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Sample records for bipolar field structures

  1. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  2. Producing of pover GaAs structures of bipolar and field-effect transistor by CVD-method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin V. A.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation results in technology of doping Sn and Bi of perfect GaAs structures preparation by the lowe-temperature isothermal chloride epitaxy method are presented. A complex problem has been solved to obtain planar layers of the n+–n–n0–p type bipolar transistors and planar layers of the i–n0–n–n+ type Schottky field-effect transistors. Heterogenetty in the thickness less than 3% and doping level less than 5% has been achieved. This allowed to get the discrete Schottky field-effect transistors with improved operation characteristics.

  3. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... which suggests the emergence of a paired structure and its associated type of neutrality, being there three general types of neutral categories, namely indeterminacy, ambivalence and conflict. Hence, the key issue consists in identifying the semantic opposition characterizing the meaning of concepts...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  4. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  5. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Bipolar mixed states: an international society for bipolar disorders task force report of symptom structure, course of illness, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alan C; Lafer, Beny; Perugi, Giulio; Frye, Mark A; Bauer, Michael; Bahk, Won-Myong; Scott, Jan; Ha, Kyooseob; Suppes, Trisha

    2013-01-01

    Episodes of bipolar disorder are defined as depressive or manic, but depressive and manic symptoms can combine in the same episode. Coexistence or rapid alternation of depressive and manic symptoms in the same episode may indicate a more severe form of bipolar disorder and may pose diagnostic and treatment challenges. However, definitions of mixed states, especially those with prominent depression, are not well established. The authors performed literature searches for bipolar disorder, multivariate analyses, and the appearance of the terms "mixed" in any field; references selected from the articles found after the search were combined after a series of conferences among the authors. The authors reviewed the evolution of the concept of mixed states and examined the symptom structure of mixed states studied as predominantly manic, predominantly depressive, and across both manic and depressive episodes, showing essentially parallel structures of mixed states based on manic or depressive episodes. The authors analyzed the relationships between mixed states and a severely recurrent course of illness in bipolar disorder, with early onset and increased co-occurring anxiety-, stress-, and substance-related disorders, and they used this information to derive proposed diagnostic criteria for research or clinical use. The definitions and properties of mixed states have generated controversy, but the stability of their characteristics over a range of clinical definitions and diagnostic methods shows that the concept of mixed states is robust. Distinct characteristics related to the course of illness emerge at relatively modest opposite polarity symptom levels in depressive or manic episodes.

  7. Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong

    2017-12-01

    A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier–Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.

  8. Theory of localized bipolar wave-structures and nonthermal particle distributions in the auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Goldman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar wave structures and nonthermal particle distributions measured by the FAST satellite in regions of downward current are interpreted in terms of the nonlinear evolution of a two-stream instability. The instability results in holes, both in the electron distribution in phase space and in the electron density in real space. The wave potential energy, which traps the electrons, has a single minimum, and the associated electric field is bipolar. The early bipolar structures are coherent over hundreds of Debye lengths in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. After thousands of plasma periods the perpendicular coherence is lost, the structures break up, and electrostatic whistlers begin to dominate. Simulations and preliminary analysis of this breakup and emission process are presented.

  9. Models for the structure and origin of bipolar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of bipolar nebulae-symmetric reflection nebulae centered on evolved, mass-losing stars-can most simply be accounted for in terms of an axisymmetric distribution of outflowing dust in which the dust is concentrated towards an equatorial plane and declines monotonically with latitude above that plane. The symmetrically placed ''horns'' that can be seen radiating out of some bipolar nebulae, notably GL 2688, are a natural consequence of such a dust distribution if, at some latitude, the radial optical depth to starlight falls rapidly below unity. Several models of bipolar nebulae are presented. These structural models for bipolar nebulae lead in turn to an investigation of how such a geometry might arise. Although nonradial pulsation, rotationally forced mass ejection by a single star, and mass loss from a common envelope binary are all considered, the most attractive origin for bipolar nebulae is a binary star system in which the primary is evolving up the red giant branch to the point at which its radius approaches its tidal radius. If this occurs before corotation of the primary with the secondary's orbit can be achieved, then matter from the primary's enveloped can be gravitationally ejected from the system by the secondary, the ejected material being concentrated toward the system's equatorial plane. Numerical models of this phenomenon show that gravitational ejection from an asynchronous binary system easily leads to terminal outflow velocities in the observed range (20--50 km s -1 ), and that the rate of mass loss and the time scale over which the mass ejection takes place are consistent with observations if the particle density in the outer layers of the primary's atmosphere from which the material is extracted is in the range 10 14 --10 15 cm -3 . If this hypothesis is applicable, bipolar nebulae will probably become planetary nebulae, as previously suggested on observational grounds

  10. Particle Agglomeration in Bipolar Barb Agglomerator Under AC Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chao; Ma Xiuqin; Sun Youshan; Wang Meiyan; Zhang Changping; Lou Yueya

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficient technology for removing fine particles in flue gas is essential as the haze is becoming more and more serious. To improve agglomeration effectiveness of fine particles, a dual zone electric agglomeration device consisting of a charging chamber and an agglomeration chamber with bipolar barb electrodes was developed. The bipolar barb electric agglomerator with a polar distance of 200 mm demonstrates good agglomeration effectiveness for particles with a size less than 8.0 μm under applied AC electric field. An optimal condition for achieving better agglomeration effectiveness was found to be as follows: flue gas flow velocity of 3.00 m/s, particle concentration of 2.00 g/m 3 , output voltage of 35 kV and length of the barb of 16 mm. In addition, 4.0–6.0 μm particles have the best effectiveness with the variation of particle volume occupancy of −3.2. (paper)

