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Sample records for bipolar jet mapping

  1. HST/STIS observations of the RW Aurigae bipolar jet: mapping the physical parameters close to the source

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Bacciotti, Francesca; Woitas, Jens; Ray, Thomas P

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of new spectral diagnostic investigations applied to high-resolution long-slit spectra of the RW Aur bipolar jet obtained with HST/STIS. The spectra include the forbidden doublets [O I] 6300,6363 \\AA, [S II] 6716,6731 \\AA, and [N II] 6548, 6583 \\AA that we utilized to determine electron density, electron temperature, hydrogen ionisation fraction, total hydrogen density, radial velocity and the mass outflow rate. We were able to extract the parameters as far as 3".9 in the red- and 2".1 in the blueshifted beam. The RW Aur jet appears to be the second densest outflow from a T Tauri star studied so far, but its other properties are quite similar to those found in other jets from young stars. The overall trend of the physical parameters along the first few arcseconds of the RW Aur jet is similar to that of HH 30 and DG Tau and this can reflect analogies in the mechanisms operating in that region, suggesting the same engine is accelerating the jets in the T Tauri stars with outflows. Our stu...

  2. HST/STIS observations of the RW Aurigae bipolar jet: mapping the physical parameters close to the source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, S. Yu; Eislöffel, J.; Bacciotti, F.; Woitas, J.; Ray, T. P.

    2009-11-01

    Context: We present the results of new spectral diagnostic investigations applied to high-resolution long-slit spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) of the jet from the T Tauri star RW Aur. Aims: Our primary goal is to determine basic physical parameters (electron density ne and electron temperature Te, hydrogen ionisation fraction xe, total hydrogen density nH, radial velocity vr and the mass outflow rate dot Mj) along both the red- and blueshifted lobes of the RW Aur jet. Methods: The input dataset consists of seven long-slit spectra, of 0.1 arcsec spatial resolution, taken with the STIS slit parallel to the jet, and stepped across it. We use the Bacciotti & Eislöffel (1999, A&A, 342, 717) method to analyse the forbidden doublets [O I]λλ6300,6363, [S II]λλ 6716,6731, and [N II]λλ 6548,6583 Å to extract n_e, T_e, x_e, and n_H. Results: We were able to extract the parameters as far as 3.9 arcsec in the red- and 2.1 arcsec in the blueshifted beam. The electron density at the base of both lobes is close to the critical density for [S II] emission but then it decreases gradually with distance from the source. The range of electron temperatures derived for this jet (Te = 10^4-2×104 K) is similar to those generally found in other outflows from young stars. The ionisation fraction xe varies between 0.04 and 0.4, increasing within the first few arcseconds and then decreasing in both lobes. The total hydrogen density, derived as nH = ne / x_e, is on average 3.2×104 cm-3 and shows a gradual decrease along the beam. Variations of the above quantities along the jet lobes appear to be correlated with the position of knots. Combining the derived parameters with vr measured from the HST spectra and other characteristics available for this jet, we estimate dot Mj following two different procedures. The mass-outflow rate dot Mj is moderate and similar in the two lobes, despite the fact that the well-known asymmetry in the radial

  3. Kinematics of the Envelope and Two Bipolar Jets in the Class 0 Protostellar System L1157

    CERN Document Server

    Kwon, Woojin; Stephens, Ian W; Looney, Leslie W

    2015-01-01

    A massive envelope and a strong bipolar outflow are the two main structures characterizing the youngest protostellar systems. In order to understand the physical properties of a bipolar outflow and the relationship with those of the envelope, we obtained a mosaic map covering the whole bipolar outflow of the youngest protostellar system L1157 with about $5"$ angular resolution in CO J=2-1 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. By utilizing these observations of the whole bipolar outflow, we estimate its physical properties and show that they are consistent with multiple jets. We also constrain a preferred precession direction. In addition, we observed the central envelope structure with $2"$ resolution in the $\\lambda=1.3$ and 3 mm continua and various molecular lines: C$^{17}$O, C$^{18}$O, $^{13}$CO, CS, CN, N$_2$H$^+$, CH$_3$OH, H$_2$O, SO, and SO$_2$. All the CO isotopes and CS, CN, and N$_2$H$^+$ have been detected and imaged. We marginally detected the features that can be in...

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic models of bipolar knotty jet in henize 2-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Sahai, R.

    2004-01-01

    A remarkably linear, bipolar, knotty jet was recently discovered in Hen 2-90, an object classified as a young planetary nebula. Using two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate periodic variations in jet density and velocity as the mechanism for producing the jet and its knotty structures.

  5. Deepest Image of Exploded Star Uncovers Bipolar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    A spectacular new image of Cassiopeia A from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory released today has nearly 200 times more data than the "First Light" Chandra image of this object made five years ago. The new image reveals clues that the initial explosion caused by the collapse of a massive star was far more complicated than suspected. Chandra Broadband Image of Cassiopeia A Chandra Broadband Image of Cassiopeia A "Although this young supernova remnant has been intensely studied for years, this deep observation is the most detailed ever made of the remains of an exploded star," said Martin Laming of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. Laming is part of a team of scientists led by Una Hwang of the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. "It is a gold mine of data that astronomers will be panning through for years to come." The one-million-second (about 11.5-day) observation of Cassiopeia A uncovered two large, opposed jet-like structures that extend to about 10 light years from the center of the remnant. Clouds of iron that have remained nearly pure for the approximately 340 years since the explosion were also detected. "The presence of the bipolar jets suggests that jets could be more common in relatively normal supernova explosions than supposed by astronomers," said Hwang. A paper by Hwang, Laming and others on the Cassiopeia A observation will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Chandra Enhanced Silicon Image of Cassiopeia A Chandra Enhanced Silicon Image of Cassiopeia A X-ray spectra show that the jets are rich in silicon atoms and relatively poor in iron atoms. In contrast, fingers of almost pure iron gas extend in a direction nearly perpendicular to the jets. This iron was produced in the central, hottest regions of the star. The high silicon and low iron abundances in the jets indicate that massive, matter-dominated jets were not the immediate cause of the explosion, as these should have carried out large

  6. The Bipolar X-Ray Jet of the Classical T Tauri Star DG Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Bacciotti, F; Bary, J S; Briggs, K R; Cabrit, S; Carmona, A; Codella, C; Dougados, C; Eisloeffel, J; Gueth, F; Guenther, H M; Herczeg, G; Kundurthy, P; Matt, S P; Mutel, R L; Ray, T; Schmitt, J H M M; Schneider, P C; Skinner, S L; van Boekel, R

    2011-01-01

    We report on new X-ray observations of the classical T Tauri star DG Tau. DG Tau drives a collimated bi-polar jet known to be a source of X-ray emission perhaps driven by internal shocks. The rather modest extinction permits study of the jet system to distances very close to the star itself. Our initial results presented here show that the spatially resolved X-ray jet has been moving and fading during the past six years. In contrast, a stationary, very soft source much closer (~ 0.15-0.2") to the star but apparently also related to the jet has brightened during the same period. We report accurate temperatures and absorption column densities toward this source, which is probably associated with the jet base or the jet collimation region.

  7. Neuro-Space Mapping for Modeling Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Shuxia; Cheng Qianfu; Wu Haifeng; Zhang Qijun

    2015-01-01

    A neuro-space mapping(Neuro-SM) for modeling heterojunction bipolar transistor(HBT) is presented, which can automatically modify the input signals of the given model by neural network. The novel Neuro-SM formu-lations for DC and small-signal simulation are proposed to obtain the mapping network. Simulation results show that the errors between Neuro-SM models and the accurate data are less than 1%, demonstrating that the accurcy of the proposed method is higher than those of the existing models.

  8. Bipolar rings from jet-inflated bubbles around evolved binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Akashi, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    We show that a fast wind that expands into a bipolar nebula composed of two opposite jet-inflated bubbles can form a pair of bipolar rings around giant stars. Our model assumes three mass loss episodes: a spherical slow and dense shell, two opposite jets, and a spherical fast wind. We use the FLASH hydrodynamical code in three-dimensions to simulate the flow, and obtain the structure of the nebula. We assume that the jets are launched from an accretion disk around a stellar companion to the giant star. The accretion disk is assumed to be formed when the primary giant star and the secondary star suffer a strong interaction accompanied by a rapid mass transfer process from the primary to the secondary star, mainly a main sequence star. Later in the evolution the primary star is assumed to shrink and blow a fast tenuous wind that interacts with the dense gas on the surface of the bipolar structure. We assume that the dense mass loss episode before the jets are launched is spherically symmetric. Our results might...

  9. Jet rotation: launching region, angular momentum balance and magnetic properties in the bipolar outflow from RW Aur

    CERN Document Server

    Woitas, J; Ray, T P; Marconi, A; Coffey, D; Eislöffel, J; Woitas, Jens; Bacciotti, Francesca; Ray, Thomas P.; Marconi, Alessandro; Coffey, Deirdre; Eisloeffel, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Using STIS on board the HST we have obtained a spectroscopic map of the bipolar jet from RW Aur. We find signatures of rotation within the first 300 AU of the jet (1.''5 from RW Aur). Both lobes rotate in the same direction (i.e. with different helicities). Toroidal velocities are in the range 5 - 30 km/s at 20 (30) AU from the symmetry axis in the blueshifted (redshifted) lobe, in line with other STIS observations and with theoretical simulations. The sense of rotation is anti-clockwise looking from the tip of the blue lobe down to the star. Rotation is more evident in the [OI] and [NII] lines and at the largest sampled distance from the axis. We derive that the mass ejected in the observed part of the outflow is accelerated from a region in the disk within about 0.5 (1.6) AU from the star for the blue (red) lobe. We estimate that the angular momentum transport rate of the jet can be two thirds or more of the estimated rate transported through the relevant portion of the disk. The magnetic lever arm (ratio r...

  10. Three Dimensional Structure Of A Complex Bipolar Jet: Transition Region Imaging-spectroscopy With MOSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lewis; Kankelborg, C. C.; Longcope, D.

    2007-05-01

    We report on an interesting transient brightening observed in He II 304 Å above a flux-canceling magnetic bipole during the MOSES (Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph) sounding rocket flight, Feb. 8, 2006. The event resembles a bipolar jet and has characteristics of a transition region explosive event, but it is not a simple, linear structure at some angle to the line-of-sight. The jets curve away from the axis of a compact, bright core, and are not collinear. We observe transverse sky-plane motions and infer line-of-sight doppler shifts along the length of the jets, as well as non-thermal line broadening in the bright core, demonstrating the utility of simultaneous imaging-spectroscopy provided by MOSES. This work is supported by NASA LCAS and the Montana Space Grant Consortium.

  11. Flow Mapping of a Jet in Crossflow with Stereoscopic PIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Özcan, Oktay; Westergaard, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to make a three-dimensional flow mapping of a jet in crossflow. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the jet diameter was nominally 2400. A jet-to-crossflow velocity ratio of 3.3 was used. Details of the formation...... of the counter rotating vortex pair found behind the jet are shown. The vortex pair results in two regions with strong reversed velocities behind the jet trajectory. Regions of high turbulent kinetic energy are identified. The signature of the unsteady shear layer vortices is found in the mean vorticity field....

  12. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Hippocampal Anatomy in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Soares, Jair C.; Klunder, Andrea D.; Nicoletti, Mark; Dierschki, Nicole; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Bhrambilla, Paolo; Sassi, Roberto B.; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the use of three-dimensional mapping methods in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder to find out if localized alterations in hippocampal structure are exhibited. It also explores the developmental differences where the patient with bipolar disorder showed increasing hippocampal size with increasing age.

  13. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Hippocampal Anatomy in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Soares, Jair C.; Klunder, Andrea D.; Nicoletti, Mark; Dierschki, Nicole; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Bhrambilla, Paolo; Sassi, Roberto B.; Axelson, David; Ryan, Neal; Birmaher, Boris; Thompson, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The article discusses the use of three-dimensional mapping methods in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder to find out if localized alterations in hippocampal structure are exhibited. It also explores the developmental differences where the patient with bipolar disorder showed increasing hippocampal size with increasing age.

  14. Discovery of a bipolar X-ray jet from the T Tauri star DG Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Güdel, M; Audard, M; Briggs, K R; Cabrit, S

    2007-01-01

    We have obtained and analyzed Chandra ACIS-S observations of the strongly accreting classical T Tauri star DG Tau. Our principal goals are to map the immediate environment of the star to characterize possible extended X-rays formed in the jet, and to re-visit the anomalous, doubly absorbed X-ray spectrum of DG Tau itself. We combine our new ACIS-S data with a data set previously obtained. The data are superimposed to obtain flux and hardness images. Separate X-ray spectra are extracted for DG Tau and areas outside its point spread function. We detect a prominent X-ray jet at a position angle of PA ~225 deg (tentatively suggested by Guedel et al. 2005), coincident with the optical jet axis. We also identify a counter jet at PA = 45 deg. The X-ray jets are detected out to a distance of ~5" from the star, their sources being extended at the ACIS-S resolution. The jet spectra are soft, with a best-fit electron temperature of 3.4 MK. We find evidence for excess absorption of the counter jet. The spectrum of the DG...

  15. Mapping bipolar worlds: lived geographies of 'madness' in autobiographical accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Vera

    2012-03-01

    This article aims to advance our understanding of women's and men's experiences of negotiating bipolar 'madness' in society and space. It addresses gaps in the clinical literature on life with bipolar and geographic accounts of 'madness' and psycho-emotional distress by considering altered ways of being in place that bipolar 'madness' entails and how narrative sense is made of these. Conceptually, I build on Cosgrove's (2000) approach to psycho-emotional distress and geographic insights about being 'mad' in place. Methodologically and empirically, I draw on thematic narrative analysis of autobiographies of living with bipolar. Key findings include altered paradoxically (dis)embodied ways of being-in-place, 'fractured' or 'whole' senses of self and ways of relating to people/places, 'straddling' 'real' and 'delusional' worlds and bipolar ways of negotiating places are not straightforwardly 'irrational'. While narrative accounts most often invoke dominant discourses about bipolar, sometimes these are challenged through 'rescripting' and 'revaluing mad' identities and ways of being in place. In conclusion, key findings and avenues for future geographical research are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electrical mapping in bipolar disorder patients during the oddball paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Cartier, Consuelo; Cheniaux, Elie; Novis, Fernanda; Silveira, Luciana Angélica; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Batista, Washington Adolfo; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression--Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies.

  17. Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C P; Follmer, R L; Oguz, I; Warren, L A; Christensen, G E; Fiedorowicz, J G; Magnotta, V A; Wemmie, J A

    2015-02-01

    Abnormal metabolism has been reported in bipolar disorder, however, these studies have been limited to specific regions of the brain. To investigate whole-brain changes potentially associated with these processes, we applied a magnetic resonance imaging technique novel to psychiatric research, quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ). This method is sensitive to proton chemical exchange, which is affected by pH, metabolite concentrations and cellular density with high spatial resolution relative to alternative techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography. Study participants included 15 patients with bipolar I disorder in the euthymic state and 25 normal controls balanced for age and gender. T1ρ maps were generated and compared between the bipolar and control groups using voxel-wise and regional analyses. T1ρ values were found to be elevated in the cerebral white matter and cerebellum in the bipolar group. However, volumes of these areas were normal as measured by high-resolution T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Interestingly, the cerebellar T1ρ abnormalities were normalized in participants receiving lithium treatment. These findings are consistent with metabolic or microstructural abnormalities in bipolar disorder and draw attention to roles of the cerebral white matter and cerebellum. This study highlights the potential utility of high-resolution T1ρ mapping in psychiatric research.

  18. Use of linkage disequilibrium approaches to map genes for bipolar disorder in the Costa Rican population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escamilla, MA; Spesny, M; Reus, [No Value; Gallegos, A; Meza, L; Molina, J; Sandkuijl, LA; Fournier, E; Leon, PE; Smith, LB; Freimer, NB

    1996-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analysis provides a powerful means for screening the genome to map the location of disease genes, such as those for bipolar disorder (BP), As described in this paper, the population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, which is descended from a small number of founders, s

  19. Fabrication of CNT Dispersion Fluid by Wet-Jet Milling Method for Coating on Bipolar Plate of Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Almowarai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water based carbon nanotube (CNT dispersion was produced by wet-jet milling method. Commercial CNT was originally agglomerated at the particle size of less than 1 mm. The wet-jet milling process exfoliated CNTs from the agglomerates and dispersed them into water. Sedimentation of the CNTs in the dispersion fluid was not observed for more than a month. The produced CNT dispersion was characterized by the SEM and the viscometer. CNT/PTFE composite film was formed with the CNT dispersion in this study. The electrical conductivity of the composite film increased to 10 times when the CNT dispersion, which was produced by the wet-jet milling method, was used as a constituent of the film. Moreover, the composite film was applied to bipolar plate of fuel cell and increased the output power of the fuel cell to 1.3 times.

  20. The Physical Properties of the RW Aur Bipolar Jet from HST/STIS High-Resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, Stanislav; Eislöffel, Jochen; Bacciotti, Francesca; Woitas, Jens; Ray, Tom

    A well-collimated bipolar jet emanating from the classic T Tauri star RW Aur A (HH 229) has been traced out to 15″ in the redshifted [2] and over 100″ in the blueshifted lobe [3]. Long-slit spectra of the RW Aur jet were taken on 10. Dec. 2000 with the STIS spectrograph on board the HST. The spectrographslit of width 0″:1 and length 10″ was moved across the jet in seven positions from NW to SE, keeping it parallel to the jet axis. As a result, seven spectra covering the jet in both dimensions were obtained. The observations taken with the G750M grating cover the three prominent forbidden emission doublets - [O I] (λλ 6300,6363, [N II] λλ 6548,6583, and [S II] λλ 6716,6731. The current study presents a continuation of the analysis of the HST/STIS spectroscopy of the RW Aur jet started in Woitas et al. [5]. For extraction of the physical quantities we followed the well-established method described in Bacciotti and Eislöffel [1].

  1. HST\\/STIS Observations of the Bipolar Jet from RW Aurigae Tracing Outflow Asymmetries Close to the Source

    CERN Document Server

    Woitas, J; Bacciotti, F; Davis, C J; Eislöffel, J; Woitas, Jens; Ray, Thomas P.; Bacciotti, Francesca; Davis, Christopher J.; Eisl"offel, Jochen

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the bipolar jet from RW Aur A with STIS on board the HST. After continuum subtraction, morphological and kinematic properties of this outflow can be traced to within 0."1 from the source in forbidden emission lines. The jet appears well collimated, with typical FWHMs of 20 to 30 AU in the first 2" and surprisingly does not show a separate low-velocity component in contrast to earlier observations. The systemic radial outflow velocity of the blueshifted lobe is typically 50% larger than that of the redshifted one with a velocity difference of about 65 km/s. Although such asymmetries have been seen before on larger scales, our high spatial resolution observations suggest that they are intrinsic to the "central engine" rather than effects of the star's immediate environment. Temporal variations of the bipolar jet's outflow velocities appear to occur on timescales of a few years. They have combined to produce a 55% increase in the velocity asymmetry between the two lobes over the past decade. In ...

  2. MAPPING AND MODELING THE PROPERTIES OF BIPOLAR PLANETARY NEBULAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Faes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos los primeros resultados de un proyecto destinado a derivar parámetros físicos, abundancias químicas y variaciones angulares de nebulosas planetarias resueltas espacialmente en la Galaxia y que tienen estructura bipolar. Se pueden usar estos resultados como datos iniciales y restricciones en simulaciones numéricas para reproducir sus propiedades en la banda visual del espectro. De esta manera se pueden examinar las inhomogeneidades presentes en este tipo de objetos, y también servir de herramienta para determinar sus propiedades intrínsecas, como la geometría tridimensional y la distribución de materia, así como las propiedades de la estrella central, su distancia y otras propiedades en forma autoconsistente. Aquí mostramos nuestros resultados para dos de estos objetos: IC 4406 y NGC 6572.

  3. A New Interpretation of the Bipolar HII Region S106 from HCN J = 3 - 2 Mapping Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-Li Qin; Jun-Jie Wang; Gang Zhao; Martin Miller

    2005-01-01

    The first mapping observations of the bipolar HII region S106 in HCN J = 3-2 line were made by KOSMA submillimeter telescope in April, 2004. The results show that there is a bipolar cloud core is perpendicular to the IRS4 and that the flat structure of molecular cloud core is perpendicular to the axis of the outflow. This image roughly corresponds to the optical image where a dark lane bisects the bipolar HII region. Together with the optical, infrared and radio data, we conclude that the central UC HII region, and that a neutral disk is responsible for the bipolar HII region and the outflow.

  4. Equilibrium relations and bipolar cognitive mapping for online analytical processing with applications in international relations and strategic decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Ran

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar logic, bipolar sets, and equilibrium relations are proposed for bipolar cognitive mapping and visualization in online analytical processing (OLAP) and online analytical mining (OLAM). As cognitive models, cognitive maps (CMs) hold great potential for clustering and visualization. Due to the lack of a formal mathematical basis, however, CM-based OLAP and OLAM have not gained popularity. Compared with existing approaches, bipolar cognitive mapping has a number of advantages. First, bipolar CMs are formal logical models as well as cognitive models. Second, equilibrium relations (with polarized reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity), as bipolar generalizations and fusions of equivalence relations, provide a theoretical basis for bipolar visualization and coordination. Third, an equilibrium relation or CM induces bipolar partitions that distinguish disjoint coalition subsets not involved in any conflict, disjoint coalition subsets involved in a conflict, disjoint conflict subsets, and disjoint harmony subsets. Finally, equilibrium energy analysis leads to harmony and stability measures for strategic decision and multiagent coordination. Thus, this work bridges a gap for CM-based clustering and visualization in OLAP and OLAM. Basic ideas are illustrated with example CMs in international relations.

  5. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.H.T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J=3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water-fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0⋅″35 resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 106 cm−3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10−4 M⊙ yr−1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed. PMID:28191303

  6. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L.-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J = 3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0.″35 resolution using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows; (ii) a central high-density (> {few}× {10}6 cm‑3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 au; and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5× {10}-4 M⊙ yr‑1 in the past ∼455 years. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (∼millimeter-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age ∼160 years) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age ∼110 years) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common-envelope evolution are needed.

  7. Estimation of bipolar jets from accretion discs around Kerr black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Chattopadhyay, Indranil

    2017-08-01

    We analyse flows around a rotating black hole and obtain self-consistent accretion-ejection solutions in full general relativistic prescription. Entire energy-angular momentum parameter space is investigated in the advective regime to obtain shocked and shock-free accretion solutions. Jet equations of motion are solved along the von Zeipel surfaces computed from the post-shock disc, simultaneously with the equations of accretion disc along the equatorial plane. For a given spin parameter, the mass outflow rate increases as the shock moves closer to the black hole, but eventually decreases, maximizing at some intermediate value of shock location. Interestingly, we obtain all types of possible jet solutions, for example, steady shock solution with multiple critical points, bound solution with two critical points and smooth solution with single critical point. Multiple critical points may exist in jet solution for spin parameter as ≥ 0.5. The jet terminal speed generally increases if the accretion shock forms closer to the horizon and is higher for corotating black hole than the counter-rotating and the non-rotating one. Quantitatively speaking, shocks in jet may form for spin parameter as > 0.6 and jet shocks range between 6rg and 130rg above the equatorial plane, while the jet terminal speed vj∞ > 0.35 c if Bernoulli parameter E≥1.01 for as > 0.99.

  8. BIPOLAR JETS LAUNCHED FROM MAGNETICALLY DIFFUSIVE ACCRETION DISKS. I. EJECTION EFFICIENCY VERSUS FIELD STRENGTH AND DIFFUSIVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Fendt, Christian; Porth, Oliver; Vaidya, Bhargav [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ghanbari, Jamshid, E-mail: nezami@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-09-20

    We investigate the launching of jets and outflows from magnetically diffusive accretion disks. Using the PLUTO code, we solve the time-dependent resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations taking into account the disk and jet evolution simultaneously. The main question we address is which kind of disks launch jets and which kind of disks do not? In particular, we study how the magnitude and distribution of the (turbulent) magnetic diffusivity affect mass loading and jet acceleration. We apply a turbulent magnetic diffusivity based on {alpha}-prescription, but also investigate examples where the scale height of diffusivity is larger than that of the disk gas pressure. We further investigate how the ejection efficiency is governed by the magnetic field strength. Our simulations last for up to 5000 dynamical timescales corresponding to 900 orbital periods of the inner disk. As a general result, we observe a continuous and robust outflow launched from the inner part of the disk, expanding into a collimated jet of superfast-magnetosonic speed. For long timescales, the disk's internal dynamics change, as due to outflow ejection and disk accretion the disk mass decreases. For magnetocentrifugally driven jets, we find that for (1) less diffusive disks, (2) a stronger magnetic field, (3) a low poloidal diffusivity, or (4) a lower numerical diffusivity (resolution), the mass loading of the outflow is increased-resulting in more powerful jets with high-mass flux. For weak magnetization, the (weak) outflow is driven by the magnetic pressure gradient. We consider in detail the advection and diffusion of magnetic flux within the disk and we find that the disk and outflow magnetization may substantially change in time. This may have severe impact on the launching and formation process-an initially highly magnetized disk may evolve into a disk of weak magnetization which cannot drive strong outflows. We further investigate the jet asymptotic velocity and the jet rotational

  9. Bipolar jets launched from magnetically diffusive accretion disks. I. Ejection efficiency vs field strength and diffusivity

    CERN Document Server

    Sheikhnezami, Somayeh; Porth, Oliver; Vaidya, Bhargav; Ghanbari, Jamshid

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the launching of jets and outflows from magnetically diffusive accretion disks. Using the PLUTO code we solve the time-dependent resistive MHD equations taking into account the disk and jet evolution simultaneously. The main question we address is which kind of disks do launch jets and which kind of disks do not? In particular, we study how the magnitude and distribution of the (turbulent) magnetic diffusivity affect mass loading and jet acceleration. We have applied a turbulent magnetic diffusivity based on \\alpha-prescription, but have also investigate examples where the scale height of diffusivity is larger than that of the disk gas pressure. We further investigate how the ejection efficiency is governed by the magnetic field strength. Our simulations last for up to 5000 dynamical time scales corresponding to 900 orbital periods of the inner disk. As a general result we observe a continuous and robust outflow launched from the inner part of the disk, expanding into a collimated jet of super ...

  10. Formation and collimation of relativistic MHD jets - simulations and radio maps

    CERN Document Server

    Fendt, Christian; Sheikhnezami, Somayeh

    2013-01-01

    We present results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of jet formation and propagation, discussing a variety of astrophysical setups. In the first approach we consider simulations of relativistic MHD jet formation, considering jets launched from the surface of a Keplerian disk, demonstrating numerically - for the first time - the self-collimating ability of relativistic MHD jets. We obtain Lorentz factors up to about 10 while acquiring a high degree of collimation of about 1 degree. We then present synchrotron maps calculated from the intrinsic jet structure derived from the MHD jet formation simulation. We finally present (non-relativistic) MHD simulations of jet lauching, treating the transition between accretion and ejection. These setups include a physical magnetic diffusivity which is essential for loading the accretion material onto the outflow. We find relatively high mass fluxes in the outflow, of the order of 20-40 % of the accretion rate.

  11. SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no

  12. SYNTHETIC SYNCHROTRON EMISSION MAPS FROM MHD MODELS FOR THE JET OF M87

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Vlahakis, N.; Agudo, I.; Tsinganos, K.; Bogovalov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent global steady state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consists of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk wind. While the former does no

  13. Genomewide Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Severe Bipolar Disorder in a Population Isolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophoff, Roel A.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Service, Susan K.; Spesny, Mitzi; Meshi, Dar B.; Poon, Wingman; Molina, Julio; Fournier, Eduardo; Gallegos, Alvaro; Mathews, Carol; Neylan, Thomas; Batki, Steven L.; Roche, Erin; Ramirez, Margarita; Silva, Sandra; De Mille, Melissa C.; Dong, Penny; Leon, Pedro E.; Reus, Victor I.; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2002-01-01

    Genomewide association studies may offer the best promise for genetic mapping of complex traits. Such studies in outbred populations require very densely spaced single-nucleotide polymorphisms. In recently founded population isolates, however, extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD) may make these studies feasible with currently available sets of short tandem repeat markers, spaced at intervals as large as a few centimorgans. We report the results of a genomewide association study of severe bipolar disorder (BP-I), using patients from the isolated population of the central valley of Costa Rica. We observed LD with BP-I on several chromosomes; the most striking results were in proximal 8p, a region that has previously shown linkage to schizophrenia. This region could be important for severe psychiatric disorders, rather than for a specific phenotype. PMID:12119601

  14. A HST study of the environment of the Herbig Ae/Be star LkHa 233 and its bipolar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Stanislav Yu; Eislöffel, Jochen; Bacciotti, Francesca; Locatelli, Ugo; Ray, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of HST/STIS and WFPC2 observations of LkHa 233 and its environment. LkHa233 is a Herbig Ae/Be star with a collimated bipolar jet. We investigate optical forbidden lines along the LkHa 233 jet to determine physical parameters of this jet (electron density n_e, hydrogen ionisation fraction x_e, electron temperature T_e, and mass density n_H). The knowledge of these parameters allows us a direct comparison of a jet from a Herbig star with those from T Tauri stars. The WFPC2 images in broad-band filters clearly show a dark lane caused either by a circumstellar disk or a dust torus. In the blueshifted lobe, n_e is close to or above the critical density for [SII] lines (2.5x10^4 cm^-3) in the first arcsecond and decreases with distance from the source. The ionisation x_e~0.2-0.6 gently rises for the first 500 AU of the flow and shows two re-ionisation events further away from the origin. The T_e varies along the flow between 10^4 K and 3x10^4 K. The (radial) outflow velocities are ~ 80-160 km...

  15. Visual sensory processing deficits in patients with bipolar disorder revealed through high-density electrical mapping.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yeap, Sherlyn

    2009-11-01

    BACKGROUND: Etiological commonalities are apparent between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. For example, it is becoming clear that both populations show similar electrophysiological deficits in the auditory domain. Recent studies have also shown robust visual sensory processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia using the event-related potential technique, but this has not been formally tested in those with bipolar disorder. Our goal here was to assess whether early visual sensory processing in patients with bipolar disorder, as indexed by decreased amplitude of the P1 component of the visual evoked potential (VEP), would show a similar deficit to that seen in those with schizophrenia. Since the P1 deficit has already been established as an endophenotype in schizophrenia, a finding of commonality between disorders would raise the possibility that it represents a measure of common genetic liability. METHODS: We visually presented isolated-check stimuli to euthymic patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and age-matched healthy controls within a simple go\\/no-go task and recorded VEPs using high-density (72-channel) electroencephalography. RESULTS: The P1 VEP amplitude was substantially reduced in patients with bipolar disorder, with an effect size of f = 0.56 (large according to Cohen\\'s criteria). LIMITATIONS: Our sample size was relatively small and as such, did not allow for an examination of potential relations between the physiologic measures and clinical measures. CONCLUSION: This reduction in P1 amplitude among patients with bipolar disorder represents a dysfunction in early visual processing that is highly similar to that found repeatedly in patients with schizophrenia and their healthy first-degree relatives. Since the P1 deficit has been related to susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, our results raise the possibility that the deficit may in fact be more broadly related to the development of psychosis and that it merits further

  16. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, H J; Norton, N; Dwyer, S; Moskvina, V; Nikolov, I; Carroll, L; Georgieva, L; Williams, N M; Morris, D W; Quinn, E M; Giegling, I; Ikeda, M; Wood, J; Lencz, T; Hultman, C; Lichtenstein, P; Thiselton, D; Maher, B S; Malhotra, A K; Riley, B; Kendler, K S; Gill, M; Sullivan, P; Sklar, P; Purcell, S; Nimgaonkar, V L; Kirov, G; Holmans, P; Corvin, A; Rujescu, D; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2011-04-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 × 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 × 10(-9)). In this study we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger data set (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder N=18 945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N=21 274 and controls N=38 675). We also sought to better localize the association signal using a combination of de novo polymorphism discovery in exons, pooled de novo polymorphism discovery spanning the genomic sequence of the locus and high-density linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. The meta-analysis provided evidence for association between rs1344706 that surpasses widely accepted benchmarks of significance by several orders of magnitude for both schizophrenia (P=2.5 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14) and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder combined (P=4.1 × 10(-13), OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). After de novo polymorphism discovery and detailed association analysis, rs1344706 remained the most strongly associated marker in the gene. The allelic association at the ZNF804A locus is now one of the most compelling in schizophrenia to date, and supports the accumulating data suggesting overlapping genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  17. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Williams, H J

    2011-04-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 × 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 × 10(-9)). In this study we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger data set (schizophrenia\\/schizoaffective disorder N=18 945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N=21 274 and controls N=38 675). We also sought to better localize the association signal using a combination of de novo polymorphism discovery in exons, pooled de novo polymorphism discovery spanning the genomic sequence of the locus and high-density linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. The meta-analysis provided evidence for association between rs1344706 that surpasses widely accepted benchmarks of significance by several orders of magnitude for both schizophrenia (P=2.5 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14) and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder combined (P=4.1 × 10(-13), OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). After de novo polymorphism discovery and detailed association analysis, rs1344706 remained the most strongly associated marker in the gene. The allelic association at the ZNF804A locus is now one of the most compelling in schizophrenia to date, and supports the accumulating data suggesting overlapping genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  18. Inspection of Disruptive Behaviours at Jet Using Generative Topographic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratta, G. A.; Vega, J. A.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.

    Tokamaks are the most promising configuration of magnetic confinement fusion devices. However, a physical phenomenon that leads the plasma out to its operational bounds, called disruption, remains unavoidable. Disruptions cause the abrupt termination of the discharge and in addition to affecting the execution of the research program, they can constitute a risk for the structural integrity of the machine. In this article two important aspects that can facilitate the better understanding of the phenomenon are presented. First, the selection of the physical parameters and their main characteristics related to disruptions are reviewed. Second, the application of Generative Topographic Mapping (GTM) to visualize and compare disruptive and non disruptive experiments at different times is shown. The resulting maps are aimed to evidence the evolution of the phenomenon, since it is unrecognizable till it can be distinguished. The identification of the instant when precursors of disruptions can be noticed is highly relevant in nuclear fusion since it determines the time margin the control systems have to apply mitigation or avoidance actions.

  19. Synthetic synchrotron emission maps from MHD models for the jet of M87

    CERN Document Server

    Gracia, J; Agudo, I; Tsinganos, K; Bogovalov, S V

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent global, steady-state MHD models and synthetic optically thin synchrotron emission maps for the jet of M87. The model consist of two distinct zones: an inner relativistic outflow, which we identify with the observed jet, and an outer cold disk-wind. While the former does not self-collimate efficiently due to its high effective inertia, the latter fulfills all the conditions for efficient collimation by the magneto-centrifugal mechanism. Given the right balance between the effective inertia of the inner flow and the collimation efficiency of the outer disk wind, the relativistic flow is magnetically confined into a well collimated beam and matches the measurements of the opening angle of M87 over several orders of magnitude in spatial extent. The synthetic synchrotron maps reproduce the morphological structure of the jet of M87, i.e. center-bright profiles near the core and limb-bright profiles away from the core. At the same time, they also show a local increase of brightness at some...

  20. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of the Chromosome 6q21–22.31 Bipolar I Disorder Susceptibility Locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinbo; Ionita-Laza, Iuliana; McQueen, Matthew B.; Devlin, Bernie; Purcell, Shaun; Faraone, Stephen V.; Allen, Michael H.; Bowden, Charles L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Fossey, Mark D.; Friedman, Edward S.; Gyulai, Laszlo; Hauser, Peter; Ketter, Terence B.; Marangell, Lauren B.; Miklowitz, David J.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Patel, Jayendra K.; Sachs, Gary S.; Thase, Michael E.; Molay, Francine B.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Sklar, Pamela; Laird, Nan M.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported genome-wide significant evidence for linkage between chromosome 6q and bipolar I disorder (BPI) by performing a meta-analysis of original genotype data from 11 genome scan linkage studies. We now present follow-up linkage disequilibrium mapping of the linked region utilizing 3,047 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in a case–control sample (N = 530 cases, 534 controls) and family-based sample (N = 256 nuclear families, 1,301 individuals). The strongest single SNP result (rs6938431, P=6.72× 10−5) was observed in the case–control sample, near the solute carrier family 22, member 16 gene (SLC22A16). In a replication study, we genotyped 151 SNPs in an independent sample (N = 622 cases, 1,181 controls) and observed further evidence of association between variants at SLC22A16 and BPI. Although consistent evidence of association with any single variant was not seen across samples, SNP-wise and gene-based test results in the three samples provided convergent evidence for association with SLC22A16, a carnitine transporter, implicating this gene as a novel candidate for BPI risk. Further studies in larger samples are warranted to clarify which, if any, genes in the 6q region confer risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:19308960

  1. Larger low voltage zone in endocardial unipolar map compared with that in epicardial bipolar map indicates difficulty in eliminating ventricular tachycardia by catheter ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Koji; Noda, Takashi; Satomi, Kazuhiro; Wada, Mitsuru; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Okamura, Hideo; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Shimizu, Wataru; Aiba, Takeshi; Kamakura, Shiro; Kusano, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy often have substrate for ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the endocardium (ENDO), epicardium (EPI), and/or intramural. Although it has been reported that the ENDO unipolar (UNI) voltage map is useful in detecting EPI substrate, its feasibility to detect intramural scarring and its usefulness in radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) remain unclear. To assess the relationship between the left ventricle (LV) ENDO UNI voltage map and the LV EPI bipolar (BIP) voltage map, and to determine the usefulness of the ENDO UNI voltage map to guide RFCA for VT in patients with cardiomyopathy undergoing combined ENDO- and EPI RFCA. Eleven patients with VT undergoing detailed ENDO and EPI electroanatomical mapping of the LV were included (mean age 59 ± 11 years, 9 men). We assessed the value of the LV ENDO UNI voltage map in identifying EPI and/or intramural substrate in these 11 patients with non-ischemic or ischemic cardiomyopathy. The underlying heart disease was dilated cardiomyopathy in 4 patients, cardiac sarcoidosis in 3, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 2, and ischemic heart disease in 2 patients. The mean LV ejection fraction was 24 ± 7 %. The low voltage zone (LVZ) was defined as voltage maps using the transparency mode on CARTO software. We performed RFCA at the ENDO and EPI based on activation and/or substrate maps, targeting the LVZ and/or abnormal EGMs. The LVZ was present in the LV ENDO BIP voltage map in 10 of 11 patients (42 ± 33 cm(2)), and in the LV ENDO UNI voltage map in 10 of 11 patients (72 ± 45 cm(2)). The LVZ was present in the EPI BIP voltage map in 9 of 11 patients (70 ± 61 cm(2)), and the LVZ in the ENDO UNI voltage map was also seen in all 9 patients. The location of the LVZ in the EPI BIP map matched that in 45 ± 28 % of ENDO UNI voltage maps. The LVZ in the ENDO UNI voltage map was larger than that in the EPI BIP voltage map in 6 of 11 patients, and RFCA failed in 5 of

  2. Conformal mapping technique for two-dimensional porous media and jet impingement heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, R.

