multiple light emitting diode (LED) chips parallel transmission (Multi-LED-PT) scheme for underwater visible light communication system with one photon-counting single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) receiver is proposed. As the lamp always consists of multi-LED chips, the data rate could be improved when we drive these multi-LED chips parallel by using the interleaver-division-multiplexing technique. For each chip, the on-off-keying modulation is used to reduce the influence of clipping. Then a serial successive interference cancellation detection algorithm based on ideal Poisson photon-counting channel by the SPAD is proposed. Finally, compared to the SPAD-based direct current-biased optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, the proposed Multi-LED-PT system could improve the error-rate performance and anti-nonlinearity performance significantly under the effects of absorption, scattering and weak turbulence-induced channel fading together.

  7. Lithium in drinking water and the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars V; Gerds, Thomas A; Knudsen, Nikoline N

    2017-01-01

    of bipolar disorder (primary prophylaxis). In a nation-wide population-based study, we investigated whether long-term exposure to micro levels of lithium in drinking water correlates with the incidence of bipolar disorder in the general population, hypothesizing an inverse association in which higher long......-term lithium exposure is associated with lower incidences of bipolar disorder. METHODS: We included longitudinal individual geographical data on municipality of residence, data from drinking water lithium measurements and time-specific data from all cases with a hospital contact with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder from 1995 to 2013 (N=14 820) and 10 age- and gender-matched controls from the Danish population (N= 140 311). Average drinking water lithium exposure was estimated for all study individuals. RESULTS: The median of the average lithium exposure did not differ between cases with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...

  8. Combinations of genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Andreassen, Ole A.; Bennike, Bente

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to find genetic variants that in combination are significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In previous studies of bipolar disorder, combinations of three and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotypes taken from 803 SNPs were analyzed, and five...... clusters of combinations were found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. In the present study, combinations of ten SNP genotypes taken from the same 803 SNPs were analyzed, and one cluster of combinations was found to be significantly associated with bipolar disorder. Combinations from......, heterozygote or variant homozygote. In the combinations containing 10 SNP genotypes almost all the genotypes were the normal homozygote. Such a finding may indicate that accumulation in the genome of combinations containing few SNP genotypes may be a risk factor for bipolar disorder when those combinations...

  9. Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Yu, Haifeng; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identify diagnostic risk factors of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (“high-risk offspring”). Method High-risk offspring aged 6-18 years (n=391) and demographically-matched offspring (n=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean interval 2.5 years; mean duration 6.8 years). Results High-risk offspring, as compared to community offspring, had significantly higher rates of subthreshold (hypo)manic (13.3% vs. 1.2%, pattention-deficit hyperactivity (30.7% vs. 18.2%, p=.01), disruptive behavior (27.4% vs. 15.3%, p=.03), anxiety (39.9% vs. 21.8%, p=.0002), and substance use disorders (20.0% vs. 10.1%, p=.008), but not unipolar major depressive disorder (major depression with no bipolarity; 18.9% vs. 13.7%; p=.10). Multivariate Cox regressions in the high-risk offspring showed that subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 2.29, p=.03), major depressive episodes (Hazard Ratio 1.99, p=.05), and disruptive behavior disorders (Hazard Ratio 2.12, p=.03) were associated with subsequent mania/hypomania. Only subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes (Hazard Ratio 7.57, passociated when analyses were restricted to prospective data. Conclusions Subthreshold (hypo)manic episodes were a diagnostic risk factor for the development of mania/hypomania in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder, and should be a target for clinical assessment and future treatment research. Major depressive episodes and disruptive behavior disorders are also indications for close clinical monitoring of emergent bipolarity in high-risk offspring. PMID:25734353

  10. Bipolar disorders and Wilson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta Mauro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD in Wilson’s disease (WD and to measure the impaired Quality of Life (QL in BD with WD using standardized psychiatric diagnostic tools and a case control design. Methods This was a case control study. The cases were 23 consecutive patients with WD treated at the University Hospital in Cagliari, Italy, and the controls were 92 sex- and age-matched subjects with no diagnosis of WD who were randomly selected from a database used previously for an epidemiological study. Psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria were determined by physicians using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID. QL was measured by means of SF-12. Results Compared to controls, WD patients had lower scores on the SF-12 and higher lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV major depressive disorders (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.4–17.3 and bipolar disorders (OR = 12.9, 95% CI 3.6–46.3. BD was associated with lower SF-12 in WD patients. Conclusions This study was the first to show an association between BD and WD using standardized diagnostic tools and a case control design. Reports in the literature about increased schizophrenia-like psychosis in WD and a lack of association with bipolar disorders may thus have been based on a more inclusive diagnosis of schizophrenia in the past. Our findings may explain the frequent reports of loss of emotional control, hyperactivity, loss of sexual inhibition, and irritability in WD patients. This study was limited by a small sample size.

  11. Detecting Bipolar Depression From Geographic Location Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmius, N; Tsanas, A; Saunders, K E A; Bilderbeck, A C; Geddes, J R; Goodwin, G M; De Vos, M

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to identify periods of depression using geolocation movements recorded from mobile phones in a prospective community study of individuals with bipolar disorder (BD). Anonymized geographic location recordings from 22 BD participants and 14 healthy controls (HC) were collected over 3 months. Participants reported their depressive symptomatology using a weekly questionnaire (QIDS-SR 16 ). Recorded location data were preprocessed by detecting and removing imprecise data points and features were extracted to assess the level and regularity of geographic movements of the participant. A subset of features were selected using a wrapper feature selection method and presented to 1) a linear regression model and a quadratic generalized linear model with a logistic link function for questionnaire score estimation; and 2) a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier for depression detection in BD participants based on their questionnaire responses. R esults: HC participants did not report depressive symptoms and their features showed similar distributions to nondepressed BD participants. Questionnaire score estimation using geolocation-derived features from BD participants demonstrated an optimal mean absolute error rate of 3.73, while depression detection demonstrated an optimal (median ± IQR) [Formula: see text] score of 0.857 ± 0.022 using five features (classification accuracy: 0.849 ± 0.016; sensitivity: 0.839 ± 0.014; specificity: 0.872 ± 0.047). These results demonstrate a strong link between geographic movements and depression in bipolar disorder. S ignificance: To our knowledge, this is the first community study of passively recorded objective markers of depression in bipolar disorder of this scale. The techniques could help individuals monitor their depression and enable healthcare providers to detect those in need of care or treatment.

  12. Is bipolar disorder specifically associated with aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Obreja, Mihaela; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, MaryBeth; Iyengar, Satish; Farchione, Tiffany; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder (BP) in adults is associated with aggressive behaviors. However, most studies have only included inpatients and have not taken possible confounding factors into consideration. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of aggression in subjects with BP compared to subjects with other non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) were recruited. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Group comparisons were adjusted for demographic and clinical differences (e.g., comorbid disorders) and multiple comparisons. The effects of the subtype of BP, current versus past episode, polarity of current episode, psychosis, the presence of irritable mania/hypomania only, and pharmacological treatment were examined. Results Subjects with BP showed significantly higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) when compared with subjects with non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Exclusion of subjects with current mood episodes and those with common comorbid disorders yielded similar results. There were no effects of BP subtype, polarity of the current episode, irritable manic/hypomanic episodes only, or current use of pharmacological treatments. Independent of the severity of BP and polarity of the episode, those in a current mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than those not in a current mood episode. Subjects with current psychosis showed significantly higher total AQ score, hostility, and anger than those without current psychosis. Conclusions Subjects with BP display greater rates of anger and aggressive behaviors, especially during acute and psychotic episodes. Early identification and management of these behaviors is warranted. PMID:22548901

  13. Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Liana R.; Miskowiak, Kamilla W.; Vale, Antônio M. O.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from...... learning and memory. We also found evidence for other potential sources of heterogeneity in several ES estimates including co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders, and the use of medications. In addition, the use of different neuropsychological tests appeared...

  14. Cognitive enhancement treatments for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Carvalho, André F; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is an emerging treatment target in bipolar disorder (BD). Several trials have assessed the efficacy of novel pharmacological and psychological treatments on cognition in BD but the findings are contradictory and unclear. A systematic search following the PRISMA guidelines...... was conducted on PubMed and PsychInfo. Eligible articles reported randomized, controlled or open-label trials investigating pharmacological or psychological treatments targeting cognitive dysfunction in BD. The quality of the identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was evaluated with the Cochrane...

  15. Analysis of bipolar and CMOS amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Sodagar, Amir M

    2007-01-01

    The classical approach to analog circuit analysis is a daunting prospect to many students, requiring tedious enumeration of contributing factors and lengthy calculations. Most textbooks apply this cumbersome approach to small-signal amplifiers, which becomes even more difficult as the number of components increases. Analysis of Bipolar and CMOS Amplifiers offers students an alternative that enables quick and intuitive analysis and design: the analysis-by-inspection method.This practical and student-friendly text demonstrates how to achieve approximate results that fall within an acceptable ran

  16. Total Dose Effects in Conventional Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swift, G. W.; Rax, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various factors in bipolar device construction and design, and discusses their impact on radiation hardness. The intent of the paper is to improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms for practical devices without special test structures, and to provide (1) guidance in ways to select transistor designs that are more resistant to radiation damage, and (2) methods to estimate the maximum amount of damage that might be expected from a basic transistor design. The latter factor is extremely important in assessing the risk that future lots of devices will be substantially below design limits, which are usually based on test data for older devices.

  17. Unexplored areas of psychotherapy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Murphy, Paula; Colom, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Several psychological interventions-including group psychoeducation, family-focused psychoeducation, and interpersonal social-rhythm therapy-have demonstrated prophylactic efficacy as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorders (BDs). The field of psychological interventions for BD has experienced impressive progress over the last 15 years. Certain unexplored areas, however, require further research in order to establish the full potential of psychological interventions for BD. Such research should focus, among other things, on cognitive impairment associated with BD, BD in the elderly, comorbid anxiety disorders and other comorbidities, the treatment of BD in pregnant women, and the improvement of patients' overall physical health.

  18. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  19. Obesity in bipolar disorder: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Susan L; Keck, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with obesity, overweight, and abdominal obesity, and BD individuals with obesity have a greater illness burden. Factors related to BD, its treatment, and the individual may all contribute to BD's association with obesity. Management strategies for the obese BD patient include use of medications with better metabolic profiles, lifestyle interventions, and adjunctive pharmacotherapy for weight loss. Obesity-related psychiatric and medical comorbidities should also be assessed and managed. Bariatric surgery may be an option for carefully selected patients. Greater research into the theoretical underpinnings and clinical management of the BD-obesity connection is needed.

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas among patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with a variety of cognitive features that seem to play a role in affective symptoms. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of schema theory's Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) among individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder. A sample of 74 participants with bipolar disorder and 99 mixed clinical controls (46 with unipolar depression and 53 with anxiety disorders) completed the Young Schema Questionnaire and comparison measures. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Mean scores were compared with previously established benchmarks. Participants with bipolar disorder demonstrate elevated scores on most EMSs, many at an intermediate position between nonclinical and mixed clinical control groups. When controlling for depression, participants with bipolar disorder exceed those with unipolar depression on Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and Entitlement/Grandiosity. Bipolar group membership is predicted by high scores on Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and low scores on Emotional Inhibition and Abandonment. Women were overrepresented. Axis II traits were not assessed, nor were manic symptoms in the mixed clinical sample. Bipolar disorder is associated with a general activation of the EMSs. Approval-Seeking/Recognition-Seeking and Entitlement/Grandiosity seem to be particularly high, while Emotional Inhibition and Abandonment seem to be typically low. These EMS are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. By demonstrating the activation of the EMSs, this study suggests that the EMS component of schema theory may be applied to bipolar disorder. Future research should explore how EMSs might interact with life events to trigger affective symptoms and, ultimately, the applicability of schema therapy to bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary findings regarding overweight and obesity in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A; Goldstein, Tina R; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Strober, Michael A; Hunt, Jeffrey; Leonard, Henrietta; Gill, Mary Kay; Iyengar, Satish; Grimm, Colleen; Yang, Mei; Ryan, Neal D; Keller, Martin B

    2008-12-01

    Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent among adults with bipolar disorder and has been associated with illness severity. Little is known regarding overweight/obesity among youth with bipolar disorder. Subjects were 348 youths aged 7 to 17 years who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I or bipolar II disorder or study-operationalized criteria for bipolar disorder not otherwise specified and were enrolled in the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Illness in Youth study. Age- and sex-adjusted body mass index was computed according to International Obesity Task Force cut points, based on self- and parent-reported height and weight, to determine overweight/obesity. The study was conducted from October 2000 to July 2006. Overweight/obesity was prevalent among 42% of subjects. The most robust predictors of overweight/obesity in a logistic regression model were younger age, nonwhite race, lifetime physical abuse, substance use disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations, and exposure to ≥ 2 medication classes associated with weight gain. The prevalence of overweight/obesity among youth with bipolar disorder may be modestly greater than in the general population. Moreover, similar to adults, overweight/obesity among youth with bipolar disorder may be associated with increased psychiatric burden. These preliminary findings underscore the importance of early identification of overweight/obesity among youth with bipolar disorder. Future studies are needed to clarify the direction of the associations between overweight/obesity and the identified predictors and to compare the prevalence of overweight/obesity among youth with bipolar disorder versus other psychiatric disorders. Copyright 2008 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  2. A different perspective on bipolar disorder? : epidemiology, consequences, concept, and recognition of bipolar spectrum disorder in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regeer, Eline Janet

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, or manic-depressive illness, is a mood disorder in which episodes of mania, hypomania and depression occur in alternation with intervals of normal mood. Bipolar disorder is typically a recurrent illness and may have serious consequences such as poor social and occupational

  3. Life events and bipolar disorder : The influence of life events on the onset and course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depressive illness) is diagnosed in approximately 2% of the population. The disorder is characterized by alternating periods of raised activity and (manic) mood and periods of reduced activity with lowered (depressed) mood. Bipolar disorder

  4. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-01

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2). N-LEDs...