  11. Brain Structural Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with subtle neuroanatomical deficits including lateral ventricular enlargement, grey matter deficits incorporating limbic system structures, and distributed white matter pathophysiology. Substantial heterogeneity has been identified by structural neuroimaging studies to date and differential psychotropic medication use is potentially a substantial contributor to this. This selective review of structural neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies considers evidence that lithium, mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medications are associated with neuroanatomical variation. Most studies are negative and suffer from methodological weaknesses in terms of directly assessing medication effects on neuroanatomy, since they commonly comprise posthoc assessments of medication associations with neuroimaging metrics in small heterogenous patient groups. However the studies which report positive findings tend to form a relatively consistent picture whereby lithium and antiepileptic mood stabiliser use is associated with increased regional grey matter volume, especially in limbic structures. These findings are further supported by the more methodologically robust studies which include large numbers of patients or repeated intra-individual scanning in longitudinal designs. Some similar findings of an apparently ameliorative effect of lithium on white matter microstructure are also emerging. There is less support for an effect of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, but these studies are further limited by methodological difficulties. In general the literature to date supports a normalising effect of lithium and mood stabilisers on brain structure in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with the neuroprotective characteristics of these medications identified by preclinical studies. PMID:26412064

  12. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Song; Huang, Shiyong; Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Deng, Xiaohua

    2018-03-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplitude of a guide field exceeds 0.3 times the asymptotic magnetic field B0, the traditional bipolar Hall electric field is clearly replaced by a tripolar electric field, which consists of a newly emerged electric field and the bipolar Hall electric field. The newly emerged electric field is a convective electric field about one ion inertial length away from the neutral sheet. It arises from the disappearance of the Hall electric field due to the substantial modification of the magnetic field and electric current by the imposed guide field. The peak magnitude of this new electric field increases linearly with the increment of guide field strength. Possible applications of these results to space observations are also discussed.

  13. Genetic structure of personality factors and bipolar disorder in families segregating bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Elizabeth; Contreras, Javier; Raventos, Henriette; Flores, Deborah; Jerez, Alvaro; Nicolini, Humberto; Ontiveros, Alfonso; Almasy, Laura; Escamilla, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BPD) has been associated with variations in personality dimensions, but the nature of this relationship has been unclear. In this study, the heritabilities of BPD and the Big Five personality factors and the genetic correlations between BPD and personality factors are reported. The participants in this study were 1073 individuals from 172 families of Mexican or Central American ancestry. Heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated under a polygenic model using the maximum-likelihood method of obtaining variance components implemented in the SOLAR software package. Heritabilities of 0.49, 0.43, and 0.43 were found for the narrowest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar and bipolar I), the intermediate phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, and bipolar II), and the broadest phenotype (schizoaffective bipolar, bipolar I, bipolar II, and recurrent depression), respectively. For the Big Five personality factors, heritabilities were 0.25 for agreeableness, 0.24 for conscientiousness, 0.24 for extraversion, 0.23 for neuroticism, and 0.32 for openness to experience. For the narrowest phenotype, a significant negative correlation (-0.32) with extraversion was found. For the broadest phenotype, negative correlations were found for agreeableness (-0.35), conscientiousness (-0.39), and extraversion (-0.44). A positive correlation (0.37) was found with neuroticism. It is not possible to determine whether aspects of personality are factors in the development of bipolar disorder or vice versa. The short form of the NEO does not provide the ability to examine in detail which facets of extraversion are most closely related to bipolar disorder or to compare our results with studies that have used the long version of the scale. This study establishes a partial genetic basis for the Big Five personality factors in this set of families, while the environmental variances demonstrate that non-genetic factors are also important in their influence on

  14. Review of Heterojunctin Bipolar Transistor Structure, Applications, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Kayali, S.

    1993-01-01

    Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) are increasingly employed in high frequency, high linerity, and high efficiency applications. As the utilization of these devices becomes more widespread, their operation will be viewed with more scrutiny.

  15. Investigating membrane nanoporation induced by bipolar pulsed electric fields via second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, E. K.; Ibey, B. L.; Beier, H. T.; Armani, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Electric pulses have become an effective tool for transporting cargo (DNA, drugs, etc.) across cell membranes. This enhanced transport is believed to occur through temporary pores formed in the plasma membrane. Traditionally, millisecond duration, monopolar (MP) pulses are used for electroporation, but bipolar (BP) pulses have proven equally effective as MP pulses with the added advantage of less cytotoxicity. With the goal of further reducing cytotoxic effects and inducing non-thermal, intra-cellular effects, researchers began investigating reduced pulse durations, pushing into the nanosecond regime. Cells exposed to these MP, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) have shown increased repairable membrane permeability and selective channel activation. However, attempts to improve this further by moving to the BP pulse regime has proven unsuccessful. In the present work, we use second harmonic generation imaging to explore the structural effects of bipolar nsPEFs on the plasma membrane. By varying the temporal spacing between the pulse phases over several orders of magnitude and comparing the response to a single MP case, we systematically examine the disparity in cellular response. Our circuit-based model predicts that, as the temporal spacing increases several orders of magnitude, nanoporation increases and eventually exceeds the MP case. On the whole, our experimental data agree with this assertion; however, a detailed analysis of the data sets demonstrates that biological processes may play a larger role in the observed response than previously thought, dominating the effect for temporal spacing up to 5 μs. These findings could ultimately lead to understanding the biophysical mechanism underlying all electroporation.

  16. Flow field bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Analysis & modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahraman, Huseyin; Orhan, Mehmet F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Covers a comprehensive review of available flow field channel configurations. • Examines the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network. • Explores the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates. • Presents a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design. - Abstract: This study investigates flow fields and flow field plates (bipolar plates) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this regard, the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network have been examined, along with a comprehensive review of currently available flow field channel configurations. Also, the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates have been explored. Furthermore, a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design has been presented in-details. Finally, a parametric study has been conducted with respect to many design and performance parameters in a flow field plate.

  17. Lateral PNP bipolar transistor with aiding field diffusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Mc Cann, D. H.