    1974-01-01

    Transpiration cooling and liquid metals both provide highly effective heat transfer. Using Darcy's law in porous media and the inviscid approximation for liquid metals, the local fluid velocity in these flows equals the gradient of a potential. The energy equation and flow region are simplified when transformed into potential plane coordinates. In these coordinates, the present problems are reduced to heat conduction solutions which are mapped into the physical geometry. Results are obtained for a porous region with simultaneously prescribed surface temperature and heat flux, heat transfer in a two-dimensional porous bed, and heat transfer for two liquid metal slot jets impinging on a heated plate.

  3. Mapping the Interactions between Shocks and Mixing Layers in a 3-Stream Supersonic Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewalle, Jacques; Ruscher, Christopher; Kan, Pinqing; Tenney, Andrew; Gogineni, Sivaram; Kiel, Barry

    2015-11-01

    Pressure is obtained from an LES calculation of the supersonic jet (Ma1 = 1 . 6) issuing from a rectangular nozzle in a low-subsonic co-flow; a tertiary flow, also rectangular with Ma3 = 1 insulates the primary jet from an aft-deck plate. The developing jet exhibits complex three-dimensional interactions between oblique shocks, multiple mixing layers and corner vortices, which collectively act as a skeleton for the flow. Our study is based on several plane sections through the pressure field, with short signals (0.1 s duration at 80 kHz sampling rate). Using wavelet-based band-pass filtering and cross-correlations, we map the directions of propagation of information among the various ``bones'' in the skeleton. In particular, we identify upstream propagation in some frequency bands, 3-dimensional interactions between the various shear layers, and several key bones from which the pressure signals, when taken as reference, provide dramatic phase-locking for parts of the skeleton. We acknowledge the support of AFRL through an SBIR grant.

  4. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Fatigue or lack of energy Feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness, or guilt Loss of pleasure in activities once ...

  5. Vessel thermal map real-time system for the JET tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Alves

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The installation of international thermonuclear experimental reactor-relevant materials for the plasma facing components (PFCs in the Joint European Torus (JET is expected to have a strong impact on the operation and protection of the experiment. In particular, the use of all-beryllium tiles, which deteriorate at a substantially lower temperature than the formerly installed carbon fiber composite tiles, imposes strict thermal restrictions on the PFCs during operation. Prompt and precise responses are therefore required whenever anomalous temperatures are detected. The new vessel thermal map real-time application collects the temperature measurements provided by dedicated pyrometers and infrared cameras, groups them according to spatial location and probable offending heat source, and raises alarms that will trigger appropriate protective responses. In the context of the JET global scheme for the protection of the new wall, the system is required to run on a 10 ms cycle communicating with other systems through the real-time data network. In order to meet these requirements a commercial off-the-shelf solution has been adopted based on standard x86 multicore technology. Linux and the multithreaded application real-time executor (MARTe software framework were respectively the operating system of choice and the real-time framework used to build the application. This paper presents an overview of the system with particular technical focus on the configuration of its real-time capability and the benefits of the modular development approach and advanced tools provided by the MARTe framework.

  6. Genome-wide scan in Portuguese Island families implicates multiple loci in bipolar disorder: fine mapping adds support on chromosomes 6 and 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Carlos N; Pato, M T; Kirby, A; Petryshen, T L; Medeiros, H; Carvalho, C; Macedo, A; Dourado, A; Coelho, I; Valente, J; Soares, M J; Ferreira, C P; Lei, M; Verner, A; Hudson, T J; Morley, C P; Kennedy, J L; Azevedo, M H; Daly, M J; Sklar, P

    2004-05-15

    As part of an extensive study in the Portuguese Island population of families with multiple patients suffering from bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, we performed an initial genome-wide scan of 16 extended families with bipolar disorder that identified three regions on chromosomes 2, 11, and 19 with genome-wide suggestive linkage and several other regions, including chromosome 6q, also approached suggestive levels of significance. Dick et al. [2003: Am J Hum Genet 73:107-114] recently reported in a study of 250 families with bipolar disorder a maxLOD score of 3.61 near marker D6S1021 on chromosome 6q. This study replicates this finding having detected a peak NPL = 2.02 (P = 0.025) with the same marker D6S1021(104.7 Mb). Higher-density mapping provided additional support for loci on chromosome 6 including marker D6S1021 with an NPL = 2.59 (P = 0.0068) and peaking at marker D6S1639 (125 Mb) with an NPL = 3.06 (P = 0.0019). A similar pattern was detected with higher-density mapping of chromosome 11 with an NPL = 3.15 (P = 0.0014) at marker D11S1883 (63.1 Mb). Simulations at the density of our fine mapping data indicate that less than 1 scan out of 10 would find two such scores genome-wide in the same scan by chance. Our findings provide additional support for a susceptibility locus for bipolar disorder on 6q, as well as, suggesting the importance of denser scans. Published 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, H J; Norton, N; Dwyer, S.; Moskvina, V; Nikolov, I.; Carroll, L.; Georgieva, L; Williams, N. M.; Morris, D.W.; Quinn, E.M.; Giegling, I; M. Ikeda(Kyoto University); Wood, J; Lencz, T; Hultman, C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A recent genome wide association study reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 x10-7), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 x10-9). Here we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger dataset (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder N = 18945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N =21274, controls N ...

  8. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical ...

  9. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in ...

  10. Factors influencing the structure and shape of stenotic and regurgitant jets: an in vitro investigation using Doppler color flow mapping and optical flow visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabill, K A; Sung, H W; Tamura, T; Chung, K J; Yoganathan, A P; Sahn, D J

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate factors influencing the structure and shape of stenotic and regurgitant jets, Doppler color flow mapping and optical flow visualization studies were performed with use of a syringe model with a constant rate of ejection to simulate jets of valvular regurgitation and a pulsatile flow model of the right heart chambers to simulate jets of mild, moderate and severe valvular pulmonary stenosis. Ink-(0 to 40%) glycerol-water jets (viscosity 1 to 3.5 centiPoise) were produced by injecting the fluid at a constant rate into a 10 gallon rectangular reservoir of the same still fluid through 1.4 and 3.4 mm needles. The Doppler color flow scanners imaged the laminar jet length within 3 mm of actual jet length (2 to 6 cm) and the jet width within 2 to 3 mm of the actual jet width. Jet flows with Reynolds numbers ranging from 230 to 1,200 injected into still fluid yielded jet length/width ratios that decreased with increasing Reynolds numbers and leveled off to a length/width ratio of 5-6:1 at a Reynolds number near 600. When the fluid reservoir was swirled to better mimic the effect of flow entering the same cardiac chamber from a second source, the jets showed diminution of the jet length/width ratio and a clearly defined zone of turbulence. Studies of the pulsatile flow model were performed at cardiac outputs of 1 to 6 liters/min for the normal and each stenotic valve. Mild stenosis had an orifice area of 2.8 cm2, moderate stenosis an area of 1.0 cm2 and severe stenosis an area of 0.5 cm2. Laminar jet length represented the length of the total jet, which had a symmetric width and was measured from the valve opening to a region where the jet exhibited a spray effect. Laminar jet lengths (0.2 to 1.1 cm) were imaged by Doppler color flow mapping and optical visualization only in the moderate and severely stenotic valves and only at flows less than or equal to 3 liters/min (mean Reynolds numbers less than or equal to 3,470). Beyond this flow rate the jets exhibited a

  11. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, H.J.; Norton, N.; Dwyer, S.; Moskvina, V.; Nikolov, I.; Carroll, L.; Georgieva, L.; Williams, N.M.; Morris, D.W.; Quinn, E.M.; Giegling, I.; Ikeda, M.; Wood, J.; Lencz, T.; Hultman, C.; Lichtenstein, P.; Thiselton, D.; Maher, B.S.; Malhotra, A.K.; Riley, B.; Kendler, K.S.; Gill, M.; Sullivan, P.; Sklar, P.; Purcell, S.; Nimgaonkar, V.L.; Kirov, G.; Holmans, P.; Corvin, A.; Rujescu, D.; Craddock, N.; Owen, M.J.; O'Donovan, M.C.; GROUP investigators, [No Value

    2011-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P = 1.61 x 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P = 9.96 x 10(-9)). In this

  12. Fine-scale mapping of a locus for severe bipolar mood disorder on chromosome 18p11.3 in the Costa Rican population

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, L. Alison; Service, Susan K.; Reus, Victor I.; Barnes, Glenn; Charlat, Olga; Jawahar, Satya; Lewitzky, Steve; Yang, Qing; Duong, Quyen; Spesny, Mitzi; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Gallegos, Alvaro; Meza, Luis; Molina, Julio; Ramirez, Rolando; Mendez, Roxana; Silva, Sandra; Fournier, Eduardo; Batki, Steven L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Neylan, Thomas; Glatt, Charles E.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Luo, David; Gajiwala, Paresh; Song, Terry; Crook, Stephen; Nguyen, Jasmine B.; Roche, Erin; Meyer, Joanne M.; Leon, Pedro; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Chen, Hong

    2001-01-01

    We have searched for genes predisposing to bipolar disorder (BP) by studying individuals with the most extreme form of the affected phenotype, BP-I, ascertained from the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). The results of a previous linkage analysis on two extended CVCR BP-I pedigrees, CR001 and CR004, and of linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of a CVCR population sample of BP-I patients implicated a candidate region on 18p11.3. We further investigated this region by creating a physical map and developing 4 new microsatellite and 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers for typing in the pedigree and population samples. We report the results of fine-scale association analyses in the population sample, as well as evaluation of haplotypes in pedigree CR001. Our results suggest a candidate region containing six genes but also highlight the complexities of LD mapping of common disorders. PMID:11572994

  13. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  14. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  15. SNR efficiency of combined bipolar gradient echoes: Comparison of three-dimensional FLASH, MPRAGE, and multiparameter mapping with VFA-FLASH and MP2RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Jean-David; Wachowicz, Keith; Gilbert, Guillaume; De Zanche, Nicola

    2017-06-01

    High-bandwidth bipolar multiecho gradient echo sequences are increasingly popular in structural brain imaging because of reduced water-fat shifts, lower susceptibility effects, and improved signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency. In this study, we investigated the performance of three three-dimensional multiecho sequences (MPRAGE, MP2RAGE, and FLASH) with scan times technique with multiecho FLASH (VFA-FLASH). Multiecho sequences were optimized to yield equivalent contrast and improved SNR compared with their single-echo counterparts. Theoretical SNR gains were verified with measurements in a multilayered phantom. Robust image processing pipelines extracted PD, T1 , and T2* maps from MP2RAGE or VFA-FLASH, and the corresponding SNR was measured with varying SENSE accelerations (R = 1-5) and number of echoes (N = 1-12). All sequences were tested on four healthy volunteers. Multiecho sequences achieved SNR gains of 1.3-1.6 over single-echo sequences. MP2RAGE yielded comparable T1 -to-noise ratio to VFA-FLASH, but significantly lower SNR (sampling bandwidths. VFA-FLASH surpasses MP2RAGE in its ability to map three parameters with high SNR and 1-mm isotropic resolution in a clinically relevant scan time (∼8:30 min), whereas MP2RAGE yields lower intersubject variability in T1 . Magn Reson Med 77:2186-2202, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  17. Mapping the Ionization State of Laser-Irradiated Ar Gas Jets With Multi-Wavelength Monochromatic X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Doppner, T; Kemp, A; Schaeffer, D; Glenzer, S H; Niemann, C

    2010-04-08

    Two-dimensional monochromatic images of fast-electron stimulated Ar K{alpha} and He-{alpha} x-ray self-emission have recorded a time-integrated map of the extent of Ar{sup {approx}6+} and Ar{sup 16+} ions, respectively, within a high density (10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} atomic density) Ar plasma. This plasma was produced by irradiating a 2 mm wide clustering Ar gas jet with an ultra-high intensity (10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}, 200 fs) Ti:Sapphire laser operating at 800 nm. Spherically bent quartz crystals in the 200 (for K{alpha}) and 201 (for He-{alpha}) planes were used as near-normal incidence reflective x-ray optics. We see that a large (830 {micro}m long) region of plasma emits K{alpha} primarily along the laser axis, while the He-{alpha} emission is confined to smaller hot spot (230 {micro}m long) region that likely corresponds to the focal volume of the f/8 laser beam. X-ray spectra from a Bragg spectrometer operating in the von Hamos geometry, which images in one dimension, indicate that the centroids of the K{alpha} and He-{alpha} emission regions are separated by approximately 330 {micro}m along the laser axis.

  18. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  20. Conditional Moment Closure Modelling of a Lifted H2/N2 Turbulent Jet Flame Using the Presumed Mapping Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lifted hydrogen/nitrogen turbulent jet flame issuing into a vitiated coflow is investigated using the conditional moment closure (CMC supplemented by the presumed mapping function (PMF approach for the modelling of conditional mixing and velocity statistics. Using a prescribed reference field, the PMF approach yields a presumed probability density function (PDF for the mixture fraction, which is then used in closing the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR and conditional velocity in a fully consistent manner. These closures are applied to a lifted flame and the findings are compared to previous results obtained using β-PDF-based closures over a range of coflow temperatures (Tc. The PMF results are in line with those of the β-PDF and compare well to measurements. The transport budgets in mixture fraction and physical spaces and the radical history ahead of the stabilisation height indicate that the stabilisation mechanism is susceptible to Tc. As in the previous β-PDF calculations, autoignition around the “most reactive” mixture fraction remains the controlling mechanism for sufficiently high Tc. Departure from the β-PDF predictions is observed when Tc is decreased as PMF predicts stabilisation by means of premixed flame propagation. This conclusion is based on the observation that lean mixtures are heated by downstream burning mixtures in a preheat zone developing ahead of the stabilization height. The spurious sources, which stem from inconsistent CSDR modelling, are further investigated. The findings reveal that their effect is small but nonnegligible, most notably within the flame zone.

  1. Numerical simulations of stellar jets and comparison between synthetic and observed maps: clues to the launch mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Rubini, Francesco; Inghirami, Gabriele; Bacciotti, Francesca; Del Zanna, Luca

    2014-01-01

    High angular resolution spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS) provide rich morphological and kinematical information about the stellar jet phenomenon, which allows us to test theoretical models efficiently. In this work, numerical simulations of stellar jets in the propagation region are executed with the PLUTO code, by adopting inflow conditions that arise from former numerical simulations of magnetized outflows, accelerated by the disk-wind mechanism in the launching region. By matching the two regions, information about the magneto-centrifugal accelerating mechanism underlying a given astrophysical object can be extrapolated by comparing synthetic and observed position-velocity diagrams (PVDs). We show that quite different jets, like those from the young T Tauri stars DG-Tau and RW-Aur, may originate from the same disk-wind model for different configurations of the magnetic field at the disk surface. This result supports the idea that all the observed jets may be ...

  2. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same time, which is also known as major depressive disorder with mixed features. Bipolar Disorder and Other Illnesses Some bipolar disorder symptoms are similar to other illnesses, which can make ...

  4. Twin Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bozak, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many subsonic and supersonic vehicles in the current fleet have multiple engines mounted near one another. Some future vehicle concepts may use innovative propulsion systems such as distributed propulsion which will result in multiple jets mounted in close proximity. Engine configurations with multiple jets have the ability to exploit jet-by-jet shielding which may significantly reduce noise. Jet-by-jet shielding is the ability of one jet to shield noise that is emitted by another jet. The sensitivity of jet-by-jet shielding to jet spacing and simulated flight stream Mach number are not well understood. The current experiment investigates the impact of jet spacing, jet operating condition, and flight stream Mach number on the noise radiated from subsonic and supersonic twin jets.

  5. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.

  6. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios D. Kotzalidis; Elisa Ambrosi; Alessio Simonetti; Ilaria Cuomo; Antonio Del Casale; Matteo Caloro; Valeria Savoja; Chiara Rapinesi

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuro...

  7. Jet observables without jet algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Chan, Tucker; Thaler, Jesse [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-04-02

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables — jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum — have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their “local” computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applications do require knowledge about the jet constituents, we also build a hybrid event shape that incorporates (local) jet clustering information. As a straightforward application of our general technique, we derive an event-shape version of jet trimming, allowing event-wide jet grooming without explicit jet identification. Finally, we briefly mention possible applications of our method for jet substructure studies.

  8. Neuroimaging in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent attacks, significantly disrupts the functionality of a chronic mental disorder. Although there is growing number of studies on the neurobiological basis of the disorder, the pathophysiology has not yet been clearly understood. Structural and functional imaging techniques present a better understanding of the etiology of bipolar disorder and has contributed significantly to the development of the diagnostic approach. Recent developments in brain imaging modalities have let us learn more about the underlying abnormalities in neural systems of bipolar patients. Identification of objective biomarkers would help to determine the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, a disorder which causes significant deterioration in neurocognitive and emotional areas.

  9. The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942

    CERN Document Server

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L; Martinez-Aroza, Josee

    2015-01-01

    Context. 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims. Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of its 'twin' GRS 1758-258. Methods. We carried out an in-depth exploration of the VLA public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results. We cl...

  10. A Massive Bipolar Outflow and a Dusty Torus with Large Grains in the Preplanetary Nebula IRAS 22036+5306

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Young, K.; Patel, N. A.; Sanchez Contreras, C.; Morris, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report high angular resolution (approx.1") CO J=3-2 interferometric mapping using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of IRAS 22036+5306 (I22036), a bipolar preplanetary nebula (PPN) with knotty jets discovered in our HST snapshot survey of young PPNs. In addition, we have obtained supporting lower resolution (approx.10") CO and 13CO J=1-0 observations with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) interferometer, as well as optical long-slit echelle spectra at the Palomar Observatory. The CO J=3-2 observations show the presence of a very fast (approx.220 km/s), highly collimated, massive (0.03 Solar Mass) bipolar outflow with a very large scalar momentum (about 10(exp 39) g cm/s), and the characteristic spatiokinematic structure of bow shocks at the tips of this outflow. The H(alpha) line shows an absorption feature blueshifted from the systemic velocity by approx.100 km/s, which most likely arises in neutral interface material between the fast outflow and the dense walls of the bipolar lobes at low latitudes. The fast outflow in I22036, as in most PPNs, cannot be driven by radiation pressure. We find an unresolved source of submillimeter (and millimeter-wave) continuum emission in I22036, implying a very substantial mass (0.02-0.04 Solar Mass) of large (radius > or approx.1 mm), cold ( or approx.4 Solar Mass) progenitor in which hot-bottom-burning has occurred.

  11. Management of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Seung Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with bipolar disorder spend more time in a depressed than manic state, even with individualized treatment. To date, bipolar depression is often misdiagnosed and ineffectively managed both for acute episodes and residual symptoms. This review attempts to summarize the current status of available treatment strategies in the treatment of bipolar depression. For acute and prophylactic treatment, a substantial body of evidence supports the antidepressive efficacy of lithium for bipolar disorders and its antisuicidal effects. Among numerous anticonvulsants with mood-stabilizing properties, valproate and lamotrigine could be first-line options for bipolar depression. Due to receptor profile, mood-stabilizing properties of second-generation antipsychotics have been explored, and up to date, quetiapine and olanzapine appear to be a reasonable option for bipolar depression. The usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression is still controversial. Current guidelines generally recommend the cautious antidepressant use in combination with mood stabilizers to reduce the risk of mood elevation or cycle acceleration. Results from clinical trials on psychosocial intervention are promising, especially when integrated with pharmacotherapy. Most patients with bipolar depression need individualized and combined treatment, although the published evidence on this type of treatment strategy is limited. Future studies on the utility of currently available agents and modalities including psychosocial intervention are required.

  12. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  13. The feedback of atomic jets from embedded protostars in NGC 1333

    CERN Document Server

    Dionatos, Odysseas

    2016-01-01

    Star-formation feedback onto the parent cloud is conventionally examined through the study of molecular outflows. Little is however known on the effect that atomic ejecta, tracing fast shocks, can have on the global cloud properties. In this study we employ Herschel/PACS [OI] and [CII] spectral line maps of the NGC 1333 star-forming region to assess the relative influence of atomic jets onto the star-formation process. Atomic line maps are compared against molecular outflow tracers and atomic ejecta are associated to individual driving sources. We study the detailed morphology and velocity distribution of [OI] line using channel and line-centroid maps and derive the momentum, energy, and mass flux for all the bipolar jets traced by [OI] line emission. We find that the line-centroid maps can trace velocity structures down to 5 km s$^{-1}$ which is a factor of $\\sim$20 beyond the nominal velocity resolution reached by Herschel/PACS. These maps reveal an unprecedented degree of details that assist significantly ...

  14. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    M. Akram; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  17. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios D Kotzalidis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent literature based on peripheral immunity findings speculated that neuroinflammation, with its connection to microglial activation, is linked to bipolar disorder. The endorsement of the neuroinflammatory hypotheses of bipolar disorder requires the demonstration of causality, which requires longitudinal studies. We aimed to review the evidence for neuroinflammation as a pathogenic mechanism of the bipolar disorder. We carried out a hyper inclusive PubMed search using all appropriate neuroinflammation-related terms and crossed them with bipolar disorder-related terms. The search produced 310 articles and the number rose to 350 after adding articles from other search engines and reference lists. Twenty papers were included that appropriately tackled the issue of the presence (but not of its pathophysiological role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Of these, 15 were postmortem and 5 were carried out in living humans. Most articles were consistent with the presence of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but factors such as treatment may mask it. All studies were cross-sectional, preventing causality to be inferred. Thus, no inference can be currently made about the role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder, but a link is likely. The issue remains little investigated, despite an excess of reviews on this topic.

  18. Bipolarity and the relational division

    OpenAIRE

    Tamani, Nouredine; Lietard, Ludovic; Rocacher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    International audience; A fuzzy bipolar relation is a relation defined by a fuzzy bipolar condition, which could be interpreted as an association of a constraint and a wish. In this context, the extension of the relational division operation to bipolarity is studied in this paper. Firstly, we define a bipolar division when the involved relations are crisp. Then, we define, from the semantic point of view, several forms of bipolar division when the involved relations are defined by fuzzy bipol...

  19. Bipolar disorder and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Látalová, K

    2009-06-01

    In clinical practice, overt aggressive behaviour is frequently observed in patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder. It can be dangerous and complicates patient care. Nevertheless, it has not been adequately studied as a phenomenon that is separate from other symptoms such as agitation. The aim of this review is to provide information on the prevalence, clinical context, and clinical management of aggression in patients with bipolar disorder. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2008 using the combination of key words 'aggression' or 'violence' with 'bipolar disorder'. For the treatment searches, generic names of mood stabilisers and antipsychotics were used in combination with key words 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression'. No language constraint was applied. Articles dealing with children and adolescents were not included. Acutely ill hospitalised bipolar patients have a higher risk for aggression than other inpatients. In a population survey, the prevalence of aggressive behaviour after age 15 years was 0.66% in persons without lifetime psychiatric disorder, but 25.34% in bipolar I disorder. Comorbidity with personality disorders and substance use disorders is frequent, and it elevates the risk of aggression in bipolar patients. Impulsive aggression appears to be the most frequent subtype observed in bipolar patients. Clinical management of aggression combines pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. A major problem with the evidence is that aggression is frequently reported only as one of the items contributing to the total score on a scale or a subscale. This makes it impossible to ascertain specifically aggressive behaviour. Large controlled head-to-head randomised controlled studies comparing treatments for aggressive behaviour in bipolar disorder are not yet available. There is some evidence favouring divalproex, but it is not particularly strong .We do not know if there are any efficacy

  20. Fuzzy jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackey, Lester [Department of Statistics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Nachman, Benjamin [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwartzman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Stansbury, Conrad [Department of Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Collimated streams of particles produced in high energy physics experiments are organized using clustering algorithms to form jets. To construct jets, the experimental collaborations based at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) primarily use agglomerative hierarchical clustering schemes known as sequential recombination. We propose a new class of algorithms for clustering jets that use infrared and collinear safe mixture models. These new algorithms, known as fuzzy jets, are clustered using maximum likelihood techniques and can dynamically determine various properties of jets like their size. We show that the fuzzy jet size adds additional information to conventional jet tagging variables in boosted topologies. Furthermore, we study the impact of pileup and show that with some slight modifications to the algorithm, fuzzy jets can be stable up to high pileup interaction multiplicities.

  1. Bipolar disorder (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate and maintain, ...

  2. A precessing jet model for the PN K 3-35: simulated radio-continuum emission

    CERN Document Server

    Velazquez, P; Esquivel, A; Raga, A

    2007-01-01

    The bipolar morphology of the planetary nebula (PN) K 3-35 observed in radio-continuum images was modelled with 3D hydrodynamic simulations with the adaptive grid code yguazu-a. We find that the observed morphology of this PN can be reproduced considering a precessing jet evolving in a dense AGB circumstellar medium, given by a mass loss rate \\dot{M}_{csm}=5x10^{-5}M_{\\odot}/yr and a terminal velocity v_{w}=10 km/s. Synthetic thermal radio-continuum maps were generated from numerical results for several frequencies. Comparing the maps and the total fluxes obtained from the simulations with the observational results, we find that a model of precessing dense jets, where each jet injects material into the surrounding CSM at a rate \\dot{M}_j=2.8x10^{-4} {M_{\\odot}/yr (equivalent to a density of 8x10^{4} {cm}^{-3}, a velocity of 1500 km/s, a precession period of 100 yr, and a semi-aperture precession angle of 20 degrees agrees well with the observations.

  3. Atomic jet from SMM1 (FIRS1) in Serpens uncovers non-coeval binary companion

    CERN Document Server

    Dionatos, O; Teixeira, P S; Güdel, M; Bergin, E

    2014-01-01

    We report on the detection of an atomic jet associated with the protostellar source SMM1 (FIRS1) in Serpens. The jet is revealed in [FeII] and [NeII] line maps observed with Spitzer/IRS, and further confirmed in HiRes IRAC and MIPS images. It is traced very close to SMM1 and peaks at ~5 arcsec" from the source at a position angle of $\\sim 125 degrees. In contrast, molecular hydrogen emission becomes prominent at distances > 5" from the protostar and extends at a position angle of 160 degrees. The morphological differences suggest that the atomic emission arises from a companion source, lying in the foreground of the envelope surrounding the embedded protostar SMM1. In addition the molecular and atomic Spitzer maps disentangle the large scale CO (3-2) emission observed in the region into two distinct bipolar outflows, giving further support to a proto-binary source setup. Analysis at the peaks of the [FeII] jet show that emission arises from warm and dense gas (T ~1000 K, n(electron) 10^5 - 10^6 cm^-3). The ma...

  4. Jet Observables Without Jet Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolini, Daniele; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new class of event shapes to characterize the jet-like structure of an event. Like traditional event shapes, our observables are infrared/collinear safe and involve a sum over all hadrons in an event, but like a jet clustering algorithm, they incorporate a jet radius parameter and a transverse momentum cut. Three of the ubiquitous jet-based observables---jet multiplicity, summed scalar transverse momentum, and missing transverse momentum---have event shape counterparts that are closely correlated with their jet-based cousins. Due to their "local" computational structure, these jet-like event shapes could potentially be used for trigger-level event selection at the LHC. Intriguingly, the jet multiplicity event shape typically takes on non-integer values, highlighting the inherent ambiguity in defining jets. By inverting jet multiplicity, we show how to characterize the transverse momentum of the n-th hardest jet without actually finding the constituents of that jet. Since many physics applicatio...

  5. The precessing jets of 1E 1740.7-2942

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Martínez-Aroza, José

    2015-12-01

    Context. The source 1E 1740.7-2942 is believed to be one of the two prototypical microquasars towards the Galactic center region whose X-ray states strongly resemble those of Cygnus X-1. Yet, the bipolar radio jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 are very reminiscent of a radio galaxy. The true nature of the object has thus remained an open question for nearly a quarter of a century. Aims: Our main goal here is to confirm the Galactic membership of 1E 1740.7-2942 by searching for morphological changes of its extended radio jets in human timescales. This work was triggered as a result of recent positive detection of fast structural changes in the large-scale jets of the very similar source GRS 1758-258. Methods: We carried out an in-depth exploration of the Very Large Array public archives and fully recalibrated all 1E 1740.7-2942 extended data sets in the C configuration of the array. We obtained and analyzed matching beam radio maps for five epochs, covering years 1992, 1993, 1994, 1997 and 2000, with an angular resolution of a few arcseconds. Results: We clearly detected structural changes in the arc-minute jets of 1E 1740.7-2942 on timescales of roughly a year, which set a firm distance upper limit of 12 kpc. Moreover, a simple precessing twin-jet model was simultaneously fitted to the five observing epochs available. The observed changes in the jet flow are strongly suggestive of a precession period of ~1.3 yr. Conclusions: The fitting of the precession model to the data yields a distance of ~5 kpc. This value, and the observed changes, rule out any remaining doubts about the 1E 1740.7-2942 Galactic nature. To our knowledge, this microquasar is the second whose jet precession ephemeris become available after SS433. This kind of information is relevant to the physics of compact objects, since the genesis of the precession phenomenon occurs very close to the interplay region between the accretion disk and the compact object in the system. Appendix A and a movie associated to

  6. Interacting Jets from Binary Protostars

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, G C; O'Sullivan, S; Spicer, D; Bacciotti, F; Rosén, A

    2007-01-01

    We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly pa...

  7. Coronal Jet Plasma Properties and Acceleration Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Samaiyah; Reeves, Kathy; Savcheva, Antonia; Soto, Natalia

    2017-08-01

    Coronal jets are transient eruptions of plasma typically characterized by aprominent long spire and a bright base, and sometimes accompanied by a small filament. Jets are thought to be produced by magnetic reconnection when small-scale bipolar magnetic fields emerge into an overlying coronal field or move into a locally unipolar region. Coronal jets are commonly divided into two categories: standard jets and blowout jets, and are found in both quiet and active regions. The plasma properties of jets vary across type and location, therefore understanding the underlying acceleration mechanisms are difficult to pin down. In this work, we examine both blow-out and standard jets using high resolution multi-wavelength data. Although reconnection is commonly accepted as the primary acceleration mechanism, we also consider the contribution chromospheric evaporation to jet formation. We use seven coronal channels from SDO/AIA , Hinode/XRT Be-thin and IRIS slit-jaw data. In addition, we separate the Fe-XVIII line from the SDO/94Å channel. We calculate plasma properties including velocity, Alfven speed, and density as a function of wavelength and Differential Emission Measure (DEM). Finally, we explore the magnetic topology of the jets using Coronal Modeling System (CMS) to construct potential and non-linear force free models based on the flux rope insertion method.

  8. A Massive Bipolar Outflow and a Dusty Torus with Large Grains in the Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 22036+5306

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, R; Patel, N A; Contreras, C S; Morris, M

    2006-01-01

    We report high angular-resolution (~1") CO J=3--2 interferometric mapping, using the Submillimeter Array (SMA), of IRAS22036+5306 (I22036), a bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) with knotty jets discovered in our HST SNAPshot survey of young PPNs. In addition, we have obtained supporting lower-resolution (~10") CO and 13CO J=1-0 observations with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) interferometer, as well as optical long-slit echelle spectra at the Palomar Observatory. The CO J=3-2 observations show the presence of a very fast (~220 km/s), highly collimated, massive (0.03 Msun) bipolar outflow with a very large scalar momentum (about 10^{39} g cm s^{-1}), and the characteristic spatio-kinematic structure of bow-shocks at the tips of this outflow. The Halpha line shows an absorption feature blue-shifted from the systemic velocity by ~100 km/s, which most likely arises in neutral interface material between the fast outflow and the dense walls of the bipolar lobes at low latitudes. The fast outflow in I2203...

  9. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  10. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  11. Jet phenomena above null points of the coronal magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.; Koutchmy, S.; Golub, L.

    2009-12-01

    Short-lived plasma jets of various scales, from giant X-ray jets more than 300 Mm in extent to numerous small jets with sizes typical of macrospicules, are the phenomena observed in the solar corona in extreme ultraviolet and X-ray emission. Small jets are particularly prominent in polar coronal holes. They are close neighbors of tiny bright loops and coincide in time with their sudden brightening and increase in size. The geometric shape of the jets and their location suggest that they arise near singular null points of the coronal magnetic field. These points appear in coronal holes due to the emergence of small bipolar or unipolar magnetic structures within large-scale unipolar cells. Polar jets show a distinct vertical plasma motion in a coronal hole that introduces significant momentum and mass into the solar wind flow. Investigating the dynamics of polar jets can elucidate certain details in the problem of fast solar wind acceleration.

  12. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  13. Bipolar disorder: an update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    self-esteem/grandiosity, significantly decreased need for sleep, racing speech, flight .... association analysis supports a role for ANK3 and CACNA1C in bipolar disorder. Nat Genet. 2008 ... adolescent depression: A matter of both risk and resilience. ... Rosenberg G. The mechanisms of action of valproate in neuropsychiatric.

  14. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  15. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 

  16. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 

  17. On Bipolar Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    SAID BROUMI; MOHAMED TALEA; ASSIA BAKALI; FLORENTIN SMARANDACHE

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties. 

  18. THE JET-DRIVEN BOW SHOCK IN OUTFLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangQing; ZhengXingwu

    1999-01-01

    Recent high resolution observations show the high collimated bipolar molecular outflows from young stellar objects, such as NGC 2 264G and NGC 2 024. Existing models can not yet give complete interpretations of the structure and properties of the observed flow. Here, we propose a jet-driven bow

  19. Jet quenching via jet collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, J; Wiedemann, U

    2011-01-01

    The strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions measured by ATLAS and CMS provide important constraints on the dynamical mechanisms underlying jet quenching. In this work, we show that the transport of soft gluons away from the jet cone - jet collimation - can account for the observed dijet asymmetry with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude. Further, we show that the energy loss attained through this mechanism results in a very mild distortion of the azimuthal angle dijet distribution.

  20. Emerging jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaller, Pedro; Stolarski, Daniel [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Weiler, Andreas [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland). TH-PH Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilities for discovery at LHCb are also discussed.

  1. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  2. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  3. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. ...

  4. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  5. Molecules in Bipolar Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Tafalla, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar outflows constitute some of the best laboratories to study shock chemistry in the interstellar medium. A number of molecular species have their abundance enhanced by several orders of magnitude in the outflow gas, likely as a combined result of dust mantle disruption and high temperature gas chemistry, and therefore become sensitive indicators of the physical changes taking place in the shock. Identifying these species and understanding their chemical behavior is therefore of high interest both to chemical studies and to our understanding of the star-formation process. Here we review some of the recent progress in the study of the molecular composition of bipolar outflows, with emphasis in the tracers most relevant for shock chemistry. As we discuss, there has been rapid progress both in characterizing the molecular composition of certain outflows as well as in modeling the chemical processes likely involved. However, a number of limitations still affect our understanding of outflow chemistry. These i...

  6. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  7. Bipolar intimal tacking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C E; Williams, G

    1984-09-01

    A bipolar electrocoagulating device has been designed to thermally tack arterial intimal flaps to the artery wall. The device was tested on intimal flaps created in the rabbit descending aorta. The vascular segments were tested for patency and the thermal tack points were examined on a scanning electron microscope. The tack points were shown to be of sufficient tensile strength and to have minimal thrombogenicity.

  8. [Research on Early Identification of Bipolar Disorder Based on Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haowei; Gao, Yanni; Yuan, Chengmei; Liu, Ying; Ding, Yuqing

    2015-06-01

    Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network belongs to multi-layer feedforward neural network, and has the ability and characteristics of high intelligence. It can realize the complex nonlinear mapping by its own learning through the network. Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness with high recurrence rate, high self-harm rate and high suicide rate. Most of the onset of the bipolar disorder starts with depressive episode, which can be easily misdiagnosed as unipolar depression and lead to a delayed treatment so as to influence the prognosis. The early identifica- tion of bipolar disorder is of great importance for patients with bipolar disorder. Due to the fact that the process of early identification of bipolar disorder is nonlinear, we in this paper discuss the MLP neural network application in early identification of bipolar disorder. This study covered 250 cases, including 143 cases with recurrent depression and 107 cases with bipolar disorder, and clinical features were statistically analyzed between the two groups. A total of 42 variables with significant differences were screened as the input variables of the neural network. Part of the samples were randomly selected as the learning sample, and the other as the test sample. By choosing different neu- ral network structures, all results of the identification of bipolar disorder were relatively good, which showed that MLP neural network could be used in the early identification of bipolar disorder.

  9. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  10. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  11. Publikationsanalysen zu den Themen ‚Depression und Suizidalität‘, ‚Cannabis‘ und ‚Bipolare Störung‘ unter Verwendung von Output Benchmarking und Density Equalizing Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Vogelzang, Barnabas Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    For this cumulative dissertation, three bibliographic studies were performed in different fields of psychiatry, and their results were published. This first publication was about the subject area cannabis, the second about depression and suicide and the third about bipolar disorder. The Web of Science database (WoS), developed by Thompson Reuters, was scanned for relevant publications between 1900 and 2007 referring to the topic of depression and suicide and additionally between 1900 and ...

  12. WOBBLING AND PRECESSING JETS FROM WARPED DISKS IN BINARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhnezami, Somayeh [School of Astronomy, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fendt, Christian, E-mail: nezami@mpia.de, E-mail: fendt@mpia.de [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    We present results of the first ever three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the accretion–ejection structure. We investigate the 3D evolution of jets launched symmetrically from single stars but also jets from warped disks in binary systems. We have applied various model setups and tested them by simulating a stable and bipolar symmetric 3D structure from a single star–disk–jet system. Our reference simulation maintains a good axial symmetry and also a bipolar symmetry for more than 500 rotations of the inner disk, confirming the quality of our model setup. We have then implemented a 3D gravitational potential (Roche potential) due by a companion star and run a variety of simulations with different binary separations and mass ratios. These simulations show typical 3D deviations from axial symmetry, such as jet bending outside the Roche lobe or spiral arms forming in the accretion disk. In order to find indications of precession effects, we have also run an exemplary parameter setup, essentially governed by a small binary separation of only ≃200 inner disk radii. This simulation shows a strong indication that we observe the onset of a jet precession caused by the wobbling of the jet-launching disk. We estimate the opening angle of the precession cone defined by the lateral motion of the jet axis to be about 4° after about 5000 dynamical time steps.

  13. An Electrochromic Bipolar Membrane Diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Gabrielsson, Erik O; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    Conducting polymers with bipolar membranes (a complementary stack of selective membranes) may be used to rectify current. Integrating a bipolar membrane into a polymer electrochromic display obviates the need for an addressing backplane while increasing the device's bistability. Such devices can be made from solution-processable materials.