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  6. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zheng; Stough, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W e using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated

  7. FREQUENCY CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN LED PHOSPHOR MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim S. Fudin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency characteristics of modern LED phosphor materials have been considered for the purpose of assessing the prospects of phosphor-based LEDs in wireless communication data systems which use optical wavelengths. The measurements have been carried out on the dependence of the emission intensity of single LEDs and LED chip-on-board modules with phosphors based on yttrium-aluminum and lutetium-aluminum garnets (with or without addition of nitridebased phosphors as well as silicate-based phosphors, on the frequency of electric pulses exciting the emission. It was shown that from the point of view of data transmission rate, garnet-based phosphors (including systems with added nitride phosphors are more promising than silicate–based ones. Garnet-based materials can be used in optical communication data systems with bandwidth (without extra modulation applied up to 3 MHz with single–chip LEDs and up to 4.5 MHz with 9- chip LED chip-on-board modules. The results of the work indicate that a significant part of white LEDs used in general lighting systems can be even now used for data transfer, for example, in systems assisting positioning in closed spaces to facilitate people searching necessary rooms or objects

  8. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  9. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  10. Kansas highway LED illumination manual : a guide for the use of LED lighting systems : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The research project was aimed to assist the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT) in the development of a Highway LED Illumination Manual for guiding the upcoming implementation of successful LED roadway lighting systems in Kansas to replace th...

  11. A Bipolar Spindle of Antiparallel ParM Filaments Drives Bacterial Plasmid Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayathri, P; Fujii, T; Møller-Jensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    To ensure their stable inheritance by daughter cells during cell division, bacterial low copy-number plasmids make simple DNA segregating machines that use an elongating protein filament between sister plasmids. In the ParMRC system of Escherichia coli R1 plasmid, ParM, an actin-like protein, forms...

  12. The current status of the psychoanalytic theory of instinctual drives. I: Drive concept, classification, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, A

    1983-07-01

    forty years than other aspects of drive theory, although careful observational work has led to alterations of our views of the age of onset of genital awareness, of female sexual development and function, and of the latency period. This is the conclusion of the first of two papers examining the post-Freud development of the theory of instinctual drives in psychoanalysis. The companion paper follows on p. 402 of this issue of The Psychoanalytic Quarterly.

  13. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices.

  14. Loopy: The Political Ontology of Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RACHEL JANE LIEBERT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay is at once a critical analysis, an experiment in form, and – with some irony – a cautionary tale. Triggered by the inclusion of prodromal diagnoses in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and the recent call by the United States’ (U.S. Obama administration for increased mental health screening, I argue that shifts toward identifying and intervening on one’s potential madness, or risk, circulate with/in the contemporary U.S. climate of intensified discipline and terror, and use Bipolar Disorder as a site to critically explore how and with what implications this circulation occurs. Specifically, I weave Massumi’s ‘political ontology of threat’ with the narrative of a woman diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder in order to trace the pre-emptive politics and affective logic of a risk-based approach to madness. I contend that the diagnosing and drugging of potential is a self-perpetuating loop that is personally and politically harmful, and consider alternatives to this burgeoning practice.

  15. Depression and Mania in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tondo, Leonardo; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2017-04-01

    Episode duration, recurrence rates, and time spent in manic and depressive phases of bipolar disorder (BD) is not well defined for subtypes of the disorder. We reviewed the course, timing, and duration of episodes of mania and depression among 1130 clinically treated DSM-IV-TR BD patients of various types, and compared duration and rates as well as total proportion of time in depressive versus manic episodes during 16.7 average years at risk. As expected, episodes of depressions were much longer than manias, but episode-duration did not differ among BD diagnostic types: I, II, with mainly mixed-episodes (BD-Mx), or with psychotic features (BD-P). Recurrence rates (episodes/year) and proportion of time in depression and their ratios to mania were highest in BD-II and BD-Mx subjects, with more manias/year in psychotic and BD-I subjects. In most BD-subtypes, except with psychotic features, there was more time in depressive than manic morbidity, owing mainly to longer depressive than manic episodes. The proportion of time in depression was highest among those who followed a predominant DMI course, whereas total time in mania was greatest in BD with psychotic features and BD-I. and with an MDI course. Subtypes of BD patients differed little in episode-duration, which was consistently much longer for depression. The findings underscore the limited control of bipolar depression with available treatments.

  16. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  17. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Transtorno bipolar do humor e gênero Bipolar affective disorder and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Silva Dias

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Embora o transtorno bipolar (TB ocorra quase igualmente em ambos os sexos, a fenomenologia e o curso da doença diferem no homem e na mulher. No entanto, há evidências de que mulheres bipolares, mais que os homens, apresentariam início mais tardio (em especial na quinta década de vida, ciclagem rápida, mais episódios depressivos, mais mania disfórica que eufórica, estados mistos e evolução do tipo bipolar II, ainda que os achados nem sempre sejam consistentes. Embora o risco de comorbidades no TB inclua, para ambos os gêneros, abuso de álcool e drogas, homens bipolares teriam maior probabilidade de ser alcoolistas, não procurar tratamento e de se suicidar. Hipóteses sugeridas para explicar tais diferenças variam daquelas centradas em aspectos culturais ou psicológicos para as que focalizam os sistemas hormonais, como os esteróides gonadais ou o eixo tireoidiano, e até mesmo a anatomia cerebral. A influência do ciclo reprodutivo (ciclo menstrual, gravidez e menopausa sobre as opções terapêuticas no tratamento do TB é apresentada na última parte desta revisão.Although the bipolar disorder (BD occurs almost with the same frequency in both genders, the phenomenology and the outcome of the illness differ between them. Nevertheless, there is evidence that women with BD show, more than men, delayed beginning, especially in their fifth decade, more rapid cycling outcome, more depressive episodes, more dysphoric mania, more mixed states and more BD type II. Even so, the findings are not always consistent. Although the risk of comorbidities in BD includes, for both the sorts, excessive alcoholic consumption and drugs, bipolar men would have greater probability of being alcohol dependent, of not seeking treatment and of committing suicide. Suggested hypotheses to explain such differences vary from those centered in cultural or psychological aspects to those that focus on the steroids hormones, and other hormones such as cortisol

  19. LED traffic signal management system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This research originated from the opportunity to develop a methodology to assess when LED (Light Emitting Diode) traffic signal modules begin to fail to meet the Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) performance specification for luminous inten...

  20. Significant growth in. LED use predicted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Mike

    2012-03-01

    Although LED lighting has its critics, a number of whom (see article 'LED--panacea or marketing hype', HEJ--February 2012) are concerned about what they claim are some manufacturers' 'exaggerated claims' about lighting efficiency and lamp lifetime, Philips Lighting believes that, such are the advances being made in this innovative lighting technology, that LED's overall share of the European lighting market will have risen from around 7% in 2008 to 25% by 2020 and that, a decade later, it will account for a remarkable 75% of lighting sales. In the UK, Philips' technical and design director for Lighting, Mike Simpson, told HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, healthcare estates and facilities managers are increasingly recognising the potential to save energy, reduce carbon emissions, and cut maintenance costs, using LED.

  1. LED til væksthuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Den teknologiske udvikling indenfor Lys Emitterende Dioder (LED) går imod stadig større lysmængder og stadig større effektivitet. Kombineret med fordele som lang levetid, dæmpbarhed og ingen varmestråling gør det, at LED baserede lyskilder/lamper i stigende grad benyttes til belysningsformål og kan...

  2. LED Shipboard Lighting: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    viability of retrofitting the Navy fleet with newer lighting technology . C. RESEARCH QUESTION The research project provided to NPS by Dr. Larry Schuette...LED is a key component in today’s lighting technology . Modern households use LEDs in such components as digital video disc, (DVD) readers...manufactures that the Navy is serious in implementing lighting technology with a multi- year demonstration seeing the benefits provided by the manufactures

  3. Corpus callosum changes in euthymic bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adrian J; Ali, Heba E; Nesbitt, David; Moore, P Brian; Young, Allan H; Ferrier, I Nicol

    2014-02-01

    Changes in corpus callosum area and thickness have been reported in bipolar disorder. Imaging and limited neuropathological data suggest possible abnormalities in myelination and/or glial function. To compare corpus callosum area, thickness and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1 signal intensity in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls. A total of 48 patients with euthymic bipolar disorder and 46 healthy controls underwent MRI analysis of callosal midsagittal area, callosal thickness and T1 signal intensity. The bipolar group had smaller overall and subregional callosal areas and correspondingly reduced callosal width than the control group. Age correlated negatively with callosal area in the control group but not in the bipolar group. Signal intensity was higher in women than in men in both groups. Signal intensity was reduced in women, but not in men, in the bipolar group. Observed differences probably relate to diagnosis rather than mood state and bipolar disorder appears to result in morphometric change that overrides changes seen in normal ageing. Intensity changes are consistent with possible altered myelination or glial function. A gender-dependent factor appears to operate and to interact with diagnosis.

  4. Bipolar disorder and dementia: where is the link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masouy, Anaïs; Chopard, Gilles; Vandel, Pierre; Magnin, Eloi; Rumbach, Lucien; Sechter, Daniel; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive disorders appearing in the course of bipolar disease have been identified, and recent studies have defined the neuropsychological characteristics of this pathology, which includes attention, executive function, memory and language disorders. However, questions remain concerning the appearance of dementia symptoms over the course of bipolar disorder in certain patients: is it a chance association or is there a connection between bipolar disorders and dementia? If the latter hypothesis is considered, what is the nature of the dementia, which might be considered as a dementia specific to bipolar disorder? Current clinical, neuropsychological and cerebral imaging data are inconclusive, but similarities with frontotemporal dementia might be highlighted. Functional imaging studies might provide answers as well as more specific tests in neuropsychology. The cause of cognitive damage in bipolar disease also raises questions concerning a neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative process, because several factors seem to influence cognition and these two processes might occur simultaneously. Long-term studies are necessary to determine whether cognitive deterioration in bipolar disease is stable or progressive. There might also be different neurobiological subgroups of patients with bipolar disease. © 2011 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2011 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  5. Mental imagery as an emotional amplifier: application to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emily A; Geddes, John R; Colom, Francesc; Goodwin, Guy M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitions in the form of mental images have a more powerful impact on emotion than their verbal counterparts. This review synthesizes the cognitive science of imagery and emotion with transdiagnostic clinical research, yielding novel predictions for the basis of emotional volatility in bipolar disorder. Anxiety is extremely common in patients with bipolar disorder and is associated with increased dysfunction and suicidality, yet it is poorly understood and rarely treated. Mental imagery is a neglected aspect of bipolar anxiety although in anxiety disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and social phobia focusing on imagery has been crucial for the development of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). In this review we present a cognitive model of imagery and emotion applied to bipolar disorder. Within this model mental imagery amplifies emotion, drawing on Clark's cyclical panic model [(1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461-470]. We (1) emphasise imagery's amplification of anxiety (cycle one); (2) suggest that imagery amplifies the defining (hypo-) mania of bipolar disorder (cycle two), whereby the overly positive misinterpretation of triggers leads to mood elevation (escalated by imagery), increasing associated beliefs, goals, and action likelihood (all strengthened by imagery). Imagery suggests a unifying explanation for key unexplained features of bipolar disorder: ubiquitous anxiety, mood instability and creativity. Introducing imagery has novel implications for bipolar treatment innovation--an area where CBT improvements are much-needed.

  6. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  7. Treatment of Femoral Neck Fractures: Unipolar Versus Bipolar Hemiarthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somashekar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intracapsular femoral neck fractures are common in the elderly population. To avoid the poor outcome of internal fixation and for early mobilization, hemiarthroplasty is performed. However, there is inadequate evidence to support the choice between unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of unipolar with the bipolar prosthesis in geriatric patients. METHODS: Forty-one patients above 60 years of age and an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck were randomly allocated to treatment by either unipolar or bipolar hemiarthroplasty, in the Department of Orthopaedics, between September 2009 and October 2012. Functional outcome was assessed and compared using Harris hip score and radiological parameters with a follow-up of one year. RESULTS: The two groups of patients with mean age of 67.3 in bipolar group and 75.6 in unipolar group did not differ in their pre-injury characteristics and perioperative parameters. The mean Harris hip score in bipolar and unipolar groups was 86.18±12.18 and 79.79±15.55, respectively (p=0.183; range of motion was 210.63±28.39 and 181.58±37(p=0.015 with bipolar and unipolar groups, respectively. Functional activities were better in the bipolar group. Complications like painful hip, posterior dislocation, periprosthetic fracture and acetabular erosion were encountered in unipolar prostheses. CONCLUSION: The use of bipolar endoprosthesis in the management of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly was associated with better mean Harris hip score and incidence of complications was limited. Hence, bipolar would be a better option in elderly patients with fracture neck of femur.