    1969-01-01

    Fabrication technique produces field aided lateral PNP transistors compatible with micropower switching circuits. The sub-collector diffusion is performed with phosphorus as the dopant and the epitaxy is grown using the higher temperature silicon tetrachloride process.

  18. Estimating the measuring sensitivity of unipolar and bipolar ECG with lead field method and FDM models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puurtinen, Merja; Viik, Jari; Takano, Noriyuki; Malmivuo, Jaakko; Hyttinen, Jari

    2009-05-01

    New portable electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement systems are emerging into market. Some use nonstandard bipolar electrode montage and sometimes very small interelectrode distances to improve the usability of the system. Modeling could provide a straightforward method to test new electrode systems. The aim of this study was to assess whether modeling the electrodes' measuring sensitivity with lead field method can provide a simple tool for testing a number of new electrode locations. We evaluated whether the actual ECG signal strength can be estimated by lead fields with two realistic 3D finite difference method (FDM) thorax models. We compared the modeling results to clinical body surface potential map (BSPM) data from 236 normal patients and studied 117 unipolar and 42 bipolar leads. In the case of unipolar electrodes the modeled measuring sensitivities correlated well with the clinical data (r=0.86, N=117, p<0.05). In the case of bipolar electrodes the correlation was moderate (r=0.62 between Model 1 and clinical data, r=0.71 between Model 2 and clinical data, N=42 and p<0.05 for both). Based on this we can conclude that lead field analysis based on realistic thorax models provides a good initial prediction for designing new electrode montages and measurement systems.

  19. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-02-27

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reconstruction of a bipolar magnetic signature in an earthward jet in the tail: Flux rope or 3D guide-field reconnection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, H.; Nakamura, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Sergeev, V. A.; Lucek, E. A.; RèMe, H.; Khotyaintsev, Y.

    2007-11-01

    Southward-then-northward magnetic perturbations are often seen in the tail plasma sheet, along with earthward jets, but the generation mechanism of such bipolar Bz (magnetic flux rope created through multiple X-line reconnection, transient reconnection, or else) has been controversial. At ˜2313 UT on 13 August 2002, Cluster encountered a bipolar Bz at the leading edge of an earthward jet, with one of the four spacecraft in the middle of the current sheet. Application to this bipolar signature of Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction, the technique for recovery of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrostatic structures, suggests that a flux rope with diameter of ˜2 RE was embedded in the jet. To investigate the validity of the GS results, the technique is applied to synthetic data from a three-dimensional (3D) MHD simulation, in which a bipolar Bz can be produced through localized (3D) reconnection in the presence of guide field By (Shirataka et al., 2006) without invoking multiple X-lines. A flux rope-type structure, which does not in fact exist in the simulation, is reconstructed but with a shape elongated in the jet direction. Unambiguous identification of a mechanism that leads to an observed bipolar Bz thus seems difficult based on the topological property in the GS maps. We however infer that a flux rope was responsible for the bipolar pulse in this particular Cluster event, because the recovered magnetic structure is roughly circular, suggesting a relaxed and minimum energy state. Our results also indicate that one has to be cautious about interpretation of some (e.g., force-free, or magnetohydrostatic) model-based results.

  1. Electrical coupling of single cardiac rat myocytes to field-effect and bipolar transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Thomas; Issing, Matthias; Arnold, Rüdiger; Müller, Bernt

    2002-12-01

    A novel bipolar transistor for extracellular recording the electrical activity of biological cells is presented, and the electrical behavior compared with the field-effect transistor (FET). Electrical coupling is examined between single cells separated from the heart of adults rats (cardiac myocytes) and both types of transistors. To initiate a local extracellular voltage, the cells are periodically stimulated by a patch pipette in voltage clamp and current clamp mode. The local extracellular voltage is measured by the planar integrated electronic sensors: the bipolar and the FET. The small signal transistor currents correspond to the local extracellular voltage. The two types of sensor transistors used here were developed and manufactured in the laboratory of our institute. The manufacturing process and the interfaces between myocytes and transistors are described. The recordings are interpreted by way of simulation based on the point-contact model and the single cardiac myocyte model.

  2. Terahertz emission from collapsing field domains during switching of a gallium arsenide bipolar transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha; Yuferev, Valentin; Knap, Wojciech; Fatimy, Abdel; Diakonova, Nina

    2007-10-26

    Broadband pulsed THz emission with peak power in the sub-mW range has been observed experimentally during avalanche switching in a gallium arsenide bipolar junction transistor at room temperature, while significantly higher total generated power is predicted in simulations. The emission is attributed to very fast oscillations in the conductivity current across the switching channels, which appear as a result of temporal evolution of the field domains generated in highly dense electron-hole plasma. This plasma is formed in turn by powerful impact ionization in multiple field domains of ultrahigh amplitude.

  3. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Personality in proportion : A bipolar proportional scale for personality assessments and its consequences for trait structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.

    2004-01-01

    Trait structures resulting from personality assessments on Likert scales are affected by the additive and multiplicative transformations implied in interval scaling and correlational analysis. The effect comes into view on selecting a plausible alternative scale. To this end, we propose a bipolar

  5. STRUCTURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE BIPOLAR STATIC INDUCTION TRANSISTOR (BSIT RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to determine the impact of structural and technological parameters on the resistance of the bipolar static induction transistor.Methods. The paper provides a comparative analysis of the advantages of bipolar static induction transistor compared to the bipolar power transistors, MOSFETs and insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT. Considered are structural and technological parameters that influence the resistance of BSIT-transistor.Result. As a result of experimental study on silicon substrates were formed test prototypes of BSIT transistor structure, are presented calculation and experimental works. Obtained are the resistance dependencies of the transistor cell on the thickness of the epitaxial film; the resistance dependencies of BSIT transistor cell on the effective gate length for different values of the impurity concentration in the epitaxial film; dependencies resistance of the transistor cell on the gate length at different values of the epitaxial film thickness; the resistance dependencies of BSIT transistor cell on the distance between the mask for the p-region and the gate; dependencies on the multiplication the cell resistance by its area on the gate length.Conclusion. When increasing the gate length (Lk and the mask length for the p-region (lp + in the transistor structure, the resistance decreases and the dependence of multiplication of the cell resistance by its area Q on the gate length has this case the minimum.