  14. Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Diveky, Tomas; Velartova, Hana

    2011-03-01

    Provide an overview of how bipolar disorder affects cognitive function in patients. MEDLINE and PsycInfo data bases were searched for articles indexed by the combinations of MESH term or key word "bipolar disorder" with the following terms: "cognition", "memory", "neuropsychology", "neuropsychological tests", "lithium", "anticonvulsants", "antipsychotics", and "schizophrenia". Constraints limiting time period of publications or their language were not applied. Reference lists of publications identified by these procedures were hand-searched for additional relevant citations. There is evidence of stable and lasting cognitive impairment in all phases of bipolar disorder, including the remission phase, particularly in the following domains: sustained attention, memory and executive functions. But research on the cognitive functions has yielded inconsistent results over recent years. There is a growing need for clarification regarding the magnitude, clinical relevance and confounding variables of cognitive impairment in bipolar patients. The impact of bipolar illness on cognition can be influenced by age of onset, pharmacological treatments, individual response, familial risk factors, and clinical features. In addition to the mood state, cognitive performance in bipolar patients is influenced by seasonality. Previous optimistic assumptions about the prognosis of bipolar disorder were based on the success of the control of mood symptoms by pharmacotherapy. However, it is now clear that the "remitted" euthymic bipolar patients have distinct impairments of executive function, verbal memory, psychomotor speed, and sustained attention. Mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics may reduce cognitive deficits in certain domains and may have a positive effect on quality of life and social functioning.

  15. Social functioning of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, Catrien G.; van der Ende, Jan; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Bipolar patients have impaired social functioning compared to people in the general population. It has been suggested that children of bipolar patients also have impaired social functioning. The objective of this study was to compare social functioning of adolescent and young adult offsp

  16. Epidemiology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Mutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder diagnosis has been increasing recently. Since studies evaluating attempted suicide rates in children and adolescents have shown bipolarity to be a significant risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of bipolarity has become a very important issue. Since there is a lack of specific diagnostic criteria for especially preadolescent samples and evaluations are made mostly symptomatically, suspicions about false true diagnosis and increased prevalence rates have emerged. This situation leads to controversial data about the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder in community, inpatient and outpatient based samples in literature.

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  18. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  19. [Treatment of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barde, Michael; Bellivier, Frank

    2014-11-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic pathology whose management must lead to limit the social, professional and family impacts as well as suicidal risk. The treatment of acute episodes and prophylaxis is based on mood stabilizer treatments whose lithium is a leader. They will be chosen according to the background and history of the disease. Anti-depressants must be used with care to minimize the risk of manic episode and the induction of rapid cycles. The prognosis is not solving major episodes but avoiding major mood episodes. The management of residual symptoms (especially neuro-cognitive) is also a major challenge prognosis and justifies the implementation of adjuvant psychotherapeutic strategies.

  20. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.  

  1. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.  

  2. Jet Quenching via Jet Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration recently reported strong modifications of dijet properties in heavy ion collisions. In this work, we discuss to what extent these first data constrain already the microscopic mechanism underlying jet quenching. Simple kinematic arguments lead us to identify a frequency collimation mechanism via which the medium efficiently trims away the soft components of the jet parton shower. Through this mechanism, the observed dijet asymmetry can be accomodated with values of $\\hat{q}\\, L$ that lie in the expected order of magnitude.

  3. Radio polarization study in protostellar jet

    CERN Document Server

    Cécere, Mariana; Araudo, Anabella T; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro; Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed associated with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with, e.g., active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts or microquasars to weakly- or non-relativistic flows as those observed e.g. in supernovae and supernova remnants. Recent observations of polarization in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow to measure directly the jet and interstellar magnetic field structure and intensity, thus giving insights on the jet ejection mechanism itself. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non polarized (thermal-X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as models with toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities ~ 1000km/s ...

  4. PdBI sub-arcsecond study of the SiO microjet in HH212 - Origin and collimation of Class 0 jets

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrit, S; Gueth, F; Nisini, B; Gusdorf, A; Dougados, C; Bacciotti, F

    2007-01-01

    The bipolar HH 212 outflow has been mapped in SiO using the extended configuration of the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), revealing a highly collimated SiO jet closely associated with the H2 jet component. We study at unprecedented resolution (0.34" across the jet axis) the properties of the innermost SiO ``microjet'' within 1000 AU of this young Class 0 source, to compare it with atomic microjets from more evolved sources and to constrain its origin. The SiO channel maps are used to investigate the microjet collimation and velocity structure. A large velocity gradient analysis is applied to SiO (2-1), (5-4) and (8-7) data from the PdBI and the Submillimeter Array to constrain the SiO opacity and abundance. The HH212 Class 0 microjet shows striking similarities in collimation and energetic budget with atomic microjets from T Tauri sources. Furthermore, the SiO lines appear optically thick, unlike what is generally assumed. We infer T(kin) ~ 50-500 K and an SiO/H2 abundance greater than 4 10(-8)-6 10(-5...

  5. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  6. Risk factors for suicide among children and youths with bipolar spectrum and early bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Rajewska-Rager

    2015-06-01

    the overview of recent years literature available in PubMed/MEDLINE database, including the following search criteria: early onset bipolar disorder, bipolar disorder in children and young people, the spectrum of bipolar disorder, and suicidal ideation, suicidal intent, suicide.

  7. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  8. Bipolar and multipolar Jets in protoplanetary and planetary nebulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahai Raghvendra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los retos m as emocionantes con que actualmente se enfrentan las teor as de evoluci on posterior a la secuencia principal, es entender c omo estrellas AGB (ingl. "Asymptotic Giant Branch" y sus envolturas cicunestelares esf ericas (siglas en ingl es: CSEs se transforman en nebulosas planetarias (NPs con su asombrosa variedad de morfolog as asf ericas. El modelo m as exitoso para dar forma a los NPs|el modelo generalizado de vientos estelares interactuantes, en el cual un viento esf erico de alta velocidad (> 1000 km s...

  9. Dichotomy of Solar Coronal Jets: Standard Jets and Blowout Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. L.; Cirtain, J. W.; Sterling, A. C.; Falconer, D. A.

    2010-01-01

    By examining many X-ray jets in Hinode/XRT coronal X-ray movies of the polar coronal holes, we found that there is a dichotomy of polar X-ray jets. About two thirds fit the standard reconnection picture for coronal jets, and about one third are another type. We present observations indicating that the non-standard jets are counterparts of erupting-loop H alpha macrospicules, jets in which the jet-base magnetic arch undergoes a miniature version of the blowout eruptions that produce major CMEs. From the coronal X-ray movies we present in detail two typical standard X-ray jets and two typical blowout X-ray jets that were also caught in He II 304 Angstrom snapshots from STEREO/EUVI. The distinguishing features of blowout X-ray jets are (1) X-ray brightening inside the base arch in addition to the outside bright point that standard jets have, (2) blowout eruption of the base arch's core field, often carrying a filament of cool (T 10(exp 4) - 10(exp 5) K) plasma, and (3) an extra jet-spire strand rooted close to the bright point. We present cartoons showing how reconnection during blowout eruption of the base arch could produce the observed features of blowout X-ray jets. We infer that (1) the standard-jet/blowout-jet dichotomy of coronal jets results from the dichotomy of base arches that do not have and base arches that do have enough shear and twist to erupt open, and (2) there is a large class of spicules that are standard jets and a comparably large class of spicules that are blowout jets.

  10. A synchrotron jet from a post-AGB star

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Sánchez, A F; Tafoya, D; Chapman, J M

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) The evolution of low- and intermediate-initial-mass stars beyond the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) remains poorly understood. High-velocity outflows launched shortly after the AGB phase are thought to be the primary shaping mechanism of bipolar and multipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). However, little is known about the launching and driving mechanism for these jets, whose momentum and energy often far exceed the energy that can be provided by radiation pressure alone. Here, we report direct evidence of a magnetically collimated jet shaping the bipolar morphology of the circumstellar envelope of a post-AGB star. We present radio continuum observations of the post-AGB star IRAS 15445-5449 which has water masers tracing a fast bipolar outflow. Our observations confirm the earlier observed steep negative spectral index of the spectral energy distribution (SED) above 3 GHz, and resolve, for the first time, the emission to originate from a radio jet, proving the existence of such jets around a post-AGB st...

  11. A highly-collimated SiO jet in the HH212 protostellar outflow

    CERN Document Server

    Codella, C; Gueth, F; Cesaroni, R; Bacciotti, F; Le Floc'h, B; McCaughrean, M J

    2006-01-01

    We mapped the HH212 Class 0 outflow in SiO(2--1, 5--4) and continuum using the PdBI in its extended configurations. The unprecedented angular resolution (down to 0.34") allows accurate comparison with a new, deep H2 image obtained at the VLT. The SiO emission is confined to a highly-collimated bipolar jet (width 0.35") along the outflow axis. The jet can be traced down to within 500 AU of the protostar, in a region that is heavily obscured in H2 images. Where both species are detected, SiO shows the same overall kinematics and structure as H2, indicating that both molecules are tracing the same material. We find that the high-velocity SiO gas near the protostar is not tracing a wide-angle wind but is already confined to a flow inside a narrow cone of half-opening angle < 6 deg.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions bipolar ... my family? What is the prognosis of a genetic condition? Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Frequency ...

  13. Bipolar-rogue-wave structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yingchun; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qi; Tang, Xin; Liu, Zhongxuan; Chen, Zhaoyang; Lin, Chengyou

    2017-01-01

    The formation of extreme localization structures in nonlinear dispersive media (water or optical fibres) can be explained and described by the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The NLSE is especially important in understanding how solitons on a condensate background (SCB) appear from a small perturbation through modulation instability. We have studied theoretically SCB solutions solved with the dressing method. A class of bipolar-rogue-wave structures that are constructed by collisions between elementary SCB or bipolar solitonic solutions was found. Besides, we have also found a new class of regular bright solitonic rogue waves that are originated from the collision between two bipolar-rogue-wave structures. The bipolar-rogue-wave structures can be considered to provide a new prototype for rogue-waves dynamics modeling. Our results extend previous studies in the area of rogue waves and may be important in the study of oceanography and optics.

  14. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  15. The last deglaciation: timing the bipolar seesaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Pedro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Precise information on the relative timing of north-south climate variations is a key to resolving questions concerning the mechanisms that force and couple climate changes between the hemispheres. We present a new composite record made from five well-resolved Antarctic ice core records that robustly represents the timing of regional Antarctic climate change during the last deglaciation. Using fast variations in global methane gas concentrations as time markers, the Antarctic composite is directly compared to Greenland ice core records, allowing a detailed mapping of the inter-hemispheric sequence of climate changes. Consistent with prior studies the synchronized records show that warming (and cooling trends in Antarctica closely match cold (and warm periods in Greenland on millennial timescales. For the first time, we also identify a sub-millennial component to the inter-hemispheric coupling. Within the Antarctic Cold Reversal the strongest Antarctic cooling occurs during the pronounced northern warmth of the Bølling. Warming then resumes in Antarctica, potentially as early as the Intra-Allerød Cold Period, but with dating uncertainty that could place it as late as the onset of the Younger Dryas stadial. There is little-to-no time lag between climate transitions in Greenland and opposing changes in Antarctica. Our results lend support to fast acting inter-hemispheric coupling mechanisms, including recently proposed bipolar atmospheric teleconnections and/or rapid bipolar ocean teleconnections.

  16. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  17. [Unipolar versus bipolar depression: clues toward predicting bipolarity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs

  18. Comparison of animated jet stream visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The visualization of 3D atmospheric phenomena in space and time is still a challenging problem. In particular, multiple solutions of animated jet stream visualizations have been produced in recent years, which were designed to visually analyze and communicate the jet and related impacts on weather circulation patterns and extreme weather events. This PICO integrates popular and new jet animation solutions and inter-compares them. The applied techniques (e.g. stream lines or line integral convolution) and parametrizations (color mapping, line lengths) are discussed with respect to visualization quality criteria and their suitability for certain visualization tasks (e.g. jet patterns and jet anomaly analysis, communicating its relevance for climate change).

  19. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  20. Dynamic of astrophysical jets in the complex octonion space

    CERN Document Server

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to consider the strength gradient force as the dynamic of astrophysical jets, explaining the movement phenomena of astrophysical jets. J. C. Maxwell applied the quaternion analysis to describe the electromagnetic theory. This encourages others to adopt the complex quaternion and octonion to depict the electromagnetic and gravitational theories. In the complex octonion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, force and so forth. As one component of the force, the strength gradient force relates to the gradient of the norm of field strength only, and is independent of not only the direction of field strength but also the mass and electric charge for the test particle. When the strength gradient force is considered as the thrust of the astrophysical jets, one can deduce some movement features of astrophysical jets, including the bipolarity, matter ingredient, precession, symmetric distribution, emitting, collimation, stability, c...

  1. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  2. Creativity in familial bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Diana I; Chang, Kiki D; Strong, Connie; Ketter, Terence A

    2005-11-01

    Studies have demonstrated relationships between creativity and bipolar disorder (BD) in individuals, and suggested familial transmission of both creativity and BD. However, to date, there have been no studies specifically examining creativity in offspring of bipolar parents and clarifying mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of creativity. We compared creativity in bipolar parents and their offspring with BD and bipolar offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with healthy control adults and their children. 40 adults with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with BD, 20 bipolar offspring with ADHD, and 18 healthy control parents and their healthy control children completed the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS), an objective measure of creativity. Adults with BD compared to controls scored significantly (120%) higher on the BWAS Dislike subscale, and non-significantly (32%) higher on the BWAS Total scale. Mean BWAS Dislike subscale scores were also significantly higher in offspring with BD (107% higher) and offspring with ADHD (91% higher) than in healthy control children. Compared to healthy control children, offspring with BD had 67% higher and offspring with ADHD had 40% higher BWAS Total scores, but these differences failed to reach statistical significance when adjusted for age. In the bipolar offspring with BD, BWAS Total scores were negatively correlated with duration of illness. The results of this study support an association between BD and creativity and contribute to a better understanding of possible mechanisms of transmission of creativity in families with genetic susceptibility for BD. This is the first study to show that children with and at high risk for BD have higher creativity than healthy control children. The finding in children and in adults was related to an enhanced ability to experience and express dislike of simple and symmetric images. This could reflect increased access to negative affect, which could yield both benefits

  3. The Breakout Model for Coronal Jets with Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyper, Peter; DeVore, C. Richard; Antiochos, Spiro K.

    2016-05-01

    Coronal jets are impulsive, collimated plasma outflows originating low in the solar corona. Many of these events exhibit broad, curtain-like morphologies with helical structure and motions. Recently, Sterling et al. (2015) [doi:10.1038/nature14556] reported that such jets are associated with the eruption of small filaments and, therefore, are miniature versions of corona mass ejections (CMEs). This account differs from the traditional picture of jets, in that internal flare reconnection, rather than interchange reconnection with the external ambient magnetic field, creates the bright loops observed at the jet base. We present 3D simulations, performed with the Adaptively Refined MHD Solver (ARMS), which demonstrate how the magnetic breakout mechanism generates mini-CME-type jets in a compact bipolar region energized by simple footpoint motions. Our numerical model captures the formation of the strongly sheared pre-jet filament structure, the post-jet flare-like loops and ribbons, and the curtain-like untwisting dynamics observed higher in the corona. We will discuss the significance of our new results for understanding solar EUV and X-ray jets and CMEs in general. NASA supported this research by awards to the NASA Postdoctoral Program (P.F.W.) and the LWS TR&T and H-SR programs (C.R.D. & S.K.A.).

  4. Inclusive Jets in PHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roloff, P.

    Differential inclusive-jet cross sections have been measured in photoproduction for boson virtualities Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 300 pb^-1. Jets were identified in the laboratory frame using the k_T, anti-k_T or SIScone jet algorithms. Cross sections are presented as functions of the jet pseudorapidity, eta(jet), and the jet transverse energy, E_T(jet). Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations give a good description of the measurements, except for jets with low E_T(jet) and high eta(jet). The cross sections have the potential to improve the determination of the PDFs in future QCD fits. Values of alpha_s(M_Z) have been extracted from the measurements based on different jet algorithms. In addition, the energy-scale dependence of the strong coupling was determined.

  5. The Physical Environment around IRAS 17599-2148: Infrared Dark Cloud and Bipolar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, L. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Zinchenko, I.; Janardhan, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Luna, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present a multiscale and multiwavelength study to investigate the star formation process around IRAS 17599-2148, which is part of an elongated filamentary structure (EFS) (extension ˜21 pc) seen in the Herschel maps. Using the Herschel data analysis, at least six massive clumps (M clump ˜ 777-7024 M ⊙) are found in the EFS with a range of temperature and column density of ˜16-39 K and ˜(0.6-11) × 1022 cm-2 (A V ˜ 7-117 mag), respectively. The EFS hosts cold gas regions (i.e., infrared dark cloud) without any radio detection and a bipolar nebula (BN) linked with the H ii region IRAS 17599-2148, tracing two distinct environments inferred through the temperature distribution and ionized emission. Based on virial analysis and higher values of self-gravitating pressure, the clumps are found unstable against gravitational collapse. We find 474 young stellar objects (YSOs) in the selected region, and ˜72% of these YSOs are found in the clusters distributed mainly toward the clumps in the EFS. These YSOs might have spontaneously formed due to processes not related to the expanding H ii region. At the edges of BN, four additional clumps are also associated with YSO clusters, which appear to be influenced by the expanding H ii region. The most massive clump in the EFS contains two compact radio sources traced in the Giant Metre-wave Radio Telescope 1.28 GHz map and a massive protostar candidate, IRS 1, prior to an ultracompact H ii phase. Using the Very Large Telescope/NACO near-infrared images, IRS 1 is resolved with a jet-like feature within a 4200 au scale.

  6. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers.

  7. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  8. Psychopharmacology of pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrin, Vanya; Iennaco, Joanne DeSanto

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive literature review incorporates research studies evaluating the effectiveness of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder. Research articles were obtained using Medline. Open-label studies, prospective and retrospective chart reviews and randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of medication in pediatric bipolar disorder with greater than ten subjects are included in this article. Antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and lithium as monotherapy, as well as their use in combination treatment, were evaluated to determine their effectiveness in pediatric bipolar disorder. Clinical recommendations of medication and management strategies are made from a synthesis of the data. In addition, adherence concerns caused by adverse effects and nonresponse as they impact physical and mental health are addressed.

  9. Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    There have been in recent years increasing claims in both popular and professional literature for a connection between bipolar illness and creativity. A review of studies supporting this claim reveals serious flaws in sampling, methodology, presentation of results, and conclusions. Although there is therefore no evidence for etiological or genetic linkages, it is still necessary to explain interrelationships in those creative persons suffering from the illness. Examples of the work in progress of artists with bipolar disorder, Jackson Pollock and Edvard Munch, illustrate the use of healthy and adaptive creative cognition--janusian and homospatial processes--in the former's breakthrough conception during an improvement phase in treatment leading to the development of the Abstract Expressionist Movement and in the latter's transformation of an hallucination into his famous artwork "The Scream." Treatment options that do not produce cognitive effects are important for creative persons with bipolar disorder.

  10. Is bipolar always bipolar? Understanding the controversy on bipolar disorder in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Yvonne; Hohmann, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder—which can present differently in children and adolescents—or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders. So far, most findings suggest that the suspected symptoms, in particular chronic, non-episodic irritability (a mood symptom presenting with easy annoyance, temper tantrums and anger) do not constitute a developmental presentation of childhood bipolar disorder. Additional research based on prospective, longitudinal studies is needed to further clarify the developmental trajectories of bipolar disorder and the diagnostic status of chronic, non-episodic irritability. PMID:25580265

  11. Is bipolar always bipolar? Understanding the controversy on bipolar disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Yvonne; Hohmann, Sarah; Poustka, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder-which can present differently in children and adolescents-or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders. So far, most findings suggest that the suspected symptoms, in particular chronic, non-episodic irritability (a mood symptom presenting with easy annoyance, temper tantrums and anger) do not constitute a developmental presentation of childhood bipolar disorder. Additional research based on prospective, longitudinal studies is needed to further clarify the developmental trajectories of bipolar disorder and the diagnostic status of chronic, non-episodic irritability.

  12. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup.

  13. Functional MRI of sustained attention in bipolar mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, D E; Eliassen, J C; Durling, M; Lamy, M; Adler, C M; DelBello, M P; Shear, P K; Cerullo, M A; Lee, J-H; Strakowski, S M

    2012-03-01

    We examined sustained attention deficits in bipolar disorder and associated changes in brain activation assessed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We hypothesized that relative to healthy participants, those with mania or mixed mania would (1) exhibit incremental decrements in sustained attention over time, (2) overactivate brain regions required for emotional processing and (3) progressively underactivate attentional regions of prefrontal cortex. Fifty participants with manic/mixed bipolar disorder (BP group) and 34 healthy comparison subjects (HC group) received an fMRI scan while performing a 15-min continuous performance task (CPT). The data were divided into three consecutive 5-min vigilance periods to analyze sustained attention. Composite brain activation maps indicated that both groups activated dorsal and ventral regions of an anterior-limbic network, but the BP group exhibited less activation over time relative to baseline. Consistent with hypotheses 1 and 2, the BP group showed a marginally greater behavioral CPT sustained attention decrement and more bilateral amygdala activation than the HC group, respectively. Instead of differential activation in prefrontal cortex over time, as predicted in hypothesis 3, the BP group progressively decreased activation in subcortical regions of striatum and thalamus relative to the HC group. These results suggest that regional activation decrements in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex accompany sustained attention decrements in both bipolar and healthy individuals. Stable amygdala overactivation across prolonged vigils may interfere with sustained attention and exacerbate attentional deficits in bipolar disorder. Differential striatal and thalamic deactivation in bipolar disorder is interpreted as a loss of amygdala (emotional brain) modulation by the ventrolateral prefrontal-subcortical circuit, which interferes with attentional maintenance.

  14. Identifying Potential Regions of Copy Number Variation for Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a complex psychiatric disorder with high heritability, but its genetic determinants are still largely unknown. Copy number variation (CNV is one of the sources to explain part of the heritability. However, it is a challenge to estimate discrete values of the copy numbers using continuous signals calling from a set of markers, and to simultaneously perform association testing between CNVs and phenotypic outcomes. The goal of the present study is to perform a series of data filtering and analysis procedures using a DNA pooling strategy to identify potential CNV regions that are related to bipolar disorder. A total of 200 normal controls and 200 clinically diagnosed bipolar patients were recruited in this study, and were randomly divided into eight control and eight case pools. Genome-wide genotyping was employed using Illumina Human Omni1-Quad array with approximately one million markers for CNV calling. We aimed at setting a series of criteria to filter out the signal noise of marker data and to reduce the chance of false-positive findings for CNV regions. We first defined CNV regions for each pool. Potential CNV regions were reported based on the different patterns of CNV status between cases and controls. Genes that were mapped into the potential CNV regions were examined with association testing, Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, and checked with existing literature for their associations with bipolar disorder. We reported several CNV regions that are related to bipolar disorder. Two CNV regions on chromosome 11 and 22 showed significant signal differences between cases and controls (p < 0.05. Another five CNV regions on chromosome 6, 9, and 19 were overlapped with results in previous CNV studies. Experimental validation of two CNV regions lent some support to our reported findings. Further experimental and replication studies could be designed for these selected regions.

  15. The Giant Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, T.; Chanrion, O.; Arnone, E.; Zanotti, F.; Cummer, S.; Li, J.; Füllekrug, M.; van der Velde, O.

    2012-04-01

    Thunderstorm clouds may discharge directly to the ionosphere in spectacular luminous jets - the longest electric discharges on our planet. The electric properties of jets, such as their polarity, conductivity, and currents, have been predicted by models, but are poorly characterized by measurements. Here we present an analysis of the first gigantic jet that with certainty has a positive polarity. The jet region in the mesosphere was illuminated by an unusual sprite discharge generated by a positive cloud-to-ground lightning flash shortly after the onset of the jet. The sprite appeared with elements in a ring at ~40 km distance around the jet, the elements pointing curving away from the jet. This suggests that the field close the jet partially cancels the field driving the sprite. From a simple model of the event we conclude that a substantial portion of the positive cloud potential must be carried to ~50 km altitude, which is also consistent with the observed channel expansion and the electromagnetic radiation associated with the jet. It is further shown that blue jets are likely to substantially modify the free electron content in the lower ionosphere because of increased electron attachment driven by the jet electric field. The model further makes clear the relationship between jets, gigantic jets, and sprites. This is the first time that sprites are used for sounding the properties of the mesosphere. The observations presented here will allow evaluation of theories for jet and gigantic jet generation and of their influence on the atmosphere-ionosphere system.

  16. Bipolar depression in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa S; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder may have depression as the presenting mood state. It is important for clinicians to distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression in youth. Depressive episodes are common during the course of bipolar illness in children and adolescents. Evidence-based treatments are needed to guide clinicians' treatment decisions for youth with bipolar depression. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar depression in youth, and emphasizes the need for large, controlled treatment studies in the pediatric population.

  17. Shocked molecular hydrogen in the bipolar outflow NGC 2071

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, M.G. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy; National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center); Geballe, T.R. (Joint Astronomy Centre, Hilo, Hawaii (USA); Foundation for Astronomical Research in the Netherlands (ASTRON)); Brand, P.W.J.L. (Edinburgh Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astronomy)

    1989-06-15

    Emission from the 4u = 1 - 0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen has been mapped in the bipolar outflow NGC 2071. The line emission peaks at six positions distributed irregularly along the two lobes, which extend over a distance of {similar to} 1 pc. These lobes are parallel to, but offset {similar to} 20 arcsec from, the lobes of high-velocity CO line emission. Spectra from 2.1 to 2.45 {mu}m of the H{sub 2} emission lines are typical of shock-excited emission. The total H{sub 2} line luminosity is estimated to be {similar to} 4.5 time the solar luminosity. Profiles of the 1-0 S(1) line are relatively narrow (< 30 km s{sup -1} FWHM) for shocked gas. The peak velocity varies systematically across the source, in a manner consistent with the observed bipolarity of the millimetre-wave CO line emission. (author).

  18. [Bipolar disorder: Continuity from child to adult?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D; Bat, F; Rouviere, N; Campredon, S; Bastard-Rosset, D; Viellard, M; Santos, A; Deruelle, C; Azorin, J-M; Fakra, E; Adida, M

    2010-12-01

    Early onset (pediatric) bipolar disorders are still an issue of much controversy due to several clinical particularities of the thymic episodes at this age. To date, there is indeed no consensus regarding the prevalence of bipolar disorders before puberty. Diagnosis criteria in children and young adolescents remain thus elusive. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this issue. The idea of continuity, from childhood to adulthood, in bipolar disorders also raises important questions regarding predictive factors of bipolar disorders in adults. Studies on the childhood of bipolar adults, as well as studies on the children of bipolar parents will be reviewed, in an attempt to identify the psychopathological substrates of bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  19. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  20. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  1. Circular and Elliptic Submerged Impinging Water Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudey, Eric; Benedicto, Olivier; Ravier, Emmanuel; Gutmark, Ephraim

    1999-11-01

    Experiments and CFD have been performed to study circular and elliptic jets in a submerged water jet facility. The tests included discharge coefficient measurement to evaluate pressure losses encountered in noncircular nozzles compared to circular ones. Three-dimensional pressure mappings on the impingement surface and PIV measurement of the jet mean and turbulent velocity have been performed at different compound impingement angles relative to the impingement surface and at different stand-off distances. The objective was to investigate the effect of the non-circular geometry on the flow field and on the impact region. The tests were performed in a close loop system in which the water was pumped through the nozzles into a clear Plexiglas tank. The Reynolds numbers were typically in the range of 250000. Discharge coefficients of the elliptic nozzle was somewhat lower than that of the circular jet but spreading rate and turbulence level were higher. Pressure mapping showed that the nozzle exit geometry had an effect on the pressure distribution in the impact region and that high-pressure zones were generated at specific impact points. PIV measurements showed that for a same total exit area, the elliptic jets affected a surface area that is 8the equivalent circular. The turbulence level in the elliptic jet tripled due to the nozzle design. Results of the CFD model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  3. Bipolar Neutrosophic Refined Sets and Their Applications in Medical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Deli, Irfan; Yusuf, Şubaş

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes concept of bipolar neutrosophic refined set and its some operations. Firstly, a score certainty and accuracy function to compare the bipolar neutrosophic refined information is defined. Secondly, to aggregate the bipolar neutrosophic refined information, a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted average operator and a bipolar neutrosophic refined weighted geometric operator is developed.

  4. Neuregulin 3 is associated with attention deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Sandra; Strohmaier, Jana; Breuer, Rene; Mattheisen, Manuel; Degenhardt, Franziska; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Schulze, Thomas G; Nöthen, Markus M; Cichon, Sven; Rietschel, Marcella; Wüst, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Linkage and fine mapping studies have established that the neuregulin 3 gene (NRG3) is a susceptibility locus for schizophrenia. Association studies of this disorder have implicated NRG3 variants in both psychotic symptoms and attention performance. Psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits are also frequent features of bipolar disorder. The aims of the present study were to extend analysis of the association between NRG3 and psychotic symptoms and attention in schizophrenia and to determine whether these associations also apply to bipolar disorder. A total of 358 patients with schizophrenia and 111 patients with bipolar disorder were included. Psychotic symptoms were evaluated using the Operational Criteria Checklist for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) and attention performance was assessed using the Trail Making Test (TMT). Symptoms and performance scores were then tested for association with the NRG3 variant rs6584400. A significant association was found between the number of rs6584400 minor alleles and the total OPCRIT score for psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Moreover, in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, minor allele carriers of rs6584400 outperformed homozygous major allele carriers in the TMT. The results suggest that rs6584400 is associated with psychotic symptoms and attention performance in schizophrenia. The finding of a significant association between rs6584400 and attention performance in bipolar disorder supports the hypothesis that this NRG3 variant confers genetic susceptibility to cognitive deficits in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  5. Bouncing and Merging of Liquid Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhishek; Li, Minglei; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    Collision of two fluid jets is a technique that is utilized in many industrial applications, such as in rocket engines, to achieve controlled mixing, atomization and sometimes liquid phase reactions. Thus, the dynamics of colliding jets have direct impact on the performance, efficiency and reliability of such applications. In analogy with the dynamics of droplet-droplet collision, in this work we have experimentally demonstrated, for n-alkane hydrocarbons as well as water, that with increasing impact inertia obliquely colliding jets also exhibit the same nonmonotonic responses of merging, bouncing, merging again, and merging followed by disintegration; and that the continuous entrainment of the boundary layer air over the jet surface into the colliding interfacial region leads to two distinguishing features of jet collision, namely: there exists a maximum impact angle beyond which merging is always possible, and that merging is inhibited and then promoted with increasing pressure. These distinct response regimes were mapped and explained on the bases of impact inertia, deformation of the jet surface, viscous loss within the jet interior, and the thickness and pressure build-up within the interfacial region in order to activate the attractive surface van der Waals force to effect merging.

  6. Nicotine dependence and psychosis in Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Elena; Hartz, Sarah M; Tran, Jeffrey; Hilty, Donald M; Sklar, Pamela; Smoller, Jordan W; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Patients with Bipolar disorder smoke more than the general population. Smoking negatively impacts mortality and clinical course in Bipolar disorder patients. Prior studies have shown contradictory results regarding the impact of psychosis on smoking behavior in Bipolar disorder. We analyzed a large sample of Bipolar disorder and Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients and predicted those with a history of psychosis would be more likely to be nicotine dependent. Data from subjects and controls were collected from the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort (GPC). Subjects were diagnosed with Bipolar disorder without psychosis (N = 610), Bipolar disorder with psychosis (N = 1544). Participants were classified with or without nicotine dependence. Diagnostic groups were compared to controls (N = 10065) using logistic regression. Among smokers (N = 6157), those with Bipolar disorder had an increased risk of nicotine dependence (OR = 2.5; P < 0.0001). Patients with Bipolar disorder with psychosis were more likely to be dependent than Bipolar disorder patients without psychosis (OR = 1.3; P = 0.03). Schizoaffective disorder, Bipolar Type patients had more risk of nicotine dependence when compared to Bipolar disorder patients with or without psychosis (OR = 1.2; P = 0.02). Bipolar disorder patients experiencing more severity of psychosis have more risk of nicotine dependence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Study of Water Jet Impulse in Water-Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ke-rang; MA Wei-wei; CHEN Ming

    2005-01-01

    The water jet impulse is brought forward to study the traction force of the water jet to the flying weft in water-jet looms. The distribution of the water jet impulse in the shed is tested by a sensor, and the influence of water jet parameters on the water jet impulse is analyzed.

  8. A haplotype based study of lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder on the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald. H.; Wang, M.; Vang, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    , the Faroese population is perhaps the most valuable European population for genetic mapping of complex disease genes. The present study searched for haplotype sharing on chromosome 18 among eight lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder related, on average, 6.2 generations ago, using 30 DNA...

  9. Responsabilidade penal no transtorno bipolar Penal responsibility in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Martins Valença

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam o caso de uma mulher que cometeu delito de assalto e foi avaliada em perícia psiquiátrica para análise da responsabilidade penal. Conclui-se que ela apresentava doença mental, na forma de transtorno bipolar, daí ser inimputável. A avaliação da responsabilidade penal é de extrema importância, para que se possam aplicar medidas de segurança ou sanções penais e correcionais adequadas a cada caso.The authors report a case of a woman who committed the crime of assault and was evaluated in penal imputability exam to assess criminal responsibility. It was concluded that she had a mental illness, bipolar disorder, being inimputable. The evaluation of penal responsibility is extremely important, in order to apply adequate involuntary commitment or correctional and penal sanctions to each case.

  10. Protoplanetary Disks, Jets, and the Birth of the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglada, G.

    2017-03-01

    Young stars are surrounded by rotating disks of gas and dust. These disks play an essential role in regulating the mass accretion onto the star and are the precursors of exoplanetary systems. Accretion disks also play an important role in driving the bipolar collimated ejections (jets) that remove the excess of angular momentum and allow the star to reach its final mass. Jets are partially ionized and their continuum free-free emission at centimeter wavelengths is a powerful tool to study at small scale (10-100 au) the region where they originate. Observations of the dust thermal emission at centimeter wavelengths are also well suited to study the distribution of dust grains that have evolved up to centimeter sizes and trace the signatures of planet formation in protoplanetary disks. I will present some recent results from VLA and ALMA observations of disks and jets in young stellar objects, and I will discuss future prospects with the SKA in this field.

  11. Quark vs Gluon jets in Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Drauksas, Simonas

    2017-01-01

    The project concerned quark and gluon jets which are often used as probes of Quantum Chromodynamics(QCD) matter created in nuclear collisions at collider energies. The goal is to look for differences between quark and gluon jets, study their substructure, look for distinguishing features in unquenched (pp collisions) and quenched (heavy ion collisions) jets by using multi-variate analysis which was carried out with the help of ROOT's \\href{https://root.cern.ch/tmva}{TMVA} tool. Mapping out the modification of jets due to medium interactions could give valuable input to constraining the time evolution of the Quark Gluon Plasma created in heavy ion collisions.

  12. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Aysegul; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vazquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valenti, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Ozerdem, Aysegul; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations

  13. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Aysegul; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vazquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valenti, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Ozerdem, Aysegul; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations

  14. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online...... for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage...

  15. [Major depression: features indicative of bipolarity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder is underdiagnosed in patients with major depression. Missing the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder may have serious and even occasionally fatal consequences for a patient with the disease. Moreover misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment and therefore contribute to worsening medical and functional prognosis. Although there are no pathognomonic characteristics of bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression, evidence-based findings suggest that some features may be indicative of bipolarity, in patients with depression. These features are related to clinical picture of depressive state, course of episode and illness, response to treatment, family history, comorbid conditions, as well as demographic and temperamental characteristics. Based on such features, some authors have proposed operationalized criteria or a diagnostic specific for bipolarity, to identify bipolar depression. Screening instruments may also be used, to facilitate early recognition. Validation studies of these diagnostic features and instruments are underway.

  16. The Facts on Bipolar Disorder and FDA-Approved Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates The Facts on Bipolar Disorder and FDA-Approved Treatments Share Tweet Linkedin ... to top What to Do if You Suspect Bipolar Disorder If you suspect you have a bipolar ...

  17. Investigation of recurrent EUV jets from highly dynamic magnetic field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Chandra, Ramesh; Guo, Yang; Magara, Tetsuya; Zhelyazkov, Ivan; Moon, Young-Jae; Uddin, Wahab

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we present observations and interpretations of recurrent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) jets that occurred between 2012 July 1 21:00 UT and 2012 July 2 10:00 UT from the western edge of the NOAA active region 11513. Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly ( SDO/AIA), SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager ( SDO/HMI) and Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI) observations have been used for the present study. Observations as well as potential-field source-surface (PFSS) extrapolation suggest an open field configuration in the vicinity of the jet activity area. 18 EUV jets were observed from the western edge of the active region along the open field channel. All the jet events appeared to be non-homologous and show different morphological properties and evolution. Some of the jets were small and narrow in size while the others were huge and wide. The average speed of these jets ranges from {˜}47 to {˜}308 km s^{-1}. SDO/AIA 171 Å intensity profiles at the base of these jets show bumps corresponding to each jet, which is an evidence of recurrent magnetic reconnections. The magnetic field observation at the foot points of the jets revealed a very complex and dynamic magnetic activity which includes flux emergence, flux cancellation, dynamic motions, merging, separation, etc. We suggest that the recurrent jets are the result of recurrent magnetic reconnections among the various emerging bipolar fields themselves as well as with the open fields.

  18. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  19. Circadian preference in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Larriany Maria Falsin; Magalhães, Pedro V S; Andersen, Mônica Levy; Walz, Julio Cesar; Jakobson, Lourenço; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2010-06-01

    A role for circadian rhythm abnormalities in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) has been suggested. The present study assessed circadian preference, a subjective preference for activities in the morning or evening related to chronotype. The sample was comprised of 81 outpatients with BD in remission and 79 control subjects. Circadian preference was derived from an interview evaluating biological rhythms and sleep pattern from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Patients were significantly more likely to have an evening preference than control subjects. Circadian preference was also associated with sleep latency. The association of evening preference and longer sleep latency may be related to the frequent clinical observation of a sleep/wake cycle reversal in bipolar disorder.

  20. A Global Jet/Circulation Model for Young Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Lery, T; Fiege, J D; Ray, T P; Frank, A; Bacciotti, F

    2002-01-01

    Powerful, highly collimated jets, surrounded by bipolar molecular outflows, are commonly observed near Young Stellar Objects (YSOs). In the usual theoretical picture of star formation, a jet is ejected from a magnetized accretion disk, with a molecular outflow being driven either by the jet or by a wider wind coming from the disk. Here, we propose an alternative global model for the flows surrounding YSOs. In addition to a central accretion-ejection engine driving the jet, the molecular outflow is powered by the infalling matter and follows a circulation pattern around the central object without necessarily being entrained by a jet. It is shown that the model produces a heated pressure-driven outflow with magneto-centrifugal acceleration and collimation. We report solutions for the three different parts of this self-similar model, i.e. the jet, the infalling envelope and the circulating matter that eventually forms the molecular outflow. This new picture of the accretion/outflow phase provides a possible expl...