  8. Outpatient diagnosis and clinical presentation of bipolar youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Kirti; Nakonezny, Paul A; Simmons, Alex; Mayes, Taryn; Walley, Annie; Emslie, Graham

    2009-08-01

    Many children and adolescents in the community do not fit the classic Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for Bipolar Disorder, Type I., and bipolar disorder, not otherwise specified (BPNOS) is often the "catch all" diagnosis. Significant research has been conducted to better understand the phenomenology of the spectrum of bipolar disorder; however, there are presently different operational definitions for bipolar disorder, in both clinical and research settings. A recent study, The Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) provided preliminary validation for diagnosing BPNOS. Using these COBY research definitions for BPNOS, we examined the clinical presentation and the prior history of psychotropic medication usage of youth with BPI vs. BPNOS presenting to an outpatient clinic. The initial evaluation consisted of a direct clinical interview with the parent(s) and the patient. Standardized rating scales such as the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms were used to assess current mood states. The Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Severity was used to assess the overall functioning of bipolar youth. Age, comorbidities, and family histories of 68 bipolar youth in the clinic are similar to what other studies have reported. BPNOS youth have significant functional impairment which is comparable to the BPI youth. Both bipolar groups are equally likely to have similar prior exposure to psychotropic medications. BPNOS is a serious illness the diagnostic guidelines for which are still debatable. Until further clarification of this diagnosis, the COBY definitions for BPNOS can be used in a clinic. The use of stringent criteria for diagnosing the bipolar spectrum disorders allows for careful differential diagnoses of psychiatric illnesses.

  9. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  10. Differential brain network activity across mood states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Roscoe O; Tandon, Neeraj; Masters, Grace A; Margolis, Allison; Cohen, Bruce M; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify how the activity of large-scale brain networks differs between mood states in bipolar disorder. The authors measured spontaneous brain activity in subjects with bipolar disorder in mania and euthymia and compared these states to a healthy comparison population. 23 subjects with bipolar disorder type I in a manic episode, 24 euthymic bipolar I subjects, and 23 matched healthy comparison (HC) subjects underwent resting state fMRI scans. Using an existing parcellation of the whole brain, we measured functional connectivity between brain regions and identified significant differences between groups. In unbiased whole-brain analyses, functional connectivity between parietal, occipital, and frontal nodes within the dorsal attention network (DAN) were significantly greater in mania than euthymia or HC subjects. In the default mode network (DMN), connectivity between dorsal frontal nodes and the rest of the DMN differentiated both mood state and diagnosis. The bipolar groups were separate cohorts rather than subjects imaged longitudinally across mood states. Bipolar mood states are associated with highly significant alterations in connectivity in two large-scale brain networks. These same networks also differentiate bipolar mania and euthymia from a HC population. State related changes in DAN and DMN connectivity suggest a circuit based pathology underlying cognitive dysfunction as well as activity/reactivity in bipolar mania. Altered activities in neural networks may be biomarkers of bipolar disorder diagnosis and mood state that are accessible to neuromodulation and are promising novel targets for scientific investigation and possible clinical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Roger S; Danilewitz, Marlon; Liauw, Samantha S; Kemp, David E; Nguyen, Ha T T; Kahn, Linda S; Kucyi, Aaron; Soczynska, Joanna K; Woldeyohannes, Hanna O; Lachowski, Angela; Kim, Byungsu; Nathanson, Jay; Alsuwaidan, Mohammad; Taylor, Valerie H

    2010-11-01

    The ubiquity and hazards posed by abnormal body composition and metabolic parameters in the bipolar population are a priority research and clinical issue. Herein, we summarize and synthesize international studies describing the rate of US National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III [ATP III])- and International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-defined metabolic syndrome and its criterion components in individuals with bipolar disorder. We conducted a PubMed search of all English-language articles published between January 2005 and July 2009 with the following search terms: metabolic syndrome and bipolar disorder, mania and manic-depression. Articles selected for review were based on adequacy of sample size, the use of standardized experimental procedures, validated assessment measures, and overall manuscript quality. The rate of metabolic syndrome in individuals with bipolar disorder is increased relative to the general population. Disparate estimates are reported ranging from comparability to approximately twofold greater than the general population. The increased hazard for metabolic syndrome amongst bipolar individuals is now documented in twelve countries from Europe, Australia, Asia, North and South America. The co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome in the bipolar population is associated with a more complex illness presentation, less favourable response to treatment, and adverse course and outcome. The association between metabolic syndrome and bipolar disorder is mediated/moderated by both iatrogenic and non-iatrogenic factors. The increased hazard for metabolic syndrome in bipolar populations is due to the clustering of traditional (and emerging) risk factors as well as iatrogenic and health systems factors. Extant data support recommendations for prioritizing, surveillance, prevention, diagnosis and management of metabolic syndrome as routine care

  12. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  13. Drive-Through Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how the early childhood field's approach to staff training reflects the drive-through, fast-food culture. Year after year directors send their teachers to workshops to get some quick refresher techniques. The author suggests that rather than focusing professional development on topics, focus on observing…

  14. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  15. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop

    2006-12-01

    Although first detailed descriptions of what we today term "bipolar disorders" are generally attributed to E. Kraepelin [Kraepelin, E., 1899 (1976 tr). Manic depressive insanity and paranoia. (reprint of English translation). Arno, New York], a review of French psychiatric literature from Esquirol to the middle of 20th century reveals major clinical contributions to the development of the concept of cyclic mood disorders, their phenomenology and classification as embodied in DSM-IV. The main treatise was published by the Paris psychiatric schools of Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Charenton, Sainte-Anne and Vanves. Already much before Kraepelin, French authors had described most symptoms and the course of future DSM-IV bipolar, manic, major depressive [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400.; Baillarger, J., 1854. Note sur un genre de folie dont les accès sont caractérisés par deux périodes régulières, l'une de dépression, l'autre d'excitation, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 340 et Ann. Méd. Psychol. XII, 369], hypomanic and mixed episodes [Falret, J., 1861. Principes à suivre dans la classification des maladies mentales, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XIX, 145.; Falret, J., 1866, 1867. La folie raisonnante ou folie morale, Ann. Méd. Psychol. XXIV, 382, XXV, 68], as well as - under other names - the characteristics of bipolar II disorder, various specifiers describing mood episode and course of recurrent episodes [Ritti, A., 1883. Traité clinique de la folie à double forme (folie, circulaire, délire à formes alternes). Doin, Paris]. The synthesis of these clinical observations led to Magnan's "intermittent madness" (1893), a precursor of Kraepelin's "manic-depressive psychosis". After 1899, French authors generally adhered to their classification of autonomous depressive disorder (melancholia), as distinct from manic-depressive insanity

  18. Intervenções psicossociais no transtorno bipolar Psychosocial interventions for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pereira Justo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, os autores, através de revisão bibliográfica narrativa, situam as intervenções psicossociais dentro do panorama terapêutico para o transtorno bipolar e constatam que ainda são insuficientes os estudos primários feitos com metodologia adequada para a obtenção de informações científicas de boa qualidade. São sucintamente descritos os trabalhos mais relevantes.In this paper, the authors review the status of psychosocial interventions within the general treatment for bipolar disorder. They have verified the scantiness of studies performed with adequate methodology to obtain scientific information of good quality. The more relevant studies are briefly described.

  19. Starting lithium prophylaxis early v. late in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No study has investigated when preventive treatment with lithium should be initiated in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To compare response rates among patients with bipolar disorder starting treatment with lithium early v. late. METHOD: Nationwide registers were used to identify all patients...... with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in psychiatric hospital settings who were prescribed lithium during the period 1995-2012 in Denmark (n = 4714). Lithium responders were defined as patients who, following a stabilisation lithium start-up period of 6 months, continued lithium monotherapy without being admitted......-response to lithium compared with the rate for patients starting lithium later (adjusted analyses: first v. later contact: Pbipolar disorder: P

  20. [HOW TO EXPLORE BIPOLARITY IN CHILD PSYCHIATRY: A DIMENSIONAL SEMIOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, J-M

    2016-02-01

    Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child's psychosocial future is at stake. A proper diagnosis requires recognition of accurate clinical signs. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers. This paper presents a dimensional semiology for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. These clinical signs enable the identification of a bipolar manic temperament in the child and/or the identification of various different forms of childhood bipolar and depressive disorder. The relevant differential diagnoses and comorbidities are also presented.

  1. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Tonelli,Hélio Anderson

    2009-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais), no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatu...

  2. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-03-01

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  3. Paternal postpartum mood: bipolar episodes? Depressão paterna: episódio bipolar?

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Amaral Tavares Pinheiro; Fabio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho; Luciana de Ávila Quevedo; Karen Jansen; Luciano de Mattos Souza; Jean Pierre Oses; Bernardo Lessa Horta; Ricardo Azevedo da Silva; Ricardo Tavares Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe the prevalence of depressive and bipolar spectrum episodes in fathers in antenatal and postnatal periods, as well as at 12 months after childbirth. METHOD: A longitudinal follow-up study was conducted with a representative sample of 739 fathers whose children were born between April 2007 and May 2008 in maternity wards in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Paternal psychopathology was measured with the Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) across three time points: ...

  4. Improvement of efficiency droop in resonance tunneling LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaowang; Wang, Wang N.; Shields, Philip A.; Denchitcharoen, Somyod; Causa, Federica; Allsopp, Duncan E. W.

    2008-08-01

    A resonance tunnelling LED structure having a high efficiency, low droop and negligible wavelength shift with current is reported in this study. The LED structure contains a thick InGaN bottom spacer between an n-GaN contact layer and a multiple quantum well (MQW) active region, and a thin InGaN top spacer between the MQW and an AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL). The observed high efficiency and negligible wavelength shift with applied current are attributed to the thick InGaN bottom spacer that nucleates V-pits and acts as a strain control layer for the MQW. The thick InGaN layer also provides an electron reservoir for efficient electron tunnelling injection into the MQW and reduces the electropotential difference between the n-emitter and the p-emitter, to suppress current leakage at high driving current and reduce droop. The top InGaN spacer was designed to act as a magnesium back-diffusion barrier and strain relief layer from EBL so as to obtain high efficiency.

  5. Risk constellations prior to the development of bipolar disorders: rationale of a new risk assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Karolina; Ritter, Philipp; Correll, Christoph U; Marx, Carolin; Özgürdal, Seza; Juckel, Georg; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    The precise characterisation of a high risk status for the development of a psychiatric disorder and the question of how well this predicts disease manifestation is of major importance as negative consequences of late diagnosis and treatment have been well demonstrated. In the absence of well defined and disease specific biological markers for bipolar disorder, the recognition of premature stages must rely on combinations of risk factors that have been associated with later disease manifestation. A review of the literature and our experience from the Early Recognition Centre led us to identify symptom constellations. Individual categories defined and grouped included: (I) genetic risk, (II) substance use, misuse or dependence, (III) diagnosis/suspected diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, (IV) pronounced creativity, (V) impairment in psychosocial functioning, (VI) subthreshold affective symptoms, and (VII) early symptomatology including (a) changes in sleep and circadian rhythm, (b) changes in mood, mood swings/affective lability, (c) fearfulness/anxiety, and (d) dissociative symptoms. These risk constellations were operationalised and a new risk assessment instrument, the Early Phase Inventory for Bipolar Disorders (EPIbipolar) was developed. Challenges regarding the validity of the data on which the instrument is based, specificity of and correlations between risk categories, and ethical considerations were encountered. Further use of EPIbipolar in research should help to refine prodromal features and narrow these down to a less cumbersome core that can be used to develop a shortened tool for use in clinical care. Prospective longitudinal research is needed to establish the predictive validity of this novel bipolar disorder risk assessment tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Self-referent information processing in individuals with bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molz Adams, Ashleigh; Shapero, Benjamin G; Pendergast, Laura H; Alloy, Lauren B; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) are common and impairing, which has led to an examination of risk factors for their development and maintenance. Historically, research has examined cognitive vulnerabilities to BSDs derived largely from the unipolar depression literature. Specifically, theorists propose that dysfunctional information processing guided by negative self-schemata may be a risk factor for depression. However, few studies have examined whether BSD individuals also show self-referent processing biases. This study examined self-referent information processing differences between 66 individuals with and 58 individuals without a BSD in a young adult sample (age M=19.65, SD=1.74; 62% female; 47% Caucasian). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine multivariate effects of BSD diagnosis on 4 self-referent processing variables (self-referent judgments, response latency, behavioral predictions, and recall) in response to depression-related and nondepression-related stimuli. Bipolar individuals endorsed and recalled more negative and fewer positive self-referent adjectives, as well as made more negative and fewer positive behavioral predictions. Many of these information-processing biases were partially, but not fully, mediated by depressive symptoms. Our sample was not a clinical or treatment-seeking sample, so we cannot generalize our results to clinical BSD samples. No participants had a bipolar I disorder at baseline. This study provides further evidence that individuals with BSDs exhibit a negative self-referent information processing bias. This may mean that those with BSDs have selective attention and recall of negative information about themselves, highlighting the need for attention to cognitive biases in therapy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improved performance of UV-LED by p-AlGaN with graded composition

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jianchang

    2010-11-02

    AlGaN-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) on AlN/sapphire template were grown by metal organic chemical vapour deposition. The AlN template was characterized by atomic force microscopy and high resolution X-ray diffraction. Atomic force microscopy image shows that the AlN surface is very flat, while high resolution X-ray diffraction results prove the good crystalline quality of the AlN template. A novel structure UV-LED which has several p-AlGaN layers with graded composition is compared with a common structure UV-LED which has a single p-Al0.5Ga0.5N layer. The forward bias voltage at 20 mA driving current for the novel structure UV-LED is nearly 3 V higher than that of the common structure UV-LED, however, the electroluminescence intensity of the former is over two times higher than that of the latter. The total quantum efficiency of the novel structure UV-LED is more than 50% higher than that of the common structure UV-LED. The improvement is considered to be the result of better holes injection efficiency in the novel structure UV-LED. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Structural Flexibility of Large Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, G.