  6. Brain structure-function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-07-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family

  7. Brain network analysis reveals affected connectome structure in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Guusje; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Abramovic, Lucija; Vreeker, Annabel; de Reus, Marcel A; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2016-01-01

    The notion that healthy brain function emerges from coordinated neural activity constrained by the brain's network of anatomical connections--i.e., the connectome--suggests that alterations in the connectome's wiring pattern may underlie brain disorders. Corroborating this hypothesis, studies in schizophrenia are indicative of altered connectome architecture including reduced communication efficiency, disruptions of central brain hubs, and affected "rich club" organization. Whether similar deficits are present in bipolar disorder is currently unknown. This study examines structural connectome topology in 216 bipolar I disorder patients as compared to 144 healthy controls, focusing in particular on central regions (i.e., brain hubs) and connections (i.e., rich club connections, interhemispheric connections) of the brain's network. We find that bipolar I disorder patients exhibit reduced global efficiency (-4.4%, P =0.002) and that this deficit relates (r = 0.56, P 0.1). These findings highlight a role for aberrant brain network architecture in bipolar I disorder with reduced global efficiency in association with disruptions in interhemispheric connectivity, while the central "rich club" system appears not to be particularly affected. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. POWER, METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING THERMOELECTRIC EVENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING BIPOLAR SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Magomedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The development of light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures having a low level of parasitic heat release.Methods. A method for converting thermoelectric heat in bipolar semiconductor structures into optical radiation to divert the excess energy into the environment was developed. At the same time, the cooling effect on thermoelectric junctions remains. Instead of an inertial process of conductive or convective heat transfer, practically instantaneous heat removal from electronic components to the environment takes place.Results. As a result, light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will allow more powerful devices with greater speed and degree of integration to be created. It is possible to produce transparent LED matrices with a two-way arrangement of transparent solar cells and mirror metal electrodes along the perimeter. When current is applied, the LED matrix on one of the transitions will absorb thermal energy; on other electrodes, it will emit radiation that is completely recovered into electricity by means of transparent solar cells following repeated reflection between the mirror electrodes. The low efficiency of solar cells will be completely compensated for with the multiple passages of photons through these batteries.Conclusion. Light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will not only improve the reliability of electronic components in a wide range of performance characteristics, but also improve energy efficiency through the use of optical radiation recovery. Semiconductor thermoelectric devices using optical phenomena in conjunction with the Peltier effect allow a wide range of energy-efficient components of radio electronic equipment to be realised, both for discrete electronics and for microsystem techniques. Systems for obtaining ultra-low temperatures in order to achieve superconductivity are of particular value. 

  9. Relationship between structural abnormalities in the cerebellum and dementia, posttraumatic stress disorder and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Baldaçara

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. New evidence suggests that the cerebellum has structural and functional abnormalities in psychiatric disorders. Objective: In this research, the goal was to measure the volume of the cerebellum and its subregions in individuals with psychiatric disorders and to relate these findings to their symptoms. Methods: Patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment (Epidemiology of the Elderly - UNIFESP and patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD from population studies were analyzed. Also, patients with bipolar disorder from an outpatient clinic (Center for the Study of Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Universidade Federal da Bahia were recruited for this study. All subjects underwent a 1.5T structural magnetic resonance scan. Volumetric measures and symptom measurements, by psychometric scales, were performed and compared between patients and controls. Results: The cerebellum volume was reduced in patients with cognitive impairment without dementia and with dementia, in patients with PTSD, and in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. In dementia and PTSD, the left cerebellar hemisphere and vermis volume were reduced. In bipolar disorder, volumes of both hemispheres and the vermis were reduced. In the first two studies, these cerebellar volumetric reductions correlated with symptoms of the disease. Conclusion: The exact nature of cerebellar involvement in mental processes is still not fully understood. However, abnormalities in cerebellar structure and its functions have been reported in some of these diseases. Future studies with larger samples are needed to clarify these findings and investigate whether they are important for treatment and prognosis.

  10. Bipolar redox behaviour, field-effect mobility and transistor switching of the low-molecular azo glass AZOPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Michael; Scheffler, Ayna; Suske, Irina; Eschner, Michael; Saragi, Tobat P I; Salbeck, Josef; Fuhrmann-Lieker, Thomas

    2010-11-07

    We present electrochemical and spectroelectrochemical data for the bipolar azo compound N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis[4-(phenylazo)phenyl]-4,4'diaminobiphenyl (AZOPD) demonstrating reversible bipolar redox behaviour with a bandgap of 2.1 eV. The reduced species formed upon two-electron transfer can be described as bis(radical anion) as was confirmed by comparison with a reference compound with only one azo chromophore. Hole and electron transport behaviour in amorphous films was demonstrated by the fabrication of organic field-effect transistors using gold and magnesium contacts, respectively. The transistors are sensitive to light due to E-Z photoisomerization.

  11. Nine-channel mid-power bipolar pulse generator based on a field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haylock, Ben, E-mail: benjamin.haylock2@griffithuni.edu.au; Lenzini, Francesco; Kasture, Sachin; Fisher, Paul; Lobino, Mirko [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Streed, Erik W. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Many channel arbitrary pulse sequence generation is required for the electro-optic reconfiguration of optical waveguide networks in Lithium Niobate. Here we describe a scalable solution to the requirement for mid-power bipolar parallel outputs, based on pulse patterns generated by an externally clocked field programmable gate array. Positive and negative pulses can be generated at repetition rates up to 80 MHz with pulse width adjustable in increments of 1.6 ns across nine independent outputs. Each channel can provide 1.5 W of RF power and can be synchronised with the operation of other components in an optical network such as light sources and detectors through an external clock with adjustable delay.