  1. The jet feedback mechanism (JFM) in stars, galaxies and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-12-01

    I review the influence jets and the bubbles they inflate might have on their ambient gas as they operate through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are observed to influence the ambient gas, in many cases by inflating large, hot, and low-density bubbles, and systems where the operation of the JFM is still a theoretical suggestion. The first group includes cooling flows in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, star-forming galaxies, young stellar objects, and bipolar planetary nebulae. The second group includes core collapse supernovae, the common envelope evolution, the grazing envelope evolution, and intermediate luminosity optical transients. The suggestion that the JFM operates in these four types of systems is based on the assumption that jets are much more common than what is inferred from objects where they are directly observed. Common to all eight types of systems reviewed here is the presence of a compact object inside an extended ambient gas. The ambient gas serves as a potential reservoir of mass to be accreted on to the compact object. If the compact object launches jets as it accretes mass, the jets might reduce the accretion rate as they deposit energy to the ambient gas, or even remove the entire ambient gas, hence closing a negative feedback cycle.

  2. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Namli; Gonca Karakus; Lut Tamam; Mehmet Emin Demirkol

    2016-01-01

    In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. ...

  3. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  4. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  5. Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To review the data with respect to prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in bipolar disorder patients. Electronic searches were done in PUBMED, Google Scholar and Science direct. From 2004 to June 2011, 34 articles were found which reported on the prevalence of MetS. The sample size of these studies varied from 15 to 822 patients, and the rates of MetS vary widely from 16.7% to 67% across different studies. None of the sociodemographic variable has emerged as a consistent risk factor for MetS. Among the clinical variables longer duration of illness, bipolar disorder- I, with greater number of lifetime depressive and manic episodes, and with more severe and difficult-to-treat index affective episode, with depression at onset and during acute episodes, lower in severity of mania during the index episode, later age of onset at first manic episode, later age at first treatment for the first treatment for both phases, less healthy diet as rated by patients themselves, absence of physical activity and family history of diabetes mellitus have been reported as clinical risk factors of MetS. Data suggests that metabolic syndrome is fairly prevalent in bipolar disorder patients.

  6. Diagnosing bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kiki D

    2009-11-01

    Pediatric-onset bipolar disorder is common but often difficult to diagnose in younger patients. Clinicians should be sure to establish the presence of a full manic episode to make the diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Because adult criteria are used for children and adolescents, clinicians also should be aware of developmental norms that can help to make an accurate diagnosis. Bipolar disorder NOS and other disorders in children and adolescents may be prodromal states for bipolar disorder, especially in the presence of a positive family history. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  7. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder.

  8. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  9. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  10. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  11. Synchrotron radiation of self-collimating relativistic MHD jets

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, Oliver; Meliani, Zakaria; Vaidya, Bhargav

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to derive signatures of synchrotron radiation from state-of-the-art simulation models of collimating relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) jets featuring a large-scale helical magnetic field. We perform axisymmetric special relativistic MHD simulations of the jet acceleration region using the PLUTO code. The computational domain extends from the slow magnetosonic launching surface of the disk up to 6000^2 Schwarzschild radii allowing to reach highly relativistic Lorentz factors. The Poynting dominated disk wind develops into a jet with Lorentz factors of 8 and is collimated to 1 degree. In addition to the disk jet, we evolve a thermally driven spine jet, emanating from a hypothetical black hole corona. Solving the linearly polarized synchrotron radiation transport within the jet, we derive VLBI radio and (sub-) mm diagnostics such as core shift, polarization structure, intensity maps, spectra and Faraday rotation measure (RM), directly from the Stokes parameters. We also investigate...

  12. (abstract) A Test of the Theoretical Models of Bipolar Outflows: The Bipolar Outflow in Mon R2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul; Patel, Nimesh

    1993-01-01

    We report some results of a study of the massive bipolar outflow in the central region of the relatively nearby giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. We make a quantative comparison of our results with the Shu et al. outflow model which incorporates a radially directed wind sweeping up the ambient material into a shell. We find that this simple model naturally explains the shape of this thin shell. Although Shu's model in its simplest form predicts with reasonable parameters too much mass at very small polar angles, as previously pointed out by Masson and Chernin, it provides a reasonable good fit to the mass distribution at larger polar angles. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to inhomogeneities of the ambient molecular gas which is not considered by the model. We also discuss the constraints imposed by these results on recent jet-driven outflow models.

  13. From Bipolar to Elliptical: Simulating the Morphological Evolution of Planetary Nebulae

    CERN Document Server

    Huarte-Espinosa, Martín; Balick, Bruce; Blackman, Eric G; De Marco, Orsola; Kastner, Joel H; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Proto-planetary nebulae (PPN) are observed to have bipolar morphologies. The majority of mature PN are observed to have elliptical shapes. In this paper we address the evolution of PPN/PN morphologies attempting to understand if a transition from strongly bipolar to elliptical shape can be driven by changes in the parameters of the mass loss process. To this end we present 2.5D hydrodynamical simulations of mass loss at the end stages of stellar evolution for intermediate mass stars. We track changes in wind velocity, mass loss rate and mass loss geometry. In particular we focus on the transition from mass loss dominated by a short duration jet flow (driven during the PPN phase) to mass loss driven by a spherical fast wind (produced by the central star of the PN). We address how such changes in outflow characteristics can change the nebula from a bipolar to an elliptical morphology. Our results show that including a period of jet formation in the temporal sequence of PPN to PN produces realist...

  14. Pharmacotherapy of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: an update

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peruzzolo, Tatiana Lauxen; Tramontina, Silzá; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Zeni, Cristian Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review the options for acute and maintenance pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, including the treatment of bipolar depression and comorbid attention deficit...

  15. Jet substructure in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, David W

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the jet invariant mass and substructure in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ TeV with the ATLAS detector using an integrated luminosity of 37 pb$^{-1}$. These results exercise the tools for distinguishing the signatures of new boosted massive particles in the hadronic final state. Two "fat" jet algorithms are used, along with the filtering jet grooming technique that was pioneered in ATLAS. New jet substructure observables are compared for the first time to data at the LHC. Finally, a sample of candidate boosted top quark events collected in the 2010 data is analyzed in detail for the jet substructure properties of hadronic "top-jets" in the final state. These measurements demonstrate not only our excellent understanding of QCD in a new energy regime but open the path to using complex jet substructure observables in the search for new physics.

  16. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Transmission Line Analogy for Relativistic Poynting-Flux Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, R V E

    2012-01-01

    Radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C 303 have shown that one knot of this jet carries a {\\it galactic}-scale electric current and that it is magnetically dominated. We develop the theory of magnetically dominated or Poynting-flux jets by making an analogy of a Poynting jet with a transmission line or waveguide carrying a net current and having a potential drop across it (from the jet's axis to its radius) and a definite impedance which we derive. Time-dependent but not necessarily small perturbations of a Poynting-flux jet are described by the "telegrapher's equations." These predict the propagation speed of disturbances and the effective wave impedance for forward and backward propagating wave components. A localized disturbance of a Poynting jet gives rise to localized dissipation in the jet which may explain the enhanced synchrotron radiation in the knots of the 3C 303 jet, and also in the apparently stationary knot HST-1 in the jet near the nucleus of t...

  18. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  19. Poorer sustained attention in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all information processing during cognitive processing takes place during periods of sustained attention. Sustained attention deficit is among the most commonly reported impairments in bipolar disorder (BP. The majority of previous studies have only focused on bipolar I disorder (BP I, owing to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of bipolar II disorder (BP II. With the refinement of the bipolar spectrum paradigm, the goal of this study was to compare the sustained attention of interepisode patients with BP I to those with BP II. Methods In all, 51 interepisode BP patients (22 with BP I and 29 with BP II and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants undertook Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II to evaluate sustained attention. Results After controlling for the severity of symptoms, age and years of education, BP I patients had a significantly longer reaction times (F(2,68 = 7.648, P = 0.001, worse detectability (d' values (F(2,68 = 6.313, P = 0.003 and more commission errors (F(2,68 = 6.182, P = 0.004 than BP II patients and healthy controls. BP II patients and controls scored significantly higher than BP I patients for d' (F = 6.313, P = 0.003. No significant difference was found among the three groups in omission errors and no significant correlations were observed between CPT-II performance and clinical characteristics in the three groups. Conclusions These findings suggested that impairments in sustained attention might be more representative of BP I than BP II after controlling for the severity of symptoms, age, years of education and reaction time on the attentional test. A longitudinal follow-up study design with a larger sample size might be needed to provide more information on chronological sustained attention deficit in BP patients, and to illustrate

  20. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Børglum, A.D.; Mors, O.;

    2002-01-01

    Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... tested for the presence of a missense mutation in the WKL1 gene encoding a putative cation channel close to segment D22S1161--D22S922, which has been associated with schizophrenia. We did not find this mutation in schizophrenic or bipolar patients or the controls from the Faroe Islands....... with different frequencies in patients compared to controls. Two segments were of most interest when the results of the association tests were combined with the probabilities of identity by descent of single haplotypes. For bipolar patients, the strongest evidence for a candidate region harboring a risk gene...

  1. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...... and unrelated controls, and in a Scottish case-control sample comprising 200 schizophrenics, 200 bipolar patients and 200 controls. None of the investigated SNPs have so far showed strong evidence of association to either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia....

  2. Jet Substructure Without Trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowiak, Martin; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., ITP

    2011-08-19

    We present an alternative approach to identifying and characterizing jet substructure. An angular correlation function is introduced that can be used to extract angular and mass scales within a jet without reference to a clustering algorithm. This procedure gives rise to a number of useful jet observables. As an application, we construct a top quark tagging algorithm that is competitive with existing methods. In preparation for the LHC, the past several years have seen extensive work on various aspects of collider searches. With the excellent resolution of the ATLAS and CMS detectors as a catalyst, one area that has undergone significant development is jet substructure physics. The use of jet substructure techniques, which probe the fine-grained details of how energy is distributed in jets, has two broad goals. First, measuring more than just the bulk properties of jets allows for additional probes of QCD. For example, jet substructure measurements can be compared against precision perturbative QCD calculations or used to tune Monte Carlo event generators. Second, jet substructure allows for additional handles in event discrimination. These handles could play an important role at the LHC in discriminating between signal and background events in a wide variety of particle searches. For example, Monte Carlo studies indicate that jet substructure techniques allow for efficient reconstruction of boosted heavy objects such as the W{sup {+-}} and Z{sup 0} gauge bosons, the top quark, and the Higgs boson.

  3. Rotation of Jets from Young Stars: New Clues from the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, D; Woitas, J; Ray, T P; Eislöffel, J; Coffey, Deirdre; Bacciotti, Francesca; Woitas, Jens; Ray, Thomas P.; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    We report findings from the first set of data in a current survey to establish conclusively whether jets from young stars rotate. We observed the bi-polar jets from the T Tauri stars TH28 and RW Aur, and the blue-shifted jet from T Tauri star LkH$\\alpha$321, using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (HST/STIS). Forbidden emission lines (FELs) show distinct and systematic velocity asymmetries of 10 -- 25 (+/- 5) km/s at a distance of 0".3 from the source, representing a (projected) distance of ~ 40 AU along the jet in the case of RW Aur, ~ 50 AU for TH28, and 165 AU in the case of LkH$\\alpha$321. These velocity asymmetries are interpreted as rotation in the initial portion of the jet where it is accelerated and collimated. For the bi-polar jets, both lobes appear to rotate in the same direction. Values obtained were in agreement with the predictions of MHD disk-wind models (Bacciotti et al 2002, Anderson et al 2003, Dougados et al 2003, Pesenti et al 2003). Finally, we determine, from derived toroi...

  4. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania...

  5. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  6. Heritability of bipolar affective disorder: Family study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obradović Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bipolar affective disorder is mental disorder with polygenic type of heredity. Heritability - relation between genetic and environmental variance is used to estimate the level of influence of genetic variance to phenotype variance. Study results show decreasing trend in the value of heritability of bipolar affective disorder, thus indicating that this disorder is a complex behavioral threshold characteristic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the contribution of genetic variance to phenotype variance of bipolar affective disorder, i.e. to estimate heritability of this disorder. Methods. By the use of a questionnaire, 80 patients with over crossed threshold for bipolar affective disorder were asked for functional information about the members of their families belonging to the first degree of relation (fathers, mothers and full- sibs. By using ”Applet for calculating heritability for threshold traits (disease“, and regression analysis, heritability of bipolar affective disorder as well as its statistical significance, were estimated (χ2 test. Results. Heritability and relationship of genetic and environmental variance of bipolar affective disorder is 0.2 with statistically significant difference from zero (p < 0.001. Conclusion. The estimated contribution of genetic variance to phenotype variance of bipolar affective disorder is low being 20%, while the contribution of environmental variance is 80%. This result contributes to the understanding of bipolar affective disorder as a complex behavioral threshold trait.

  7. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  8. NO signaling in retinal bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, A; Vielma, A H; Cadiz, B; Couve, E; Schmachtenberg, O

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers. DAF fluorescence was observed in all types of bipolar cells that could be identified, but the most intense DAF fluorescence was observed in bipolar cells with severed processes, supporting pathological NO signaling. Among nNOS expressing bipolar cells, type 9 was confirmed unequivocally, while types 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 7, 8 and the rod bipolar cell were devoid of this enzyme. These results establish specific bipolar cell types as NO sources in the inner retina, and support the involvement of NO signaling in physiological and pathological processes in the inner retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  10. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  11. Treatments in child and adolescent bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Angèle; Deniau, Emmannuelle; Huynh, Christophe; Purper, Diane; Cohen, David

    2007-04-01

    The existence of bipolar disorder in adolescents is now clearly established. However, whether bipolarity exists in children is more controversial. We reviewed the literature on acute and prophylactic treatment of bipolar disorder in youths. The guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents are generally similar to those applied in adult practice. But no evidence-based data support the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics since we only found two placebo-randomised controlled trials testing the efficacy of lithium in the paediatric literature. Therefore, we support the view that prescriptions should be limited to the most typical cases. In fact, the use of mood stabilisers or antipsychotics in the treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents appears to be of limited use when a comorbid condition, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, occurs unless aggressive behaviour is the target symptom.

  12. Value of proximal regurgitant jet size in tricuspid regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, J M; Vandervoort, P; Mele, D; Weyman, A; Thomas, J D

    1996-04-01

    Recent studies have shown good agreement between proximal regurgitant jet size obtained with transthoracic color flow mapping and regurgitant fraction in patients with mitral regurgitation. To evaluate this in patients with tricuspid regurgitation, we analyzed 40 patients in sinus rhythm, 16 with free jets and 24 with impinging jets, comparing proximal jet size (millimeters) with parameters derived from the Doppler two-dimensional echocardiographic method (regurgitant fraction) and the flow-convergence method (peak flow rate, effective regurgitant orifice area, and momentum). Good agreement was noted between peak flow rate (r = 0.80, p fair between effective regurgitant orifice (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), peak flow rate (0.65, p < 0.001), and momentum (r = 0.62, p < 0.001) with mean jet proximal size. Jet proximal size obtained with transthoracic color flow mapping is a good semiquantitative tool for measuring tricuspid regurgitation in free jets that correlates well with established measures of the severity and with new parameters available from analysis of the proximal acceleration field. In patients with eccentrically directed wall jets, the correlation weakens but still appears clinically significant.

  13. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  14. Creative treatment of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavčar, Rok

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mental disorder with chronic and remitting course. The disorder is related to high mortality and severely impairs everyday functioning. Therefore a scientifically sound and practical approach to treatment is needed. Making a long-term treatment plan usually also demands some creativity. The patient is interested in a number of issues, from the choice of therapy in acute phases to long-term treatment. Usual questions are how long shall I take the medications, do I really need all those pills or can we decrease the dosage of some drugs? This paper discussed the above mentioned questions in light of latest publications in this field.

  15. TASI Lectures on Jet Substructure

    CERN Document Server

    Shelton, Jessie

    2013-01-01

    Jet physics is a rich and rapidly evolving field, with many applications to physics in and beyond the Standard Model. These notes, based on lectures delivered at the June 2012 Theoretical Advanced Study Institute, provide an introduction to jets at the Large Hadron Collider. Topics covered include sequential jet algorithms, jet shapes, jet grooming, and boosted Higgs and top tagging.

  16. Jet propagation and deceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Perucho, Manel

    2013-01-01

    Extragalactic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are divided into two morphological types, namely Fanaroff-Riley I (FRI) and Fanaroff-Riley II (FRII). The former show decollimated structure at the kiloparsec scales and are thought to be decelerated by entrainment within the first kiloparsecs of evolution inside the host galaxy. The entrainment and deceleration can be, at least partly, due to the interaction of jets with stellar winds and gas clouds that enter in the jet as they orbit around the galactic centre. In this contribution, I review recent simulations to study the dynamic effect of entrainment from stellar winds in jets and the direct interaction of jets with gas clouds and stellar winds. I also briefly describe the importance of these interactions as a possible scenario of high-energy emission from extragalactic jets.

  17. What ignites optical jets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Jester

    2002-12-23

    The properties of radio galaxies and quasars with and without optical or X-ray jets are compared. The majority of jets from which high-frequency emission has been detected so far (13 with optical emission, 11 with X-rays, 13 with both) are associated with the most powerful radio sources at any given redshift. It is found that optical/X-ray jet sources are more strongly beamed than the average population of extragalactic radio sources. This suggests that the detection or non-detection of optical emission from jets has so far been dominated by surface brightness selection effects, not by jet physics. It implies that optical jets are much more common than is currently appreciated.

  18. Mini-Jet Controlled Turbulent Round Air Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜诚; 米建春; 周裕; 詹杰

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets.The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000.It is found that once the continuous minijets are replaced with pulsed ones,the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet.For example,the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two(or four)pulsed mini-jets blowing,compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass flow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.%We report an investigation of the active control of a round air jet by multiple radial blowing mini-jets. The Reynolds number based on the jet exit velocity and diameter is 8000. It is found that once the continuous mini-jets are replaced with pulsed ones, the centerline velocity decay rate K can be greatly increased as the pulsing frequency of mini-jets approaches the natural vortex frequency of the main jet. For example, the K value is amplified by more than 50% with two (or four) pulsed mini-jets blowing, compared with the continuous mini-jets at the same ratio of the mass Sow rate of the mini-jets to that of the main jet.

  19. Hotspots, Jets and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, M. J.

    2008-06-01

    I discuss the nature of `hotspots' and `jet knots' in the kpc-scale structures of powerful radio galaxies and their relationship to jet-environment interactions. I describe evidence for interaction between the jets of FRI sources and their local environments, and discuss its relationship to particle acceleration, but the main focus of the paper is the hotspots of FRIIs and on new observational evidence on the nature of the particle acceleration associated with them.

  20. Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS: applications to climatology and transport studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Manney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of classifying the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS jets has been developed that allows satellite and aircraft trace gas data and meteorological fields to be efficiently mapped in a jet coordinate view. A detailed characterization of multiple tropopauses accompanies the jet characterization. Jet climatologies show the well-known high altitude subtropical and lower altitude polar jets in the upper troposphere, as well as a pattern of concentric polar and subtropical jets in the Southern Hemisphere, and shifts of the primary jet to high latitudes associated with blocking ridges in Northern Hemisphere winter. The jet-coordinate view segregates air masses differently than the commonly-used equivalent latitude (EqL coordinate throughout the lowermost stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. Mapping O3 data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite and the Winter Storms aircraft datasets in jet coordinates highlights important advantages in comparison to an EqL-coordinate view: strong PV, tropopause height and trace gas gradients across the subtropical jet are washed out in the latter and clearly highlighted in the former. The jet coordinate view emphasizes the presence of stratospheric ozone well below the tropopause, especially poleward of and below the jet core, and highlights other transport features associated with the upper tropospheric jets. MLS and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer trace gas fields for spring 2008 in jet coordinates show very strong, closely correlated, PV, tropopause height and trace gas gradients across the jet, and evidence of intrusions of stratospheric air below the tropopause below and poleward of the subtropical jet; these features are consistent between instruments and among multiple trace gases. Our characterization of the jets is facilitating studies that will improve our understanding of upper tropospheric trace gas evolution.

  1. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Properties of gluon jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, K.

    1986-09-01

    The properties of gluon jets are reviewed from an experimental point of view. The measured characteristics are compared to theoretical expectations. Although neither data nor models for the gluon jets are in the mature stage, there are remarkable agreements and also intriguing disagreements between experiment and theory. Since much interesting data have begun to emerge from various experiments and the properties of gluon jets are deeply rooted in the basic structure of non-Abelian gauge theory, the study of gluon jets casts further light on our understanding of QCD. Finally, the future prospects are discussed.

  3. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  4. The Massive Bipolar Outflow in IRAS 20110+3321

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Jing; XU Ye; MIYAZAKI Atsushi; SHEN Zhi-Qiang; CHEN Xi

    2006-01-01

    @@ Mapping observations were made towards IRAS 20110+3321 using the Nobeyama 45 m and the Delingha 13.7m radio telescopes. The high angular resolution (~ 21″) image with the 45m telescope shows that there is a highvelocity bipolar molecular outflow in this region, which is in the NW-SE direction with a collimation factor of ~ 2.2. The outflow has significantly higher mass loss rate and mechanical luminosity than those from low mass YSOs, indicating that the outflow is driven by the IRAS source. A dense massive core was detected by mapping C18O (J= 1 - 0) line in the area with the 13.7m telescope. The IRAS source lies within the core but slightly offsets from its emission peak.

  5. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, Aline André

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes can be obtained if interventions are implemented earlier in the course of illness. Thus, treatment planning would benefit from the assessment of cognition, functioning and comorbidities. Staging may offer a means to refine treatment options, and most importantly, to establish a more precise diagnosis. Moreover, staging could have utility as course specifier and may guide treatment planning and better information to patients and their family members of what could be expected in terms of prognosis. The present study reviews the clinical and biological basis of the concept of illness progression in bipolar disorder.

  6. Can neuroimaging disentangle bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Jet mass spectra in Higgs+one jet at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouttenus, Teppo T.; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Waalewijn, Wouter J. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2013-02-15

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m{sup 2}{sub jet}/p{sup jet}{sub T} scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the jet mass spectra for quark and gluon jets. We also study the effect of hadronization and underlying event on the jet mass in Pythia. To highlight the similarity of inclusive and exclusive jet mass spectra, a comparison to LHC data is presented.

  8. Dynamics of Water Jet in Water Jet Looms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克让; 陈明

    2001-01-01

    On the base of the study on dynamics of water jet in water jet looms, the parameters of water jet mechanism which affect the speed of water jet are analyzed and optimized. So the stability of the water jet can be improved to raise the speed of water jet as well as weft insertion rate and to enlarge the width of woven fabrics a lot. At the same time it also points out that to increase water jet speed and to prolong its affective jet time depend mainly on the accretion of spring rate (constant)of stiffness and the diminution of plunger's cross sectional area respectively.

  9. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  10. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  11. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  12. Impulsivity across the course of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M.; Fleck, David E.; DelBello, Melissa P.; Adler, Caleb M.; Shear, Paula K.; Kotwal, Renu; Arndt, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether abnormalities of impulse control persist across the course of bipolar disorder, thereby representing potential state markers and endophenotypes. Methods Impulse control of 108 bipolar I manic or mixed patients was measured on three tasks designed to study response inhibition, ability to delay gratification, and attention; namely a stop signal task, a delayed reward task, and a continuous performance task, respectively. Barrett Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) scores were also obtained. Patients were then followed for up to one year and re-assessed with the same measures if they developed depression or euthymia. Healthy comparison subjects were also assessed with the same instruments on two occasions to assess measurement stability. Results At baseline, bipolar subjects demonstrated significant deficits on all three tasks as compared to healthy subjects, consistent with more impulsive responding in the bipolar manic/mixed group. In general, performance on the three behavioral tasks normalized upon switching to depression or developing euthymia. In contrast, BIS-11 scores were elevated during mania and remained elevated as bipolar subjects developed depression or achieved euthymia. Conclusions Bipolar I disorder patients demonstrate deficits on laboratory tests of various aspects of impulsivity when manic, as compared to healthy subjects, that largely normalize with recovery and switching into depression. However, elevated BIS scores persist across phases of illness. These findings suggest that impulsivity has both affective-state dependent and trait components in bipolar disorder. PMID:20565435

  13. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], pbipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received preliminary support.

  14. AGN physics - The Jet-driven Outflow in the Radio Galaxy 3C305 and the Use of Hardness Ratio Maps to Constrain Spectral Parameters of Low Brightness Regions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, D. E.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Massaro, F.; Baum, S. A.; Bianchi, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Morganti, R.; O'Dea, C. P.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2012-01-01

    From Chandra X-ray and VLA radio observations of the radio galaxy 3C305, we can make a self-consistent model in which the X-ray-emitting plasma is responsible for the depolarization of some regions of the radio emission from the jets and hotspots. On the assumption that the X-ray-emitting material,

  15. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  16. JET ROTATION INVESTIGATED IN THE NEAR-ULTRAVIOLET WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffey, Deirdre; Ray, Thomas P. [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); Rigliaco, Elisabetta; Bacciotti, Francesca [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Eisloeffel, Jochen, E-mail: dac@cp.dias.ie [Thueringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Tautenburg (Germany)

    2012-04-20

    We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magnetocentrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau, and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio to allow for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km s{sup -1} in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements for the receding jet. The near-ultraviolet difference is not found six months later, nor is it found in the fainter receding jet. Overall, in the case of RW Aur, differences are not consistent with a simple jet rotation interpretation. Indeed, given the renowned complexity and variability of this system, it now seems likely that any rotation signature is confused by other influences, with the inevitable conclusion that RW Aur is not suited to a jet rotation study.

  17. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  18. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Kaplan, Katherine A; Soehner, Adriane M

    2015-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with interepisode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase, and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation.

  19. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  20. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  1. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  2. Jet propulsion without inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Spagnolie, Saverio E

    2010-01-01

    A body immersed in a highly viscous fluid can locomote by drawing in and expelling fluid through pores at its surface. We consider this mechanism of jet propulsion without inertia in the case of spheroidal bodies, and derive both the swimming velocity and the hydrodynamic efficiency. Elementary examples are presented, and exact axisymmetric solutions for spherical, prolate spheroidal, and oblate spheroidal body shapes are provided. In each case, entirely and partially porous (i.e. jetting) surfaces are considered, and the optimal jetting flow profiles at the surface for maximizing the hydrodynamic efficiency are determined computationally. The maximal efficiency which may be achieved by a sphere using such jet propulsion is 12.5%, a significant improvement upon traditional flagella-based means of locomotion at zero Reynolds number. Unlike other swimming mechanisms which rely on the presentation of a small cross section in the direction of motion, the efficiency of a jetting body at low Reynolds number increas...

  3. Overview of patient care issues and treatment in bipolar spectrum and bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Joseph R

    2008-06-01

    Recent studies have reported lifetime prevalence estimates of 1.0% for bipolar I disorder, 1.1% for bipolar II disorder, and 2.4% to 4.7% for subthreshold bipolar disorder, illustrating the need for consensus definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders. These definitions will aid researchers in studying viable treatments options, as well as help clinicians in the differential diagnosis of patients. Broader definitions of bipolar spectrum disorders would also allow clinicians to more accurately diagnose patients, rather than placing them in the catchall category of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Bipolar symptoms that are currently labeled as subthreshold symptoms are becoming increasingly recognized as having relevant clinical implications. Despite diagnostic controversy, screening for the presence of mania in patients who present with depressive symptoms is a critical step in the appropriate treatment of bipolar spectrum disorders. Identifying the early onset of bipolar symptoms as manifested in prodromal disorders such as childhood major depressive disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is also important for possible early intervention and improved outcomes.

  4. Interaction of Fanaroff-Riley class II jets with a magnetised intra-cluster medium

    CERN Document Server

    Huarte-Espinosa, Martín; Alexander, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present 3-D MHD and synthetic numerical simulations to follow the evolution of randomly magnetized intra-cluster medium plasma under the effects of powerful, light, hypersonic and bipolar jets. We prescribe the cluster magnetic field (CMF) as a Gaussian random field with power law energy spectrum tuned to the expectation for Kolmogorov turbulence. We investigate the power of jets and the viewing angle used for the synthetic Rotation Measure (RM) observations. We find the model radio sources introduce and amplify fluctuations on the RM statistical properties; the average RM and the RM standard deviation are increased by the action of the jets. This may lead to overestimations of the CMFs' strength up to 70%. The effect correlates with the jet power. Jets distort and amplify CMFs especially near the edges of the lobes and the jets' heads. Thus the RM structure functions are flattened at scales comparable to the source size. Jet-produced RM enhancements depend on the orientation of the jet axis to the line of...

  5. Jet rotation investigated in the near-ultraviolet with HST/STIS

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Deirdre; Bacciotti, Francesca; Ray, Thomas P; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    We present results of the second phase of our near-ultraviolet investigation into protostellar jet rotation using HST/STIS. We obtain long-slit spectra at the base of five T Tauri jets to determine if there is a difference in radial velocity between the jet borders which may be interpreted as a rotation signature. These observations are extremely challenging and push the limits of current instrumentation, but have the potential to provide long-awaited observational support for the magneto-centrifugal mechanism of jet launching in which jets remove angular momentum from protostellar systems. We successfully detect all five jet targets (from RW Aur, HN Tau, DP Tau and CW Tau) in several near-ultraviolet emission lines, including the strong Mg II doublet. However, only RW Aur's bipolar jet presents sufficient signal-to-noise for analysis. The approaching jet lobe shows a difference of 10 km/s in a direction which agrees with the disk rotation sense, but is opposite to previously published optical measurements fo...

  6. A General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics Simulation of Jet Formation with a State Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K. I.; Richardson, G.; Koide, S.; Shibata, K.; Kudoh, T.; Hardee, P.; Fushman, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We have performed the first fully three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulation of jet formation from a thin accretion disk around a Schwarzschild black hole with a free-falling corona. The initial simulation results show that a bipolar jet (velocity sim 0.3c) is created as shown by previous two-dimensional axisymmetric simulations with mirror symmetry at the equator. The 3-D simulation ran over one hundred light-crossing time units which is considerably longer than the previous simulations. We show that the jet is initially formed as predicted due in part to magnetic pressure from the twisting the initially uniform magnetic field and from gas pressure associated with shock formation. At later times, the accretion disk becomes thick and the jet fades resulting in a wind that is ejected from the surface of the thickened (torus-like) disk. It should be noted that no streaming matter from a donor is included at the outer boundary in the simulation (an isolated black hole not binary black hole). The wind flows outwards with a wider angle than the initial jet. The widening of the jet is consistent with the outward moving shock wave. This evolution of jet-disk coupling suggests that the low/hard state of the jet system may switch to the high/soft state with a wind, as the accretion rate diminishes.

  7. First Evidence of a Precessing Jet Excavating a Protostellar Envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Ybarra, J E; Haisch, K E; Jarrett, T H; Sahai, R; Weinberger, A J; Ybarra, Jason E.; Barsony, Mary; Haisch, Karl E.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Sahai, Raghvendra; Weinberger, Alycia J.

    2006-01-01

    We present new, sensitive, near-infrared images of the Class I protostar, Elias 29, in the Ophiuchus cloud core. To explore the relationship between the infall envelope and the outflow, narrowband H2 1-0 S(1), Br-gamma, and narrowband K-continuum filters were used to image the source with the Wide-Field Infrared Camera on the Hale 5m telescope and with Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Baade 6.5 m telescope. The source appears as a bipolar, scattered light nebula, with a wide opening angle in all filters, as is typical for late-stage protostars. However, the pure H2 emission-line images point to the presence of a heretofore undetected precessing jet. It is argued that high-velocity, narrow, precessing jets provide the mechanism for creating the observed wide-angled outflow cavity in this source.

  8. Sheared Flow As A Stabilizing Mechanism In Astrophysical Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Wanex, Lucas

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the sustained narrowness observed in the asymptotic cylindrical region of bipolar outflows from Young Stellar Objects (YSO) indicates that these jets are magnetically collimated. The j cross B force observed in z-pinch plasmas is a possible explanation for these observations. However, z-pinch plasmas are subject to current driven instabilities (CDI). The interest in using z-pinches for controlled nuclear fusion has lead to an extensive theory of the stability of magnetically confined plasmas. Analytical, numerical, and experimental evidence from this field suggest that sheared flow in magnetized plasmas can reduce the growth rates of the sausage and kink instabilities. Here we propose the hypothesis that sheared helical flow can exert a similar stabilizing influence on CDI in YSO jets.

  9. MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 is essential for maintenance of phragmoplast bipolarity and formation of the cell plate in Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosetsu, Ken; de Keijzer, Jeroen; Janson, Marcel E; Goshima, Gohta

    2013-11-01

    The phragmoplast, a plant-specific apparatus that mediates cytokinesis, mainly consists of microtubules (MTs) arranged in a bipolar fashion, such that their plus ends interdigitate at the equator. Membrane vesicles are thought to move along the MTs toward the equator and fuse to form the cell plate. Although several genes required for phragmoplast MT organization have been identified, the mechanisms that maintain the bipolarity of phragmoplasts remain poorly understood. Here, we show that engaging phragmoplast MTs in a bipolar fashion in protonemal cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens requires the conserved MT cross-linking protein MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN65 (MAP65). Simultaneous knockdown of the three MAP65s expressed in those cells severely compromised MT interdigitation at the phragmoplast equator after anaphase onset, resulting in the collapse of the phragmoplast in telophase. Cytokinetic vesicles initially localized to the anaphase midzone as normal but failed to further accumulate in the next several minutes, although the bipolarity of the MT array was preserved. Our data indicate that the presence of bipolar MT arrays is insufficient for vesicle accumulation at the equator and further suggest that MAP65-mediated MT interdigitation is a prerequisite for maintenance of bipolarity of the phragmoplast and accumulation and/or fusion of cell plate-destined vesicles at the equatorial plane.

  10. Simulations of Solar Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Formation of a coronal jet from twisted field lines that have reconnected with the ambient field. The colors show the radial velocity of the plasma. [Adapted from Szente et al. 2017]How do jets emitted from the Suns surface contribute to its corona and to the solar wind? In a recent study, a team of scientists performed complex three-dimensional simulations of coronal jets to answer these questions.Small ExplosionsCoronal jets are relatively small eruptions from the Suns surface, with heights of roughly 100 to 10,000 km, speeds of 10 to 1,000 km/s, and lifetimes of a few minutes to around ten hours. These jets are constantly present theyre emitted even from the quiet Sun, when activity is otherwise low and weve observed them with a fleet of Sun-watching space telescopes spanning the visible, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), and X-ray wavelength bands.A comparison of simulated observations based on the authors model (left panels) to actual EUV and X-ray observations of jets (right panels). [Szente et al. 2017]Due to their ubiquity, we speculate that these jets might contribute to heating the global solar corona (which is significantly hotter than the surface below it, a curiosity known as the coronal heating problem). We can also wonder what role these jets might play in driving the overall solar wind.Launching a JetLed by Judit Szente (University of Michigan), a team of scientists has explored the impact of coronal jets on the global corona and solar wind with a series of numerical simulations. Szente and collaborators used three-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamic simulations that provide realistic treatment of the solar atmosphere, the solar wind acceleration, and the complexities of heat transfer throughout the corona.In the authors simulations, a jet is initiated as a magnetic dipole rotates at the solar surface, winding up field lines. Magnetic reconnection between the twisted lines and the background field then launches the jet from the dense and hot solar

  11. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  12. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  13. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  14. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... systematic review and meta-analysis of comorbidity rates. European Psychiatry. 2014;29:117. Do EK, et al. Comorbidity ... risk for bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorders. European Psychiatry. 2014;29:282. April 06, 2016 Original article: ...

  15. Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, Peter

    2011-09-01

    It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study.

  16. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  17. A haplotype-based study of lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder on the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewald, H; Wang, A G; Vang, M

    1999-01-01

    , the Faroese population is perhaps the most valuable European population for genetic mapping of complex disease genes. The present study searched for haplotype sharing on chromosome 18 among eight lithium responding patients with bipolar affective disorder related, on average, 6.2 generations ago, using 30 DNA...

  18. Age of onset of bipolar disorder: Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2016-10-01

    Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relationship and interaction of: 1) parental and grandparental total burden of psychiatric illness; and 2) the degree of adversity the patient experienced in childhood on their age of onset of bipolar disorder was examined with multiple regression and illustrated with a heat map. The familial loading and child adversity vulnerability factors were significantly related to age of onset of bipolar and their combined effect was even larger. A heat map showed that at the extremes (none of each factor vs high amounts of both) the average age of onset differed by almost 20 years (mean = 25.8 vs 5.9 years of age). The data were not based on interviews of family members and came from unverified answers on a patient questionnaire. Family loading for psychiatric illness and adversity in childhood combine to have a very large influence on age of onset of bipolar disorder. These variables should be considered in assessment of risk for illness onset in different populations, the need for early intervention, and in the design of studies of primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychosis Endophenotypes in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Thaker, Gunvant

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies provide considerable evidence that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share overlapping etiologic determinants. Identifying disease-related genetic effects is a major focus in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder research, with implications for clarifying diagnosis and developing specific treatments for various impairments in these 2 disorders. Efforts have been multifaceted, with the ultimate goal of describing causal paths from specific genetic variants, to changes in neuro...

  20. Very Large Arrays of Bipolar Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Determination of Percent Hemoglobin A1c Using a Potentiometric Method, Analytical Chemistry, (02 2013): 0. doi: 10.1021/ac3032228 05/30/2013 13.00 Francois...Chemiluminescence (ECL) Emission at Bipolar Electrodes, Analytical Chemistry, (08 2009): 6218. doi: 10.1021/ac900744p 07/13/2012 1.00 Robbyn K...Anand, Stephen E. Fosdick, Ioana Dumitrescu, Richard M. Crooks. Pressure-Driven Bipolar Electrochemistry , Journal of the American Chemical Society

  1. Solar Intranetwork Magnetic Elements: bipolar flux appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jingxiu; Zhou, Guiping; Jin, Chunlan; Li, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The current study aims to quantify characteristic features of bipolar flux appearance of solar intranetwork (IN) magnetic elements. To attack such a problem, we use the Narrow-band Filter Imager (NFI) magnetograms from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board \\emph{Hinode}; these data are from quiet and an enhanced network areas. Cluster emergence of mixed polarities and IN ephemeral regions (ERs) are the most conspicuous forms of bipolar flux appearance within the network. Each of the clus...

  2. Heritability of bipolar affective disorder: Family study

    OpenAIRE

    Obradović Tanja; Veličković Ružica; Timotijević Ivana; Anđelković Marko

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim. Bipolar affective disorder is mental disorder with polygenic type of heredity. Heritability - relation between genetic and environmental variance is used to estimate the level of influence of genetic variance to phenotype variance. Study results show decreasing trend in the value of heritability of bipolar affective disorder, thus indicating that this disorder is a complex behavioral threshold characteristic. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the contribut...

  3. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-05-17

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  5. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaznavi Sharmin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disorder and challenges explanations put forward for why people ruminate. We review the research on rumination in bipolar disorder and propose that rumination in bipolar disorder, in both manic and depressed states, reflects executive dysfunction. We also review the neurobiology of bipolar disorder and recent neuroimaging studies of rumination, which is consistent with our hypothesis that the tendency to ruminate reflects executive dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Finally, we relate the neurobiology of rumination to the neurobiology of emotion regulation, which is disrupted in bipolar disorder.