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wind energy is towards large offshore wind farms. This trend has led to the demand for high reliability and large single unit wind turbines. Different energy conversion topologies such as multiple stage geared generators, single stage geared generators and gearless (direct drive)

  9. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  10. Toward a complex system understanding of bipolar disorder: A chaotic model of abnormal circadian activity rhythms in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaeghi, Fatemeh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Sajad; Murray, Greg

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive neural model to explain the underlying mechanisms of disturbed circadian function in bipolar disorder, mathematical modeling is a helpful tool. Here, circadian activity as a response to exogenous daily cycles is proposed to be the product of interactions between neuronal networks in cortical (cognitive processing) and subcortical (pacemaker) areas of the brain. To investigate the dynamical aspects of the link between disturbed circadian activity rhythms and abnormalities of neurotransmitter functioning in frontal areas of the brain, we developed a novel mathematical model of a chaotic system which represents fluctuations in circadian activity in bipolar disorder as changes in the model's parameters. A novel map-based chaotic system was developed to capture disturbances in circadian activity across the two extreme mood states of bipolar disorder. The model uses chaos theory to characterize interplay between neurotransmitter functions and rhythm generation; it aims to illuminate key activity phenomenology in bipolar disorder, including prolonged sleep intervals, decreased total activity and attenuated amplitude of the diurnal activity rhythm. To test our new cortical-circadian mathematical model of bipolar disorder, we utilized previously collected locomotor activity data recorded from normal subjects and bipolar patients by wrist-worn actigraphs. All control parameters in the proposed model have an important role in replicating the different aspects of circadian activity rhythm generation in the brain. The model can successfully replicate deviations in sleep/wake time intervals corresponding to manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder, in which one of the excitatory or inhibitory pathways is abnormally dominant. Although neuroimaging research has strongly implicated a reciprocal interaction between cortical and subcortical regions as pathogenic in bipolar disorder, this is the first model to mathematically represent this

  11. A New Switching Impulse Generator Based on Transformer Boosting and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Trigger Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ren

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To make the switching impulse (SI generator more compact, portable and feasible in field tests, a new approach based on transformer boosting was developed. To address problems such as triggering synchronization and electromagnetic interference involved with the traditional spark gap, an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module with drive circuit was employed as the impulse trigger. An optimization design for the component parameters of the primary winding side of the transformer was realized by numerical calculation and error correction. Experiment showed that the waveform parameters of SI and oscillating switching impulse (OSI voltages generated by the new generator were consistent with the numerical calculation and the error correction. The generator was finally built on a removable high voltage transformer with small size. Thus the volume of the generator is significantly reduced. Experiments showed that the waveform parameters of SI and OSI voltages generated by the new generator were basically consistent with the numerical calculation and the error correction.

  12. Evaluation of semiconductor devices for Electric and Hybrid Vehicle (EHV) ac-drive applications, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, F. C.; Chen, D. Y.; Jovanovic, M.; Hopkins, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    The results of evaluation of power semiconductor devices for electric hybrid vehicle ac drive applications are summarized. Three types of power devices are evaluated in the effort: high power bipolar or Darlington transistors, power MOSFETs, and asymmetric silicon control rectifiers (ASCR). The Bipolar transistors, including discrete device and Darlington devices, range from 100 A to 400 A and from 400 V to 900 V. These devices are currently used as key switching elements inverters for ac motor drive applications. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are much smaller in current rating. For the 400 V device, the current rating is limited to 25 A. For the main drive of an electric vehicle, device paralleling is normally needed to achieve practical power level. For other electric vehicle (EV) related applications such as battery charger circuit, however, MOSFET is advantageous to other devices because of drive circuit simplicity and high frequency capability. Asymmetrical SCR is basically a SCR device and needs commutation circuit for turn off. However, the device poses several advantages, i.e., low conduction drop and low cost.

  13. Affordable underwater wireless optical communication using LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, Vladimir; Arnon, Shlomi

    2013-09-01

    In recent years the need for high data rate underwater wireless communication (WC) has increased. Nowadays, the conventional technology for underwater communication is acoustic. However, the maximum data rate that acoustic technology can provide is a few kilobits per second. On the other hand, emerging applications such as underwater imaging, networks of sensors and swarms of underwater vehicles require much faster data rates. As a result, underwater optical WC, which can provide much higher data rates, has been proposed as an alternative means of communication. In addition to high data rates, affordable communication systems become an important feature in the development requirements. The outcome of these requirements is a new system design based on off-the-shelf components such as blue and green light emitting diodes (LEDs). This is due to the fact that LEDs offer solutions characterized by low cost, high efficiency, reliability and compactness. However, there are some challenges to be met when incorporating LEDs as part of the optical transmitter, such as low modulation rates and non linearity. In this paper, we review the main challenges facing the incorporation of LEDs as an integral part of underwater WC systems and propose some techniques to mitigate the LED limitations in order to achieve high data rate communication

  14. Borderline personality-bipolar spectrum relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorders, especially bipolar-II disorder (BP-II), is unclear. Several reviews on the topic have come to opposite conclusions, i.e., that BPD is a bipolar spectrum disorder or instead that it is unrelated to bipolar disorders. Study aim was to find which items of BPD were related to BP-II, and which instead had no relationship with BP-II. An outpatient psychiatry private practice, more representative of mood disorders usually seen in clinical practice in Italy. INTERVIEWER: A senior clinical and mood disorder research psychiatrist. A consecutive sample of 138 BP-II and 71 major depressive disorder (MDD) remitted outpatients. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV) was used for diagnosing, the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire was used by patients to self-assess borderline personality traits. Interview methods: Patients were interviewed with the SCID-CV to diagnose BP-II and MDD. The questions of the Personality Questionnaire relative to borderline personality were self-assessed by patients. As clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning was not assessed by the questionnaire, a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder could not be made, but borderline personality traits (BPT) could be assessed (i.e., all DSM-IV BPD items but not the impairment criterion). BPT items were significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD. The best combination of sensitivity and specificity for predicting BP-II was found by using a cutoff number of BPT items > or =5: specificity was 71.4%, sensitivity was 45.9%. BPT (defined by > or =5 items) was present in 29.5% of MDD and in 46.3% of BP-II (p=0.019). Logistic regression of BP-II versus BPT items number found a significant association. Principal component factor analysis of BPT items found two orthogonal factors: "affective instability" including unstable mood, unstable

  15. HTC: May survive in bipolar world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Netra Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The core assets of HTC are people, innovations, and technology. But in the recent quarters, HTC has started retrenching people even from R&D divisions which are responsible for innovation and developing new technologies. It means HTC's core assets are depleting. HTC was known for its cutting edge technology of 16mp camera and high speed '4G' technology but performing badly in the last two and half year. Why is it so? Paper objectives are to identify reasons for its downfall of HTC, distress signals for HTC downfall, and possible revival strategies for survival of HTC in Bipolar world (Samsung and Apple of smartphones makers. In addition, research paper present eight research proposition/ questions with respect to present state of HTC and its future and possible answers to these research propositions/ questions. Research paper ends with concluding remarks in the context of HTC future.

  16. Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bortolato, Beatrice; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Köhler, Cristiano A

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). A neurocognitive profile characterized by widespread cognitive deficits across multiple domains in the context of substantial intellectual impairment, which appears to antedate illness onset, is a replicated...... deterioration in either SZ or BD, some findings point to more severe cognitive deficits in patients with early illness onset across both disorders. A compromised pattern of cognitive functioning in individuals at familiar and/or clinical risk to psychosis as well as in first-degree relatives of BD patients...... suggests that early neurodevelopmental factors may play a role in the emergence of cognitive deficits in both disorders. Premorbid intellectual impairment in SZ and at least in a subgroup of patients with BD may be related to a shared genetically determined influence on neurodevelopment....

  17. Relato de caso: transtorno afetivo bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Von Krakauer Hübner; Edson Vinicius Milanello; Maria Fernanda Moro Barbieri; Marcelo Ricardo de Oliveira Barcelos; Lucas Augusto Ayres Ribas

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: O transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB) é uma doença crônica e grave, marcada pela variância de episódios depressivos com episódios de mania ou hipomania, podendo haver sintomas psicóticos. É classificado em dois tipos, I e II. Sua etiologia é desconhecida, mas supõe-se que envolva influências genéticas e ambientais, variando a cada indivíduo afetado. As apresentações clínicas do TAB podem variar de episódios leves de depressão ou hipomania até episódios depressivos graves ou mania aco...

  18. Magnetoamplification in a bipolar magnetic junction transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraju, N; Peters, J A; Wessels, B W

    2010-09-10

    We have demonstrated the first bipolar magnetic junction transistor using a dilute magnetic semiconductor. For an InMnAs p-n-p transistor magnetoamplification is observed at room temperature. The observed magnetoamplification is attributed to the magnetoresistance of the magnetic semiconductor InMnAs heterojunction. The magnetic field dependence of the transistor characteristics confirm that the magnetoamplification results from the junction magnetoresistance. To describe the experimentally observed transistor characteristics, we propose a modified Ebers-Moll model that includes a series magnetoresistance attributed to spin-selective conduction. The capability of magnetic field control of the amplification in an all-semiconductor transistor at room temperature potentially enables the creation of new computer logic architecture where the spin of the carriers is utilized.

  19. The underlying neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANJI, HUSSEINI K; QUIROZ, JORGE A; PAYNE, JENNIFER L; SINGH, JASKARAN; LOPES, BARBARA P; VIEGAS, JENILEE S; ZARATE, CARLOS A

    2003-01-01

    Clinical studies over the past decades have attempted to uncover the biological factors mediating the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) utilizing a variety of biochemical and neuroendocrine strategies. Indeed, assessments of cerebrospinal fluid chemistry, neuroendocrine responses to pharmacological challenge, and neuroreceptor and transporter binding have demonstrated a number of abnormalities in the amine neurotransmitter systems in this disorder. However, recent studies have also implicated critical signal transduction pathways as being integral to the pathophysiology and treatment of BD, in addition to a growing body of data suggesting that impairments of neuroplasticity and cellular resilience may also underlie the pathophysiology of the disorder. It is thus noteworthy that mood stabilizers and antidepressants indirectly regulate a number of factors involved in cell survival pathways - including MAP kinases, CREB, BDNF and bcl-2 protein - and may thus bring about some of their delayed long-term beneficial effects via underappreciated neurotrophic effects. PMID:16946919

  20. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    ,600 in 2003. At the same time, antidepressant sales have sextupled, from\\14.5 billion in 1998 to\\87 billion in 2006, according to statistics from GlaxoSmithKline. Recently, the pharmaceutical industry has shifted its focus from depression to bipolar disorder. Historically, Japanese psychiatrists have been familiar with Emil Kraepelin's "manic depressive insanity" (1899), whose definition was much narrower than that of its contemporary counterpart, bipolar disorder. Thus far, perhaps due partly to the reference in Kraepelin's definition of "manic depressive" disorder, Japanese psychiatrists have rather conservatively prescribed mood stabilizers for persons with frequent mood swings. Japanese psychiatrists can learn a great deal from their experience with the aggressive marketing of antidepressants. In the case of depression, over-medication arguably did more harm than good. The same risk exists with bipolar disorder. Disease mongering may occur whenever the interests of a pharmaceutical company exceed the expected benefits from the proposed pharmacotherapy on those affected by the putative bipolar disorder. In cases that are not severe enough for aggressive medication, psychiatrists should propose natural alternatives, such as an alteration of lifestyle and psychotherapy.

  1. Autoamputation of Genitalia in Bipolar Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to literature, genital self-mutilation (GSM is more commonly associated with psychosis as compared with self-mutilation as a whole. There have been many case reports of GSM in psychotic disorders. We describe herein a case of a Caucasian, employed, and married male suffering from bipolar disorder type II with history of self-mutilating behavior, who amputated his penis during symptom-free phase of his illness. Several features are reflected as risky elements for genital self-mutilation, for example, homosexual and transsexual tendencies, abandonment of the male genitals, lack of competent male for identification during childhood, feeling of guilt for sexual offences, and self-injuries in anamnesis. This report will highlight various factors responsible for self-mutilation in nonpsychotic and nondelusional person.