  12. Characterization and correction of eddy-current artifacts in unipolar and bipolar diffusion sequences using magnetic field monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Rachel W.; von Deuster, Constantin; Giese, Daniel; Stoeck, Christian T.; Harmer, Jack; Aitken, Andrew P.; Atkinson, David; Kozerke, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of moving organs is gaining increasing attention but robust performance requires sequence modifications and dedicated correction methods to account for system imperfections. In this study, eddy currents in the "unipolar" Stejskal-Tanner and the velocity-compensated "bipolar" spin-echo diffusion sequences were investigated and corrected for using a magnetic field monitoring approach in combination with higher-order image reconstruction. From the field-camera measurements, increased levels of second-order eddy currents were quantified in the unipolar sequence relative to the bipolar diffusion sequence while zeroth and linear orders were found to be similar between both sequences. Second-order image reconstruction based on field-monitoring data resulted in reduced spatial misalignment artifacts and residual displacements of less than 0.43 mm and 0.29 mm (in the unipolar and bipolar sequences, respectively) after second-order eddy-current correction. Results demonstrate the need for second-order correction in unipolar encoding schemes but also show that bipolar sequences benefit from second-order reconstruction to correct for incomplete intrinsic cancellation of eddy-currents.

  13. Improved performance of bipolar charge plasma transistor by reducing the horizontal electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramhane, Lokesh Kumar; Singh, Jawar

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a modified lateral bipolar charge plasma transistor (BCPT). The appropriate work function engineering is used to induce the electron-hole concentrations under different regions. The reduced work function difference and absence of oxide layer (tox) in the proposed lateral BCPT reduce the horizontal electric field (EX) at the emitter. Also, reduced work function difference at base metal contact decreases the electric field at base-emitter and base-collector junctions. 2-D TCAD simulations of the proposed device reveal that there are evenly spaced output characteristic curves, improved cut-off frequency and breakdown voltage. The reduction in horizontal electric field about one-fourth compared to the conventional lateral BCPT results in realistic current gain (β) and reduced on-set voltage makes proposed device suitable for low power applications. The proposed device exhibits improved cut-off frequency (fT = 7.5 GHz) compared to the lateral BCPT (3.7 GHz) and improved current gain (37.67) and same cut-off frequency (= 7.5 GHz) compared to the conventional BJT (β = 26.5 &fT = 7.5 GHz).

  14. A forming-free bipolar resistive switching behavior based on ITO/V2O5/ITO structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhenni; Darling, Robert B.; Majumdar, Arka; Anantram, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Forming-free bipolar resistive switching behavior in an ITO/V2O5/ITO structure is observed. While the bottom ITO layer functions as a common ground electrode, the top ITO layer is an active element and used as an oxygen reservoir, with an additional metal electrode patterned on its top for making contact. In contrast to typical metal/transition metal oxide/metal based resistive memories, our device exhibits a low resistance state in its virgin state and is switched to a high resistance state when a forward bias of ˜+2.5 V is applied. The device can be reset to its original state at a reverse bias of ˜-1.5 V. A noticeable decrease in switching voltage with a reduced top contact area is observed, indicating a strong electric field enhanced switching mechanism. Different from the widely seen conductive filament mechanism in bipolar switching, we explain the switching behavior by the migration of oxygen ions at the top ITO/V2O5 interface. When oxygen ions are extracted to the ITO side, an interfacial layer with reduced oxidation states is formed and acts as a Schottky barrier that suppresses the current through the whole device. The results suggest future applications in low power, high speed integrated non-volatile memories.

  15. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Thermal analytic model of current gain for bipolar junction transistor-bipolar static induction transistor compound device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, You-Run; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ze-Hong; Lai, Chang-Jin; Li, Zhao-Ji

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a thermal analytical model of current gain for bipolar junction transistor-bipolar static induction transistor (BJT-BSIT) compound device in the low current operation. It also proposes a best thermal compensating factor to the compound device that indicates the relationship between the thermal variation rate of current gain and device structure. This is important for the design of compound device to be optimized. Finally, the analytical model is found to be in good agreement with numerical simulation and experimental results. The test results demonstrate that thermal variation rate of current gain is below 10% in 25 °C-85°C and 20% in -55°C-25°C.

  16. Comparison between Field Effect Transistors and Bipolar Junction Transistors as Transducers in Electrochemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Sufi; Lu, Minhua; Jagtiani, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Field effect transistors (FET) have been widely used as transducers in electrochemical sensors for over 40 years. In this report, a FET transducer is compared with the recently proposed bipolar junction transistor (BJT) transducer. Measurements are performed on two chloride electrochemical sensors that are identical in all details except for the transducer device type. Comparative measurements show that the transducer choice significantly impacts the electrochemical sensor characteristics. Signal to noise ratio is 20 to 2 times greater for the BJT sensor. Sensitivity is also enhanced: BJT sensing signal changes by 10 times per pCl, whereas the FET signal changes by 8 or less times. Also, sensor calibration curves are impacted by the transducer choice. Unlike a FET sensor, the calibration curve of the BJT sensor is independent of applied voltages. Hence, a BJT sensor can make quantitative sensing measurements with minimal calibration requirements, an important characteristic for mobile sensing applications. As a demonstration for mobile applications, these BJT sensors are further investigated by measuring chloride levels in artificial human sweat for potential cystic fibrosis diagnostic use. In summary, the BJT device is demonstrated to be a superior transducer in comparison to a FET in an electrochemical sensor.