  6. Jets and QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-12-15

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in ep and pp/p anti p collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundamental 2-2 quark/gluon scattering processes, but also the impact of jet decays of top quarks, and W{sup {+-}},Z bosons on the electroweak sector. The presentation to a large extent is formulated in a non-technical language with the intent to recall the significant steps historically and convey the significance of this field also to communities beyond high energy physics. (orig.)

  7. Solar coronal jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrzyck, D.

    The solar jets were first observed by SOHO instruments (EIT, LASCO, UVCS) during the previous solar minimum. They were small, fast ejections originating from flaring UV bright points within large polar coronal holes. The obtained data provided us with estimates of the jet plasma conditions, dynamics, evolution of the electron temperature and heating rate required to reproduce the observed ionization state. To follow the polar jets through the solar cycle a special SOHO Joint Observing Program (JOP 155) was designed. It involves a number of SOHO instruments (EIT, CDS, UVCS, LASCO) as well as TRACE. The coordinated observations have been carried out since April 2002. The data enabled to identify counterparts of the 1996-1998 solar minimum jets. Their frequency of several events per day appear comparable to the frequency from the previous solar minimum. The jets are believed to be triggered by field line reconnection between emerging magnetic dipole and pre-existing unipolar field. Existing models predict that the hot jet is formed together with another jet of a cool material. The particular goal of the coordinated SOHO and TRACE observations was to look for possible association of the hot and cool plasma ejections. Currently there is observational evidence that supports these models.

  8. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  9. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  10. Jets with Variable R

    CERN Document Server

    Krohn, David; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new class of jet algorithms designed to return conical jets with a variable Delta R radius. A specific example, in which Delta R scales as 1/pT, proves particularly useful in capturing the kinematic features of a wide variety of hard scattering processes. We implement this Delta R scaling in a sequential recombination algorithm and test it by reconstructing resonance masses and kinematic endpoints. These test cases show 10-20% improvements in signal efficiency compared to fixed Delta R algorithms. We also comment on cuts useful in reducing continuum jet backgrounds.

  11. Tratamento da depressão bipolar The treatment of bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beny Lafer

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da depressão bipolar tem sido tema de debate. O uso de antidepressivos, principalmente tricíclicos, nestes pacientes está associado a piores desfechos clínicos. Estudos apontam para uma eficácia limitada de estabilizadores tradicionais como lítio, valproato e carbamazepina no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Em casos de depressão mais grave, há indicativos de que os antidepressivos podem ser úteis, sendo recomendado o uso concomitante de um estabilizador do humor. Novos agentes como a lamotrigina têm sido propostos como efetivos no tratamento da depressão bipolar. Estudos recentes utilizando lamotrigina sugerem a sua eficácia e seguraça no tratamento da depressão bipolar.The treatment of bipolar depression has been an area of debate. The use of antidepressants, particularly the triciclics, has been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Evidence points to a limited efficacy of traditional mood stabilizers such as lithium, valproate and carbamazepine in the treatment of bipolar depression. In cases where depression is more severe, there is evidence that antidepressants may be useful. The use of antidepressants should be in association with a mood stabilizer. New agents such as lamotrigine have been put forward as effective in the treatment of bipolar depression. Recent studies using lamotrigine suggest its efficacy and safety in the treatment of bipolar depression.

  12. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  13. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  14. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  15. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  16. Terapia comportamental cognitiva para pessoas com transtorno bipolar Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Lotufo Neto

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  17. Jets launched at magnetar birth cannot be ignored

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-08-01

    I question models for powering super energetic supernovae (SESNe) with a magnetar central engine that do not include jets that are expected to be launched by the magnetar progenitor. I show that under reasonable assumptions the outflow that is expected during the formation of a magnetar can carry an amount of energy that does not fall much below, and even surpasses, the energy that is stored in the newly born spinning neutron star (NS). The rapidly spinning NS and the strong magnetic fields attributed to magnetars require that the accreted mass onto the newly born NS possesses high specific angular momentum and strong magnetic fields. These ingredients are expected, as in many other astrophysical objects, to form collimated outflows/jets. I argue that the bipolar outflow in the pre-magnetar phase transfers a substantial amount of energy to the supernova (SN) ejecta, and it cannot be ignored in models that attribute SESNe to magnetars. I conclude that jets launched by accretion disks and accretion belts are more likely to power SESNe than magnetars are. This conclusion is compatible with the notion that jets might power all core collapse SNe (CCSNe).

  18. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  19. Measurements of Jets in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Nattrass, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE detector can be used for measurements of jets in pp , p Pb, and Pb–Pb collisions. Measurements of jets in pp collisions are consis- tent with expectations from perturbative calculations and jets in p Pb scale with the number of nucleon–nucleon collisions, indicating that cold nuclear matter effects are not observed for jets. Measurements in Pb–Pb collisions demonstrate suppression of jets relative to expectations from binary scaling to the equivalent number of nucleon–nucleon collisions

  20. Astrophysics: Cosmic jet engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andy

    2010-02-01

    In some galaxies, matter falling onto a supermassive black hole is ejected in narrow jets moving at close to the speed of light. New observations provide insight into the workings of these cosmic accelerators.

  1. Jet lag prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000719.htm Jet lag prevention To use the sharing features on this page, ... Headache Irritability Stomach upset Sore muscles Tips for Prevention Before your trip: Get plenty of rest, eat ...

  2. Processamento cognitivo "Teoria da Mente" no transtorno bipolar Cognitive "Theory of Mind" processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Anderson Tonelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O transtorno afetivo bipolar está associado ao comprometimento funcional persistente. Apesar de muitas pesquisas demonstrarem que bipolares podem apresentar déficits cognitivos, um número menor de trabalhos avaliou o papel de prejuízos no processamento cognitivo social, a Teoria da Mente (relacionado à capacidade de inferir estados mentais, no aparecimento de sintomas e complicações sociais em bipolares. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de revisar sistemática e criticamente a literatura sobre possíveis alterações do processamento Teoria da Mente no transtorno afetivo bipolar. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na base de dados Medline por trabalhos publicados em língua inglesa, alemã, espanhola ou portuguesa nos últimos 20 anos, utilizando a frase de busca "Bipolar Disorder"[Mesh] AND "Theory of Mind". Foram procurados por estudos clínicos envolvendo indivíduos bipolares e que empregaram uma ou mais tarefas cognitivas desenvolvidas para a avaliação de habilidades Teoria da Mente. Foram excluídos os relatos de caso e cartas ao editor. A busca inicial resultou em cinco artigos, sendo selecionados quatro. Outros quatro foram também selecionados a partir da leitura dos artigos acima. DISCUSSÃO: Os artigos selecionados avaliaram populações de bipolares adultos e pediátricos, incluindo indivíduos eutímicos, maníacos e deprimidos. A maioria dos trabalhos avaliados sugere que existam prejuízos no processamento Teoria da Mente em portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar e que estes podem estar por trás dos sintomas e dos déficits funcionais do transtorno afetivo bipolar. CONCLUSÃO: Pesquisas futuras a respeito do tema em questão poderão esclarecer muito acerca do papel das alterações sociocognitivas no surgimento dos sintomas do transtorno afetivo bipolar, bem como ajudar no desenvolvimento de estratégias preventivas e terapêuticas do mesmo.OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder is associated to persistent functional

  3. Jet characterization in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS: applications to climatology and transport studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Manney

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A method of classifying the upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric (UTLS jets has been developed that allows satellite and aircraft trace gas data and meteorological fields to be efficiently mapped in a jet coordinate view. A detailed characterization of multiple tropopauses accompanies the jet characterization. Jet climatologies show the well-known high altitude subtropical and lower altitude polar jets in the upper troposphere, as well as a pattern of concentric polar and subtropical jets in the Southern Hemisphere, and shifts of the primary jet to high latitudes associated with blocking ridges in Northern Hemisphere winter. The jet-coordinate view segregates air masses differently than the commonly-used equivalent latitude (EqL coordinate throughout the lowermost stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. Mapping O3 data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite and the Winter Storms aircraft datasets in jet coordinates thus emphasizes different aspects of the circulation compared to an EqL-coordinate framework: the jet coordinate reorders the data geometrically, thus highlighting the strong PV, tropopause height and trace gas gradients across the subtropical jet, whereas EqL is a dynamical coordinate that may blur these spatial relationships but provides information on irreversible transport. The jet coordinate view identifies the concentration of stratospheric ozone well below the tropopause in the region poleward of and below the jet core, as well as other transport features associated with the upper tropospheric jets. Using the jet information in EqL coordinates allows us to study trace gas distributions in regions of weak versus strong jets, and demonstrates weaker transport barriers in regions with less jet influence. MLS and Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer trace gas fields for spring 2008 in jet coordinates show very strong, closely correlated, PV, tropopause height and trace gas

  4. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Technology Solutions, Lockheed Martin Robert S. Carnes , M.D. NRAC Member, Battelle Memorial Institute MajGen Paul A. Fratarangelo, USMC (Ret) NRAC...Development, Acquisition) (VADM Architzel). The Naval Research Advisory Committee members (Bowes, Bowler, Carnes and Fratarangelo) have broad...Lockheed Martin ADP Boeing: Jet Engine Noise Reduction for Tactical Fighter Aircraft Mr. Tom Kaemming, K. Viswanathan, Ph . D. Tactical Jet Noise

  5. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  6. Jets and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The observation of quark and gluon jets has played a crucial role in establishing Quantum Chromodynamics [QCD] as the theory of the strong interactions within the Standard Model of particle physics. The jets, narrowly collimated bundles of hadrons, reflect configurations of quarks and gluons at short distances. Thus, by analysing energy and angular distributions of the jets experimentally, the properties of the basic constituents of matter and the strong forces acting between them can be explored. In this review we summarise the properties of quark and gluon jets and the impact of their observation on Quantum Chromodynamics, primarily the discovery of the gluons as the carriers of the strong force. Focusing on these basic points, jets in $e^+ e^-$ collisions will be in the foreground of the discussion. In addition we will delineate the role of jets as tools for exploring other particle aspects in $ep$ and $pp/p\\bar{p}$ collisions - quark and gluon densities in protons, measurements of the QCD coupling, fundam...

  7. Jet engine. Strahltriebwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, F.J.

    1990-11-15

    A gas turbine axial-flow compressor aggregate is mounted in a jet engine consisting of a high-temperature combustion chamber that is composed of conical rings forming slits and set together to a ring column and reaches up to the propelling nozzle, a compressed-air generator supplying the jet engine with compressed air at subsonic speeds and running into the propelling nozzle and a shell encasing the jet engine while leaving a certain intermediate space. The compressor aggregate has a relatively high fuel consumption and high emission rates, involves high production and maintenance costs and puts the blades at a high risk of overheating. The problem basic to the invention was to install a compressed-air generator in the jet engine that has lower fuel consumption and emission rates and is cheaper to manufacture and to service. The invention provides free-piston compressors for compressed-air generators arranged in a circle around the central high-temperature combustion chamber. The ring of compressors can rotate on bearings against the jet engine shell, so that each compressor can be turned to the bottom and serviced there. The jet engine is suitable as an engine for supersonic aircraft.

  8. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Bipolar postpartum depression: An update and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Doobay, Minakshi; Baczynski, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been a surge of interest in the study of bipolar postpartum depression (PPD); however, questions remain about its prevalence, screening, clinical features, and treatment. Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-2016), PsycINFO (1806-2016), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, were searched using a combination of the keywords bipolar, depression, postpartum, peripartum, prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, drugs, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant articles published in English were included. Depending on the population studied, 21.4-54% of women with PPD have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Characteristic clinical features include younger age at illness onset, first onset of depression after childbirth, onset immediately after delivery, atypical depressive symptoms, psychotic features, mixed features, and history of BD in first-degree family members. Treatment should be guided by symptom acuity, safety concerns, the patient's response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. In the absence of controlled treatment data, preference should be given to drugs normally indicated for bipolar depression including lithium, quetiapine and lamotrigine. Although antidepressants have been studied in combination with mood stabilizers in bipolar depression, these drugs should be avoided due to likelihood of elevated risk of induction of manic symptoms in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, bipolar PPD is common, can be differentiated from unipolar PPD, and needs to be identified promptly in order to expedite appropriate treatment. Future studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on the acute and preventative treatment of bipolar PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Jet Mass Spectra in Higgs + One Jet at NNLL

    CERN Document Server

    Jouttenus, Teppo T; Tackmann, Frank J; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-01-01

    The invariant mass of a jet is a benchmark variable describing the structure of jets at the LHC. We calculate the jet mass spectrum for Higgs plus one jet at the LHC at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic (NNLL) order using a factorization formula. At this order, the cross section becomes sensitive to perturbation theory at the soft m_jet^2/p_T^jet scale. Our calculation is exclusive and uses the 1-jettiness global event shape to implement a veto on additional jets. The dominant dependence on the jet veto is removed by normalizing the spectrum, leaving residual dependence from non-global logarithms depending on the ratio of the jet mass and jet veto variables. For our exclusive jet cross section these non-global logarithms are parametrically smaller than in the inclusive case, allowing us to obtain a complete NNLL result. Results for the dependence of the jet mass spectrum on the kinematics, jet algorithm, and jet size R are given. Using individual partonic channels we illustrate the difference between the je...

  11. First image of the L1157 molecular jet by the CALYPSO IRAM-PdBI survey

    CERN Document Server

    Podio, L; Gueth, F; Cabrit, S; Maury, A; Tabone, B; Lefèvre, C; Anderl, S; André, P; Belloche, A; Bontemps, S; Hennebelle, P; Lefloch, B; Maret, S; Testi, L

    2016-01-01

    Fast jets are thought to be a crucial ingredient of star formation because they might extract angular momentum from the disk and thus allow mass accretion onto the star. However, it is unclear whether jets are ubiquitous, and likewise, their contribution to mass and angular momentum extraction during protostar formation remains an open question. Our aim is to investigate the ejection process in the low-mass Class 0 protostar L1157. This source is associated with a spectacular bipolar outflow, and the recent detection of high-velocity SiO suggests the occurrence of a jet. Observations of CO 2-1 and SiO 5-4 at 0.8" resolution were obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer as part of the CALYPSO large program. The jet and outflow structure were fit with a precession model. We derived the column density of CO and SiO, as well as the jet mass-loss rate and mechanical luminosity. High-velocity CO and SiO emission resolve for the first time the first 200 au of the outflow-driving molecular jet. The jet i...

  12. Bipolar supernova remnants and the obliquity dependence of shock acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Michael S.; Reynolds, Stephen P.

    1990-01-01

    The diffusive shock acceleration mechanism proposed to explain the bipolarity observed in the synchrotron radio emission of young adiabatically expanding shell SNRs is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical basis of the SNR models and the numerical computation methods are explained, and the results are presented in graphs and synthetic radio maps and discussed in detail. It is found that the efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the obliquity angle theta(Bn) between the shock normal and the uniform magnetic field: models with theta(Bn) of about 90 deg can reproduce the observed azimuthal intensity ratios in most cases, but models with theta(Bn) near 0 deg cannot.

  13. Bipolar supernova remnants and the obliquity dependence of shock acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fulbright, M.S.; Reynolds, S.P. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1990-07-01

    The diffusive shock acceleration mechanism proposed to explain the bipolarity observed in the synchrotron radio emission of young adiabatically expanding shell SNRs is investigated by means of numerical simulations. The theoretical basis of the SNR models and the numerical computation methods are explained, and the results are presented in graphs and synthetic radio maps and discussed in detail. It is found that the efficiency of the acceleration process depends on the obliquity angle theta(Bn) between the shock normal and the uniform magnetic field: models with theta(Bn) of about 90 deg can reproduce the observed azimuthal intensity ratios in most cases, but models with theta(Bn) near 0 deg cannot. 32 refs.

  14. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  15. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A "ventral semantic stream" has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person-emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI's that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.

  16. Disk-driven rotating bipolar outflow in Orion Source I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2017-07-01

    One of the outstanding problems in star formation theory concerns the transfer of angular momentum so that mass can accrete onto a newly born young stellar object (YSO). From a theoretical standpoint, outflows and jets are predicted to play an essential role in the transfer of angular momentum 1,2,3,4 and their rotations have been reported for both low- 5 and high-mass 6,7 YSOs. However, little quantitative discussion on outflow launching mechanisms has been presented for high-mass YSOs due to a lack of observational data. Here we present a clear signature of rotation in the bipolar outflow driven by Orion Source I, a high-mass YSO candidate, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). A rotational transition of silicon monoxide (Si18O) reveals a velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow axis, which is consistent with that of the circumstellar disk traced by a high excitation water line. The launching radii and outward velocity of the outflow are estimated to be >10 au and 10 km s-1, respectively. These parameters rule out the possibility that the observed outflow is produced by the entrainment of a high-velocity jet 8 , and that contributions from the stellar wind 9 or X-wind 10 , which have smaller launching radii, are significant in the case of Source I. Thus these results provide convincing evidence of a rotating outflow directly driven by the magneto-centrifugal disk wind launched by a high-mass YSO candidate 6,11 .

  17. Flow distribution measurements at the exit of bipolar plates in a PEM fuel cell stack; Messung der Stroemungsverteilung am Austritt der Bipolarplatten eines Brennstoffzellen-Stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klinner, Joachim; Willert, Christian [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany). Abt. Triebwerksmesstechnik; Schneider, Armin; Mack-Gardner, Andre [Adam Opel GmbH, Ruesselsheim (Germany). Alternative Propulsion Center Europe

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents two different experimental approaches which concentrate on capturing the flow distribution close to the anode exit header of a prototype 8-12 KW fuel cell stack operated with air at realistic flow rates. The first approach intends to visualize the penetration depth of millimeter-sized jets towards the exit manifold. The second one is focused on obtaining the exit jet velocity field downstream of the bipolar plate exit header across the entire stack height by repeated 2C-PIV measurements on densely spaced adjacent light sheet planes. An overview of the experimental setup and the data evaluation is given. (orig.)

  18. Differences between Depression Episodes of Bipolar Disorder I and II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Inanc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1975 Fieve and Dunner made the distinction between hypomania and mania as hypomania does not usually cause social and occupational impair-ment and hospitalization is not needed, moreover patients do not experience psychosis. Bipolar disorder type I is defined by the presence of manic and depressive episodes and differs from Bipolar disorder type II characterized with hipomanic and depressive episodes. Bipolar disorder type I and II do not differ in their depressive episodes. It is still point of contention whether bipolar type II is a variant of bipolar disorder type I or is positioned on the spectrum between bipolar type I and unipolar disorder. Even there are some similarities in characteristics of depressive episodes and outcome features of different bipolar disorder subtypes, there are differences that can be useful in differential diagnosis and treatment. This paper aims to focus on those differences between bipolar disorder type I and II.

  19. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  20. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...

  1. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  2. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized differe

  3. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Mood Dysregulation: Diagnostic Controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Benjamin N

    2014-08-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder, once thought rare, has gone through stages of conceptualization. DSM criteria were reinterpreted such that children and adolescents, particularly those with ADHD, were commonly diagnosed with bipolar disorder and thought to be atypical by adult standards. Research criteria separated pediatric bipolar patients into 3 phenotypes, including a research diagnosis of "severe mood dysregulation." DSM-5 largely maintained previous criteria for bipolar disorder at all ages and created a new diagnosis called "disruptive mood dysregulation disorder," categorized as a depressive disorder, for persistently angry or irritable patients with symptoms of childhood onset. However, the controversy regarding the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder continues. Progress has been made in the classification of children and adolescents with mood symptoms who are predominantly irritable or angry, but lack of clarity remains regarding classification of children and adolescents with "symptoms characteristic of bipolar disorder" who do not meet criteria for bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, or cyclothymia.

  4. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And those who also have conduct disorder ... with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and drugs may increase as they get older, ...

  5. A minimum thermodynamic model for the bipolar seesaw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection......Bipolar seesaw, synchronization of Antarctic and Greenland ice cores, Dansgaard-Oeschger events, north-south connection...

  6. Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Wolf, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition of bipolar disorders based on clinical symptoms reflects a clinically and etiologically heterogeneous entity. Stratification of treatments for bipolar disorders based on biomarkers and improved clinical markers are greatly needed to increase the efficacy of currently available treatments and improve the chances of developing novel therapeutic approaches. This review provides a theoretical framework to identify biomarkers and summarizes the most promising markers for stratification regarding beneficial and adverse treatment effects. State and stage specifiers, neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging, and genetic and epigenetic biomarkers will be discussed with respect to their ability to predict the response to specific pharmacological and psychosocial psychotherapies for bipolar disorders. To date, the most reliable markers are derived from psychopathology and history-taking, while no biomarker has been found that reliably predicts individual treatment responses. This review underlines both the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and the need for biological research to identify markers that will allow the targeting of treatment specifically to sub-populations of bipolar patients who are more likely to benefit from a specific treatment and less likely to develop adverse reactions.

  7. Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Dwight V; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2003-12-01

    There is increased recognition that bipolar disorder has an early age of onset. The prevalence of bipolar disorder in prepubertal children has not been determined, however the prevalence in adolescence is approximately 1%. Bipolar disorder in children poses a diagnostic challenge since the symptoms may differ from those in late adolescence and adulthood. Comorbid disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, further complicate both the diagnosis and course of the disorder. There is increasing evidence of the chronicity and severity of this disorder in youths. Bipolar disorder significantly disrupts a child's psychosocial development including impairments in academic functioning, family functioning, and relationship with peers. Although this disorder has significant morbidity in children and adolescents, there is a paucity of controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of mood stabilizers in the treatment of this disorder in youths. The treatment literature consists largely of case studies, retrospective chart reviews, and open-label studies. There is a compelling need for double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to determine whether commonly used medications to treat this disorder are significantly superior to placebo. Since many children in clinical practice require more than one psychotropic medication to adequately manage this disorder, studies of combination treatments are warranted. This review will provide an overview of the literature of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, including discussion of the prevalence, diagnosis, epidemiology, course of the illness, and treatment issues.

  8. Modeling bipolar stimulation of cardiac tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galappaththige, Suran K.; Gray, Richard A.; Roth, Bradley J.

    2017-09-01

    Unipolar stimulation of cardiac tissue is often used in the design of cardiac pacemakers because of the low current required to depolarize the surrounding tissue at rest. However, the advantages of unipolar over bipolar stimulation are not obvious at shorter coupling intervals when the tissue near the pacing electrode is relatively refractory. Therefore, this paper analyzes bipolar stimulation of cardiac tissue. The strength-interval relationship for bipolar stimulation is calculated using the bidomain model and a recently developed parsimonious ionic current model. The strength-interval curves obtained using different electrode separations and arrangements (electrodes placed parallel to the fibers versus perpendicular to the fibers) indicate that bipolar stimulation results in more complex activation patterns compared to unipolar stimulation. An unusually low threshold stimulus current is observed when the electrodes are close to each other (a separation of 1 mm) because of break excitation. Unlike for unipolar stimulation, anode make excitation is not present during bipolar stimulation, and an abrupt switch from anode break to cathode make excitation can cause dramatic changes in threshold with very small changes in the interval. These results could impact the design of implantable pacemakers and defibrillators.

  9. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  10. Mechanisms of centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Medema, René H

    2010-12-14

    Accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division is accomplished through the assembly of a bipolar microtubule-based structure called the mitotic spindle. Work over the past two decades has identified a core regulator of spindle bipolarity, the microtubule motor protein kinesin-5. However, an increasing body of evidence has emerged demonstrating that kinesin-5-independent mechanisms driving bipolar spindle assembly exist as well. Here, we discuss different pathways that promote initial centrosome separation and bipolar spindle assembly.

  11. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  12. Search for common haplotypes on chromosome 22q in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder from the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    tested for the presence of a missense mutation in the WKL1 gene encoding a putative cation channel close to segment D22S1161--D22S922, which has been associated with schizophrenia. We did not find this mutation in schizophrenic or bipolar patients or the controls from the Faroe Islands.......Chromosome 22q may harbor risk genes for schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. Patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder from the Faroe...... Islands were typed for 35 evenly distributed polymorphic markers on 22q in a search for shared risk genes in the two disorders. No single marker was strongly associated with either disease, but five two-marker segments that cluster within two regions on the chromosome have haplotypes occurring...

  13. Toward the Definition of a Bipolar Prodrome: Dimensional Predictors of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in At-Risk Youths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafeman, Danella M; Merranko, John; Axelson, David; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Goldstein, Tina; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, Mary Beth; Sakolsky, Dara; Diler, Rasim; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David; Kupfer, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The authors sought to assess dimensional symptomatic predictors of new-onset bipolar spectrum disorders in youths at familial risk of bipolar disorder (“at-risk” youths).Method:Offspring 6...

  14. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  15. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  16. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijff, EM; Ruwhof, C; de Wit, HJ; Kupka, RW; Vonk, R; Akkerhuis, GW; Nolen, WA; Drexhage, HA

    2006-01-01

    Background: Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of the immune system, which is compromised in patients with bipolar disorder. We sought to study monocyte-derived DC in bipolar disorder. Methods: Monocytes purified from blood collected from DSM-IV bipolar disorder outpatients (n = 53, 12 without

  17. Ventral anterior cingulate connectivity distinguished nonpsychotic bipolar illness from psychotic bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Savic, Aleksandar; Repovs, Grega; Yang, Genevieve; McKay, D Reese; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Krystal, John H; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Glahn, David C

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar illness is a debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder associated with alterations in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), a brain region thought to regulate emotional behavior. Although recent data-driven functional connectivity studies provide evidence consistent with this possibility, the role of vACC in bipolar illness and its pattern of whole brain connectivity remain unknown. Furthermore, no study has established whether vACC exhibits differential whole brain connectivity in bipolar patients with and without co-occurring psychosis and whether this pattern resembles that found in schizophrenia. We conducted a human resting-state functional connectivity investigation focused on the vACC seed in 73 remitted bipolar I disorder patients (33 with psychosis history), 56 demographically matched healthy comparison subjects, and 73 demographically matched patients with chronic schizophrenia. Psychosis history within the bipolar disorder group corresponded with significant between-group connectivity alterations along the dorsal medial prefrontal surface when using the vACC seed. Patients with psychosis history showed reduced connectivity (Cohen's d = -0.69), whereas those without psychosis history showed increased vACC coupling (Cohen's d = 0.8) relative to controls. The vACC connectivity observed in chronic schizophrenia patients was not significantly different from that seen in bipolar patients with psychosis history but was significantly reduced compared with that in bipolar patients without psychosis history. These robust findings reveal complex vACC connectivity alterations in bipolar illness, which suggest differences depending on co-occurrence of lifetime psychosis. The similarities in vACC connectivity patterns in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder patients may suggest the existence of common mechanisms underlying psychotic symptoms in the two disorders. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland

  18. Kinematics of 1200 km/s Jets in He 3-1475

    CERN Document Server

    Borkowski, K J

    2000-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of a proto-planetary nebula He 3-1475 with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) reveal the kinematics of its high (1200 km/s) velocity jets. The jets are formed at a large (0.15 pc) distance from its central star by collimation of an asymmetric stellar wind in a pair of conical shocks seen in Wide Field Planetary Camera (WFPC2) images. The jets consist of several pairs of knots symmetrically distributed with respect to the central star, with most knots exhibiting a head-tail morphology. Large (up to 650 km/s) radial velocity gradients are seen within the knots on subarcsec scales, with velocities decreasing from the knot heads toward their trailing tails. These large velocity gradients are a sign of efficient deceleration of jets by a much slower bipolar outflow. The inclination angle of the bipolar outflow is equal to 50 degrees, based on Doppler shifts of the scattered stellar Halpha line. Its velocity is equal to 140 km/s at a distance of 0.23 pc from the star, and inc...

  19. Detection of X-rays from the jet-driving symbiotic star Hen 3-1341

    CERN Document Server

    Stute, Matthias; Pillitteri, Ignazio F; Sokoloski, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Hen 3-1341 is a symbiotic binary system consisting of a white dwarf and a red giant star that is one of about ten symbiotics that show hints of jets. The bipolar jets have been detected through displaced components of emission lines during its outburst from 1998 to 2004. These components disappeared when Hen 3-1341 reached quiescence. On February 23, 2012, Hen 3-1341 started a new outburst with the emergence of new bipolar jets on March 3, 2012. We observed Hen 3-1341 during quiescence with XMM-Newton in March 2010 with an effective exposure time of 46.8 ks and with Swift on March 8-11, 2012 as ToO observations with an effective exposure time of 10 ks in order to probe the interaction of the jet with the ambient medium and also the accretion onto the white dwarf. We fitted the XMM-Newton X-ray spectra with XSPEC and examined the X-ray and UV light curves. We report the detection of X-ray emission during quiescence from Hen 3-1341 with XMM-Newton. The spectrum can be fitted with an absorbed one-temperature pla...

  20. A Micro Molecular Bipolar Outflow From HL Tau

    CERN Document Server

    Takami, Michihiro; Pyo, Tae-Soo; McGregor, Peter; Davis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed geometry and kinematics of the inner outflow toward HL Tau observed using Near Infrared Integral Field Spectograph (NIFS) at the Gemini-North 8-m Observatory. We analyzed H2 2.122 um emission and [Fe II] 1.644 um line emission as well as the adjacent continuum observed at a <0".2 resolution. The H2 emission shows (1) a bubble-like geometry to the northeast of the star, as briefly reported in the previous paper, and (2) faint emission in the southwest counterflow, which has been revealed through careful analysis. The emission on both sides of the star show an arc 1".0 away from the star, exhibiting a bipolar symmetry. Different brightness and morphologies in the northeast and southwest flows are attributed to absorption and obscuration of the latter by a flattened envelope and a circumstellar disk. The H2 emission shows a remarkably different morphology from the collimated jet seen in [Fe II] emission. The positions of some features coincide with scattering continuum, indicating that the...

  1. Plain carbon steel bipolar plates for PEMFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jianli; SUN Juncai; TIAN Rujin; XU Jing

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates are a multifunctional component of PEMFC. Comparing with the machined graphite and stainless steels, the plain carbon steel is a very cheap commercial metal material. In this paper, the possibility of applying the plain carbon steels in the bipolar plate for PEMFC was exploited. In order to improve the corrosion resistance of the low carbon steel in the PEMFCs' environments,two surface modification processes was developed and then the electrochemical performances and interfacial contact resistance (ICR) of the surface modified plate of plain carbon steel were investigated. The results show that the surface modified steel plates have good corrosion resistance and relatively low contact resistance, and it may be a candidate material as bipolar plate of PEMFC.

  2. Managing bipolar disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Eric

    2009-09-01

    Bipolar disorders are recurrent disturbances in mood that include periods both of depression and mania. Classic bipolar disorders, with manic episodes lasting for at least several days, often start in adolescence, but are uncommon in earlier childhood. Treatment of mania in young patients should include ensuring the individual's safety, and administration of a mood-stabilizing drug, or, in severe cases, a neuroleptic. Prophylaxis with lithium or an anticonvulsant should then be considered. In younger children, brief outbursts of excessive emotion--especially anger--should be recognized as a notable clinical problem. These outbursts do not necessarily constitute the beginnings of a classic bipolar disorder, but should trigger a diagnostic differential that also includes attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, reaction to hostile environments, severe mood dysregulation, substance misuse, and autism spectrum disorders.

  3. Concurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Lin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary periodic paralysis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ion-channel dysfunction, manifested by episodic flaccid paresis secondary to abnormal sarcolemma excitability. Membrane destabilization involving Na, K-ATPase has been hypothesized to be a biological etiology of the bipolar disorder (BD and the mechanisms underlying lithium therapy have been linked to it. To date, there has been only one reported case of BD comorbid with periodic paralysis. Herein, we reported another case of concurrent bipolar mania and hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP, one special form of periodic paralysis. Consistent with the previous case, our patient responded well to lithium treatment for both bipolar mania and HPP. This might provide some support to the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of lithium in both BD and HPP could be due to the correction of the underlying common pathophysiology.

  4. A STUDY OF RADIO POLARIZATION IN PROTOSTELLAR JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cécere, Mariana [Instituto de Astronomía Teórica y Experimental, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000BGR, Córdoba (Argentina); Velázquez, Pablo F.; De Colle, Fabio; Esquivel, Alejandro [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-543, CP: 04510, D.F., México (Mexico); Araudo, Anabella T. [University of Oxford, Astrophysics, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Carrasco-González, Carlos; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 3-72, 58090, Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2016-01-10

    Synchrotron radiation is commonly observed in connection with shocks of different velocities, ranging from relativistic shocks associated with active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts, or microquasars, to weakly or non-relativistic flows such as those observed in supernova remnants. Recent observations of synchrotron emission in protostellar jets are important not only because they extend the range over which the acceleration process works, but also because they allow us to determine the jet and/or interstellar magnetic field structure, thus giving insights into the jet ejection and collimation mechanisms. In this paper, we compute for the first time polarized (synchrotron) and non-polarized (thermal X-ray) synthetic emission maps from axisymmetrical simulations of magnetized protostellar jets. We consider models with different jet velocities and variability, as well as a toroidal or helical magnetic field. Our simulations show that variable, low-density jets with velocities of ∼1000 km s{sup −1} and ∼10 times lighter than the environment can produce internal knots with significant synchrotron emission and thermal X-rays in the shocked region of the leading bow shock moving in a dense medium. While models with a purely toroidal magnetic field show a very large degree of polarization, models with a helical magnetic field show lower values and a decrease of the degree of polarization, in agreement with observations of protostellar jets.

  5. B-jets and z + b-jets at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeans, Daniel; /Rome U.

    2006-06-01

    The authors present CDF cross-section measurements for the inclusive production of b jets and the production of b jets in association with a Z{sup 0} boson. Both measurements are in reasonable agreement with NLO QCD predictions.

  6. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Kragh Andersen, Per

    2015-02-01

    The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder. All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register. Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year and for 25% of those patients it took more than 2½ years before the diagnosis was made. The most prevalent other diagnoses than bipolar disorder at first contact were depressive disorder (21.4%), acute and transient psychotic disorders or other non-organic psychosis (19.2%), reaction to stress or adjustment disorder (14.8%) and behavioral and emotional disorders with onset during childhood or adolescents (10.9%). Prevalence rates of schizophrenia, personality disorders, anxiety disorder or hyperkinetic disorders (ADHD) were low. Data concern patients who get contact to hospital psychiatry only. Clinicians should be more observant on manic symptoms in children and adolescents who at first glance present with transient psychosis, reaction to stress/adjustment disorder or with behavioral and emotional disorders with onset during childhood or adolescents (F90-98) and follow these patients more closely over time identifying putable hypomanic and manic symptoms as early as possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-

  8. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were c

  9. Methodological recommendations for cognition trials in bipolar disorder by the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Targeting Cognition Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Burdick, K E; Martinez-Aran, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To aid the development of treatment for cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder, the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to create a consensus-based guidance paper for the methodology and design of cognition trials in bipolar disorder. METHODS...

  10. Three times more days depressed than manic or hypomanic in both bipolar I and bipolar II disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupka, Ralph W.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Nolen, Willem A.; Suppes, Trisha; Luckenbaugh, David A.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Keck, Paul E.; McElroy, Susan L.; Grunze, Heinz; Post, Robert M.

    Objectives: To assess the proportion of time spent in mania, depression and euthymia in a large cohort of bipolar subjects studied longitudinally, and to investigate depression/mania ratios in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder. Methods: Clinician-adjusted self-ratings of mood were

  11. A report on older-age bipolar disorder from the International Society for Bipolar Disorders Task Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Strejilevich, Sergio A; Gildengers, Ariel G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the coming generation, older adults with bipolar disorder (BD) will increase in absolute numbers as well as proportion of the general population. This is the first report of the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD) Task Force on Older-Age Bipolar Disorder (OABD). METHODS...

  12. Bipolar illness: factors in drinking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunner, D L; Hensel, B M; Fieve, R R

    1979-04-01

    Alcohol use and abuse was investigated in 73 patients with bipolar I manic-depressive illness who were attending a lithium clinic. Alcohol-related problems were identified in 7 of the male and none of the female patients. Family data revealed a higher morbid risk for alcoholism among relatives of patients with drinking problems than among relatives of patients without drinking problems. Morbid risks for affective disorder for these two groups of relatives were similar, suggesting that alcoholism among relatives of patients with bipolar illness is not solely "genotypically" related to the affective disorder.

  13. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette;

    2008-01-01

    . A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  14. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets...

  15. NEW VARIABLE JET MODELS FOR HH 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Noriega-Crespo, A. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    We consider newly derived proper motions of the HH 34 jet to reconstruct the evolution of this outflow. We first extrapolate ballistic trajectories for the knots (starting from their present-day positions and velocities) and find that at {approx}1000 yr in the future most of them will merge to form a larger-mass structure. This mass structure will be formed close to the present-day position of the HH 34S bow shock. We then carry out a fit to the ejection velocity versus time reconstructed from the observed proper motions (assuming that the past motion of the knots was ballistic) and use this fit to compute axisymmetric jet simulations. We find that the intensity maps predicted from these simulations do indeed match reasonably well the [S II] structure of HH 34 observed in Hubble Space Telescope images.

  16. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry angul

  17. Jet Substructure by Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Timothy; Lisanti, Mariangela; Lou, Hou Keong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new search strategy for high-multiplicity hadronic final states. When new particles are produced at threshold, the distribution of their decay products is approximately isotropic. If there are many partons in the final state, it is likely that several will be clustered into the same large-radius jet. The resulting jet exhibits substructure, even though the parent states are not boosted. This "accidental" substructure is a powerful discriminant against background because it is more pronounced for high-multiplicity signals than for QCD multijets. We demonstrate how to take advantage of accidental substructure to reduce backgrounds without relying on the presence of missing energy. As an example, we present the expected limits for several R-parity violating gluino decay topologies. This approach allows for the determination of QCD backgrounds using data-driven methods, which is crucial for the feasibility of any search that targets signatures with many jets and suppressed missing energy.

  18. Renewable jet fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Pauli; Pásztor, András; Akhtar, M Kalim; Jones, Patrik R

    2014-04-01

    Novel strategies for sustainable replacement of finite fossil fuels are intensely pursued in fundamental research, applied science and industry. In the case of jet fuels used in gas-turbine engine aircrafts, the production and use of synthetic bio-derived kerosenes are advancing rapidly. Microbial biotechnology could potentially also be used to complement the renewable production of jet fuel, as demonstrated by the production of bioethanol and biodiesel for piston engine vehicles. Engineered microbial biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes, which constitute the major fraction of petroleum-based jet fuels, was recently demonstrated. Although efficiencies currently are far from that needed for commercial application, this discovery has spurred research towards future production platforms using both fermentative and direct photobiological routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relativistic 3D jet simulations for the X-ray binary SS433

    CERN Document Server

    Monceau-Baroux, Remi; Meliani, Zakaria; Porth, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Context. Modern high resolution observations allow to view closer into the objects powering relativistic jets. This is especially the case for SS433, an X-ray binary from which a precessing jet is observed down to the sub-parsec scale. Aims. We want to study full 3D dynamics of relativistic jets associated with AGN or XRB. We study the precessing motion of a jet as a model for the jet associated with the XRB SS433. Our study of the jet dynamics in this system focuses on the sub-parsec scales. We investigate the impact of jet precession and the variation of the Lorentz factor of the injected matter on the general 3D jet dynamics and its energy transfer to the surrounding medium. We realize synthetic radio mapping of the data, to compare our results with observations. Methods. For our study we use the code MPI-AMRVAC with SRHD model of a baryonic jet. We use a AMR scheme and an inner time-dependent boundary prescription to inject the jets. Parameters extracted from observations were used. 3D jet realizations th...