  2. Posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar mood disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Machado Vieira, Rodrigo; Gauer, Gabriel J C

    2003-01-01

    O Transtorno Bipolar (THB) não é somente uma condição endógena. Severos eventos negativos durante a vida influenciam o desenvolvimento do primeiro episódio e alteram o curso do THB durante a vida. O Transtorno de Estresse Pós-Traumático (TEPT) é uma severa e incapacitante doença mental que afeta uma significativa parcela da população, em algum momento de suas vidas. A presença concomitante de TEPT e THB parece mais freqüente que anteriormente sugerido, e pacientes psicóticos com história de t...

  3. Compliance to treatment in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Santin, Aida; Ceresér, Keila; Rosa, Adriane

    2005-01-01

    O transtorno bipolar (TB) é uma doença crônica, recorrente, presente em 1,5% da população, estando associada a altas taxas de mortalidade e prejuízos socioeconômicos. O lítio, a carbamazepina e o ácido valpróico são os estabilizadores de humor mais usados. Em tratamentos prolongados, como é o caso do TB, a má-adesão dos pacientes é uma das maiores dificuldades. Verifica-se que fatores ligados ao paciente, aos medicamentos e aos médicos possam ser responsáveis pela baixa adesão. A psicoeducaçã...

  4. Obesity and bipolar disorder: synergistic neurotoxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Celina S; Carvalho, André F; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that is typified by a complex illness presentation, episode recurrence and by its frequent association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Over the past decade, obesity has emerged as one of many comorbidities generating substantial concern in the BD population due to important prognostic implications. This comprehensive review details the bidirectional relationship between obesity and BD as evidenced by alterations in the structure and function of the central nervous system, in addition to greater depressive recurrence, cognitive dysfunction and risk of suicidality. Drawing on current research results, this article presents several putative mechanisms underlying the synergistic toxic effects and provides a framework for future treatment options for the obesity-BD comorbidity. There is a need for more large-scale prospective studies to investigate the bidirectional relationships between obesity and BD.

  5. As bases neurobiológicas do transtorno bipolar Neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Machado-Vieira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, os autores revisam importantes aspectos associados às bases biológicas do transtorno de humor bipolar (THB. O THB está relacionado com o surgimento de diversas alterações bioquímicas e moleculares em sistemas de neurotransmissão e vias de segundos-mensageiros geradores de sinais intracelulares. Essas modificações em neurônios e glia parecem estar associadas com o surgimento de sintomas maníacos e depressivos. Ainda neste contexto, disfunções na homeostasia e no metabolismo energético cerebral tem sido associado com alterações comportamentais, na modulação do humor e ritmo circadiano em humanos e em modelos animais da doença. Assim, alterações metabólicas em neurônios e células gliais têm sido associadas com quadros depressivos e maníacos. Nos últimos anos, avanços nas técnicas de neuroimagem, genéticos e de biologia moleculares têm gerado novos conhecimentos acerca das bases biológicas da bipolaridade. Os autores destacam que a doença parece estar relacionada diretamente com disfunções em diferentes mecanismos adaptativos a estresse em células neurais, gerando perda na capacidade celular de induzir neuroplasticidade e neurotrofismo, facilitando assim o surgimento da doença.In this article, the authors review relevant aspects related to the neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder. This illness has been associated with complex biochemical and molecular changes in brain circuits linked to neurotransmission and intracellular signal transduction pathways, and changes on neurons and glia have been proposed to be directly associated with clinical presentation of mania and depression. In the same context, dysfunctions on brain homeostasis and energy metabolism have been associated with alterations on circadian rythms, behavior and mood in human and animal models of bipolarity. In the recent years, advances on techniques of neuroimaging, molecular biology and genetics has provided new insights about

  6. Diagnostic Precursors to Bipolar Disorder in Offspring of Parents With Bipolar Disorder: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Yu, Haifeng; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Merranko, John; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2015-07-01

    The authors sought to identify diagnostic risk factors of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder ("high-risk offspring"). High-risk offspring 6-18 years old (N=391) and demographically matched offspring (N=248) of community parents without bipolar disorder were assessed longitudinally with standardized diagnostic instruments by staff blind to parental diagnoses. Follow-up assessments were completed in 91% of the offspring (mean follow-up interval, 2.5 years; mean follow-up duration, 6.8 years). Compared with community offspring, high-risk offspring had significantly higher rates of subthreshold mania or hypomania (13.3% compared with 1.2%), manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes (9.2% compared with 0.8%), and major depressive episodes (32.0% compared with 14.9%). They also had higher rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (30.7% compared with 18.1%), disruptive behavior disorders (27.4% compared with 15.3%), anxiety disorders (39.9% compared with 21.8%), and substance use disorders (19.9% compared with 10.1%), but not unipolar major depressive disorder (major depression with no bipolarity; 18.9% compared with 13.7%). Multivariate Cox regressions showed that in the high-risk offspring, subthreshold manic or hypomanic episodes (hazard ratio=2.29), major depressive episodes (hazard ratio=1.99), and disruptive behavior disorders (hazard ratio=2.12) were associated with subsequent manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. Only subthreshold manic or hypomanic episodes (hazard ratio=7.57) were associated when analyses were restricted to prospective data. Subthreshold manic or hypomanic episodes were a diagnostic risk factor for the development of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder and should be a target for clinical assessment and treatment research. Major depressive episodes and disruptive behavior disorders are also indications for close clinical monitoring of emergent

  7. Sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Marianna; Harnic, Desiree; Catalano, Valeria; Di Nicola, Marco; Bruschi, Angelo; Bria, Pietro; Daniele, Antonio; Mazza, Salvatore

    2011-06-01

    There is a lack of studies regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in women with bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate sexual behavior in women affected by bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sixty women (30 BD I and 30 BD II) consent to participate in the study and were included in the sample. Moreover, sixty female healthy subjects without histories of psychiatric disorders were recruited as normal controls. Patients and healthy subjects were given the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, a questionnaire devised to explore various aspects of sexual behavior. The results of the present study suggest an increase of sexual interest in patients with BD I as compared both with BD II patients and healthy controls. In women with BD I such increase of interest was detected on some items of section I of the Sexual Interest and Sexual Performance Questionnaire, in particular "Actual Value of Sexuality" and "Implicit Sexual Interest", which implicitly explore sexual interest without overtly focusing upon sexual problems. Moreover, we observed a higher desired frequency of intercourse in women with BD I than BD II and a higher occurrence of repeated sexual intercourse in women with BD I than BD II. The main finding of the present study was an increase of sexual interest in BD I as compared with BD II female patients and normal controls. This result was detected when sexual interest was explored implicitly. Our study is limited by the small size of our subject groups. Further investigations on larger subject samples are needed to better clarify particular aspects of sexual behavior of BD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Zernike polynomials for photometric characterization of LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez, J L; Ferrero, A; Pons, A; Campos, J; Hernanz, M L

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method based on Zernike polynomials to characterize photometric quantities and descriptors of light emitting diodes (LEDs) from measurements of the angular distribution of the luminous intensity, such as total luminous flux, BA, inhomogeneity, anisotropy, direction of the optical axis and Lambertianity of the source. The performance of this method was experimentally tested for 18 high-power LEDs from different manufacturers and with different photometric characteristics. A small set of Zernike coefficients can be used to calculate all the mentioned photometric quantities and descriptors. For applications not requiring a great accuracy such as those of lighting design, the angular distribution of the luminous intensity of most of the studied LEDs can be interpolated with only two Zernike polynomials. (paper)

  9. White LED phosphors: the next step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hajime

    2010-02-01

    Application of white LEDs is extended toward high-output light sources, e.g. for automotive headlights, and better spectral matching with optical filters for LCD backlighting. To meet such new demands, phosphor materials have been investigated with focus on their luminescence spectra, temperature characteristics and reliability. The conventional yellow phosphor based on Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ has excellent performance as a single phosphor combined with a blue LED. More recently developed nitrido- or oxonitrido-silicates activated with Eu2+ are also promising materials showing green to red luminescence depending on a composition and high thermal and chemical stability. And yet, demands for specific application have been made clear and strong. This paper reviews the present status and challenging goals of phosphors in the next stage further to make progress in white LEDs.

  10. Assessment of lumen degradation and remaining useful life of LEDs using particle filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Zhang, Hao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    2013-07-16

    With the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology, light emitting diodes system is becoming a popular light source in daily life and industry area. It has shown that Led from same factory and work under same working condition, may have significantly different behavior. Therefore, it is very important to learn the fail mechanisms, especially in the case of safety critical and harsh environment application. This paper focus on a prognostic health management (PHM) method based on the measurement of forward voltage and forward current of bare LED under harsh environment. In this paper, experiment has been done with ten samples. Ten pristine bare LEDs have been tested at 85°C while simultaneously being subjected to 85% humid environment. Pulse width modulation (PWM) control method has been employed to drive the bare LED in order to reduce the heat effect caused by forward current and high frequency (300HZ) data acquisition has been used to measure the peak forward voltage and forward current. Test to failure (lumen drops to 70 percent) data has been measured to study the effects of high temperature and humid environment loadings on the bare LED. Also, solid state cooling method with peltier cooler has been used to control the temperature of LED in the integrating sphere when take the measurement of lumen flux. The shift of forward voltage forward current curve and lumen degradation has been recorded to help build the fail model and predicted the remaining useful life. In this method, particle filter has been employed to predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the bare LED and give us a whole picture how Led system fails. Result shows that predication of remaining useful life of Led, made by the particle filter model works under reasonable limit, and hence this method can be employed to predict the failure of Led caused by thermal and humid stress under harsh environment.

  11. Towards a blood-based diagnostic panel for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Haenisch (Frieder); J.D. Cooper (Jason); A. Reif (Andreas); S. Kittel-Schneider (Sarah); J. Steiner (Johann); F.M. Leweke (Marcus); M. Rothermundt (Matthias); N.J.M. van Beveren (Nico); B. Crespo-Facorro (Benedicto); D. Niebuhr (David); D. Cowan (David); N. Weber (Natalya); R.H. Yolken (Robert); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda W.J.H.); S. Bahn (Sabine)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ Bipolar disorder (BD) is a costly, devastating and life shortening mental disorder that is often misdiagnosed, especially on initial presentation. Misdiagnosis frequently results in ineffective treatment. We investigated the utility of a biomarker panel as a diagnostic

  12. Comorbidity of Bipolar Disorder and Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a chronic demyelinating disease of a central nervous system. Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in multiple sclerosis and bipolar disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders that coexist with multiple sclerosis. Manic episodes may be the first presenting symptom of multiple sclerosis as comorbid pathology or as an adverse effect of pharmacotherapies used in multiple sclerosis. The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis is well-proven but its etiology is not known and investigated accurately. Recent studies support a common genetic susceptibility. Management of bipolar disorder in multiple sclerosis is based on evidence provided by case reports and treatment should be individualized. In this report, the association between bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis, epidemiology, ethiology and treatment is discussed through a case had diagnosed as multiple sclerosis and had a manic episode with psychotic features. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 832-836

  13. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least......BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  14. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17......Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...

  15. Increased risk of hyperthyroidism among patients hospitalized with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Anders F; Kessing, Lars V

    2005-01-01

    . METHODS: We conducted a historical cohort study using the Danish register data. The observational period was 1977--99. Three study cohorts were identified: all patients with a first hospital admission with resulting index discharge diagnoses of depression, bipolar disorder, or osteoarthritis. The risks......OBJECTIVES: Hyperthyroidism has been associated with affective disorder in many cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal studies in this connection are scarce. We assessed whether hospitalization with depressive disorder or bipolar disorder was a risk factor for development of hyperthyroidism...... with depressive disorder did not have an increased risk of hyperthyroidism, whereas patients with bipolar disorder had an increased of risk on the margin of statistical significance, when compared to patients with osteoarthritis. Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly increased risk of hyperthyroidism...

  16. Precursor Parameter Identification for Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) Prognostics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Precursor parameters have been identified to enable development of a prognostic approach for insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The IGBT were subjected to...

  17. Gender differences in the phenomenology of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate gender differences in the phenomenology of episodes in bipolar disorder as according to ICD-10. METHODS: All patients who got a diagnosis of a manic episode/bipolar disorder in a period from 1994 to 2002 at the first outpatient treatment ever or at the first discharge...... from psychiatric hospitalization ever in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. RESULTS: Totally, 682 outpatients and 1037 inpatients got a diagnosis of a manic episode/bipolar disorder at the first contact ever. Significantly more women were treated as outpatients than as inpatients. Women...... patients treated during hospitalization more women than men presented with mixed episodes. CONCLUSIONS: Besides differences in the prevalence of mixed episodes and comorbid substance abuse few gender differences are found among patients presenting with a manic episode/bipolar disorder at first contact...