  17. Can structural MRI aid in clinical classification? A machine learning study in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnack, Hugo G; Nieuwenhuis, Mireille; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Abramovic, Lucija; Scheewe, Thomas W; Brouwer, Rachel M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Kahn, René S

    2014-01-01

    Although structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has revealed partly non-overlapping brain abnormalities in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, it is unknown whether structural MRI scans can be used to separate individuals with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder. An algorithm capable of discriminating between these two disorders could become a diagnostic aid for psychiatrists. Here, we scanned 66 schizophrenia patients, 66 patients with bipolar disorder and 66 healthy subjects on a 1.5T MRI scanner. Three support vector machines were trained to separate patients with schizophrenia from healthy subjects, patients with schizophrenia from those with bipolar disorder, and patients with bipolar disorder from healthy subjects, respectively, based on their gray matter density images. The predictive power of the models was tested using cross-validation and in an independent validation set of 46 schizophrenia patients, 47 patients with bipolar disorder and 43 healthy subjects scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. Schizophrenia patients could be separated from healthy subjects with an average accuracy of 90%. Additionally, schizophrenia patients and patients with bipolar disorder could be distinguished with an average accuracy of 88%.The model delineating bipolar patients from healthy subjects was less accurate, correctly classifying 67% of the healthy subjects and only 53% of the patients with bipolar disorder. In the latter group, lithium and antipsychotics use had no influence on the classification results. Application of the 1.5T models on the 3T validation set yielded average classification accuracies of 76% (healthy vs schizophrenia), 66% (bipolar vs schizophrenia) and 61% (healthy vs bipolar). In conclusion, the accurate separation of schizophrenia from bipolar patients on the basis of structural MRI scans, as demonstrated here, could be of added value in the differential diagnosis of these two disorders. The results also suggest that gray matter pathology in

  18. BDNF and BMI effects on brain structures of bipolar offspring: results from the global mood and brain science initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, R B; Brietzke, E; McIntyre, R S; Cao, B; Lee, Y; Japiassú, L; Chen, K; Lu, R; Lu, W; Li, T; Xu, G; Lin, K

    2017-12-01

    To compare brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels between offspring of individuals with bipolar disorders (BD) and healthy controls (HCs) and investigate the effects of BDNF levels and body mass index (BMI) on brain structures. Sixty-seven bipolar offspring and 45 HCs were included (ages 8-28). Structural images were acquired using 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Serum BDNF levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multivariate and univariate analyses of covariance were conducted. Significantly higher BDNF levels were observed among bipolar offspring, relative to HCs (P > 0.025). Offspring status moderated the association between BDNF and BMI (F 1 =4.636, P = 0.034). After adjustment for relevant covariates, there was a trend for a significant interaction of group and BDNF on neuroimaging parameters (Wilks'λ F 56,94 =1.463, P = 0.052), with significant effects on cerebellar white matter and superior and middle frontal regions. Brain volume and BDNF were positively correlated among HCs and negatively correlated among bipolar offspring. Interactions between BDNF and BMI on brain volumes were non-significant among HCs (Wilks'λ F 28,2 =2.229, P = 0.357), but significant among bipolar offspring (Wilks'λ F 28,12 =2.899, P = 0.028). Offspring status and BMI moderate the association between BDNF levels and brain structures among bipolar offspring, underscoring BDNF regulation and overweight/obesity as key moderators of BD pathogenesis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Abnormalities in Brain Structure in Children with Severe Mood Dysregulation or Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adleman, Nancy E.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Razdan, Varun; Kayser, Reilly; Dickstein, Daniel P.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether chronic irritability (operationalized as severe mood dysregulation, SMD) is a developmental form of bipolar disorder (BD). Although structural brain abnormalities in BD have been demonstrated, no study compares neuroanatomy among SMD, BD, and healthy volunteers (HV) either cross-sectionally or over time.…

  20. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  1. A novel 4H-SiC lateral bipolar junction transistor structure with high voltage and high current gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yong-Hui; Xie, Gang; Wang, Tao; Sheng, Kuang

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, a novel structure of a 4H-SiC lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) with a base field plate and double RESURF in the drift region is presented. Collector-base junction depletion extension in the base region is restricted by the base field plate. Thin base as well as low base doping of the LBJT therefore can be achieved under the condition of avalanche breakdown. Simulation results show that thin base of 0.32 μm and base doping of 3 × 1017 cm-3 are obtained, and corresponding current gain is as high as 247 with avalanche breakdown voltage of 3309 V when the drift region length is 30 μm. Besides, an investigation of a 4H-SiC vertical BJT (VBJT) with comparable breakdown voltage (3357 V) shows that the minimum base width of 0.25 μm and base doping as high as 8 × 1017 cm-3 contribute to a maximum current gain of only 128.

  2. Heat removal from bipolar transistor by loop heat pipe with nickel and copper porous structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patrik; Smitka, Martin; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements' influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have been made.

  3. Heat Removal from Bipolar Transistor by Loop Heat Pipe with Nickel and Copper Porous Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Nemec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loop heat pipes (LHPs are used in many branches of industry, mainly for cooling of electrical elements and systems. The loop heat pipe is a vapour-liquid phase-change device that transfers heat from evaporator to condenser. One of the most important parts of the LHP is the porous wick structure. The wick structure provides capillary force to circulate the working fluid. To achieve good thermal performance of LHP, capillary wicks with high permeability and porosity and fine pore radius are expected. The aim of this work was to develop porous structures from copper and nickel powder with different grain sizes. For experiment copper powder with grain size of 50 and 100 μm and nickel powder with grain size of 10 and 25 μm were used. Analysis of these porous structures and LHP design are described in the paper. And the measurements’ influences of porous structures in LHP on heat removal from the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT have been made.