  20. Multichannel discharge between jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakirova, E. F.; Gaitsin, Al. F.; Son, E. E.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of multichannel discharge between a jet electrolyte cathode and jet electrolyte anode within a wide range of parameters. We pioneer the reveal of the burning particularities and characteristics of multichannel discharge with jet electrolyte and droplet

  1. Exploring the psychosis functional connectome: aberrant intrinsic networks in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince D Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic functional brain networks (INs are regions showing temporal coherence with one another. These INs are present in the context of a task (as opposed to an undirected task such as rest, albeit modulated to a degree both spatially and temporally. Prominent networks include the default mode, attentional fronto-parietal, executive control, bilateral temporal lobe and motor networks. The characterization of INs has recently gained considerable momentum, however; most previous studies evaluate only a small subset of the intrinsic networks (e.g. default mode. In this paper we use independent component analysis to study INs decomposed from fMRI data collected in a large group of schizophrenia patients, healthy controls, and individuals with bipolar disorder, while performing an auditory oddball task. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes which motivates our goal of identifying whether functional imaging data can differentiate the two disorders. We tested for group differences in properties of all identified intrinsic networks including spatial maps, spectra, and functional network connectivity. A small set of default mode, temporal lobe, and frontal networks with default mode regions appearing to play a key role in all comparisons. Bipolar subjects showed more prominent changes in ventromedial and prefrontal default mode regions whereas schizophrenia patients showed changes in posterior default mode regions. Anti-correlations between left parietal areas and dorsolateral prefrontal cortical areas were different in bipolar and schizophrenia patients and amplitude was significantly different from healthy controls in both patient groups. Patients exhibited similar frequency behavior across multiple networks with decreased low frequency power. In summary, a comprehensive analysis of intrinsic networks reveals a key role for the default mode in both schizophrenia and

  2. Relativistic AGN jets I. The delicate interplay between jet structure, cocoon morphology and jet-head propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walg, S.; Achterberg, A.; Markoff, S.; Keppens, R.; Meliani, Z.

    2013-08-01

    Astrophysical jets reveal strong signs of radial structure. They suggest that the inner region of the jet, the jet spine, consists of a low-density, fast-moving gas, while the outer region of the jet consists of a more dense and slower moving gas, called the jet sheath. Moreover, if jets carry angular momentum, the resultant centrifugal forces lead to a radial stratification. Current observations are not able to fully resolve the radial structure, so little is known about its actual profile. We present three active galactic nuclei jet models in 2.5D of which two have been given a radial structure. The first model is a homogeneous jet, the only model that does not carry angular momentum; the second model is a spine-sheath jet with an isothermal equation of state; and the third jet model is a (piecewise) isochoric spine-sheath jet, with constant but different densities for jet spine and jet sheath. In this paper, we look at the effects of radial stratification on jet integrity, mixing between the different jet components and global morphology of the jet-head and surrounding cocoon. We consider steady jets that have been active for 23 Myr. All jets have developed the same number of strong internal shocks along their jet axis at the final time of simulation. These shocks arise when vortices are being shed by the jet-head. We find that all three jets maintain their stability all the way up to the jet-head. The isothermal jet maintains part of its structural integrity at the jet-head where the distinction between jet spine and jet sheath material can still be made. In this case, mixing between jet spine and jet sheath within the jet is fairly inefficient. The isochoric jet, on the other hand, loses its structural jet integrity fairly quickly after the jet is injected. At its jet-head, little structure is maintained and the central part of the jet predominantly consists of jet sheath material. In this case, jet spine and jet sheath material mix efficiently within the jet

  3. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States)

    2015-12-09

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)072 smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  4. Resolving boosted jets with XCone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Jesse; Wilkason, Thomas F.

    2015-12-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm [1] smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies — dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs — that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  5. Resolving Boosted Jets with XCone

    CERN Document Server

    Thaler, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    We show how the recently proposed XCone jet algorithm smoothly interpolates between resolved and boosted kinematics. When using standard jet algorithms to reconstruct the decays of hadronic resonances like top quarks and Higgs bosons, one typically needs separate analysis strategies to handle the resolved regime of well-separated jets and the boosted regime of fat jets with substructure. XCone, by contrast, is an exclusive cone jet algorithm that always returns a fixed number of jets, so jet regions remain resolved even when (sub)jets are overlapping in the boosted regime. In this paper, we perform three LHC case studies---dijet resonances, Higgs decays to bottom quarks, and all-hadronic top pairs---that demonstrate the physics applications of XCone over a wide kinematic range.

  6. Jet Photoproduction at THERA

    OpenAIRE

    Klasen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that a future high-energy electron-proton collider like THERA could largely extend the current HERA program in jet photoproduction of testing QCD and determining the partonic structure of the proton and the photon. Depending on the electron beam energy (250-500 GeV) and the collider mode ($ep$ or $\\gamma p$), the range in the hard transverse energy scale of the jets could be increased by a factor of 2-3 and the reach in the momentum fraction $x$ of the partons in the proton or ...

  7. Jet Physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation period allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet physics measurements. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime, and show sensitivity to the parton densities in the proton and to the value of the strong coupling, alpha_s.

  8. OPAL Jet Chamber Prototype

    CERN Multimedia

    OPAL was one of the four experiments installed at the LEP particle accelerator from 1989 - 2000. OPAL's central tracking system consists of (in order of increasing radius) a silicon microvertex detector, a vertex detector, a jet chamber, and z-chambers. All the tracking detectors work by observing the ionization of atoms by charged particles passing by: when the atoms are ionized, electrons are knocked out of their atomic orbitals, and are then able to move freely in the detector. These ionization electrons are detected in the dirfferent parts of the tracking system. This piece is a prototype of the jet chambers

  9. Measurement of the Electric Current in a Kpc-Scale Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Kronberg, Philipp P; Lapenta, Giovanni; Colgate, Stirling A

    2011-01-01

    We present radio emission, polarization, and Faraday rotation maps of the radio jet of the galaxy 3C303. From this data we derive the magnetoplasma and electrodynamic parameters of this $50$ kpc long jet. For one component of this jet we obtain for the first time a direct determination of a {\\it galactic}-scale electric current ($\\sim 10^{18}$ A), and its direction $-$ {\\it positive} away from the AGN. Our analysis strongly supports a model where the jet energy flow is mainly {\\it electromagnetic}.

  10. On dual descriptions of intermittency in a jet

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1996-01-01

    Models of intermittent behaviour are usually formulated using a set of multiplicative random weights on a Cayley tree. However, intermittency in particle multiproduction from QCD jets is related to fragmentation of an additive quantum number, e.g. energy-momentum. We exhibit the non-trivial stochastic mapping between these {\\it additive} and {\\it multiplicative} cascading processes.

  11. Sleep disturbances in pediatric bipolar disorder: A comparison between Bipolar I and Bipolar NOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argelinda eBaroni

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder (BD in youths has been controversial, especially for the subtype BD Not Otherwise Specified (BD-NOS. In spite of growing evidence that sleep is a core feature of BD, few studies characterize and compare sleep disturbances in youth with BD type I (BD-I and BD-NOS. Sleep disturbances are frequently reported in clinical descriptions of children and adolescents with BD, however the reporting of the frequency and characteristics of sleep symptoms in youth with BD NOS and BD I during episodes remain poor. This study compares symptom of sleep disturbance as occurring in manic and depressive episodes in BD I and BD NOS youth using KSADS-PL interview data. The study also addresses whether symptoms of sleep disturbance vary in different age groups. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 70 children and adolescent outpatients at an urban specialty clinic (42M/28F, 10.8±3.6 years old including 24 BP-I and 46 BP-NOS assessed using K-SADS-PL-parent interview. Results: Sleep disturbances including insomnia and decreased need for sleep were reported by 84.3% of the sample. Enuresis was diagnosed in 27% of sample. There were no significant differences in frequency of sleep symptoms between BD-I and BD-NOS. Regardless of BD subtype, current functioning was negatively correlated with decreased need for sleep but not insomnia, and regardless of BD subtype. Conclusion: The majority of youth with BD presents with sleep symptoms during mood episodes. BD NOS presents with the same proportion of sleep symptoms as BD I in our sample.

  12. Is There a Bipolar Prodrome Among Children and Adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Schwarz, Charlotte M; Nye, Paul; Frazier, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder in youth substantially impairs behavior, family, and social functioning and interferes with developmental course. There is increasing interest in defining a bipolar prodrome similar to that reported in early-onset psychosis that will allow for earlier intervention and reduction in overall morbidity and mortality. Several lines of research have addressed this important issue including studies of offspring of bipolar parents, high-risk cohorts, and longitudinal follow-up of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), ADHD, and bipolar spectrum disorder. The development and validation of bipolar prodrome rating scales also shows promise. Recent attempts to intervene at earlier stages of bipolar disorder have led to some positive outcomes. However, a controversy remains concerning the identification and management of the earliest symptoms. Further research is needed to fully validate a bipolar prodrome and to determine the optimal course of action at various stages of illness.

  13. Heritability of cognitive functions in families with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Mervi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Kieseppä, Tuula; Soronen, Pia; Palo, Outi M; Paunio, Tiina; Haukka, Jari; Partonen, Timo; Lönnqvist, Jouko

    2007-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is highly heritable. Cognitive dysfunctions often observed in bipolar patients and their unaffected relatives implicate that these impairments may be associated with genetic predisposition to bipolar disorder and thus fulfill the criteria of a valid endophenotype for the disorder. However, the most fundamental criterion, their heritability, has not been directly studied in any bipolar population. This population-based study estimated the heritability of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to a population-based sample of 110 individuals from 52 families with bipolar disorder. Heritability of cognitive functions as assessed with neuropsychological test scores were estimated using the Solar package. Significant additive heritabilities were found in verbal ability, executive functioning, and psychomotor processing speed. Genetic contribution was low to verbal learning functions. High heritability, in executive functioning and psychomotor processing speed suggest that these may be valid endophenotypic traits for genetic studies of bipolar disorder.

  14. Relativistic HD and MHD modelling for AGN jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keppens, R.; Porth, O.; Monceau-Baroux, R.; Walg, S.

    2013-12-01

    Relativistic hydro and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) provide a continuum fluid description for plasma dynamics characterized by shock-dominated flows approaching the speed of light. Significant progress in its numerical modelling emerged in the last two decades; we highlight selected examples of modern grid-adaptive, massively parallel simulations realized by our open-source software MPI-AMRVAC (Keppens et al 2012 J. Comput. Phys. 231 718). Hydrodynamical models quantify how energy transfer from active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets to their surrounding interstellar/intergalactic medium (ISM/IGM) gets mediated through shocks and various fluid instability mechanisms (Monceau-Baroux et al 2012 Astron. Astrophys. 545 A62). With jet parameters representative for Fanaroff-Riley type-II jets with finite opening angles, we can quantify the ISM volumes affected by jet injection and distinguish the roles of mixing versus shock-heating in cocoon regions. This provides insight in energy feedback by AGN jets, usually incorporated parametrically in cosmological evolution scenarios. We discuss recent axisymmetric studies up to full 3D simulations for precessing relativistic jets, where synthetic radio maps can confront observations. While relativistic hydrodynamic models allow one to better constrain dynamical parameters like the Lorentz factor and density contrast between jets and their surroundings, the role of magnetic fields in AGN jet dynamics and propagation characteristics needs full relativistic MHD treatments. Then, we can demonstrate the collimating properties of an overal helical magnetic field backbone and study differences between poloidal versus toroidal field dominated scenarios (Keppens et al 2008 Astron. Astrophys. 486 663). Full 3D simulations allow one to consider the fate of non-axisymmetric perturbations on relativistic jet propagation from rotating magnetospheres (Porth 2013 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 429 2482). Self-stabilization mechanisms related to the detailed

  15. Spitzer-IRAC survey of molecular jets in Vela-D

    CERN Document Server

    Giannini, T; De Luca, M; Strafella, F; Elia, D; Maiolo, B; Marengo, M; Maruccia, Y; Massi, F; Nisini, B; Olmi, L; Salama, A; Smith, H A

    2013-01-01

    We present a survey of H2 jets from young protostars in the Vela-D molecular cloud (VMR-D), based on Spitzer -IRAC data between 3.6 and 8.0 micron. Our search has led to the identification of 15 jets and about 70 well aligned knots within 1.2 squared degree. We compare the IRAC maps with observations of the H2 1-0 S(1) line at 2.12 micron, with a Spitzer-MIPS map at 24 and 70 micron, and with a map of the dust continuum emission at 1.2 mm. We find a association between molecular jets and dust peaks. The jet candidate exciting sources have been searched for in the published catalog of the Young Stellar Objects of VMR-D. We selected all the sources of Class II or earlier which are located close to the jet center and aligned with it.The association between jet and exciting source was validated by estimating the differential extinction between the jet opposite lobes. We are able to find a best-candidate exciting source in all but two jets. Four exciting sources are not (or very barely) observed at wavelengths sho...

  16. Moduli Spaces of $J$-holomorphic Curves with General Jet Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Ke

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the tagent map of the holomorphic $k$- jet evaluation $j^k_{hol}$ from the mapping space to holomorphic $k$-jet bundle, when restricted on the universal moduli space of simple J-holomorphic curves with one marked point, is surjective. From this we derive that for generic $J$, the moduli space of simple $J$-holomorphic curves in class $\\beta\\in H_2(M)$ with general jet constraints at marked points is a smooth manifold of expected dimension.

  17. Interaction of Fanaroff-Riley class II radio jets with a randomly magnetized intracluster medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Krause, M.; Alexander, P.

    2011-12-01

    A combination of 3D magnetohydrodynamics and synthetic numerical simulations are presented to follow the evolution of a randomly magnetized plasma that models the intracluster medium, under the isolated effects of powerful, light, hypersonic and bipolar Fanaroff-Riley class II jets. We prescribe the cluster magnetic field (CMF) as a Gaussian random field with a Kolmogorov-like energy spectrum. Both the power of the jets and the viewing angle that is used for the synthetic rotation measure (RM) observations are investigated. We find the model radio sources introduce and amplify fluctuations on the RM statistical properties which we analyse as a function of time as well as the viewing angle. The average RM and the RM standard deviation are increased by the action of the jets. Energetics, RM statistics and magnetic power spectral analysis consistently show that the effects also correlate with the jets' power, and that the lightest, fastest jets produce the strongest changes in their environment. We see jets distort and amplify the CMFs especially near the edges of the lobes and the jets' heads. This process leads to a flattening of the RM structure functions at scales comparable to the source size. The edge features we find are similar to ones observed in Hydra A. The results show that jet-produced RM enhancements are more apparent in quasars than in radio galaxies. Globally, jets tend to enhance the RM standard deviation which may lead to overestimations of the CMFs' strength by about 70 per cent. This study means to serve as a pathfinder for the SKA, EVLA and LOFAR to follow the evolution of cosmic magnetic fields.

  18. Traction Drive Inverter Cooling with Submerged Liquid Jet Impingement on Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S.; Narumanchi, S.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Jet impingement is one means to improve thermal management for power electronics in electric-drive traction vehicles. Jet impingement on microfin-enhanced surfaces further augments heat transfer and thermal performance. A channel flow heat exchanger from a commercial inverter was characterized as a baseline system for comparison with two new prototype designs using liquid jet impingement on plain and microfinned enhanced surfaces. The submerged jets can target areas with the highest heat flux to provide local cooling, such as areas under insulated-gate bipolar transistors and diode devices. Low power experiments, where four diodes were powered, dissipated 105 W of heat and were used to validate computational fluid dynamics modeling of the baseline and prototype designs. Experiments and modeling used typical automotive flow rates using water-ethylene glycol as a coolant (50%-50% by volume). The computational fluid dynamics model was used to predict full inverter power heat dissipation. The channel flow and jet impingement configurations were tested at full inverter power of 40 to 100 kW (output power) on a dynamometer, translating to an approximate heat dissipation of 1 to 2 kW. With jet impingement, the cold plate material is not critical for the thermal pathway. A high-temperature plastic was used that could eventually be injection molded or formed, with the jets formed from a basic aluminum plate with orifices acting as nozzles. Long-term reliability of the jet nozzles and impingement on enhanced surfaces was examined. For jet impingement on microfinned surfaces, thermal performance increased 17%. Along with a weight reduction of approximately 3 kg, the specific power (kW/kg) increased by 36%, with an increase in power density (kW/L) of 12% compared with the baseline channel flow configuration.

  19. HH 1158: THE LOWEST LUMINOSITY EXTERNALLY IRRADIATED HERBIG–HARO JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riaz, B. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Whelan, E. T. [Institute für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2015-12-20

    We have identified a new externally irradiated Herbig–Haro (HH) jet, HH 1158, within ∼2 pc of the massive OB type stars in the σ Orionis cluster. At an L{sub bol} ∼ 0.1 L{sub ⊙}, HH 1158 is the lowest luminosity irradiated HH jet identified to date in any cluster. Results from the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra indicate asymmetries in the brightness, morphology, electron density, velocity, and the mass outflow rates for the blue and redshifted lobes. We constrain the position angle of the HH 1158 jet at 102° ± 5°. The mass outflow rate and the mean accretion rate for HH 1158 using multiple diagnostics are estimated to be (5.2 ± 2.6) × 10{sup −10} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} and (3.0 ± 1.0) × 10{sup −10} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}, respectively. The properties for HH 1158 are notably similar to the externally irradiated HH 444–HH 447 jets previously identified in σ Orionis. In particular, the morphology is such that the weaker jet beam is tilted toward the massive stars, indicating a higher extent of photo-evaporation. The high value for the Hα/[S ii] ratio is also consistent with the ratios measured in other irradiated jets, including HH 444–HH 447. The presence of an extended collimated jet that is bipolar and the evidence of shocked emission knots make HH 1158 the first unique case of irradiated HH jets at the very low-luminosity end, and provides an opportunity to learn the physical properties of very faint HH jet sources.

  20. Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Alvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2015-01-01

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. While the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars\\cite{Mirabel98,Paredes03} have led to a well-established phenomenology\\cite{Fender04,Migliari06}. Relativistic jets are not expected from sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows\\cite{Southwell96,Becker98}. Here we report optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS\\cite{DiStefano03,Swartz02}) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1\\cite{Liu08a,Liu08b}) showing blueshifted broad H\\alpha\\ emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. The time variable jets have projected velocities ~17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem similar to those in the prototype microquasar SS 433\\cite{Margon84,Blundell07}. Such relativistic jets are not expected to be laun...

  1. Do water fountain jets really indicate the onset of the morphological metamorphosis of circumstellar envelopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Bosco H. K.; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Imai, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale bipolar jets with short dynamical ages from 'water-fountain' (WF) sources are regarded as an indication of the onset of circumstellar envelope morphological metamorphosis of intermediate-mass stars. Such a process usually happens at the end of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. However, recent studies found that WFs could be AGB stars or even early planetary nebulae. This fact prompted the idea that WFs may not necessarily be objects at the beginning of the morphological transition process. In the present work, we show that WFs could have different envelope morphologies by studying their spectral energy distribution profiles. Some WFs have spherical envelopes that resemble usual AGB stars, while others have aspherical envelopes, which are more common to post-AGB stars. The results imply that WFs may not represent the earliest stage of morphological metamorphosis. We argue further that the dynamical age of a WF jet, which can be calculated from maser proper motions, may not be the real age of the jet. The dynamical age cannot be used to justify the moment when the envelope begins to become aspherical, nor to tell the concrete evolutionary status of the object. A WF jet could be the innermost part of a larger well-developed jet, which is not necessarily a young jet.

  2. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions within SCET

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Zhong-Bo; Vitev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements based upon semi-inclusive jet functions within the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). In this work we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron $h$ is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet as a first example. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function ${\\mathcal G}^h_i(z= \\omega_J/\\omega,z_h=\\omega_h/\\omega_J,\\omega_J, R,\\mu)$ which depends on the jet radius $R$ and the large light-cone momenta of the parton '$i$' initiating the jet ($\\omega$), the jet ($\\omega_J$), and the hadron $h$ ($\\omega_h$). We are then able to express the jet fragmentation function as a semi-inclusive jet observable rather than as an exclusive one, which is closer to the actual experimental measurements. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations at next-to-leading order (NLO). We further derive the renormalization gro...

  3. Titanium Carbide Bipolar Plate for Electrochemical Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaConti, Anthony B.; Griffith, Arthur E.; Cropley, Cecelia C.; Kosek, John A.

    1998-05-08

    Titanium carbide comprises a corrosion resistant, electrically conductive, non-porous bipolar plate for use in an electrochemical device. The process involves blending titanium carbide powder with a suitable binder material, and molding the mixture, at an elevated temperature and pressure.

  4. The ups and downs of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth R

    2003-06-01

    This brief historical overview of bipolar disorder addresses diagnosis, treatment, cost, creativity, suicide, and stigma with a review of the literature. This served as the introduction to the 27th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists (51 references).

  5. Loopy: The Political Ontology of Bipolar Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RACHEL JANE LIEBERT

    2013-01-01

    ... on one’s potential madness, or risk, circulate with/in the contemporary U.S. climate of intensified discipline and terror, and use Bipolar Disorder as a site to critically explore how and with what implications this circulation occurs...

  6. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  7. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories ...

  8. Cognitive Impairment in Euthymic Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Liana R; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vale, Antônio M O

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inc...

  9. Unraveling Psychomotor Slowing in Bipolar Disorde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morsel, A.M.; Temmerman, A.; Sabbe, B.G.C.; Hulstijn, W.; Morrens, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: In addition to affective and cognitive symptomatology, psychomotor deficits are known to be present in bipolar disorder (BD). Psychomotor functioning includes all of the processes necessary for completing a movement, from planning to initiation and execution. While these psychomotor

  10. Homocysteine and cognitive functions in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Permoda-Osip

    2014-12-01

    The results obtained show higher HCY concentration in considerable proportion of patients with bipolar depression, especially in men. They also confirm a connect between high homocysteine concentration and worse performance in some neuropsychological tests. Such relationship was more marked in men.

  11. [Bipolar depression in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkle, Sarah; Holtmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Depressive episodes in the course of bipolar disorders present various challenges for diagnosis and treatment. This review gives an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, course and the treatment of bipolar depression in children and adolescents as well as existing problems for clinical practice. Usually it takes a longer period until affected patients with bipolar disorder receive correct diagnosis and treatment. In many cases, unipolar and bipolar depressive episodes may only be distinguished in the long-term course. Manic episodes in children and adolescents often show atypical features, and hypomanic episodes are often not perceived as impairing. Comorbidities are common and complicate the diagnostic process. Up to now, there is no German child and adolescent psychiatric instrument to support diagnosis. Cogitive behavioural therapy, Interpersonal Therapy and Family-focussed Therapy for adolescents seem promising. Regarding psychopharmacotherapy there is only limited evidence to guide clinical decisions for youth. A better understanding of the prodromal phase appears to be important. Delay of treatment initiation could be minimized by a closer collaboration between the various treatment systems, e. g. using centers for early recognition.

  12. Bias in emerging biomarkers for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, A F; Köhler, C A; Fernandes, B S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD. METHOD: The Pubmed/Medline, E...

  13. High-field bipolar loss measurement apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, D.; Thullen, P.; Wollan, J.

    1980-09-01

    An apparatus was constructed to measure dissipation in superconducting wire in high alternating fields. The circuit incorporates a pair of locomotive traction motors as the capacitive circuit element for the bipolar swing. The design, construction and operating characteristics of the field coil and the associated circuitry are described.

  14. Psychoeducation for bipolar disorder: A discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lynere; Crowe, Marie; Scott, Anne; Lacey, Cameron

    2017-03-16

    Psychoeducation has become a common intervention within mental health settings. It aims to increase people's ability to manage a life with a long-term illness. For people with bipolar disorder, psychoeducation is one of a range of psychosocial interventions now considered part of contemporary mental health practice. It has taken on a 'common sense' status that results in little critique of psychoeducation practices. Using a published manual on psychoeducation and bipolar disorder as its data, Foucauldian discourse analysis was used in the present study for a critical perspective on psychoeducation in order to explore the taken-for-granted assumptions on which it is based. It identifies that the text produces three key subject positions for people with bipolar disorder. To practice self-management, a person must: (i) accept and recognize the authority of psychiatry to know them; (ii) come to see that they can moderate themselves; and (iii) see themselves as able to undertake a reflexive process of self-examination and change. These findings highlight the circular and discursive quality to the construct of insight that is central to how psychoeducation is practiced. Using Foucault's construct of pastoral power, it also draws attention to the asymmetrical nature of power relations between the clinician and the person with bipolar disorder. An effect of the use of medical discourse in psychoeducation is to limit its ability to work with ambivalence and contradiction. A critical approach to psychotherapy and education offers an alternate paradigm on which to basis psychoeducation practices.

  15. Social dysfunction in bipolar disorder: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Rocca, Cristiana Castanho; de Macedo-Soares, Marcia Britto; Gorenstein, Clarice; Tamada, Renata Sayuri; Issler, Cilly Kluger; Dias, Rodrigo Silva; Schwartzmann, Angela Maria; Lafer, Beny

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the social skills of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. A group of 25 outpatients with bipolar disorder type I were evaluated in comparison with a group of 31 healthy volunteers who were matched in terms of level of education, age, sex and intelligence. Both groups were assessed using a self-report questionnaire, the Brazilian Inventario de Habilidades Sociais (IHS, Social Skills Inventory). Two Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale subtests (Picture Arrangement and Comprehension) were also used in order to assess subject ability to analyse social situations and to make judgements, respectively. Patients with bipolar disorder had lower IHS scores for the domains that assessed conversational skills/social self-confidence and social openness to new people/situations. Patients with anxiety disorders had high scores for the domain that assessed self-confidence in the expression of positive emotions. No differences were found between patients and controls in performance on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder present inhibited and overattentive behaviour in relation to other people and their environment. This behaviour might have a negative impact on their level of social functioning and quality of life.

  16. Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ruiz, Eva M; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders has not been studied in depth. In addition, clinical implications involved in the appearance of both disorders are very important. A systematic literature review of MEDLINE published up to September 2013 was performed, analyzing all the articles that studied the comorbidity of both conditions (bipolar disorder and eating disorders) and others research that studied the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and psychotherapy to improve these illnesses. In this review we found a high comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders, especially of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Studies show that lithium and topiramate are 2 of the more effective pharmacological agents in the treatment of both disorders. There are a lot of studies that show evidence of comorbidity of bipolar disorder and eating disorders. However, further research is needed on assessment and treatment when these conditions co-exist, as well as study into the biopsychological aspects to determine the comorbid aetiology. Copyright © 2014 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning (i

  18. Mechanism on bipolar distribution of Permian brachiopods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengwen WANG; Songmei ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    By reasearch on geographic distribution, nine genera in bipolar distribution are selected from Permian brachiopods. These taxa originated from middle-high latitude areas in the boreal realm, of which five genera were derived from Late Carboniferous, and other four genera originated from Permian. They were all in bipolar distribution during some different stages in Permian. Specific diversity for each genus was high in the boreal realm, whereas in the Gondwana realm was very low. Perdurability was long in the boreal realm, and short in the Gondwana realm. It was the time when these nine genera came to their maximum diversity that these genera appeared in the Gondwana and formed bipolar distribution; while they also migrated to the low latitude from high latitude. This shows very close relationship between several main cooling events in Permian and the migration of genera from the boreal realm to the Gondwana realm through the Tethys. Therefore, the cooling events might be the main drive which caused these cold-water-type brachiopods migrated to the Gondwana realm and being bipolar distribution. In this process, the planula tolerance to warm water would be another important factor.

  19. Corrosion test cell for bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Kirk R.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion test cell for evaluating corrosion resistance in fuel cell bipolar plates is described. The cell has a transparent or translucent cell body having a pair of identical cell body members that seal against opposite sides of a bipolar plate. The cell includes an anode chamber and an cathode chamber, each on opposite sides of the plate. Each chamber contains a pair of mesh platinum current collectors and a catalyst layer pressed between current collectors and the plate. Each chamber is filled with an electrolyte solution that is replenished with fluid from a much larger electrolyte reservoir. The cell includes gas inlets to each chamber for hydrogen gas and air. As the gases flow into a chamber, they pass along the platinum mesh, through the catalyst layer, and to the bipolar plate. The gas exits the chamber through passageways that provide fluid communication between the anode and cathode chambers and the reservoir, and exits the test cell through an exit port in the reservoir. The flow of gas into the cell produces a constant flow of fresh electrolyte into each chamber. Openings in each cell body is member allow electrodes to enter the cell body and contact the electrolyte in the reservoir therein. During operation, while hydrogen gas is passed into one chamber and air into the other chamber, the cell resistance is measured, which is used to evaluate the corrosion properties of the bipolar plate.

  20. Intermonsoonal equatorial jets

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Three transects each from the cruises of R V Pioneer (84 , 88 degrees and 92 degrees E) during May-June 1964 and R V Vityaz (77 , 84 degrees and 94 degrees E) during October-November 1962 were used to compare pre and postmonsoon equatorial jets...

  1. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of o

  2. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  3. Jet-Images: Computer Vision Inspired Techniques for Jet Tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Cogan, Josh; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon- initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  4. Jet-images: computer vision inspired techniques for jet tagging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, Josh; Kagan, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Schwarztman, Ariel [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94028 (United States)

    2015-02-18

    We introduce a novel approach to jet tagging and classification through the use of techniques inspired by computer vision. Drawing parallels to the problem of facial recognition in images, we define a jet-image using calorimeter towers as the elements of the image and establish jet-image preprocessing methods. For the jet-image processing step, we develop a discriminant for classifying the jet-images derived using Fisher discriminant analysis. The effectiveness of the technique is shown within the context of identifying boosted hadronic W boson decays with respect to a background of quark- and gluon-initiated jets. Using Monte Carlo simulation, we demonstrate that the performance of this technique introduces additional discriminating power over other substructure approaches, and gives significant insight into the internal structure of jets.

  5. Jets launched at magnetar birth cannot be ignored

    CERN Document Server

    Soker, Noam

    2016-01-01

    I question models for powering super energetic supernovae (SESNe) with a magnetar central engine that do not include jets that are expected to be launched by the magnetar progenitor. I show that under reasonable assumptions the outflow that is expected during the formation of a magnetar can carry an amount of energy that does not fall much below, and even surpasses, the energy that is stored in the newly born spinning neutron star (NS). The rapidly spinning NS and the strong magnetic fields attributed to magnetars require that the accreted mass onto the newly born NS possesses high specific angular momentum and strong magnetic fields. These ingredients are expected, as in many other astrophysical objects, to form collimated oputflows/jets. I argue that the bipolar outflow in the pre-magnetar phase transfers a substantial amount of energy to the supernova (SN) ejecta, and it cannot be ignored in models that attribute SESNe to magnetars. I conclude that jets launched by accretion disks and accretion belts are m...

  6. Jet substructure using semi-inclusive jet functions in SCET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Zhong-Bo [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ringer, Felix; Vitev, Ivan [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory,Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-25

    We propose a new method to evaluate jet substructure observables in inclusive jet measurements, based upon semi-inclusive jet functions in the framework of Soft Collinear Effective Theory (SCET). As a first example, we consider the jet fragmentation function, where a hadron h is identified inside a fully reconstructed jet. We introduce a new semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z=ω{sub J}/ω,z{sub h}=ω{sub h}/ω{sub J},ω{sub J},R,μ), which depends on the jet radius R and the large light-cone momenta of the parton ‘i’ initiating the jet (ω), the jet (ω{sub J}), and the hadron h (ω{sub h}). The jet fragmentation function can then be expressed as a semi-inclusive observable, in the spirit of actual experimental measurements, rather than as an exclusive one. We demonstrate the consistency of the effective field theory treatment and standard perturbative QCD calculations of this observable at next-to-leading order (NLO). The renormalization group (RG) equation for the semi-inclusive fragmenting jet function G{sub i}{sup h}(z,z{sub h},ω{sub J},R,μ) are also derived and shown to follow exactly the usual timelike DGLAP evolution equations for fragmentation functions. The newly obtained RG equations can be used to perform the resummation of single logarithms of the jet radius parameter R up to next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL{sub R}) accuracy. In combination with the fixed NLO calculation, we obtain NLO+NLL{sub R} results for the hadron distribution inside the jet. We present numerical results for pp→(jet h)X in the new framework, and find excellent agreement with existing LHC experimental data.

  7. Relativistic AGN jets II. Jet properties and mixing effects for episodic jet activity

    CERN Document Server

    Walg, Sander; Markoff, Sera; Keppens, Rony; Porth, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Various radio galaxies show signs of having gone through episodic jet outbursts in the past. An example is the class of double-double radio galaxies (DDRGs). However, to follow the evolution of an individual source in real-time is impossible due to the large time scales involved. Numerical studies provide a powerful tool to investigate the temporal behavior of episodic jet outbursts in a (magneto-)hydrodynamical setting. We simulate the injection of two jets from active galactic nuclei (AGN), separated by a short interruption time. Three different jet models are compared. We find that an AGN jet outburst cycle can be divided into four phases. The most prominent phase occurs when the restarted jet is propagating completely inside the hot and inflated cocoon left behind by the initial jet. In that case, the jet-head advance speed of the restarted jet is significantly higher than the initial jet-head. While the head of the initial jet interacts strongly with the ambient medium, the restarted jet propagates almos...

  8. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  9. Unmet needs of bipolar disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajda M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Miroslav Hajda,1 Jan Prasko,1 Klara Latalova,1 Radovan Hruby,2 Marie Ociskova,1 Michaela Holubova,1,3 Dana Kamaradova,1 Barbora Mainerova1 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, University Hospital Olomouc, Olomouc, Czech Republic; 2Outpatient Psychiatric Department, Martin, Slovak Republic; 3Department of Psychiatry, Regional Hospital Liberec, Liberec, Czech Republic Background: Bipolar disorder (BD is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods: A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results: Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion: Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. Keywords: bipolar disorder, unmet needs, stigma, treatment, medication, quality of life, family, psychotherapy

  10. Memantine: New prospective in bipolar disorder treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Demontis, Francesca; Serra, Francesca; De Chiara, Lavinia; Spoto, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Vidotto, Giulio; Serra, Gino

    2014-01-01

    We review preclinical and clinical evidences strongly suggesting that memantine, an old drug currently approved for Alzheimer’s dementia, is an effective treatment for acute mania and for the prevention of manic/hypomanic and depressive recurrences of manic-depressive illness. Lithium remains the first line for the treatment and prophylaxis of bipolar disorders, but currently available treatment alternatives for lithium resistant patients are of limited and/or questionable efficacy. Thus, research and development of more effective mood stabilizer drugs is a leading challenge for modern psychopharmacology. We have demonstrated that 21 d administration of imipramine causes a behavioural syndrome similar to a cycle of bipolar disorder, i.e., a mania followed by a depression, in rats. Indeed, such treatment causes a behavioural supersensitivity to dopamine D2 receptor agonists associated with an increase sexual activity and aggressivity (mania). The dopamine receptor sensitization is followed, after imipramine discontinuation, by an opposite phenomenon (dopamine receptor desensitization) and an increased immobility time (depression) in the forced swimming test of depression. Memantine blocks the development of the supersensitivity and the ensuing desensitization associated with the depressive like behavior. On the basis of these observations we have suggested the use of memantine in the treatment of mania and in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. To test this hypothesis we performed several naturalistic studies that showed an acute antimanic effect and a long-lasting and progressive mood-stabilizing action (at least 3 years), without clinically relevant side effects. To confirm the observations of our naturalistic trials we are now performing a randomized controlled clinical trial. Finally we described the studies reporting the efficacy of memantine in manic-like symptoms occurring in psychiatric disorders other than bipolar. Limitations: A randomized controlled

  11. MR phase imaging with bipolar acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Joseph; Nael, Kambiz

    2017-04-01

    We have previously proposed a novel magnetic resonance (MR) phase imaging framework (MAGPI) based on a three-echo sequence that demonstrated substantial gains in phase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We improve upon the performance of MAGPI by extending the formulation to handle (i) an alternating gradient polarity (bipolar) readout scheme and (ii) an arbitrary number of echoes. We formulate the phase-imaging problem using maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation. The acquisition uses an optimized multi-echo gradient echo (MEGE) sequence. The tissue-phase estimation algorithm is a voxel-per-voxel approach, which requires no reference scans, no phase unwrapping and no spatial denoising. Unlike other methods, our bipolar readout model is general and does not make simplifying assumptions about the even-odd echo phase errors. The results show that (a) our proposed bipolar MAGPI approach improves on the phase SNR gains achieved with monopolar MAGPI and (b) the phase SNR converges with the number of echoes more rapidly with bipolar MAGPI. Importantly, bipolar MAGPI enables phase imaging in severely SNR-constrained scenarios, where monopolar MAGPI is unable to find solutions. The substantial phase SNR gains achieved with our framework are used here to (a) accelerate acquisitions (full brain 0.89 mm in-plane resolution in 2 min 30 sec) and (b) enable high-contrast high-resolution phase imaging (310 µm in-plane resolution) at clinical field strengths. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Equilibrium configurations of a jet of an ideally conducting liquid in an external nonuniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, N. M.; Zubareva, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    Possible equilibrium configurations of the free surface of a jet of an ideally conducting liquid placed in a nonuniform magnetic field are considered. The magnetic field is generated by two thin wires that are parallel to the jet and bear oppositely directed currents. Equilibrium is due to a balance between capillary and magnetic forces. For the plane symmetric case, when the jet deforms only in the plane of its cross section, two one-parameter families of exact solutions to the problem are derived using the method of conformal mapping. According to these solutions, a jet with an initially circular cross section deforms up to splitting into two separate jets. A criterion for jet splitting is derived by analyzing approximate two-parameter solutions.

  13. Extended Scalar Sector and Fat Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, M

    2010-01-01

    After a discovery of the Higgs boson the next question is what are its couplings. At the LHC there should be many observable channels which can be exploited to measure the relevant parameters in the Higgs sector. Using the SFitter framework we map these measurements onto the parameter space of a weak-scale effective theory with free Higgs boson couplings. Our analysis benefits from the parameter determination tools and the error treatment used in new-physics searches, to study individual parameters and their error bars as well as parameter correlations. A special focus we will put on recent analyses using jet substructure techniques.

  14. Real vs. simulated relativistic jets

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, J L; Agudo, I; Marscher, A P; Jorstad, S G; Aloy, M A

    2005-01-01

    Intensive VLBI monitoring programs of jets in AGN are showing the existence of intricate emission patterns, such as upstream motions or slow moving and quasi-stationary componentes trailing superluminal features. Relativistic hydrodynamic and emission simulations of jets are in very good agreement with these observations, proving as a powerful tool for the understanding of the physical processes taking place in the jets of AGN, microquasars and GRBs. These simulations show that the variability of the jet emission is the result of a complex combination of phase motions, viewing angle selection effects, and non-linear interactions between perturbations and the underlying jet and/or ambient medium. Both observations and simulations suggest that shock-in-jet models may be an overly simplistic idealization when interpreting the emission structure observed in actual jets.