  18. Combinations of SNPs Related to Signal Transduction in Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Pernille; Andreassen, Ole A; Bennike, Bente

    2011-01-01

    of complex diseases, it may be useful to look at combinations of genotypes. Genes related to signal transmission, e.g., ion channel genes, may be of interest in this respect in the context of bipolar disorder. In the present study, we analysed 803 SNPs in 55 genes related to aspects of signal transmission...... and calculated all combinations of three genotypes from the 3×803 SNP genotypes for 1355 controls and 607 patients with bipolar disorder. Four clusters of patient-specific combinations were identified. Permutation tests indicated that some of these combinations might be related to bipolar disorder. The WTCCC...... in the clusters in the two datasets. The present analyses of the combinations of SNP genotypes support a role for both genetic heterogeneity and interactions in the genetic architecture of bipolar disorder....

  19. Mortality and secular trend in the incidence of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Clara Reece; Videbech, Poul; Gustafsson, Lea Nørgreen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The world-wide interest in bipolar disorder is illustrated by an exponential increase in publications on the disorder registered in Pubmed since 1990. This inspired an investigation of the epidemiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: This was a register-based cohort study. All first......-ever diagnoses of bipolar disorder (International Classification of Diseases-10: F31) were identified in the nationwide Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register between 1995 and 2012. Causes of death were obtained from The Danish Register of Causes of Death. Age- and gender standardized incidence rates......, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were calculated. RESULTS: We identified 15,334 incident cases of bipolar disorder. The incidence rate increased from 18.5/100,000 person-years (PY) in 1995 to 28.4/100,000 PY in 2012. The mean age at time of diagnosis decreased...

  20. Do young adults with bipolar disorder benefit from early intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....

  1. Redox Dysregulation in the Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulak, Anita; Steullet, Pascal; Cabungcal, Jan-Harry

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are classified as two distinct diseases. However, accumulating evidence shows that both disorders share genetic, pathological, and epidemiological characteristics. Based on genetic and functional findings, redox dysregulation due...

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder: Treatment and Prevention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Brisa; Jiménez, Esther; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, Maria; Bonnin, Caterina del Mar; Torres, Imma; Varo, Cristina; Grande, Iria; Valls, Elia; Salagre, Estela; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Carvalho, André F

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, there has been a growing appreciation of the importance of identifying and treating cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, since it persists in remission periods. Evidence indicates that neurocognitive dysfunction may significantly influence patients’ psychosocial outcomes. An ever-increasing body of research seeks to achieve a better understanding of potential moderators contributing to cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder in order to develop prevention strategies and effective treatments. This review provides an overview of the available data from studies examining treatments for cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder as well as potential novel treatments, from both pharmacological and psychological perspectives. All these data encourage the development of further studies to find effective strategies to prevent and treat cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder. These efforts may ultimately lead to an improvement of psychosocial functioning in these patients. PMID:28498954

  3. Review of Heterojunctin Bipolar Transistor Structure, Applications, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Kayali, S.

    1993-01-01

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) are increasingly employed in high frequency, high linerity, and high efficiency applications. As the utilization of these devices becomes more widespread, their operation will be viewed with more scrutiny.

  4. International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffer, Ayal; Isometsä, Erkki T; Tondo, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    significantly associated with suicide attempts were: female gender, younger age at illness onset, depressive polarity of first illness episode, depressive polarity of current or most recent episode, comorbid anxiety disorder, any comorbid substance use disorder, alcohol use disorder, any illicit substance use......OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is associated with a high risk of suicide attempts and suicide death. The main objective of the present study was to identify and quantify the demographic and clinical correlates of attempted and completed suicide in people with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Within...... the framework of the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force on Suicide, a systematic review of articles published since 1980, characterized by the key terms bipolar disorder and 'suicide attempts' or 'suicide', was conducted, and data extracted for analysis from all eligible articles...

  5. The Dysregulated Brain : A psychoimmunological approach to bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Bartholomeus Cornelius Maria

    2017-01-01

    An important problem with psychiatric disorders is that much remains unknown about the underlying disease mechanisms, thereby delaying sometimes for many years the diagnosis bipolar disorder, with significant implications for treatment. In recent years, the neuroinflammation theory, which assumes

  6. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It appears that the female reproductive events and hormonal treatments may impact the course of bipolar disorder in women. In particular, childbirth is known to be associated with onset of affective episodes in women with bipolar disorder. During the female reproductive events the sex...... estrogen levels and women with bipolar disorder including studies of the anti manic effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. METHOD: A systematically literature search on PubMed was conducted: two studies regarding the connection between serum estrogen levels and women with bipolar...... disorder were identified. Furthermore, four studies were found concerning the antimanic effects of tamoxifen. RESULTS: Both studies in the estrogen studies showed very low levels of estrogen in women with postpartum psychosis and significant improvement of symptoms after treatment with estrogen. The four...

  7. The role of estrogen in bipolar disorder, a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinhard, Ninja; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    Background: It appears that the female reproductive events and hormonal treatments may impact the course of bipolar disorder in women. In particular, childbirth is known to be associated with onset of affective episodes in women with bipolar disorder. During the female reproductive events the sex...... estrogen levels and women with bipolar disorder including studies of the anti manic effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen. Method: A systematically literature search on PubMed was conducted: two studies regarding the connection between serum estrogen levels and women with bipolar...... disorder were identified. Furthermore, four studies were found concerning the antimanic effects of tamoxifen. Results: Both studies in the estrogen studies showed very low levels of estrogen in women with postpartum psychosis and significant improvement of symptoms after treatment with estrogen. The four...

  8. GANGGUAN AFEKTIF BIPOLAR MANIA DENGAN PSIKOTIK: SEBUAH LAPORAN KASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrikus Gede Surya Adhi Putra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gangguan bipolar merupakan gangguan yang terdiri dari afek yang meningkat, dan jugaaktivitas yang berlebih (mania atau hipomania, dan dalam jangka waktu yang berbedaterjadi penurunan afek yang disertai dengan penurunan aktivitas (depresi. Kejadianpada  gangguan  bipolar  berkisar  antara  0,3-1,5%.  Prevalensi  serupa  pada  pria  danwanita.Gejala gangguan bipolar episode manik meliputi perasaan sensitif, kurangistirahat, harga diri melonjak naik, dan pada episode depresi meliputi kehilanganminat, tidur lebih atau kurang dari normal, gelisah, merasa tidak berharga, dan kurangkonsentrasi. Laporan ini membahas kasus gangguan bipolar episode kini manik yangterjadi pada seorang laki-laki berusia 45 tahun. Pasien ini mendapatkan psikoterapi,haloperidol 1 x 5 mg, dan trihexyphenidyl 1 x 2 mg per oral.

  9. Urbanicity during upbringing and bipolar affective disorders in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that known or suspected risk factors for schizophrenia may also be of importance for other psychoses, but the empirical evidence regarding this is limited. Urbanicity of place of birth and during upbringing has been shown to be related to the risk of schizophrenia. Few studies...... of urbanicity in relation to bipolar affective disorder exist. Objective: To investigate the potential association between urbanicity at birth and during upbringing and the risk of bipolar affective disorder. Method: Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System, we established a population-based cohort...... of 2.04 million people born in Denmark during 1956-1986, which included information on place of residence during upbringing. Bipolar affective disorder in cohort members was identified by linkage with the Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Results: Overall, 2232 people developed bipolar affective...

  10. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  11. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  12. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  13. Religiosidade e espiritualidade no transtorno bipolar do humor Religiosity and spirituality in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Stroppa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Nos últimos vinte anos, estudos sistematizados têm identificado uma relação positiva entre espiritualidade/religiosidade (R/E e saúde, notadamente saúde mental. Entretanto, são escassas as informações sobre R/E e transtorno bipolar do humor (TBH. Este artigo objetiva revisar as evidências disponíveis sobre estas relações. MÉTODOS: Foram cruzadas as palavras "bipolar", "mania" e "manic" com as palavras "religio*" e "spiritu*" nas bases de dados PubMed e PsychINFO em novembro de 2008. Foram encontrados 122 artigos publicados entre os anos de 1957 e 2008. RESULTADO: Os estudos apontam que pacientes bipolares tendem a apresentar maior envolvimento religioso/espiritual, maior frequência de relatos de conversão e experiências de salvação e uso mais frequente de coping religioso e espiritual (CRE que pessoas com outros transtornos mentais. Indicam ainda, uma relação frequente e significativa entre sintomas maníacos e experiências místicas. Os estudos mais relevantes encontrados na literatura foram agrupados nesta revisão em cinco tópicos: delírios místicos, religiosidade e espiritualidade, coping religioso-espiritual, recursos comunitários e comunidades tradicionais. CONCLUSÃO: O TBH e a R/E possuem intensa e complexa inter-relação. Estudos sobre práticas religiosas saudáveis, espiritualidade e recursos de coping merecem ser ampliados, bem como sua relação com o cumprimento do tratamento e as recorrências da doença, as intervenções psicoterápicas e a psicoeducação de base espiritual.BACKGROUND: Over the past twenty years, systematic studies have identified a positive relationship between spirituality/religiosity (S/R and health, especially mental health. Although there is only scant information about S/R and BipolarDisorder. METHODS: The words "bipolar", "mania" and "manic" were crossed with the words "religio*" and "spiritu*" in the databases PubMed and PsychINFO in November 2008. It was found 122

  14. LED module with high index lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierhuizen, Serge J.; Wang, Nanze Patrick; Eng, Gregory W.; Sun, Decai; Wei, Yajun

    2017-09-05

    An array of housings with housing bodies and lenses is molded, or an array of housing bodies is molded and bonded with lenses to form an array of housings with housing bodies and lenses. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are attached to the housings in the array. An array of metal pads may be bonded to the back of the array or insert molded with the housing array to form bond pads on the back of the housings. The array is singulated to form individual LED modules.

  15. Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Corell, Dennis Dan; Hansen, Søren Stentoft

    Denne slutrapport giver en kort beskrivelse af arbejdet, der er udført af DTU Fotonik i projektet ”Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning” støttet af EUDP. Arbejdet er udført i perioden 2011‐2012 i samarbejde med Lighten.......Denne slutrapport giver en kort beskrivelse af arbejdet, der er udført af DTU Fotonik i projektet ”Intelligent styring af dynamisk LED belysning” støttet af EUDP. Arbejdet er udført i perioden 2011‐2012 i samarbejde med Lighten....

  16. Sex Chromosome Drive

    OpenAIRE

    Helleu, Quentin; Gérard, Pierre R.; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome drivers are selfish elements that subvert Mendel's first law of segregation and therefore are overrepresented among the products of meiosis. The sex-biased progeny produced then fuels an extended genetic conflict between the driver and the rest of the genome. Many examples of sex chromosome drive are known, but the occurrence of this phenomenon is probably largely underestimated because of the difficulty to detect it. Remarkably, nearly all sex chromosome drivers are found in t...

  17. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  18. [Automobile driving capacity in dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Dementia influences at an early stage the driving aptitude of motor vehicle steering persons. Every year in Switzerland, around 16'000 driving permit holders suffer newly from dementia; therefore the driving aptitude is questioned, especially because of possibly limited executive functions. Individuals with early-stage dementia often may show a dangerous driving stile. However, a mild dementia does not a priori exclude the driving aptitude, and less than half of these drivers can continue driving for another 1 - 3 years. In contrast, there is no further driving aptitude in presence of moderate dementia. In the assessment of driving aptitude, the underlying cause of dementia is always taken into account. Cognitive short tests such as the Mini-Mental Status Exam, Clock Drawing Test and Trail-Making Test are not suitable to make reliable statements about the aptitude to drive, but these tests are very important for the initial diagnosis of dementia in primary care practice and can lead the way for further examination concerning driving aptitude. The legally prescribed regular check-up for motorists aged over 70 years in Switzerland provides an ideal opportunity for early detection of incipient dementia. The practical procedure for the assessment of aptitude to drive in the primary care practice is presented. The physician-guided on-road driving test represents a meaningful, practical and relatively cost-effective tool for the evaluation of driving aptitude in cases of doubt.

  19. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  20. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takao; Arita, Setsuo; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable fine positioning by using an induction motor of a simple structure as a driving source and thereby improve the reliability of control rod drives. Constitution: A step actuator is directly coupled with an induction motor, in which the induction motor is connected by way of a pulse driving control circuit to an AC power source, while the step actuator is connected to a DC power source. When a thyristor is turned ON, the motor outputs a positive torque and rotates and starts to rotate in the forward direction. When the other thyristor is turned ON, the motor is applied with braking by a reverse excitation in a manner equivalent to the change for the exciting phase sequence. When the speed is lowered to a predetermined value, braking is actuated by the torque of the step actuator and the motor stops at a zero position or balanced position. In this way, braking is actuated from the decelerating step to the stopping with no abrasion and a highly accurate positioning is possible due to the characteristics of the step actuator. (Horiuchi, T.)