  4. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  5. Structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in euthymic females with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Syan, Sabrina K; Smith, Mara; Hall, Alexander; Hall, Geoffrey Bc; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-12-01

    Current evidence from neuroimaging data suggests possible dysfunction of the fronto-striatal-limbic circuits in individuals with bipolar disorder. Somatosensory cortical function has been implicated in emotional recognition, risk-taking and affective responses through sensory modalities. This study investigates anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in euthymic bipolar women. In total, 68 right-handed euthymic women (bipolar disorder = 32 and healthy controls = 36) between 16 and 45 years of age underwent high-resolution anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during the mid-follicular menstrual phase. The somatosensory cortex was used as a seed region for resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate somatosensory cortical gray matter volume between groups. We found increased resting-state functional connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and insular cortex, inferior prefrontal gyrus and frontal orbital cortex in euthymic bipolar disorder subjects compared to healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter in the left somatosensory cortex in the bipolar disorder group. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis controlled by age did not reveal any additional significant difference between groups. This study is the first to date to evaluate anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in a well-characterized sample of euthymic bipolar disorder females. Anatomical and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in this population might contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

  6. Antiferromagnetic bipolar semiconductor LaMnPO with ZrCuSiAs-type structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takumi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-05-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of a layered compound LaMnPO are examined in relation to a newly discovered iso-structural superconductor LaFeAs(P)O. Neutron diffraction measurements, together with temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, clarify that LaMnPO is an antiferromagnet at least up to 375 K. The spin moment of a Mn ion is determined to be 2.26 μB at room temperature, and the spin configuration is antiparallel in the Mn-P plane and parallel between the Mn-P planes, which is rather different from that of LaFeAsO. Optical absorption spectra, photoemission spectra, and temperature dependent electrical conductivity indicate that LaMnPO is a semiconductor. Furthermore, nominally undoped LaMnPO exhibits n-type conduction while the conduction type is changed by doping of Cu or Ca to the La sites, indicating that LaMnPO is a bipolar conductor. Density functional calculation using the GGA+U approximation supports the above conclusions; the electronic band structure has an open band gap and the antiferromagnetic spin configuration is more stable than the ferromagnetic one.

  7. The relationship between genetic risk variants with brain structure and function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Licia P; Köhler, Cristiano A; de Sousa, Rafael T

    2017-01-01

    Genetic-neuroimaging paradigms could provide insights regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Nevertheless, findings have been inconsistent across studies. A systematic review of gene-imaging studies involving individuals with BD was conducted across electronic major databases from...

  8. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  9. Toroidal field coil torque structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A torque structure is disclosed particularly suitable for utilization in a power reactor of the Tokamak-type, and operable therein for purposes of providing support for the toroidal field (TF) coils that comprise one of the major operating components of such a Tokamak power reactor. The subject torque structure takes the form of a frame structure that is operable to enable torque loads acting on the TF coils to be equilibrated as close to the area of force application as feasible. The aforesaid torque structure includes an intercoil structure composed of spacer wedges that are interposed between each adjacent pair of TF coils. The spacer wedges, in turn, consist of bearing plates positioned between the TF coils so as to be in contacting relation therewith and a number of cross plates that are cooperatively associated with the bearing plates so as to form therewith a rigid assembly. The intercoil structure is affixed to a segmented, membrane shell that surrounds, encloses and supports the TF coil frames. Access is had to the interior of the shell through an opening formed for this purpose in a reinforced portion of the shell. Eddy current losses are minimized by insulating the joints formed at the juncture of adjoining segments of the shell

  10. Contribution to the study of fluctuations in transistors (bipolar and junction field effect types)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borel, J.

    1970-01-01

    A brief review of the basic theory of fluctuations in semiconductors is given: shot, thermal low frequency noise. A measuring set has been built to draw noise spectrums (current or voltage). Noise parameters of bipolar transistors are given, mainly noise voltage. Noise current, noise factor and correlation between noise sources are also calculated. Measurements of noise parameters fit well with theory for various devices made in different technologies: alloyed, mesa, planar. Then we give results of the calculation of noise parameters in a FET starting from a simplified model of the device. Low frequency noise is taken into account. Measurements of the parameters and of the spectrum agree fairly well with the theory. Studies of low frequency noise versus temperature give the density and energy of traps located in the space charge layers and an idea of the impurity encountered in these space charge layers [fr

  11. Space charge limited degradation of bipolar oxides at low electric-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witczak, S.C.; Lacoe, R.C.; Mayer, D.C.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Galloway, K.F.

    1998-03-01

    Radiation-induced degradation of many types of bipolar transistors and circuits is more severe following low dose rate exposure than following high dose rate exposure. Since microelectronic devices in space are generally subjected to low dose rate irradiation, this complicates the hardness assurance testing of linear circuits and can lead to an overestimation of device lifetime in space. Previous work examining the physical mechanisms responsible for this dose rate effect has focused primarily on oxide trapped charge. Reduced net positive oxide trapped charge densities at high dose rates and zero bias have been attributed to space charge effects from slowly transporting holes trapped metastably at O vacancy complexes. Decreasing the dose rate or increasing the irradiation temperature leads to an increase in net positive oxide trapped charge near the Si-SiO 2 interface by reducing these space charge effects. In this work, concentrations of hydrogen transport through two types of bipolar oxides are estimated from dopant passivation measurements in MOS capacitors. For unbiased irradiations, hydrogen passivation of substrate acceptors is greatly reduced at high dose rates compared to that at low dose rates or elevated temperatures. Consistent with other widely accepted models, it is argued that fewer interface traps are formed by high dose rate irradiation under zero bias, because fewer H + ions can drift to the Si-SiO 2 interface and react with trap precursors. Similar to hole transport in these oxides, drift of the H + ions is inhibited at high dose rates by space charge accumulated in the oxide bulk

  12. Tripolar electric field Structure in guide field magnetic reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fu; S. Huang; M. Zhou; B. Ni; X. Deng

    2018-01-01

    It has been shown that the guide field substantially modifies the structure of the reconnection layer. For instance, the Hall magnetic and electric fields are distorted in guide field reconnection compared to reconnection without guide fields (i.e., anti-parallel reconnection). In this paper, we performed 2.5-D electromagnetic full particle simulation to study the electric field structures in magnetic reconnection under different initial guide fields (Bg). Once the amplit...