  15. Turbulent jet in confined counterflow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Sivapragasam; M D Deshpande; S Ramamurthy; P White

    2014-06-01

    The mean flowfield of a turbulent jet issuing into a confined, uniform counterflow was investigated computationally. Based on dimensional analysis, the jet penetration length was shown to scale with jet-to-counterflow momentum flux ratio. This scaling and the computational results reproduce the well-known correct limit of linear growth of the jet penetration length for the unconfined case when the momentum flux ratio is small. However, for the high momentum flux ratio case corresponding to the confinement, the jet penetration length is shown to reach an asymptotic limit of about 3.57 times the confining duct diameter. This conclusion is contrary to the existing results which predict indefinite growth. A simple modification of an existing similarity solution for the jet in an unconfined counterflow provides a convenient framework for presenting the results of the flowfield and jet penetration length.

  16. Pileup subtraction for jet shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyez, Gregory; Salam, Gavin P; Kim, Ji-Hun; Dutta, Souvik; Cacciari, Matteo

    2013-04-19

    Jets in high energy hadronic collisions often contain the fingerprints of the particles that produced them. Those fingerprints, and thus the nature of the particles that produced the jets, can be read off with the help of quantities known as jet shapes. Jet shapes are, however, severely affected by pileup, the accumulation in the detector of the residues of the many simultaneous collisions taking place in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We introduce a method to correct for pileup effects in jet shapes. Relative to earlier, limited approaches, the key advance resides in its full generality, achieved through a numerical determination, for each jet, of a given shape's susceptibility to pileup. The method rescues the possibility of using jet shapes in the high pileup environment of current and future LHC running, as we show with examples of quark-gluon discrimination and top tagging.

  17. Family environment patterns in families with bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Cecilia; Hatch, John P; Olvera, Rene L; Fonseca, Manoela; Caetano, Sheila C; Nicoletti, Mark; Pliszka, Steven; Soares, Jair C

    2008-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of family functioning in bipolar children and healthy comparison children. We hypothesized that the family environment of bipolar children would show greater levels of dysfunction as measured by the Family Environment Scale (FES). We compared the family functioning of 36 families that included a child with DSM-IV bipolar disorder versus 29 comparison families that included only healthy children. All subjects and their parents were assessed with the K-SADS-PL interview. The parents completed the FES to assess their current family functioning. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the family environment of families with and without offspring with bipolar disorder. Parents of bipolar children reported lower levels of family cohesion (pparents with no bipolar children. Secondary analyses within the bipolar group revealed lower levels of organization (p=0.031) and cohesion (p=0.014) in families where a parent had a history of mood disorders compared to families where parents had no history of mood disorders. Length of illness in the affected child was inversely associated with family cohesion (r=-0.47, p=0.004). Due to the case-control design of the study, we cannot comment on the development of these family problems or attribute their cause specifically to child bipolar disorder. Families with bipolar children show dysfunctional patterns related to interpersonal interactions and personal growth. A distressed family environment should be addressed when treating children with bipolar disorder.

  18. The neurophysiology of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2006-04-01

    Children and adolescents with bipolar disorder often present with higher rates of mixed episodes, rapid cycling, and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder than adults with bipolar disorder. It is unclear whether the differences in clinical presentation between youth and adults with bipolar disorder are due to differences in underlying etiologies or developmental differences in symptom manifestation. Neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder may clarify whether neurobiological abnormalities associated with early- and adult-onset bipolar disorder are distinct. Moreover, children and adolescents with bipolar disorder are typically closer to their illness onset than bipolar adults, providing a window of opportunity for identifying core neurobiological characteristics of the illness (ie, disease biomarkers) that are independent of repeated affective episodes and other confounding factors associated with illness course. Peer-reviewed publications of neuroimaging studies of bipolar children and adolescents were reviewed. Structural, neurochemical, and neurofunctional abnormalities in prefrontal and medical temporal and subcortical limbic structures, including the striatum, amygdala, and possibly hippocampus, are present in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. Differences between neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar youth and adults as well as recommendations for future research directions are discussed.

  19. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  20. Discovery of a bipolar and highly variable mass outflow from the symbiotic binary StHa 190

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, U; Yudin, B F; Marrese, P M; Zwitter, T; Gratton, R G; Bonanno, G; Bruno, P; Cali, A; Claudi, R U; Cosentino, R; Desidera, S; Farisato, G; Martorana, G; Marino, G; Rebeschini, M; Scuderi, S; Timpanaro, M C

    2001-01-01

    A highly and rapidly variable bipolar mass outflow from StHa 190 has been discovered, the first time in a yellow symbiotic star. Permitted emission lines are flanked by symmetrical jet features and multi-component P-Cyg profiles, with velocities up to 300 km/sec. Given the high orbital inclination of the binary, if the jets leave the system nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, the de-projected velocity equals or exceeds the escape velocity (1000 km/sec). StHa190 looks quite peculiar in many other respects: the hot component is an O-type sub-dwarf without an accretion disk or a veiling nebular continuum and the cool component is a G7 III star rotating at a spectacular 105 km/sec unseen by a large margin in field G giants.

  1. Expected performance of ATLAS for measurements of jets, b-jets, tau-jets, and ETmis

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M

    2002-01-01

    Jets and missing energy are among the most important objects of LHC physics. The accuracy of measurements of missing energy and direction and energy of jets put strong requirements on the detector performance. These requirements and the ATLAS Calorimeter system which is projected to fulfill these requirements are presented. The jet reconstruction algorithms and jet energy scale calibration are shortly discussed. Forward jet tagging, b-tagging and tau-tagging are important issues of many physical analyses. Reconstruction of resonances is an example of complex use of calorimeter performance

  2. Description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement and jet gap jet events at hadronic colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Royon, C

    2014-01-01

    We present a new QCD description of the ATLAS jet veto measurement, using the Banfi- Marchesini-Smye equation to constrain the inter-jet QCD radiation. This equation resums emis- sions of soft gluons at large angles and leads to a very good description of data. We also investigate jet gap jet events in hadron-hadron collisions, in which two jets are produced and separated by a large rapidity gap. Using a renormalisation-group improved NLL kernel implemented in the HERWIG Monte Carlo program, we show that the BFKL predictions are in good agreement with the Tevatron data, and present predictions that could be tested at the LHC.

  3. Large eddy simulation of vertical turbulent jets under JONSWAP waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Lu; Ling-Ling Wang; Hong-Wu Tang; Hui-Chao Dai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of random waves on vertical plane turbulent jets is studied numerically and the mechanism behind the interaction of the jet and waves is analyzed. The large eddy simulation method is used and the σ-coordinate system is adopted. Turbulence is modeled by a dynamic coherent eddy model. The σ-coordinate transformation is introduced to map the irregular physical domain with a wavy free surface and an uneven bottom onto a regular computational domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the filtered Navier-Stokes equations. Results presented include the distribution of velocity, the decay law of the mean velocity along the jet axis, self-similar characteristics and volume flux per unit width. In particular, the role of coherent structures on the momentum transfer along the jet centerline and the jet instantaneous characteristics in JONSWAP waves are a special focus of this research. The numerical results obtained are of great theoretical importance in understanding the behavior of turbulent jets in random wave environments.

  4. SparkJet Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbabaei-Asl, Mona; Knight, Doyle; Anderson, Kellie; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for determining the thermal efficiency of the SparkJet is proposed. A SparkJet is attached to the end of a pendulum. The motion of the pendulum subsequent to a single spark discharge is measured using a laser displacement sensor. The measured displacement vs time is compared with the predictions of a theoretical perfect gas model to estimate the fraction of the spark discharge energy which results in heating the gas (i.e., increasing the translational-rotational temperature). The results from multiple runs for different capacitances of c = 3, 5, 10, 20, and 40 micro-F show that the thermal efficiency decreases with higher capacitive discharges.

  5. Jet Physics in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Sandoval, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of hadronic jets provide tests of strong interactions which are interesting both in their own right and as backgrounds to many New Physics searches. It is also through tests of Quantum Chromodynamics that new physics may be discovered. The extensive dataset recorded with the ATLAS detector throughout the 7 TeV and 8 TeV centre-of-mass LHC operation periods allows QCD to be probed at distances never reached before. We present a review of selected ATLAS jet physics measurements. These measurements constitute precision tests of QCD in a new energy regime, and show sensitivity to the parton densities in the proton and to the value of the strong coupling, alpha_s.

  6. Astrophysical Jets and Outflows

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouveia dal Pino, E M

    2004-01-01

    Highly collimated supersonic jets and less collimated outflows are observed to emerge from a wide variety of astrophysical objects. They are seen in young stellar objects (YSOs), proto-planetary nebulae, compact objects (like galactic black holes or microquasars, and X-ray binary stars), and in the nuclei of active galaxies (AGNs). Despite their different physical scales (in size, velocity, and amount of energy transported), they have strong morphological similarities. What physics do they share? These systems either hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature and are, as such, governed by non-linear equations. While theoretical models helped us to understand the basic physics of these objects, numerical simulations have been allowing us to go beyond the one-dimensional, steady-state approach extracting vital information. In this lecture, the formation, structure, and evolution of the jets are reviewed with the help of observational information, MHD and purely hydrodynamical modeling, and numerical si...

  7. Systematic review of the prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Caetano Dell'Aglio Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the findings of a systematic literature review aimed at providing an overview of the lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders in population-based studies. Databases MEDLINE, ProQuest, Psychnet, and Web of Science were browsed for papers published in English between 1999 and May 2012 using the following search string: bipolar disorders OR bipolar spectrum disorders AND prevalence OR cross-sectional OR epidemiology AND population-based OR non-clinical OR community based. The search yielded a total of 434 papers, but only those published in peer-reviewed journals and with samples aged ≥ 18 years were included, resulting in a final sample of 18 papers. Results revealed rather heterogeneous findings concerning the prevalence of bipolar disorders and bipolar spectrum disorders. Lifetime prevalence of bipolar disorder ranged from 0.1 to 7.5%, whereas lifetime prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders ranged from 2.4 to 15.1%. Differences in the rates of bipolar disorder and bipolar spectrum disorders may be related to the consideration of subthreshold criteria upon diagnosis. Differences in the prevalence of different subtypes of the disorder are discussed in light of diagnostic criteria and instruments applied.

  8. Jet-Environment Interactions as Diagnostics of Jet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-09-01

    In this chapter, we will explore the interaction of jets with their environments. Jets can transport a sizable fraction of accretion energy away from black holes and neutron stars. Because they are collimated, they can travel to distances far beyond the gravitational sphere of influence of the black hole. Yet, their interaction with the interstellar and intergalactic medium must eventually halt their advance and dissipate the energy they carry. The termination of the jet, and the inflation of large scale cavities of relativistic plasma offers one of the most powerful ways to constrain the physics of jets. In this chapter, we will review the inflation of radio lobes, the propagation of hot spots, the creation of shells and cavities, and the bending of jet by proper motion through their environment, both in the context of AGN jets and microquasars.

  9. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierkowski, S.; Ciarlo, D.

    1996-05-13

    Goal is to develop a multi-channel micromachined chemical fluid jet dispenser that is applicable to prototype tests with biological samples that demonstrate its utility for molecular biology experiments. Objective is to demonstrate a new device capable of ultrasonically ejecting droplets from 10-200 {mu}m diameter capillaries that are arranged in an array that is linear or focused. The device is based on several common fabrication procedures used in MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology: piezoelectric actuators, silicon, etc.

  10. Stationary Relativistic Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Komissarov, S S; Lyutikov, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe a simple numerical approach which allows to study the structure of steady-state axisymmetric relativistic jets using one-dimensional time-dependent simulations. It is based on the fact that for narrow jets with v~c the steady-state equations of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics can be accurately approximated by the one-dimensional time-dependent equations after the substitution z=ct. Since only the time-dependent codes are now publicly available this is a valuable and efficient alternative to the development of a high-specialized code for the time-independent equations. The approach is also much cheaper and more robust compared to the relaxation method. We tested this technique against numerical and analytical solutions found in literature as well as solutions we obtained using the relaxation method and found it sufficiently accurate. In the process, we discovered the reason for the failure of the self-similar analytical model of the jet reconfinement in relatively flat atmospheres a...

  11. Astrophysical jets and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete M.

    Highly collimated supersonic jets and less collimated outflows are observed to emerge from a wide variety of astrophysical objects. They are seen in young stellar objects (YSOs), proto-planetary nebulae, compact objects (like galactic black holes or microquasars, and X-ray binary stars), and in the nuclei of active galaxies (AGNs). Despite their different physical scales (in size, velocity, and amount of energy transported), they have strong morphological similarities. What physics do they share? These systems are either hydrodynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) in nature and are, as such, governed by non-linear equations. While theoretical models helped us to understand the basic physics of these objects, numerical simulations have been allowing us to go beyond the one-dimensional, steady-state approach extracting vital information. In this lecture, the formation, structure, and evolution of the jets are reviewed with the help of observational information, MHD and purely hydrodynamical modeling, and numerical simulations. Possible applications of the models particularly to YSOs and AGN jets are addressed.

  12. Advanced Liquid Cooling for a Traction Drive Inverter Using Jet Impingement and Microfinned Enhanced Surfaces: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S. K.; Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Moreno, G.; Bennion, K.; Jeffers, J.

    2014-08-01

    Jet impingement on plain and micro-finned enhanced surfaces was compared to a traditional channel flow configuration. The jets provide localized cooling to areas heated by the insulated-gate bipolar transistor and diode devices. Enhanced microfinned surfaces increase surface area and thermal performance. Using lighter materials and designing the fluid path to manage pressure losses increases overall performance while reducing weight, volume, and cost. Powering four diodes in the center power module of the inverter and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was used to characterize the baseline as well as jet-impingement-based heat exchangers. CFD modeling showed the thermal performance improvements should hold for a fully powered inverter. Increased thermal performance was observed for the jet-impingement configurations when tested at full inverter power (40 to 100 kW output power) on a dynamometer. The reliability of the jets and enhanced surfaces over time was also investigated. Experimentally, the junction-to- coolant thermal resistance was reduced by up to 12.5% for jet impingement on enhanced surfaces s compared to the baseline channel flow configuration. Base plate-to-coolant (convective) resistance was reduced by up to 37.0% for the jet-based configuration compared to the baseline, suggesting that while improvements to the cooling side reduce overall resistance, reducing the passive stack resistance may contribute to lowering overall junction-to-coolant resistance. Full inverter power testing showed reduced thermal resistance from the middle of the module baseplate to coolant of up to 16.5%. Between the improvement in thermal performance and pumping power, the coefficient of performance improved by up to 13% for the jet-based configuration.

  13. SN2010jp (PTF10aaxi): A Jet-Driven Type II Supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Nathan; Butler, Nat; Bloom, Joshua S; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Horesh, Assaf; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R; Law, Nicholas M; Nugent, Peter E; Ofek, Eran O; Poznanski, Dovi; Quimby, Robert M; Sesar, Branimir; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Arcavi, Iair; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Polishook, David; Xu, Dong; Yaron, Ofer; Frail, Dale A; Sullivan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of the peculiar TypeII supernova (SN) 2010jp, also named PTF10aaxi. The light curve exhibits a linear decline with a relatively low peak absolute magnitude of only -15.9, and a low radioactive decay luminosity at late times that suggests a nickel mass below 0.003 $M_{\\odot}$. Spectra of SN2010jp display an unprecedented triple-peaked H$\\alpha$ line profile, showing: (1) a narrow (800 km/s) central component that suggests shock interaction with dense CSM; (2) high-velocity blue and red emission features centered at -12600 and +15400 km/s; and (3) broad wings extending from -22000 to +25000 km/s. These features persist during 100 days after explosion. We propose that this line profile indicates a bipolar jet-driven explosion, with the central component produced by normal SN ejecta and CSM interaction at mid latitudes, while the high-velocity bumps and broad line wings arise in a nonrelativistic bipolar jet. Two variations of the jet interpretation seem plausible: (1) A fas...

  14. Rapid Confined Mixing Using Transverse Jets Part 2: Multiple Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forliti, David; Salazar, David

    2012-11-01

    An experimental study has been conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Edwards Air Force Base to investigate the properties of confined mixing devices that employ transverse jets. The experiment considers the mixing of water with a mixture of water and fluorescein, and planar laser induced fluorescence was used to measure instantaneous mixture fraction distributions in the cross section view. Part one of this study presents the scaling law development and results for a single confined transverse jet. Part two will describe the results of configurations including multiple transverse jets. The different regimes of mixing behavior, ranging from under to overpenetration of the transverse jets, are characterized in terms of a new scaling law parameter presented in part one. The level of unmixedness, a primary metric for mixing device performance, is quantified for different jet diameters, number of jets, and relative flow rates. It is apparent that the addition of a second transverse jet provides enhanced scalar uniformity in the main pipe flow cross section compared to a single jet. Three and six jet configurations also provide highly uniform scalar distributions. Turbulent scalar fluctuation intensities, spectral features, and spatial eigenfunctions using the proper orthogonal decomposition will be presented. Distribution A: Public Release, Public Affairs Clearance Number: 12656.

  15. Udvikling af medicinsk behandling mod bipolar lidelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel

    2015-01-01

    Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase.......Selvom Esbjerg ligger i vandkants Danmark, er det den Psykiatriske Forskningsenhed i denne by, der er primus motor for et stort forsøg blandt mennesker, der lider af bipolar lidelse. Forsøget hedder ”NACOS”, og er et medicinsk forsøg til mennesker, der befinder sig i den depressive fase....

  16. Bipolar zinc/oxygen battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schlatter, C. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    A bipolar electrically rechargeable Zn/O{sub 2} battery has been developed. Reticulated copper foam served as substrate for the zinc deposit on the anodic side, and La{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}CoO{sub 3}-catalyzed bifunctional oxygen electrodes were used on the cathodic side of the cells. The 100 cm{sup 2} unit cell had an open circuit voltage of 1,4 V(O{sub 2}) in moderately alkaline electrolyte. The open circuit voltage and the peak power measured for a stack containing seven cells were ca. 10V and 90W, respectively. The current-potential behaviour was determined as a function of the number of bipolar cells, and the maximum discharge capacity was determined at different discharge rates. (author) 4 figs., 1 ref.

  17. Dissecting bipolar disorder complexity through epigenomic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, B; Dwivedi, Y

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, numerous studies of gene regulation mechanisms have emerged in neuroscience. Epigenetic modifications, described as heritable but reversible changes, include DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, histone modifications and noncoding RNAs. The pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, may be ascribed to a complex gene–environment interaction (G × E) model, linking the genome, environmental factors and epigenetic marks. Both the high complexity and the high heritability of bipolar disorder make it a compelling candidate for neurobiological analyses beyond DNA sequencing. Questions that are being raised in this review are the precise phenotype of the disorder in question, and also the trait versus state debate and how these concepts are being implemented in a variety of study designs. PMID:27480490

  18. Comorbidity of Asperger's syndrome and Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzoni Antonella

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective Asperger's Syndrome (AS is a pervasive developmental disorder that is sometimes unrecognized, especially in the adult psychiatric setting. On the other hand, in patients with an AS diagnosis, comorbid psychiatric disorders may be unrecognized in the juvenile setting. The aim of the paper is to show and discuss some troublesome and complex problems of the management of patients with AS and comorbid Bipolar Disorder (BD. Methods The paper describes three patients affected by AS and bipolar spectrum disorders. Results and conclusion Mood stabilizers and 2nd generation antipsychotics were effective in the treatment of these AS patients with comorbid BD, while the use of antidepressants was associated with worsening of the mood disorder. It is of importance to recognize both the psychiatric diagnoses in order to arrange an exhaustive therapeutic program and to define specific and realistic goals of treatment.

  19. A safe lithium mimetic for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Halliday, Amy C; Thomas, Justyn M; Kuznetsova, Olga V; Baldwin, Rhiannon; Woon, Esther C Y; Aley, Parvinder K; Antoniadou, Ivi; Sharp, Trevor; Vasudevan, Sridhar R; Churchill, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Lithium is the most effective mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar disorder, but it is toxic at only twice the therapeutic dosage and has many undesirable side effects. It is likely that a small molecule could be found with lithium-like efficacy but without toxicity through target-based drug discovery; however, therapeutic target of lithium remains equivocal. Inositol monophosphatase is a possible target but no bioavailable inhibitors exist. Here we report that the antioxidant ebselen inhibits inositol monophosphatase and induces lithium-like effects on mouse behaviour, which are reversed with inositol, consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition of inositol recycling. Ebselen is part of the National Institutes of Health Clinical Collection, a chemical library of bioavailable drugs considered clinically safe but without proven use. Therefore, ebselen represents a lithium mimetic with the potential both to validate inositol monophosphatase inhibition as a treatment for bipolar disorder and to serve as a treatment itself.

  20. Chronobiology of bipolar disorder: therapeutic implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaspezia, Sara; Benedetti, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that psychopathological symptoms of bipolar disorder arise in part from a malfunction of the circadian system, linking the disease with an abnormal internal timing. Alterations in circadian rhythms and sleep are core elements in the disorders, characterizing both mania and depression and having recently been shown during euthymia. Several human genetic studies have implicated specific genes that make up the genesis of circadian rhythms in the manifestation of mood disorders with polymorphisms in molecular clock genes not only showing an association with the disorder but having also been linked to its phenotypic particularities. Many medications used to treat the disorder, such as antidepressant and mood stabilizers, affect the circadian clock. Finally, circadian rhythms and sleep researches have been the starting point of the developing of chronobiological therapies. These interventions are safe, rapid and effective and they should be considered first-line strategies for bipolar depression.

  1. From Bipolar to Elliptical: Morphological Changes in the Temporal Evolution of PN

    CERN Document Server

    Espinosa, Martin Huarte; Balick, Bruce; De Marco, Orsola; Kastner, Joel H; Sahai, Raghvendra; Blackman, Eric G

    2010-01-01

    Proto-planetary nebulae (pPN) and planetary nebulae (PN) seem to be formed by interacting winds from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The observational issue that most pPN are bipolar but most older PN are elliptical is addressed. We present 2.5D hydrodynamical numerical simulations of episodic cooling interacting winds to investigate the long term evolution of PN morphologies. We track wind acceleration, decrease in mass-loss and episodic change in wind geometry from spherical (AGB) to collimated (pPN) and back to spherical again (PN). This outflow sequence is found to produce realistic PN dynamics and morphological histories. Effects from different AGB distributions and jet duty cycles are also investigated.

  2. Extreme jet ejections from the black hole X-ray binary V404 Cygni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetarenko, A. J.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Rosolowsky, E. W.; Petitpas, G.; Gurwell, M.; Wouterloot, J.; Fender, R.; Heinz, S.; Maitra, D.; Markoff, S. B.; Migliari, S.; Rupen, M. P.; Rushton, A. P.; Russell, D. M.; Russell, T. D.; Sarazin, C. L.

    2017-08-01

    We present simultaneous radio through sub-mm observations of the black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) V404 Cygni during the most active phase of its June 2015 outburst. Our 4 h long set of overlapping observations with the Very Large Array, the Sub-millimeter Array and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (SCUBA-2) covers eight different frequency bands (including the first detection of a BHXB jet at 666 GHz/450 μm), providing an unprecedented multifrequency view of the extraordinary flaring activity seen during this period of the outburst. In particular, we detect multiple rapidly evolving flares, which reach Jy-level fluxes across all of our frequency bands. With this rich data set, we performed detailed MCMC modelling of the repeated flaring events. Our custom model adapts the van der Laan synchrotron bubble model to include twin bi-polar ejections, propagating away from the black hole at bulk relativistic velocities, along a jet axis that is inclined to the line of sight. The emission predicted by our model accounts for projection effects, relativistic beaming and the geometric time delay between the approaching and receding ejecta in each ejection event. We find that a total of eight bi-polar, discrete jet ejection events can reproduce the emission that we observe in all of our frequency bands remarkably well. With our best-fitting model, we provide detailed probes of jet speed, structure, energetics and geometry. Our analysis demonstrates the paramount importance of the mm/sub-mm bands, which offer a unique, more detailed view of the jet than can be provided by radio frequencies alone.

  3. Wall jets created by single and twin high pressure jet impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P.; Wilson, M.

    1993-03-01

    An extensive experimental investigation into the nature of the wall jets produced by single and twin normal jet impingement has been undertaken. Wall jet velocity profiles have been recorded up to 70 jet diameters from the impingement point, at pressures representative of current VStol technology. The tests used fixed convergent nozzles, with nozzle height and spacing and jet pressure being varied. Single jet impingement displays a consistent effect of nozzle height on wall jet development. For twin jet cases a powerful reinforcement exists along the wall jet interaction plane. Remote from the interaction plane the wall jets are weaker than those produced by a single jet impingement.

  4. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States); Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The lithium/thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl{sub 2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application. (orig.)

  5. High rate lithium-thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, P.G.; Goebel, F. [Yardney Technical Products, Inc., Pawcatuck, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The lithium/thionyl chloride system is capable of providing both high power and high energy density when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. Electrode current densities in excess of 300mA/cm{sup 2} are achieved during pulse discharge. The present work is concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells.

  6. High rate lithium/thionyl chloride bipolar battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, P. G.; Goebel, F.

    The lithium/thionyl chloride ( {Li}/{SOCl2}) electrochemistry is capable of providing high power and high specific power, especially under pulse discharge conditions, when cells containing thin components are arranged in a bipolar configuration. This paper describes recent work concerned with bipolar cell design, cathode evaluation, component manufacturing methods, and the assembly and testing of bipolar modules containing up to 150 cells for Sonobuoy application.

  7. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  8. The bipolar II disorder personality traits, a true syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, Einar

    2015-06-01

    The author was struck by the similarities and commonality of complaints, aside from mood swings, made by Bipolar II patients and started registrating these complaints. This registrational work eventually led to the development of The Bipolar II Syndome Checklist. The aim of this work was to understand how widely the Bipolar II disorder affects the personality, and what disturbing personality traits are the most common? Deliberately, no attempt was made to diagnose psychiatric comorbidities, in the hope that one would get a clearer view of what symptoms, if any, could be considered a natural part of the Bipolar II Disorder. As far as the author knows this is a novel approach. 105 Bipolar II patients completed the Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist. The answers to the 44 questions on the list are presented in tables. Symptoms like anxiety, low self esteem, paranoia, extreme hurtfulness, migraine, Post Partum Depression, obsessive traits, alcoholism in the family are amongst the findings which will be presented in greater detail. No control group. Bipolar I patients excluded. The Bipolar II Syndrome Checklist has not been systematically validated. The results show that Bipolar II Disorder causes multiple symptoms so commonly that it may be justified to describe it as a syndrome, The Bipolar II Syndrome. Also these disturbances commonly lie in families of Bipolar II patients and are in all likelihood, greatly underdiagnosed. The clinical relevance of this study lies in increasing our knowledge and understanding of the nature of the Bipolar II Disorder, which in all probability will increase the diagnostic and treatment accuracy, since clinicians are more likely to scan for other symptoms needing treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural Coding of Green Flash in Retinal Bipolar Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Caiping Hu

    2012-01-01

    What visual information do the graded potentials among retinal bipolar pathways actually transmit from photoreceptors to ganglion cells? The answer does not exist. Even the graded electric signals have not been understood completely. Here, this paper tries to analyze the encoding mechanisms of graded signals among the parallel bipolar pathways in response to brief green flash. The typical ON, OFF and ON-OFF bipolar cells simultaneously abstracted vectors from green flash stimulus with sine-li...

  10. Bipolarna motnja razpoloženja: Bipolar disorder:

    OpenAIRE

    Dernovšek, Mojca Zvezdana; Frangeš, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is very prevalent in general population. According to Diagnostic and statistical manual ofmental disorders, fourth revision - DSM-IV, four types ofbipolar disorder are distinguished: bipolar disorder 1, bipolar disorder II, cyclothymia, and other types (not specified otherwise). Etiology of disorder is multifactorial with overlap between genetic, environmental"and neurobiological factors. Due to complexity of clinical features it represents diagnostical and therapeutical chal...

  11. Bipolar Transistor Tester for Physics Lab

    CERN Document Server

    Baddi, Raju

    2012-01-01

    A very simple low cost bipolar transistor tester for physics lab is given. The proposed circuit not only indicates the type of transistor(NPN/PNP) but also indicates the terminals(emitter, base and collector) using simple dual colored(Red/Green) LEDs. Color diagrams of testing procedure have been given for easy following. This article describes the construction of this apparatus in all detail with schematic circuit diagram, circuit layout and constructional illustration.

  12. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  13. Trial of Divalproex for Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety and effectiveness of divalproex sodium (Depakapote® in the treatment of 40 children and adolescents, aged 7 to 19 years, with a primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder were evaluated by open-label study (2-8 weeks at the University of Texas, Galveston; University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; SUNY Stonybrook, NY; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; and University of Texas, San Antonio.

  14. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dame, C; Casper, P

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar disorder affects all age categories, included children and adolescents (in this case, prepubertal and early adolescent or PEA-BP). Its diagnosis at this age is difficult for two reasons: first, clinical symptoms are different from these encountered by adults and second, an important psychiatric comorbidity is often observed (especially with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder or ADHD). This review presents the clinical presentation, the differential diagnosis, the familial antecedents, the comorbidity and the treatment of the PEA-BP.

  15. Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ian A; Mackay, Clare E; Goodwin, Guy M

    2014-12-01

    Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls. Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls). Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59). While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required. There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Bipolar Quantum Drift-diffusion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu Qing CHEN; Li CHEN

    2009-01-01

    A fourth order parabolic system, the bipolar quantum drift-diffusion model in semiconductor simulation, with physically motivated Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition is studied in this paper. By semidiscretization in time and compactness argument, the global existence and semiclassical limit are obtained, in which semiclassical limit describes the relation between quantum and classical drift-diffusion models. Furthermore, in the case of constant doping, we prove the weak solution exponentially approaches its constant steady state as time increases to infinity.

  17. Decelerating relativistc two-component jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin

  18. Decelerating relativistic two-component jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin

  19. Decelerating relativistic two-component jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin an

  20. Decelerating relativistc two-component jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.

    2009-01-01

    Transverse stratification is a common intrinsic feature of astrophysical jets. There is growing evidence that jets in radio galaxies consist of a fast low-density outflow at the jet axis, surrounded by a slower, denser, extended jet. The inner and outer jet components then have a different origin an

  1. Asymmetries in Core Collapse Supernovae Revealed by Maps of Radioactive Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Reynolds, S. P.; Fryer, C. L.; Madsen, K. K.; Wik, D. R.; Zoglauer, A.; Ellinger, C. I.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Hornstrup, A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J. E.; Mao, P. H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry is required by most numerical simulations of stellar core collapse explosions, however the nature differs significantly among models. The spatial distribution of radioactive Ti-44, synthesized in an exploding star near the boundary between material falling back onto the collapsing core and that ejected into the surrounding medium, directly probes the explosion1asymmetries. Cassiopeia A is a young, nearby, core-collapse remnant from which Ti-44 emission has previously been detected, but not imaged. Asymmetries in the explosion have been indirectly inferred from a high ratio of observed Ti-44 emission to that estimated from (56)Ni9, from optical light echoes, and by jet-like features seen in the X-ray and optical ejecta. Here we report on the spatial maps and spectral properties of Ti-44 in Cassiopeia A. We find the Ti-44 to be distributed non-uniformly in the un-shocked interior of the remnant. This may explain the unexpected lack of correlation between the Ti-44 and iron X-ray emission, the latter only being visible in shock heated material. The observed spatial distribution rules out symmetric explosions even with a high level of convective mixing, as well as highly asymmetric bipolar explosions resulting from a fast rotating progenitor. Instead, these observations provide strong evidence for the development of low-mode convective instabilities in core-collapse supernovae.

  2. Asymmetries in Core-Collapse Supernovae from Maps of Radioactiver 44Ti in Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, B.W.; Harrison, F. A.; Boggs, S. E.; Reynolds, S. P.; Fryer, C. L.; Madsen, K. K.; Wik, Daniel R.; Zoglauer, A.; Ellinger, C. I.; Alexander, D. M.; An, H.; Barret, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Hornstrup, A.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kitaguchi, T.; Koglin, J. E.; Mao, P. H.; Miyasaka, H.; Mori, K.; Perri, M.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Puccetti, S.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Westergaard, N. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry is required by most numerical simulations of stellar core-collapse explosions, but the form it takes differs significantly among models. The spatial distribution of radioactive 44Ti, synthesized in an exploding star near the boundary between material falling back onto the collapsing core and that ejected into the surroundingmedium1, directly probes the explosion asymmetries. Cassiopeia A is a young2, nearby3, core-collapse4 remnant from which 44Ti emission has previously been detected5-8 but not imaged. Asymmetries in the explosion have been indirectly inferred from a high ratio of observed 44Ti emission to estimated 56Ni emission9, from optical light echoes10, and from jet-like features seen in the X-ray11 and optical12 ejecta. Here we report spatial maps and spectral properties of the 44Ti in Cassiopeia A. This may explain the unexpected lack of correlation between the 44Ti and iron X-ray emission, the latter being visible only in shock-heated material. The observed spatial distribution rules out symmetric explosions even with a high level of convective mixing, as well as highly asymmetric bipolar explosions resulting from a fast-rotating progenitor. Instead, these observations provide strong evidence for the development of low-mode convective instabilities in core-collapse supernovae.

  3. Control of a Circular Jet

    CERN Document Server

    Gohil, Trushar B; Muralidhar, K

    2010-01-01

    The present study report direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a circular jet and the effect of a large scale perturbation at the jet inlet. The perturbation is used to control the jet for increased spreading. Dual-mode perturbation is obtained by combining an axisymmetric excitation with the helical. In the fluid dynamics videos, an active control of the circular jet at a Reynolds number of 2000 for various frequency ratios (both integer and non-integer) has been demonstrated. When the frequency ratio is fixed to 2, bifurcation of the jet on a plane is evident. However, for a non-integer frequency ratio, the axisymmetric jet is seen to bloom in all directions.

  4. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire: A Simple, Patient-Rated Screening Instrument for Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschfeld, Robert M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is frequently encountered in primary care settings, often in the form of poor response to treatment for depression. Although lifetime prevalence of bipolar I disorder is 1%, the prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders (e.g., bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymia) is much higher, especially among patients with depression. The consequences of misdiagnosis can be devastating. One way to improve recognition of bipolar spectrum disorders is to screen for them. The Mood Disorder ...

  5. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany L. Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  6. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L; Brown, E Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E

    2016-07-15

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described "manic depressive insanity" and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored.

  7. Complementary medicines in pediatric bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogarapu, S; Bishop, J R; Krueger, C D; Pavuluri, M N

    2008-02-01

    The increasing number and availability of various complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) has resulted in an exponentially growing utilization of these products for everything from minor aches and pains to the treatment of mental illness. Difficulties in treating mental illnesses in children, averseness to having children take psychiatric medications, and stigma all drive patients and their families to research alternative treatments. As a result, there has been an increased utilization of CAM in psychiatry, particularly for hard to treat conditions like pediatric BD. It is important for the health care providers to be aware of the alternative treatments by some of their patients. A review of studies investigating the utility of complementary and alternative medicines in bipolar patients was conducted and selected studies were included. Omega-3 fatty acids and lecithin/ choline have preliminary data indicating potential utility in the CAM treatment for bipolar disorder while S-adenosyl methionine (SAM-e) and inositol have some data supporting their efficacy in the treatment of depressive symptoms. Some data for CAM suggest they may be useful adjunctive treatments but only little data are available to support their use as stand-alone therapy. Thus, the conventional medicines remain the first choice in pediatric bipolar management. Healthcare providers need to routinely inquire about the utilization of these treatments by their patients and become familiar with the risks and benefits involved with their use in children.

  8. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-08-01

    A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  9. Global biogeographic patterns in bipolar moss species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biersma, E M; Jackson, J A; Hyvönen, J; Koskinen, S; Linse, K; Griffiths, H; Convey, P

    2017-07-01

    A bipolar disjunction is an extreme, yet common, biogeographic pattern in non-vascular plants, yet its underlying mechanisms (vicariance or long-distance dispersal), origin and timing remain poorly understood. Here, combining a large-scale population dataset and multiple dating analyses, we examine the biogeography of four bipolar Polytrichales mosses, common to the Holarctic (temperate and polar Northern Hemisphere regions) and the Antarctic region (Antarctic, sub-Antarctic, southern South America) and other Southern Hemisphere (SH) regions. Our data reveal contrasting patterns, for three species were of Holarctic origin, with subsequent dispersal to the SH, while one, currently a particularly common species in the Holarctic (Polytrichum juniperinum), diversified in the Antarctic region and from here colonized both the Holarctic and other SH regions. Our findings suggest long-distance dispersal as the driver of bipolar disjunctions. We find such inter-hemispheric dispersals are rare, occurring on multi-million-year timescales. High-altitude tropical populations did not act as trans-equatorial 'stepping-stones', but rather were derived from later dispersal events. All arrivals to the Antarctic region occurred well before the Last Glacial Maximum and previous glaciations, suggesting that, despite the harsh climate during these past glacial maxima, plants have had a much longer presence in this southern region than previously thought.

  10. Bipolar outflows in OH/IR stars

    CERN Document Server

    Zijlstra, A A; Hekkert, P L; Likkel, L; Comeron, F; Norris, R P; Molster, F J; Cohen, R J; Zijlstra, Albert A.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the development of bipolar outflows during the early post-AGB evolution. A sample of ten OH/IR stars is observed at high angular resolution, including bipolar nebulae (OH231.8+4.2), bright post-AGB stars (HD 101584) and reflection nebulae (e.g. Roberts 22). The IRAS colour--colour diagram separates the sample into different types of objects. One group may contain the progenitors to the (few) extreme bipolar planetary nebulae. Two objects show colours and chemistry very similar to the planetary nebulae with late IR-[WC] stars. One object is a confirmed close binary. A model is presented consisting of an outer AGB wind which is swept up by a faster post-AGB wind, with either wind being non-spherically symetric. The interface of the two winds is shown to exhibit a linear relation between velocity and distance from the star. The OH data confirms the predicted linear velocity gradients, and reveals torus-like, uniformly expanding components. All sources are discussed in detail using optical/HST imag...

  11. Olanzapine discontinuation emergent recurrence in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Arora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The efficacy of atypical antipsychotics including olanzapine in acute treatment of manic episode has been established, whereas its role in maintenance treatment is not clear. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients of bipolar disorder who were on regular treatment with mood stabilizer and subsequently relapsed into mania or depressive episode after discontinuation of olanzapine were studied for various socio-demographic and clinical factors using retrospective chart review. Results: There was no correlation found between the period of tapering olanzapine, time to recurrence of episode after discontinuation, and the dosage of olanzapine at the time of discontinuation. The predominant early signs of relapse after discontinuation of olanzapine included sleep disturbance (72.7%, lack of insight for change in behavior (72.7%, irritability (54.5%, and elevated mood (45.5%. Conclusion: Mood stabilizer alone as a maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder may be inadequate for long-term management. A low dose of olanzapine along with mood stabilizers might be useful for prevention of recurrence in bipolar disorder.