  1. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Disease signatures for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watmuff, Bradley; Berkovitch, Shaunna S; Huang, Joanne H; Iaconelli, Jonathan; Toffel, Steven; Karmacharya, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are complex psychiatric disorders that present unique challenges in the study of disease biology. There are no objective biological phenotypes for these disorders, which are characterized by complex genetics and prominent roles for gene-environment interactions. The study of the neurobiology underlying these severe psychiatric disorders has been hindered by the lack of access to the tissue of interest - neurons from patients. The advent of reprogramming methods that enable generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells has opened possibilities for new approaches to study relevant disease biology using iPSC-derived neurons. While early studies with patient iPSCs have led to promising and intriguing leads, significant hurdles remain in our attempts to capture the complexity of these disorders in vitro. We present here an overview of studies to date of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using iPSC-derived neuronal cells and discuss potential future directions that can result in the identification of robust and valid cellular phenotypes that in turn can lay the groundwork for meaningful clinical advances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Final report LED solutions for public lighting; Eindrapportage LED oplossingen voor openbare verlichting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    This report examines if and how LED can be used for public lighting on a large scale. Pilot projects in 29 municipalities were assessed to test the usefulness of LED lighting. This final report provides answers to the questions that relate to the feasibility of the deployment of LED in public lighting and provides some practical pointers. [Dutch] Er is onderzocht of, en zo ja op welke wijze, LED grootschalig toegepast kan worden in de openbare verlichting (OVL). In 29 gemeenten in Nederland zijn proefprojecten geevalueerd om LED verlichting te toetsen op bruikbaarheid. Deze eindrapportage geeft antwoord op vragen die betrekking hebben op de haalbaarheid van de toepassing van LED binnen de OVL en geeft wat praktische aandachtspunten.

  4. Design of an oximeter based on LED-LED configuration and FPGA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovic, Radovan; Karadaglic, Dejan

    2013-01-04

    A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG) sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED) for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (S(p)O(2)). N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel S(p)O(2) measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  5. Design of an Oximeter Based on LED-LED Configuration and FPGA Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Stojanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A fully digital photoplethysmographic (PPG sensor and actuator has been developed. The sensing circuit uses one Light Emitting Diode (LED for emitting light into human tissue and one LED for detecting the reflectance light from human tissue. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA is used to control the LEDs and determine the PPG and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. The configurations with two LEDs and four LEDs are developed for measuring PPG signal and Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2. N-LEDs configuration is proposed for multichannel SpO2 measurements. The approach resulted in better spectral sensitivity, increased and adjustable resolution, reduced noise, small size, low cost and low power consumption.

  6. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  7. Analysis of bipolar and amacrine populations in marmoset retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltzien, Felix; Percival, Kumiko A; Martin, Paul R; Grünert, Ulrike

    2015-02-01

    About 15 parallel ganglion cell pathways transmit visual signals to the brain, but the interneuron (bipolar and amacrine) populations providing input to ganglion cells remain poorly understood in primate retina. We carried out a quantitative analysis of the inner nuclear layer in the retina of the marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Vertical Vibratome sections along the horizontal meridian were processed with immunohistochemical markers. Image stacks were taken with a confocal microscope, and densities of cell populations were determined. The density of flat midget bipolar cells fell from 15,746 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm (8 deg) to 7,827 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm (25 deg). The rod bipolar cell density fell from 8,640 cells/mm(2) at 1 mm to 4,278 cells/mm(2) at 3 mm, but the ratio of the two bipolar cell types did not change with eccentricity. The amacrine cell density ranged from 30,000 cells/mm(2) at 8 deg to less than 15,000 cells/mm(2) at 25 deg, but throughout the retina, the ratio of glycinergic to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic to amacrine cells remained relatively constant. The fractions of rod bipolar, cone bipolar, amacrine, Müller, and horizontal cells of all cells in the inner nuclear layer were comparable in central and peripheral retina. Marmosets had lower proportions of midget bipolar and rod bipolar in comparison with macaque. These differences were correlated with differences in rod and cone densities between the two species and did not reflect fundamental differences in the wiring between the two species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Hypothyroidism and Bipolar Affective Disorder: Is There a Connection?

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Bindu

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis dysfunction in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder has received less attention as compared with that in depressive disorder. Aims: To study the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and compare it with a population norm. Settings and Design: The setting was the psychiatry inpatient unit of a tertiary care hospital. The design was retrospective and observational. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective observatio...

  9. Revisiting the wandering womb: Oxytocin in endometriosis and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Natalie L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2017-11-01

    Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis. First, we provide relevant background on endometriosis and bipolar disorder, and then we examine evidence for comorbidity between these conditions. We next: (1) review oxytocin's associations with personality traits, especially extraversion and openness, and how they overlap with bipolar spectrum traits; (2) describe evidence for higher oxytocinergic activity in both endometriosis and bipolar disorder; (3) examine altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functioning in both conditions; (4) describe data showing that medications that treat one condition can improve symptoms of the other; (5) discuss fitness-related impacts of endometriosis and bipolar disorder; and (6) review a pair of conditions, polycystic ovary syndrome and autism, that show evidence of involving reduced oxytocinergic activity, in direct contrast to endometriosis and bipolar disorder. Considered together, the bipolar spectrum and endometriosis appear to involve dysregulated high extremes of normally adaptive pleiotropy in the female oxytocin system, whereby elevated levels of oxytocinergic activity coordinate outgoing sociality with heightened fertility, apparently characterizing, overall, a faster life history. These findings should prompt a re-examination of how mind-body interactions, and the pleiotropic endocrine systems that underlie them, contribute to health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy: A Review of Pregnancy Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrandis, Debra A

    2017-11-01

    Women with bipolar disorder may benefit from continuation of their medications during pregnancy, but there may be risks to the fetus associated with some of these medications. This article examines the evidence relating to the effect of bipolar disorder and pharmacologic treatments for bipolar disorder on pregnancy outcomes. MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest Dissertation & Theses, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for English-language studies published between 2000 and 2017, excluding case reports and integrative reviews. Twenty articles that met inclusion criteria were included in this review. Women with bipolar disorder have a higher risk for pregnancy complications and congenital abnormalities than do women without bipolar disorder. In addition, illness relapse can occur if psychotropic medications are discontinued. There are limited data to recommend discontinuing lithium, lamotrigine, or carbamazepine during pregnancy. Valproic acid is not recommended during pregnancy due to increased odds of neural tube defects associated with its use. Atypical antipsychotics are used more frequently during pregnancy, with mixed evidence regarding an association between these agents and congenital malformations or preterm birth. The knowledge of benefits and risks of bipolar disorder and its treatment can help women and health care providers make individualized decisions. Prenatal care providers can discuss the evidence about safety of medications used to treat bipolar disorder with women in collaboration with their mental health care providers. In addition, women being treated for bipolar disorder require close monitoring for depressive and manic/hypomanic episodes that impact pregnancy outcomes. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  11. Bifurcation analysis of parametrically excited bipolar disorder model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Laurent

    2009-02-01

    Bipolar II disorder is characterized by alternating hypomanic and major depressive episode. We model the periodic mood variations of a bipolar II patient with a negatively damped harmonic oscillator. The medications administrated to the patient are modeled via a forcing function that is capable of stabilizing the mood variations and of varying their amplitude. We analyze analytically, using perturbation method, the amplitude and stability of limit cycles and check this analysis with numerical simulations.

  12. a study of emotions in dreams in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chae, Woo Ri

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are characterized by fluctuation of mood states with serious consequences for several aspects of the lives of those affected. According to the Continuity Hypothesis of Dreaming the content of dreams is largely continuous with waking concepts and emotional concerns of the dreamer. Therefore, if a clear relationship exists between mood and dream content, qualitative changes in dreams of bipolar patients should be evident. Ernest Hartmann proposed a theory called Contemporary T...

  13. Evidence for clinical progression of unipolar and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, L. V.; Andersen, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    ) the risk of recurrence of episodes, (ii) probability of recovery from episodes, (iii) severity of episodes, (iv) the threshold for developing episodes, and (v) progression of cognitive deficits in unipolar and bipolar disorders. Method: A systematic review comprising an extensive literature search...... severity of episodes, (iv) decreasing threshold for developing episodes, and (v) increasing risk of developing dementia. Conclusion: Although the course of illness is heterogeneous, there is evidence for clinical progression of unipolar and bipolar disorders....

  14. Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K.; Braff, William

    2009-01-01

    In a substantial improvement over present alkaline systems, an advanced hybrid bipolar plate for a unitized fuel cell/electrolyzer has been developed. This design, which operates on pure feed streams (H2/O2 and water, respectively) consists of a porous metallic foil filled with a polymer that has very high water transport properties. Combined with a second metallic plate, the pore-filled metallic plates form a bipolar plate with an empty cavity in the center.

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  16. Effects of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior: A moderated mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yan; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Wenguo; Zhang, Kan; Qu, Weina

    2017-11-01

    To explore the effect of anger behind the wheel on driving behavior and accident involvement has been the subject of many studies. However, few studies have explored the interaction between anger and driving experience on dangerous driving behavior. This study is a moderated mediation analysis of the effect of trait anger, driving anger, and driving experience on driving behavior. A sample of 303 drivers was tested using the Trait Anger Scale (TAS), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI). The results showed that trait anger and driving anger were positively correlated with dangerous driving behavior. Driving anger partially mediated the effect of trait anger on dangerous driving behavior. Driving experience moderated the relationship between trait anger and driving anger. It also moderated the effect of driving anger on dangerous driving behavior. These results suggest that drivers with more driving experience may be safer as they are not easily irritated during driving. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Generation of metal composition gradients by means of bipolar electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserant, Gwendoline; Fattah, Zahra; Ayela, Cédric; Roche, Jérome; Plano, Bernard; Zigah, Dodzi; Goudeau, Bertrand; Kuhn, Alexander; Bouffier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A bipolar electrochemistry approach for the preparation of surface gradients is reported. • Several metals are simultaneously deposited on a bipolar electrode. • The elemental composition and thickness of the deposit varies alongside the bipolar electrode. • The deposit affects the surface properties and exhibits a barcode feature. - Abstract: Bipolar electrochemistry is an unconventional technique that currently encounters a renewal of interest due to modern applications in the fields of analytical chemistry or materials science. The approach is particularly relevant for the preparation of asymmetric objects or surfaces such as Janus particles for example. Bipolar electrochemistry allows spatially controlled deposition of various layers from electroactive precursors, selectively at one side of a bipolar electrode. We report here the concomitant cathodic deposition of up to three different metals at the same time in a single experiment. The deposits were characterized by optical and electron microscopy imaging as well as profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the deposited layer is composed of several areas exhibiting both a composition and a thickness gradient. Such a variation directly modifies the optical and electronic properties alongside the surface and gives access to the design of composite surfaces exhibiting a visual gradient feature.

  18. Update on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on cariprazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts RJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rona Jeannie Roberts,1 Lillian Jan Findlay,2 Peggy L El-Mallakh,2 Rif S El-Mallakh1 1Mood Disorders Research Program, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, 2School of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA Abstract: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are severe psychiatric disorders that are frequently associated with persistent symptoms and significant dysfunction. While there are a multitude of psychopharmacologic agents are available for treatment of these illnesses, suboptimal response and significant adverse consequences limit their utility. Cariprazine is a new, novel antipsychotic medication with dopamine D2 and D3 partial agonist effects. Its safety and efficacy have been investigated in acute psychosis of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, bipolar depression, and unipolar depression. Efficacy has been demonstrated in schizophrenia and mania. It is unclear if cariprazine is effective in depression associated with unipolar or bipolar illness. Adverse consequences include extrapyramidal symptoms including akathisia, and various gastrointestinal symptoms. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has recently approved cariprazine. This review will provide clinicians with basic information regarding the research program of cariprazine. Keywords: cariprazine, dopamine D3 receptor, dopamine D2 receptor, bipolar disorder, mania, bipolar depression, schizophrenia

  19. Antidepressant Treatment for Acute Bipolar Depression: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben H. Amit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While studies in the past have focused more on treatment of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (BD, recent findings demonstrate the depressive phase to be at least as debilitating. However, in contrast to unipolar depression, depression in bipolar patients exhibits a varying response to antidepressants, raising questions regarding their efficacy and tolerability. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library search for papers published between 2005 and 2011 on the subject of antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression. Sixty-eight articles were included in the present review. Results. While a few studies did advocate the use of antidepressants, most well-controlled studies failed to show a robust effect of antidepressants in bipolar depression, regardless of antidepressant class or bipolar subtype. There was no significant increase in the rate of manic/hypomanic switch, especially with concurrent use of mood stabilizers. Prescribing guidelines published in recent years rely more on atypical antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, as a first-line therapy. Conclusions. Antidepressants probably have no substantial role in acute bipolar depression. However, in light of conflicting results between studies, more well-designed trials are warranted.

  20. Personality traits in bipolar disorder and influence on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Pålsson, Erik; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-05-03

    The aim was to investigate the personality profile of bipolar disorder I and II, and healthy controls, and to study whether personality influences the course of bipolar disorder. One hundred ten patients with bipolar disorder I, 85 patients with bipolar disorder II, and 86 healthy individuals had their personality profile assessed using the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), an instrument developed to explore personality-related vulnerabilities and correlates of psychiatric disorders. Patients were followed prospectively for 2 years. To assess the impact of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition on illness course, we performed logistic regressions with the outcome variables mood episodes (depressive, hypo/manic, mixed), suicide attempts, violence, and the number of sick leave days. Bipolar disorder I and II demonstrated higher global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness, and Disinhibition as compared with healthy controls. A third of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population-based normative mean on the global neuroticism measure. The two subtypes of bipolar disorder were, however, undistinguishable on all of the personality traits. In the unadjusted model, higher neuroticism at baseline predicted future depressive episodes and suicide attempts/violent behavior, but this association disappeared when adjusting for baseline depressive symptoms as assessed with MADRS. A significant minority of the patients scored ≥1 SD above the population mean on the global measures of Neuroticism, Aggressiveness and Disinhibition; scores this high are usually evident clinically. Yet, the personality profile does not seem to have prognostic value over a 2-year period.

  1. Aberrant cerebellar connectivity in bipolar disorder with psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Ann K; Roh, Youkyung S; Ravichandran, Caitlin T; Baker, Justin T; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M

    2017-07-01

    The cerebellum, which modulates affect and cognition in addition to motor functions, may contribute substantially to the pathophysiology of mood and psychotic disorders, such as bipolar disorder. A growing literature points to cerebellar abnormalities in bipolar disorder. However, no studies have investigated the topographic representations of resting state cerebellar networks in bipolar disorder, specifically their functional connectivity to cerebral cortical networks. Using a well-defined cerebral cortical parcellation scheme as functional connectivity seeds, we compared ten cerebellar resting state networks in 49 patients with bipolar disorder and a lifetime history of psychotic features and 55 healthy control participants matched for age, sex, and image signal-to-noise ratio. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed reduced cerebro-cerebellar functional connectivity in somatomotor A, ventral attention, salience, and frontoparietal control A and B networks relative to healthy control participants. These findings were not significantly correlated with current symptoms. Patients with psychotic bipolar disorder showed evidence of cerebro-cerebellar dysconnectivity in selective networks. These disease-related changes were substantial and not explained by medication exposure or substance use. Therefore, they may be mechanistically relevant to the underlying susceptibility to mood dysregulation and psychosis. Cerebellar mechanisms deserve further exploration in psychiatric conditions, and this study's findings may have value in guiding future studies on pathophysiology and treatment of mood and psychotic disorders, in particular.

  2. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  3. Bipolar disorder and the pseudoautosomal region: An association study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsian, A.; Todd, R.D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-03-15

    From family, adoption, and twin studies it is clear that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (McGuffin and Katz: The Biology of Depression, Gaskell, London, 1986). Recently Yoneda et al. reported an association between an allele (A4) of a VNTR marker (DXYS20) for the pseudoautosomal region and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. In order to test for this association in a Caucasian population, we have typed a sample of 52 subjects with bipolar disorder and 61 normal controls. The bipolar subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained sample of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of DXYS20 between the two groups. In particular, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the A4 allele in normal controls and bipolar patients (0.377 vs. 0.317, respectively). The prevalence of the A4 allele in bipolar patients and normal controls was 0.567 and 0.622, respectively. We were not able to replicate the results of the 1992 Yoneda et al. study. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Prevalence and impact of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Martin B

    2006-01-01

    Comorbid conditions pose a serious risk to patients with bipolar disorder, but anxiety comorbidity poses a specific hazard due to the increased negative impact of anxiety on illness course and treatment. Anxiety comorbidity appears to be highly prevalent and is associated with intensified symptoms of bipolar disorder and additional comorbid disorders, resulting in a negative impact on the patient and on the course of the illness. The presence of anxiety in bipolar patients is also associated with a lowered age at onset, hampered patient response to treatment such as lithium, increased rates of suicide and substance abuse, and decreased quality of life. Patients can experience work, family, and social impairment and be made to contend with increased health care costs and strains on family support. Studies are few and have a limited scope, and many have failed to consider the clinical significance of comorbid anxiety and bipolar disorder. Because the degree to which anxiety impacts patients with bipolar disorder is not fully known, more information is needed about the relationship between bipolar disorder and anxiety.

  5. The use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    The proportion of time that bipolar patients experience depressive symptoms and clinical states, with associated psychosocial impairment and elevated risk of suicide, is significantly greater than the time spent in manic/hypomanic forms of bipolar disorders. Yet, manic states and symptoms have been the focus and interest of most clinical research over the past quarter century. Not a single antidepressant approved for treatment of major depressive disorder, as monotherapy, has received regulatory approval for treatment of bipolar depression as monotherapy, despite their common use in bipolar depression. We reviewed randomized studies, particularly ones initially intended for registration purposes, and systematic treatment guidelines, in development of this guide to treatment decision and implementation of interventions for depression in bipolar disorders. The Expert Opinion section emphasizes strategies, not individual agents. The efficacious performance of mood stabilizers and second-generation antipsychotics as a component of the strategy is strongly supported by published studies. However, this section relies largely on secondary publications and our combined clinical experience, as few randomized, blinded studies have had, as their focus, the comparison of combined regimens for depression. This article summarizes the design features and results of studies dealing with depressive features and intervention strategies for bipolar disorders. The emphasis of the recommendations is on pragmatic treatment decisions that clinicians can make to enhance the probability of both short and long term benefits for patients.

  6. Positive aspects of mental illness: a review in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez, Juan Francisco; Thommi, Sairah; Ghaemi, S Nassir

    2011-02-01

    There is growing interest to understand the role of positive psychological features on the outcomes of medical illnesses. Unfortunately this topic is less studied in relation to mental health, and almost completely neglected in relation to one of the most common severe psychiatric illnesses, bipolar disorder. Certain specific psychological characteristics, that are generally viewed as valuable and beneficial morally or socially, may grow out of the experience of having this affective disorder. We describe the sources, research and impact of these positive psychological traits in the lives of persons with bipolar disorder based on the few published literature available to date. These include, but are not limited to: spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. After an extensive search in the literature, we found 81 articles that involve descriptions of positive psychological characteristics of bipolar disorder. We found evidence for enhancement of the five above positive psychological traits in persons with bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is associated with the positive psychological traits of spirituality, empathy, creativity, realism, and resilience. Clinical and research attention to preserving and enhancing these traits may improve outcomes in bipolar disorder. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disassembly and Dislocation of a Bipolar Hip Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh-Hsing Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of a hip prosthesis is a common complication. In usual cases of hip prosthesis dislocation, the prosthetic femoral head comes out from either the natural acetabular cavity in a bipolar hemiarthroplasty or the prosthetic acetabulum in a total hip arthroplasty. Only a few cases of bipolar hip prosthesis dislocation due to dissociation between the polyethylene and inner head of the prosthesis have been reported. We describe a rare case of disassembly of the inner head from the bipolar outer prosthesis in an osteoarthritic acetabulum. A 72-year-old woman had undergone bipolar hemiarthroplasty due to fracture of the left femoral neck about 10 years previously. Recently, she sustained an injury after falling from a chair, and examinations revealed an unusual disassembly−dislocation of the bipolar hip prosthesis. We classified this failure in our patient as a type II failure, representing extreme varus position of the outer head in the acetabulum, dislocation of the inner head from the outer head, and a detached locking ring around the stem neck. This mechanism of failure as shown in our patient rarely occurs in the bipolar prosthesis of the self-centering system. Osteoarthritic change of the acetabulum would place the outer head in the varus position, increasing wear on the beveled rim by impinging the femoral stem neck and causing dislodgment of the inner locking ring and consequent disassembly−dislocation of the inner head.

  8. Toward constructing an endophenotype strategy for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Drevets, Wayne C; Gould, Todd D; Gottesman, Irving I; Manji, Husseini K

    2006-07-15

    Research aimed at elucidating the underlying neurobiology and genetics of bipolar disorder, and factors associated with treatment response, have been limited by a heterogeneous clinical phenotype and lack of knowledge about its underlying diathesis. We used a survey of clinical, epidemiological, neurobiological, and genetic studies to select and evaluate candidate endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. Numerous findings regarding brain function, brain structure, and response to pharmacological challenge in bipolar patients and their relatives deserve further investigation. Candidate brain function endophenotypes include attention deficits, deficits in verbal learning and memory, cognitive deficits after tryptophan depletion, circadian rhythm instability, and dysmodulation of motivation and reward. We selected reduced anterior cingulate volume and early-onset white matter abnormalities as candidate brain structure endophenotypes. Symptom provocation endophenotypes might be based on bipolar patients' sensitivity to sleep deprivation, psychostimulants, and cholinergic drugs. Phenotypic heterogeneity is a major impediment to the elucidation of the neurobiology and genetics of bipolar disorder. We present a strategy constructed to improve the phenotypic definition of bipolar disorder by elucidating candidate endophenotypes. Studies to evaluate candidate endophenotypes with respect to specificity, heritability, temporal stability, and prevalence in unaffected relatives are encouraged.

  9. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  10. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  11. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...... of treatments to illness stage and using a multimodal approach. CONCLUSIONS: This ISBD task force guidance paper provides the first consensus-based recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder. Adherence to these recommendations will likely improve the sensitivity in detecting treatment efficacy...... or partly remitted patients. It is strongly encouraged that trials exclude patients with current substance or alcohol use disorders, neurological disease or unstable medical illness, and keep non-study medications stable. Additional methodological considerations include neuroimaging assessments, targeting...

  12. Transtorno bipolar do humor e uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas Bipolar disorder and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar e o uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas são doenças com alto potencial de limitação de autonomia, tornando-se ainda mais sérios quando associados. Este artigo apresenta as evidências científicas disponíveis acerca da epidemiologia, etiologia, evolução clínica, diagnóstico e tratamento farmacoterápico e psicossocial da comorbidade transtorno bipolar do humor e o uso indevido de substâncias psicoativas.The bipolar disorder and substance abuse are illness with highly autonomy limitation potential, becoming still more serious when associates. This article presents the available scientific evidences concerning the epidemiology, etiology, clinical evolution, diagnosis and pharmacological and psychosocial approaches designed for the bipolar disorder and substance abuse comorbidity.

  13. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  14. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J.; Kaye, S. M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Coleman, P. M. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Wilkerson, A. M.; Perrin, T. E.; Sullivan, G. P. [Efficiency Solutions, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-31

    At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY program evaluated LED architectural and theatrical lighting in four academic/performance-related spaces within the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion. Due to a wise choice of products and luminaire light distributions, the change brought significant quality improvements including improved controllability and color.

  15. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  16. Photobiocatalytic alcohol oxidation using LED light sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauch, M.C.R.; Schmidt, S.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; oppelt, K.; Kara, S; Hollmann, F.

    2016-01-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of NADH using a flavin photocatalyst and a simple blue LED light source is reported. This in situ NAD+ regeneration system can be used to promote biocatalytic, enantioselective oxidation reactions. Compared to the traditional use of white light bulbs this method enables

  17. NASA Ames UV-LED Poster Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2015-01-01

    UV-LED is a small satellite technology demonstration payload being flown on the Saudisat-4 spacecraft that is demonstrating non-contacting charge control of an isolated or floating mass using new solid-state ultra-violet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs). Integrated to the rest of the spacecraft and launched on a Dnepr in June 19, 2014, the project is a collaboration between the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Stanford University, and King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST). Beginning with its commissioning in December, 2015, the data collected by UV-LED have validated a novel method of charge control that will improve the performance of drag-free spacecraft allowing for concurrent science collection during charge management operations as well as reduce the mass, power and volume required while increasing lifetime and reliability of a charge management subsystem. UV-LED continues to operate, exploring new concepts in non-contacting charge control and collecting data crucial to understanding the lifetime of ultra-violet light emitting diodes in space. These improvements are crucial to the success of ground breaking missions such as LISA and BBO, and demonstrates the ability of low cost small satellite missions to provide technological advances that far exceed mission costs.

  18. Child-Led Enquiry in Primary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lynda; Compton, Kirsty; Clarke, Linda; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and evaluates the application of a child-led approach to scientific enquiry (the Community of Scientific Enquiry, CoSE) to children aged 8-11 (Key Stage 2) in Northern Ireland. Primary teachers were introduced to CoSE at a workshop and asked to evaluate its implementation with their class. Results from children (n = 364)…

  19. LED light recycling using double prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, George; Li, Kenneth

    2013-09-01

    A novel LED recycling scheme using double prisms is presented. Two identical triangular prisms with square bases, one cross-stacked on top of the other, are tight-fit into a mirrored light tunnel. The whole prism/light tunnel assembly is then mounted on top of a square LED source, whose emitting area is the same as that of the base plane of the said prism/light tunnel assembly. Each prism acts as a tapered-down light guide in one dimension, which selectively retro-reflects high angle light along that direction. The outer light tunnel serves as a mirrored wall that folds back any light that escapes outside the two prisms. For a given collection cone angle, the height of the two prisms is optimized using ASAP, a commercial ray-tracing software. Simulation and experimental results show promise in significantly increasing the brightness of the LED sources within the collection cone. Specifically for a 4x recycling ratio a 70% recycling gain in center illuminance has been achieved (i.e., illuminance measured in the forward direction). This scheme has advantages over previous recycling configurations due to its compactness and ease of mounting. For example, compared to Wavien's spherical reflector approach that has been previously published, the current recycling configuration is much smaller in size because instead of fitting a much larger mirrored reflector on top of the LED source, this time we're using a structure that has the same lateral dimensions as those of the LED source itself. Further improvement is also possible if optimization of various system parameters is carried out.

  20. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means