  12. Historical Underpinnings of Bipolar Disorder Diagnostic Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Brittany L.; Brown, E. Sherwood; Croarkin, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    Mood is the changing expression of emotion and can be described as a spectrum. The outermost ends of this spectrum highlight two states, the lowest low, melancholia, and the highest high, mania. These mood extremes have been documented repeatedly in human history, being first systematically described by Hippocrates. Nineteenth century contemporaries Falret and Baillarger described two forms of an extreme mood disorder, with the validity and accuracy of both debated. Regardless, the concept of a cycling mood disease was accepted before the end of the 19th century. Kraepelin then described “manic depressive insanity” and presented his description of a full spectrum of mood dysfunction which could be exhibited through single episodes of mania or depression or a complement of many episodes of each. It was this concept which was incorporated into the first DSM and carried out until DSM-III, in which the description of episodic mood dysfunction was used to build a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Criticism of this approach is explored through discussion of the bipolar spectrum concept and some recent examinations of the clinical validity of these DSM diagnoses are presented. The concept of bipolar disorder in children is also explored. PMID:27429010

  13. Recurrence and Relapse in Bipolar Mood Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gh Mousavi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in acute phase of bipolar mood disorder, patients often experience relapses or recurrent episodes. Hospitalization of patients need a great deal of financial and humanistic resources which can be saved through understanding more about the rate of relapse and factors affecting this rate. Methods: In a descriptive analytical study, 380 patients with bipolar disorder who were hospitalized in psychiatric emergency ward of Noor hospital, Isfahan, Iran, were followed. Each patient was considered for; the frequency of relapse and recurrence, kind of pharmachotherapy, presence of psychotherapeutic treatments, frequency of visits by psychiatrist and the rank of present episode. Results: The overall prevalence of recurrence was 42.2%. Recurrence was lower in patients using lithium carbonate or sodium valproate or combined therapy (about 40%, compared to those using carbamazepine (80%. Recurrence was higher in patients treated with only pharmacotherapy (44.5% compared to those treated with both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (22.2%. Patients who were visited monthy by psychiatrist had lower rate of recurrence compared to those who had irregular visits. Conclusion: The higher rate of recurrence observed in carbamazepine therapy may be due to its adverse reactions and consequently poor compliance to this drug. Lower rates of recurrence with psychotherapy and regular visits may be related to the preventive effects of these procedures and especially to the effective management of stress. Keywords: Bipolar Mood Disorder, Recurrence, Relapse.

  14. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Bai

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  15. Birth of cone bipolar cells, but not rod bipolar cells, is associated with existing RGCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Kiyama, Takae; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Steven W

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) play important roles in retinogenesis. They are required for normal retinal histogenesis and retinal cell number balance. Developmental RGC loss is typically characterized by initial retinal neuronal number imbalance and subsequent loss of retinal neurons. However, it is not clear whether loss of a specific non-RGC cell type in the RGC-depleted retina is due to reduced cell production or subsequent degeneration. Taking advantage of three knockout mice with varying degrees of RGC depletion, we re-examined bipolar cell production in these retinas from various aspects. Results show that generation of the cone bipolar cells is correlated with the existing number of RGCs. However, generation of the rod bipolar cells is unaffected by RGC shortage. Results report the first observation that RGCs selectively influence the genesis of subsequent retinal cell types.

  16. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... on comprehensive database searches for studies on gene expression in patients with bipolar disorder in specific mood states, was conducted. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library, supplemented by manually searching reference lists from retrieved publications. Results:  A total of 17...

  17. Facial emotion recognition in bipolar disorder: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Cristiana Castanho de Almeida; Heuvel, Eveline van den; Caetano, Sheila C; Lafer, Beny

    2009-06-01

    Literature review of the controlled studies in the last 18 years in emotion recognition deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographical research of controlled studies with samples larger than 10 participants from 1990 to June 2008 was completed in Medline, Lilacs, PubMed and ISI. Thirty-two papers were evaluated. Euthymic bipolar disorder presented impairment in recognizing disgust and fear. Manic BD showed difficult to recognize fearful and sad faces. Pediatric bipolar disorder patients and children at risk presented impairment in their capacity to recognize emotions in adults and children faces. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing facial emotions than schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder patients present impaired recognition of disgust, fear and sadness that can be partially attributed to mood-state. In mania, they have difficult to recognize fear and disgust. Bipolar disorder patients were more accurate in recognizing emotions than depressive and schizophrenic patients. Bipolar disorder children present a tendency to misjudge extreme facial expressions as being moderate or mild in intensity. Affective and cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder vary according to the mood states. Follow-up studies re-testing bipolar disorder patients after recovery are needed in order to investigate if these abnormalities reflect a state or trait marker and can be considered an endophenotype. Future studies should aim at standardizing task and designs.

  18. Pharmacologic treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Sassi, Roberto; Diler, Rasim S

    2012-10-01

    This review focuses mainly on published articles regarding the treatment of school-aged children and adolescents with pediatric bipolar disorder. In light of systematic reviews, large randomized controlled trial data are emphasized wherever possible. This review addresses the treatment of acute manic/mixed episodes, including combination treatment, the preliminary literature regarding bipolar depression among youth, treatment in the face of comorbid conditions, and maintenance treatment. Suggestions regarding future directions are offered. A clinical vignette describing a teen with bipolar disorder is presented and bipolar medications, dosing, efficacy, side effects, contraindications, and succinct comments on each medication are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Current research in child and adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Christine A; Townsend, Lisa D; Wilson, Michael; Findling, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    Although recently more research has considered children with bipolar disorder than in the past, much controversy still surrounds the validity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, questions remain as to whether or not childhood expressions of bipolarity are continuous with adult manifestations of the illness. In order to advance current knowledge of bipolar disorders in children, researchers have begun to conduct phenomenological, longitudinal, treatment, and neuroimaging studies in youths who exhibit symptoms of bipolar illness, as well as offspring of parents with bipolar disorders. Regardless of the differences between research groups regarding how bipolar disorder in children is defined, it is agreed that pediatric bipolarity is a serious and pernicious illness. With early intervention during the period of time in which youths are exhibiting subsyndromal symptoms of pediatric bipolarity, it appears that the progression of the illness to the more malignant manifestation of the disorder may be avoided. This paper will review what is currently known and what still is left to learn about clinically salient topics that pertain to bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the risk for bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-10-01

    The hypomanic personality style is a risk factor for bipolar spectrum disorders and shares many cognitive and affective features with the bipolar spectrum. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in association with the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum risk. A sample of 966 participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Hypomanic Personality Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Participants deemed at risk of developing a bipolar disorder (N=107) were compared to low-risk controls (N=681). The Entitlement/Grandiosity and Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline positively predicted the risk of developing a bipolar disorder, while Emotional Inhibition negatively predicted risk. High-risk participants demonstrated higher mean scores on all EMSs except Emotional Inhibition. These three EMSs, combined with Vulnerability to Harm or Illness, significantly predicted group membership. A bipolar spectrum EMS profile was identified, consisting of Entitlement/Grandiosity, Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline and the absence of Emotional Inhibition. These EMSs are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. This study supports the application of schema theory to the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum. Future research should explore the possible interaction between EMSs, life events and affective symptoms and the applicability of schema therapy to the bipolar spectrum. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impeller for Water Jet Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center engineers helped North American Marine Jet (NAMJ), Inc. improve the proposed design of a new impeller for jet propulsion system. With a three-dimensional computer model of the new marine jet engine blades, engineers were able to quickly create a solid ploycarbonate model of it. The rapid prototyping allowed the company to avoid many time-consuming and costly steps in creating the impeller.

  2. Material Transport with Air Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Patkó

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In the field of industry, there are only a very few examples of material transportwith air jet, and one of these is the air jet loom. In this weaving technology, the weft (thetransversal yarn of the fabric is shot by air jet. This paper will set up the mathematicalmodel of yarn end movement. For a special case, I will specify a solution of the model.

  3. Active Region Jets II: Triggering and Evolution of Violent Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Martinez, Francisco

    2017-08-01

    We study a series of X-ray-bright, rapidly evolving active-region coronal jets outside the leading sunspot of AR 12259, using Hinode/XRT, SDO/AIA and HMI, and IRIS/SJ data. The detailed evolution of such rapidly evolving “violent” jets remained a mystery after our previous investigation of active region jets (Sterling et al. 2016, ApJ, 821, 100). The jets we investigate here erupt from three localized subregions, each containing a rapidly evolving (positive) minority-polarity magnetic-flux patch bathed in a (majority) negative-polarity magnetic-flux background. At least several of the jets begin with eruptions of what appear to be thin (thickness ˜Nature, 523, 437). For some jets strands are difficult/ impossible to detect, perhaps due to their thinness, obscuration by surrounding bright or dark features, or the absence of erupting cool-material minifilaments in those jets. Tracing in detail the flux evolution in one of the subregions, we find bursts of strong jetting occurring only during times of strong flux cancelation. Averaged over seven jetting episodes, the cancelation rate was ~1.5×10^19 Mx/hr. An average flux of ~5×10^18 Mx canceled prior to each episode, arguably building up ~10^28—10^29 ergs of free magnetic energy per jet. From these and previous observations, we infer that flux cancelation is the fundamental process responsible for the pre-eruption buildup and triggering of at least many jets in active regions, quiet regions, and coronal holes.

  4. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  5. The formation of interstellar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Canto, J.; Rozyczka, M.

    1988-01-01

    The formation of interstellar jets by convergence of supersonic conical flows and the further dynamical evolution of these jets are investigated theoretically by means of numerical simulations. The results are presented in extensive graphs and characterized in detail. Strong radiative cooling is shown to result in jets with Mach numbers 2.5-29 propagating to lengths 50-100 times their original widths, with condensation of swept-up interstellar matter at Mach 5 or greater. The characteristics of so-called molecular outflows are well reproduced by the simulations of low-Mach-number and quasi-adiabatic jets.

  6. Jet physics at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Seidel

    2002-05-29

    Recent analyses by the CDF and D0 Collaborations of jet data produced in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider are presented. These include new studies of the inclusive jet production cross section, a measurement of the strong coupling constant, the first measurement of subjet multiplicity of quark and gluon jets, examination of ratios of multijet cross sections and their implications for choice of renormalization scale, and a study of charged jet evolution and energy flow in the underlying event. The results are compared to theoretical predictions.

  7. YSO jets in the Galactic Plane from UWISH2: III - Jets and Outflows in Cassiopeia and Auriga

    CERN Document Server

    Froebrich, D

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of 35.5 square degrees of images in the 1-0S(1) line of H2 from the UK Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2) towards Cassiopeia and Auriga. We have identified 98 Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) driven by Young Stellar Objects, 60% of which are bipolar outflows and all are new discoveries. We estimate that the UWISH2 extended emission object catalogue contains fewer than % false positives and is complete at the 95% level for jets and outflows brighter than the UWISH2 detection limit. We identified reliable driving source candidates for three quarters of the detected outflows, 40% of which are associated with groups and clusters of stars. The driving source candidates are 20% protostars, the remainder are CTTSs. We also identified 15 new star cluster candidates near MHOs in the survey area. We find that the typical outflow identified in the sample has the following characteristics: the position angles are randomly orientated; bipolar outflows are straight within a few...

  8. The circumstellar disk, envelope, and bi-polar outflow of the Massive Young Stellar Object W33A

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Ben; Hoare, Melvin G; Oudmaijer, Rene D; de Wit, Willem-Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Young Stellar Object (YSO) W33A is one of the best known examples of a massive star still in the process of forming. Here we present Gemini North ALTAIR/NIFS laser-guide star adaptive-optics assisted K-band integral-field spectroscopy of W33A and its inner reflection nebula. In our data we make the first detections of a rotationally-flattened outer envelope and fast bi-polar jet of a massive YSO at near-infrared wavelengths. The predominant spectral features observed are Br-gamma, H_2, and a combination of emission and absorption from CO gas. We perform a 3-D spectro-astrometric analysis of the line emission, the first study of its kind. We find that the object's Br-gamma emission reveals evidence for a fast bi-polar jet on sub-milliarcsecond scales, which is aligned with the larger-scale outflow. The hybrid CO features can be explained as a combination of hot CO emission arising in a disk close to the central star, while cold CO absorption originates in the cooler outer envelope. Kinematic analysis of th...

  9. Further Indications of Jet Rotation in New Ultraviolet and Optical HST/STIS Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, D; Ray, T P; Eislöffel, J; Woitas, J; Coffey, Deirdre; Bacciotti, Francesca; Ray, Thomas P.; Eisl\\"offel, Jochen; Woitas, Jens

    2007-01-01

    We present survey results which suggest rotation signatures at the base of T-Tauri jets. Observations were conducted with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at optical and near ultraviolet wavelengths (NUV). Results are presented for the approaching jet from DG Tau, CW Tau, HH 30 and the bipolar jet from TH 28. Systematic asymmetries in Doppler shift were detected across the jet, within 100 AU from the star. At optical wavelengths, radial velocity differences were typically 10 to 25 (+/-5) km/s, while differences in the NUV range were consistently lower at typically 10 (+/-5) km/s. Results are interpreted as possible rotation signatures. Importantly, there is agreement between the optical and NUV results for DG Tau. Under the assumption of steady magnetocentrifugal acceleration, the survey results lead to estimates for the distance of the jet footpoint from the star, and give values consistent with earlier studies. In the case of DG Tau, for example, we see that the higher velocity component appe...

  10. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting AGN Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Babul, Arif; Reynolds, Christopher S

    2012-01-01

    AGN jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets are inefficient at heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the SMBHs will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin discs. In general, the orientation of these accretion discs will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes and the ensuing torques will cause the black hole's spin axis (and therefore, the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster cen...

  11. Bipolar disorder and age-related functional impairment Prejuízo funcional associado à idade e transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Aita Cacilhas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although bipolar disorder is a major contributor to functional impairment worldwide, an independent impact of bipolar disorder and ageing on functioning has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of bipolar disorder on age-related functional status using matched controls as a standard. METHOD: One-hundred patients with bipolar disorder and matched controls were evaluated for disability. Age-related effects controlled for confounders were cross-sectionally evaluated. RESULTS: Patients were significantly more impaired than controls. Regression showed effects for aging in both groups. The effect, size, however, was significantly stronger in patients. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder was an important effect modifier of the age impact on functioning. While a longitudinal design is needed to effectively demonstrate this different impact, this study further depicts bipolar disorder as a chronic and progressively impairing illness.OBJETIVO: O transtorno bipolar é responsável por importante parcela do prejuízo funcional ao redor do mundo. Um efeito independente do transtorno bipolar e da idade no funcionamento ainda não foi demonstrado. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do transtorno bipolar no prejuízo funcional relacionado à idade, com controles pareados como padrão. MÉTODO: Cem pacientes com transtorno bipolar e controles pareados foram avaliados para incapacidade. Efeitos relacionados à idade, com controle para confundidores, foram investigados. RESULTADOS: Pacientes tiveram significativamente mais prejuízo que controles. A regressão mostrou efeito para a idade em ambos os grupos, e o efeito foi significativamente mais forte nos pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: O transtorno bipolar foi um importante modificador de efeito no impacto da idade no funcionamento. Enquanto um desenho de estudo longitudinal é necessário para efetivamente demonstrar este impacto diferencial, este

  12. OFF bipolar cells in macaque retina: Type-specific connectivity in the outer and inner synaptic layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiko eTsukamoto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OFF bipolar cells in the macaque retina were recently classified into five types: flat midget bipolar (FMB and diffuse bipolar (DB 1, 2, 3a, and 3b. We examined all parallel pathways from cone photoreceptors via OFF bipolar cells to parasol and midget ganglion cells by serial section transmission electron microscopy. Basal contacts of OFF bipolar cells to cone pedicles were previously categorized as triad-associated (TA and non-TA (NTA. The latter was further divided into two groups located in the middle and marginal areas of the pedicle at the present eccentricity of 15°. We then mapped the distributions of all three basal contacts of the five OFF bipolar cell types in the same area of cone pedicles. TA contacts were more numerous than NTA contacts in FMB (93%, DB1 (67%, and DB3a (81% cells, but less in DB2 (30% and DB3b (21% cells. Cluster analysis of these contact parameters reconfirmed five distinct OFF bipolar cell types and showed these positional configurations of basal synapses to be cell type-specific. This architecture is thought to provide a spatial framework for the interstitial diffusion and local uptake of the neurotransmitter (glutamate that spills over from ribbon synapses. All five OFF bipolar cell types formed ribbon-synaptic contacts to both parasol and midget ganglion cells. DB2 and 3a, DB1 and 3b, and FMB predominantly, moderately, and negligibly contacted parasol ganglion cells, respectively. FMB almost exclusively contacted midget ganglion cells, to which DB1 provided dominant output (58%, and DB2, 3a, and 3b provided between 3% and 10% of their output. Consequently, the cone signal sampling routes of a midget ganglion cell consisted of two substructures: the narrow (mainly 2−3 cones FMB pathway and the wide (mainly 10 cones DB pathway, where connection strength was four-fold greater in the FMB than DB pathway. The narrow and strong FMB pathway may confer the highest spatial resolution and sporadically may include blue

  13. Numerical investigation of mixing in parallel jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durve, Ameya [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Patwardhan, Ashwin W., E-mail: aw.patwardhan@ictmumbai.edu.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Banarjee, Indraneel; Padmakumar, G.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Experimental thermal Hydraulics Section, Separation Technology and Hydraulics Division, Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of adjacent third jet on the mixing of two plane parallel jets is studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Validation of CFD model with experimental data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of mixing behavior of two jet flow and three jet flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three jet systems provide more efficient mixing than single jet and two jet systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Turbulent fluctuations occurring in the two jet flow are smaller as compared to the three jet flow. - Abstract: A system of parallel jets is widely encountered in many industrial applications. Wide spread applications necessitate the study of the basic mixing phenomenon of parallel jets. In the present study, the mixing phenomenon in the two jet flow and the three jet flow has been studied numerically by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations. The results predicted by the Reynolds stress model compare well with the experimental data of axial velocity and shear stress available in literature. An attempt has been made to predict the critical mixing regions such as the merge point and the combine point by correlating them with jet spacing and jet exit conditions. A comparison between single jet, two jet and three jet systems has been carried out to evaluate the effect of presence of the second and the third jet on the mixing phenomenon and turbulent fluctuations.

  14. [Confusing clinical presentations and differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwood, P

    2004-01-01

    An early recognition of bipolar disorders may have an important impact on the prognosis of this disorder according to different mechanisms. Bipolar disorder is nevertheless not easy to detect, the diagnosis being correctly proposed after, in average more than a couple of Years and three different doctors assessments. A short delay before introducing the relevant treatment should help avoiding inappropriate treatments (prescribing, for example, neuroleptics for long periods, antidepressive drugs each time depressive symptoms occurs, absence of treatment despite mood disorders), with their associated negative impact such as mood-switching, rapid cycling or presence of chronic side-effects stigmates. Furthermore, non-treated mood disorders in bipolar disorder are longer, more stigmatizing and may be associated with an increased risk of suicidal behaviour and mortality. Lastly, compliance, an important factor regarding the long term prognosis of bipolar disorder, should be improved when there is a short delay between correct diagnosis and treatment and onset of the disorder. We therefore propose to review the literature for the different pitfalls involved in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Non-bipolar mood-disorders are frequently quoted as one of the alternative diagnosis. Hyperthymic temperament, side-effects of prescribed treatments and organic comorbid disorders may be involved. Bipolar disorders have a sex-ratio closer to 1 (men are thus more frequently of the bipolar type in mood-disorders), with earlier age at onset, and more frequent family history of suicidal attempts and bipolar disorder. Schizo-affective disorders are also a major concern regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. This is explained by flat affects sometimes close to anhedonia, presence of a schizoïd personality in bipolar disorder, persecutive hostility that can be considered to be related to irritability rather than a schizophrenic symptom. Rapid cycling, mixed episodes and short

  15. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  16. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  17. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  18. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  19. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  20. Hadron jets in perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, C.

    1982-11-01

    The subject of hadron jet studies, to judge by the work presented at this workshop, is a maturing field which is still gathering steam. The very detailed work being done in lepton-lepton and lepton-hadron collisions, the second-generation measurements being carried out at Fermilab, the CERN SPS, and the ISR, and the very high energy hard scatterings being observed at the CERN Collider all show enormous promise for increased understanding. Perhaps we shall yet reach that long-sought nirvana in which high-p/sub perpendicular/ collisions become truly simple.

  1. Jet Vectoring Control Using a Novel Synthetic Jet Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A primary air jet vectoring control system with a novel synthetic jet actuator (SJA) is presented and simulated numerically. The results show that, in comparison with an existing traditional synthetic jet actuator, which is able to perform the duty of either "push" or "pull", one novel synthetic jet actuator can fulfill both "push" and "pull" functions to vector the primary jet by shifting a slide block inside it. Therefore, because the new actuator possesses greater efficiency, it has potentiality to replace the existing one in various applications, such as thrust vectoring and the reduction of thermal signature. Moreover, as the novel actuator can fulfill those functions that the existing one can not, it may well be expected to popularize it into more flow control systems.

  2. Protostellar jets the best laboratories for investigating astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouveia dal Pino, E M

    1995-01-01

    Highly collimated supersonic jets are observed to emerge from a wide variety of astrophysical objects, ranging from Active Nuclei of Galaxies (AGN's) to Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) within our own Galaxy. Despite their different physical scales (in size, velocity, and amount of energy transported), they have strong morphological similarities. Thanks to the proximity and relatively small timescales, which permit direct observations of evolutionary changes, YSO jets are, perhaps, the best laboratories for cosmic jet investigation. In this lecture, the formation, structure, and evolution of the YSO jets are reviewed with the help of observational information, MHD and purely hydrodynamical modeling, and numerical simulations. Possible applications of the models to AGN jets are also addressed.

  3. CONTROL OF TWO DIMENSIONAL JETS USING MINIATURE ZERO MASS FLUX JETS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Zero mass flux jets, synthesized by acoustic actuators, have been used for the purpose of jet mixing enhancement and jet vectoring. Zero mass flux jets composed of entirely entrained fluid allow momentum transfer into the embedding flow. In the present experiments, miniature-scale high aspect ratio actuator jets are placed along the long sides and near the exit plane of a primary two-dimensional jet. In different modes, the primary jet can be vectored either towards or away from the actuator jets and the jet mixing is enhanced. The disturbance of the excitation frequency is developed while the unstable frequency of the primary jet is completely suppressed.

  4. Momentum transfer by astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    Chernin, L M; De Gouveia dal Pino, E M; Benz, W

    1994-01-01

    We have used 3-D smoothed particle hydrodynamical simulations to study the basic properties of the outflow that is created by a protostellar jet in a dense molecular cloud. The dynamics of the jet/cloud interaction is strongly affected by the cooling in the shocked gas behind the bow shock at the head of the jet. We show that this cooling is very rapid, with the cooling distance of the gas much less than the jet radius. Thus, although ambient gas is initially driven away from the jet axis by the high thermal pressure odf the post-shock gas, rapid cooling reduces the pressure and the outflow subsequently evolves in a momentum-conserving snowplow fashion. The velocity of the ambient gas is high in the vicinity of the jet head, but decreases rapidly as more material is swept up. Thus, this type of outflow produces extremely high velocity clumps of post shock gas which resemble the features seen in outflows. We have investigated the transfer of momentum from the jet to the ambient medium as a function of the jet ...

  5. The Highest Redshift Relativistic Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, C.C.; Stawarz, L.; Siemiginowska, A.; Harris, D.E; Schwartz, D.A.; Wardle, J.F.C.; Gobeille, D.; Lee, N.P.

    2007-12-18

    We describe our efforts to understand large-scale (10's-100's kpc) relativistic jet systems through observations of the highest-redshift quasars. Results from a VLA survey search for radio jets in {approx} 30 z > 3.4 quasars are described along with new Chandra observations of 4 selected targets.

  6. Jet charge at the LHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, David; Schwartz, Matthew D; Lin, Tongyan; Waalewijn, Wouter J

    2013-05-24

    Knowing the charge of the parton initiating a light-quark jet could be extremely useful both for testing aspects of the standard model and for characterizing potential beyond-the-standard-model signals. We show that despite the complications of hadronization and out-of-jet radiation such as pileup, a weighted sum of the charges of a jet's constituents can be used at the LHC to distinguish among jets with different charges. Potential applications include measuring electroweak quantum numbers of hadronically decaying resonances or supersymmetric particles, as well as standard model tests, such as jet charge in dijet events or in hadronically decaying W bosons in tt[over ¯] events. We develop a systematically improvable method to calculate moments of these charge distributions by combining multihadron fragmentation functions with perturbative jet functions and pertubative evolution equations. We show that the dependence on energy and jet size for the average and width of the jet charge can be calculated despite the large experimental uncertainty on fragmentation functions. These calculations can provide a validation tool for data independent of Monte Carlo fragmentation models.

  7. Core shifts in blazar jets

    CERN Document Server

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A; Pjanka, Patryk; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of core shift in jets, which is the dependence of the position of the jet radio core on the frequency. We derive a new method to measure the jet magnetic field based on both the value of the shift and the observed flux, which compliments the standard method assuming equipartition. Using both methods, we re-analyse the blazar sample of Zamaninasab et al. We find that equipartition is satisfied only if the jet opening angle in the radio core region is close to the values found observationally, $\\simeq$0.1--0.2 divided by the bulk Lorentz factor, $\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$. Larger values, e.g., $1/\\Gamma_{\\rm j}$, would imply very strong departures from equipartition. A small jet opening angle implies in turn the magnetization parameter of $\\ll 1$. We determine the jet magnetic flux taking this effect into account. We find that the average jet magnetic flux is compatible with the model of jet formation due to black-hole spin energy extraction and accretion being magnetically arrested. We calculate the ...

  8. Magnetic Field Topology in Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, T. A.; Frank, A.

    2000-01-01

    We present results on the magnetic field topology in a pulsed radiative. jet. For initially helical magnetic fields and periodic velocity variations, we find that the magnetic field alternates along the, length of the jet from toroidally dominated in the knots to possibly poloidally dominated in the intervening regions.

  9. Jet Noise Shielding Provided by a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Michael J.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Bahr, Christopher J.; Pope, Dennis S.

    2014-01-01

    One approach toward achieving NASA's aggressive N+2 noise goal of 42 EPNdB cumulative margin below Stage 4 is through the use of novel vehicle configurations like the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB). Jet noise measurements from an HWB acoustic test in NASA Langley's 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel are described. Two dual-stream, heated Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units are mounted underneath the inverted HWB model on a traversable support to permit measurement of varying levels of shielding provided by the fuselage. Both an axisymmetric and low noise chevron nozzle set are investigated in the context of shielding. The unshielded chevron nozzle set shows 1 to 2 dB of source noise reduction (relative to the unshielded axisymmetric nozzle set) with some penalties at higher frequencies. Shielding of the axisymmetric nozzles shows up to 6.5 dB of reduction at high frequency. The combination of shielding and low noise chevrons shows benefits beyond the expected additive benefits of the two, up to 10 dB, due to the effective migration of the jet source peak noise location upstream for increased shielding effectiveness. Jet noise source maps from phased array results processed with the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm reinforce these observations.

  10. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy J.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Cummer, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Events (NBEs) are compact intracloud discharges that produce the most powerful lightning-related radio frequency signals that have been observed. However, their luminosity is below the threshold for detectability from current and past spaceborne optical sensors. NBEs have been loosely associated with convective intensity, but their occurrence tends to be highly localized in time and space within a thunderstorm, and there remain many questions about whether and to what extent they are significantly related to meteorological processes within thunderstorms. Using the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), the National Lightning Detection Network, and available Doppler and polarimetric radar data, case studies will be presented for storm events that produced large numbers of NBEs (10s-100s) during their lifetimes. NBEs are documented via a method that identifies high peak power (>40-50 dBW) initial VHF sources within a specific altitude band in the upper levels of thunderstorms. The production of NBEs, including spatial and temporal variability, will be compared to the radar-inferred kinematic and microphysical structure and evolution of thunderstorms, as well as their NALMA- and NLDN-inferred electrical characteristics. The results should provide new insights into the relationships between NBEs and thunderstorm processes.

  11. Dense Hypervelocity Plasma Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Andrew; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Messer, Sarah; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael; van Doren, David; Elton, Raymond; Uzun-Kaymak, Ilker

    2007-11-01

    We are developing high velocity dense plasma jets for fusion and HEDP applications. Traditional coaxial plasma accelerators suffer from the blow-by instability which limits the mass accelerated to high velocity. In the current design blow-by is delayed by a combination of electrode shaping and use of a tailored plasma armature created by injection of a high density plasma at a few eV generated by arrays of capillary discharges or sparkgaps. Experimental data will be presented for a complete 32 injector gun system built for driving rotation in the Maryland MCX experiment, including data on penetration of the plasma jet through a magnetic field. We present spectroscopic measurements of plasma velocity, temperature, and density, as well as total momentum measured using a ballistic pendulum. Measurements are in agreement with each other and with time of flight data from photodiodes and a multichannel PMT. Plasma density is above 10^15 cm-3, velocities range up to about 100 km/s. Preliminary results from a quadrature heterodyne HeNe interferometer are consistent with these results.

  12. LHCb; LHCb Jet Reconstruction

    CERN Multimedia

    Augusto, O

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the most powerful particle accelerator in the world. It has been designed to collide proton beams at an energy up to 14 TeV in the center of mass. In 2011, the data taking was done with a center of mass energy of 7 TeV, the instant luminosity has reached values greater than $4 \\times 10^{32} cm^{-2} s^{-1}$ and the integrated luminosity reached the value of 1.02 $fb^{-1}$ on the LHCb. The jet reconstruction is fundamental to observe events that can be used to test pertubative QCD (pQCD). It also provides a way to observe standard model channels and searches for new physics like SUSY. The anti-kt algorithm is a jet reconstruction algorithm that is based on the distance of the particles on the space $\\eta \\times \\phi$ and on the transverse momentum of particles. To maximize the energy resolution all information about the trackers and the calo...

  13. A gyrokinetic perspective on the JET-ILW pedestal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, D. R.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.; Valanju, P.; Liu, X.

    2017-03-01

    JET has been unable to recover historical confinement levels when operating with an ITER-like wall (ILW) due largely to the inaccessibility of high pedestal temperatures. Finding a path to overcome this challenge is of utmost importance for both a prospective JET DT campaign and for future ITER operation. Gyrokinetic simulations (using the Gene code) quantitatively capture experimental transport levels for a representative experimental discharge and qualitatively recover the major experimental trends. Microtearing turbulence is a major transport mechanisms for the low-temperature pedestals characteristic of unseeded JET-ILW discharges. At higher temperatures and/or lower {ρ\\ast} , we identify electrostatic ITG transport of a type that is strongly shear-suppressed on smaller machines. Consistent with observations, this transport mechanism is strongly reduced by the presence of a low-Z impurity (e.g. carbon or nitrogen at the level of {{Z}\\text{eff}}∼ 2 ), recovering the accessibility of high pedestal temperatures. Notably, simulations based on dimensionless {ρ\\ast} scans recover historical scaling behavior except in the unique JET-ILW parameter regime where ITG turbulence becomes important. Our simulations also elucidate the observed degradation of confinement caused by gas puffing, emphasizing the important role of the density pedestal structure. This study maps out important regions of parameter space, providing insights that may point to optimal physical regimes that can enable the recovery of high pedestal temperatures on JET.

  14. Spectral evolution of superluminal components in parsec-scale jets

    CERN Document Server

    Mimica, P; Agudo, I; Martí, J M; Gómez, J L; Miralles, J A

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present numerical simulations of the spectral evolution and radio emission of superluminal components in relativistic jets. We have developed an algorithm (SPEV) for the transport of a population of non-thermal particles (NTPs). For very large values of the ratio of gas pressure to magnetic field energy density ($\\sim 6\\times 10^4$), quiescent over-pressured jet models show substantial spectral evolution compared to models whithout radiative losses. Larger values of the magnetic field yield much shorter jets. Larger magnetic fields result in shorter losses-dominated regimes, with a rapid and intense radiation of energy. We also show that jets with a positive photon spectral index may result if the lower limit $\\gamma_min$ of the NTP energy distribution is placed close or above a threshold $\\gamma_M$, where the synchrotron function R has its maximum. A temporary increase of the Lorentz factor at the jet inlet produces a traveling perturbation that appears in the synthetic maps as a radio componen...

  15. Jet-based methods to print living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeisen, Bradley R; Othon, Christina M; Barron, Jason A; Young, Daniel; Spargo, Barry J

    2006-09-01

    Cell printing has been popularized over the past few years as a revolutionary advance in tissue engineering has potentially enabled heterogeneous 3-D scaffolds to be built cell-by-cell. This review article summarizes the state-of-the-art cell printing techniques that utilize fluid jetting phenomena to deposit 2- and 3-D patterns of living eukaryotic cells. There are four distinct categories of jetbased approaches to printing cells. Laser guidance direct write (LG DW) was the first reported technique to print viable cells by forming patterns of embryonic-chick spinal-cord cells on a glass slide (1999). Shortly after this, modified laser-induced forward transfer techniques (LIFT) and modified ink jet printers were also used to print viable cells, followed by the most recent demonstration using an electrohydrodynamic jetting (EHDJ) method. The low cost of some of these printing technologies has spurred debate as to whether they could be used on a large scale to manufacture tissue and possibly even whole organs. This review summarizes the published results of these cell printers (cell viability, retained genotype and phenotype), and also includes a physical description of the various jetting processes with a discussion of the stresses and forces that may be encountered by cells during printing. We conclude the review by comparing and contrasting the different jet-based techniques, while providing a map for future experiments that could lead to significant advances in the field of tissue engineering.

  16. The bipolar puzzle, adding new pieces. Factors associated with bipolar disorder, Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schot, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is twofold. The first part will discuss the structural brain abnormalities and schoolperformance associated with bipolar disorder and the influence of genetic and/or environmental factors to this association. It is part of a large twin study investigating several potential b

  17. SDO/AIA observations of periodic and quasi-periodic phenomenon associated with an EUV jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Richard; Verth, Gary; Erdelyi, Robertus; Srivastava, Abhi

    2013-04-01

    It has long been advocated that explosive magnetic activity is responsible for the mass-balance in the solar atmosphere, supplying the corona and the solar wind with heated plasma. The explosive events are thought to be the result of emerging bi-polar (EB) regions reconnecting with pre-existing, open fields, with the size of the EB's (i.e., granular, super-granular) being related to size of the resulting feature (i.e., spicules, EUV/X-ray jets). Recent evidence has suggested a deeper relationship between spicules and EUV jets (Sterling et al., 2010). We present here observations of a EUV jet observed with SDO/AIA close to a southern coronal hole. The jet can be considered as a 'Blowout jet' (using the terminology of Moore et al., 2010), launching vast amounts of chromospheric plasma into the atmosphere along with hotter material. The hotter part of the jet appears to be composed of multiple, (quasi-)periodic ejections that individually resemble fast moving (>100 km/s) spicules. The multiple ejections appear crucial for distributing the hotter material high into the corona, possibly suggesting that larger EUV/X-ray are composed of many smaller spicule-like events. Although the event is close to the limb, evidence for reconnection at the chromospheric level is provided. Further, evidence for helicity (or torsional motion) and the presence of slow and fast Magnetohydrodynamic waves is given, with the wave mode excitation likely due to the reconnection process. Exploiting the observed wave motion, we also use magneto-seismological techniques to determine local plasma parameters with sub-resolution accuracy along one of the jets unique features.

  18. Isotropic Heating of Galaxy Cluster Cores via Rapidly Reorienting Active Galactic Nucleus Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Sharma, Prateek; Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2013-05-01

    Active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets carry more than sufficient energy to stave off catastrophic cooling of the intracluster medium (ICM) in the cores of cool-core clusters. However, in order to prevent catastrophic cooling, the ICM must be heated in a near-isotropic fashion and narrow bipolar jets with P jet = 1044 - 45 erg s-1, typical of radio AGNs at cluster centers, are inefficient in heating the gas in the transverse direction to the jets. We argue that due to existent conditions in cluster cores, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) will, in addition to accreting gas via radiatively inefficient flows, experience short stochastic episodes of enhanced accretion via thin disks. In general, the orientation of these accretion disks will be misaligned with the spin axis of the black holes (BHs) and the ensuing torques will cause the BH's spin axis (and therefore the jet axis) to slew and rapidly change direction. This model not only explains recent observations showing successive generations of jet-lobes-bubbles in individual cool-core clusters that are offset from each other in the angular direction with respect to the cluster center, but also shows that AGN jets can heat the cluster core nearly isotropically on the gas cooling timescale. Our model does require that the SMBHs at the centers of cool-core clusters be spinning relatively slowly. Torques from individual misaligned disks are ineffective at tilting rapidly spinning BHs by more than a few degrees. Additionally, since SMBHs that host thin accretion disks will manifest as quasars, we predict that roughly 1-2 rich clusters within z < 0.5 should have quasars at their centers.

  19. Formation of relativistic jets. Magnetohydrodynamics and synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porth, Oliver Joachim Georg

    2011-11-09

    In this thesis, the formation of relativistic jets is investigated by means of special relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and synchrotron radiative transfer. Our results show that the magnetohydrodynamic jet self-collimation paradigm can also be applied to the relativistic case. In the first part, jets launched from rotating hot accretion disk coronae are explored, leading to well collimated, but only mildly relativistic flows. Beyond the light-cylinder, the electric charge separation force balances the classical trans-field Lorentz force almost entirely, resulting in a decreased efficiency of acceleration and collimation in comparison to non-relativistic disk winds. In the second part, we examine Poynting dominated flows of various electric current distributions. By following the outflow for over 3000 Schwarzschild radii, highly relativistic jets of Lorentz factor Γ>or similar 8 and half-opening angles below 1 are obtained, providing dynamical models for the parsec scale jets of active galactic nuclei. Applying the magnetohydrodynamic structure of the quasi-stationary simulation models, we solve the relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation transport. This yields synthetic radiation maps and polarization patterns that can be used to confront high resolution radio and (sub-) mm observations of nearby active galactic nuclei. Relativistic motion together with the helical magnetic fields of the jet formation site imprint a clear signature on the observed polarization and Faraday rotation. In particular, asymmetries in the polarization direction across the jet can disclose the handedness of the magnetic helix and thus the spin direction of the central engine. Finally, we show first results from fully three-dimensional, high resolution adaptive mesh refinement simulations of jet formation from a rotating magnetosphere and examine the jet stability. Relativistic field-line rotation leads to an electric charge separation force that opposes the magnetic

  20. Bipolar Disorder in Children: Implications for Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattlebaum, Patricia D.; Grier, Betsy C.; Klubnik, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, bipolar disorder is an increasingly common diagnosis in children, and these children can present with severe behavior problems and emotionality. Many studies have documented the frequent coexistence of behavior disorders and speech-language disorders. Like other children with behavior disorders, children with bipolar disorder…