  13. On Developing Field-Effect-Tunable Nanofluidic Ion Diodes with Bipolar, Induced-Charge Electrokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce herein the induced-charge electrokinetic phenomenon to nanometer fluidic systems; the design of the nanofluidic ion diode for field-effect ionic current control of the nanometer dimension is developed by enhancing internal ion concentration polarization through electrochemical transport of inhomogeneous inducing-counterions resulting from double gate terminals mounted on top of a thin dielectric layer, which covers the nanochannel connected to microfluidic reservoirs on both sides. A mathematical model based on the fully-coupled Poisson-Nernst-Plank-Navier-Stokes equations is developed to study the feasibility of this structural configuration causing effective ionic current rectification. The effect of various physiochemical and geometrical parameters, such as the native surface charge density on the nanochannel sidewalls, the number of gate electrodes (GE, the gate voltage magnitude, and the solution conductivity, permittivity, and thickness of the dielectric coating, as well as the size and position of the GE pair of opposite gate polarity, on the resulted rectification performance of the presented nanoscale ionic device is numerically analyzed by using a commercial software package, COMSOL Multiphysics (version 5.2. Three types of electrohydrodynamic flow, including electroosmosis of 1st kind, induced-charge electroosmosis, and electroosmosis of 2nd kind that were originated by the Coulomb force within three distinct charge layers coexist in the micro/nanofluidic hybrid network and are shown to simultaneously influence the output current flux in a complex manner. The rectification factor of a contrast between the ‘on’ and ‘off’ working states can even exceed one thousand-fold in the case of choosing a suitable combination of several key parameters. Our demonstration of field-effect-tunable nanofluidic ion diodes of double external gate electrodes proves invaluable for the construction of a flexible electrokinetic platform

  14. Copper-Based OHMIC Contracts for the Si/SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalyan; Hall, Harvey

    1999-01-01

    Silicon based heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBT) with SiGe base are potentially important devices for high-speed and high-frequency microelectronics. These devices are particularly attractive as they can be fabricated using standard Si processing technology. However, in order to realize the full potential of devices fabricated in this material system, it is essential to be able to form low resistance ohmic contacts using low thermal budget process steps and have full compatibility with VLSI/ULSI processing. Therefore, a study was conducted in order to better understand the contact formation and to develop optimized low resistance contacts to layers with doping densities corresponding to the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter regions of the HBTS. These as-grown doped layers were implanted with BF(sub 2) up to 1 X 10(exp 16)/CM(exp 2) and As up to 5 x 10(exp 15)/CM2, both at 30 keV for the p-type SiGe base and n-type Si emitter layers, respectively, in order to produce a low sheet resistance surface layer. Standard transfer length method (TLM) contact pads on both p and n type layers were deposited using an e-beam evaporated trilayer structure of Ti/CufTi/Al (25)A/1500A/250A/1000A). The TLM pads were delineated by a photoresist lift-off procedure. These contacts in the as-deposited state were ohmic, with specific contact resistances for the highest implant doses of the order of 10(exp -7) ohm-CM2 and lower.

  15. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects in MOS structures by study of bipolar operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiar, H.; Picard, C.; Brisset, C.; Bakhtiar, H.; Hoffmann, A.; Charles, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    This work presents an original method to characterize radiation effects of micronic transistors. The characterization includes a study of the transistor substrate-drain junction and current gain variation of the bipolar transistor (drain-substrate-source as emitter-base-collector) for different gate voltages. (authors)

  16. Overlapping and Segregating Structural Brain Abnormalities in Twins With Schizophrenia or Bipolar Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; van Baal, G. Caroline M.; Schnack, Hugo G.; Brans, Rachel G. H.; van der Schot, Astrid C.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; Lepage, Claude; Collins, D. Louis; Evans, Alan C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Nolen, Willem; Kahn, Rene S.

    Context: The nosologic dichotomy between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BD) as formulated by Kraepelin is currently being questioned, stimulated by the finding that schizophrenia and BD partly share a common genetic origin. Although both disorders are characterized by changes in brain

  17. Anisotropic magnetism in field-structured composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, James E.; Venturini, Eugene; Odinek, Judy; Anderson, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetic field-structured composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g., rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chainlike particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheetlike particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCs of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Two-dimensional spatial survey of the plasma potential and electric field in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetushka, A.; Karkari, S.K.; Bradley, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Emissive and Langmuir probe techniques have been used to obtain two-dimensional (2D) spatial maps of the plasma potential V p , electric field E, and ion trajectories in a pulsed bipolar magnetron discharge. The magnetron was pulsed at a frequency of 100 kHz, with a 50% duty cycle and operated at an argon pressure of 0.74 Pa. The pulse wave form was characterized by three distinct phases: the 'overshoot', 'reverse', and 'on' phases. In the 'on' phase of the pulse, when the cathode voltage is driven to -670 V, the 2D spatial distribution of V p has a similar form to that in dc magnetron, with significant axial and radial electric fields in the bulk plasma, accelerating ions to the sheath edge above the cathode racetrack region. During the 'overshoot' phase (duration 200 ns), V p is raised to values greater than +330 V, more than 100 V above the cathode potential, with E pointing away from the target. In the 'reverse' phase V p has a value of +45 V at all measured positions, 2 V more positive than the target potential. In this phase there is no electric field present in the plasma. In the bulk of the plasma, the results from Langmuir probe and the emissive probe are in good agreement, however, in one particular region of the plasma outside the radius of the cathode, the emissive probe measurements are consistently more positive (up to 45 V in the 'on' time). This discrepancy is discussed in terms of the different frequency response of the probes and their perturbation of the plasma. A simple circuit model of the plasma-probe system has been proposed to explain our results. A brief discussion of the effect of the changing plasma potential distribution on the operation of the magnetron is given

  19. Structural brain alterations in bipolar disorder II: a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Elisa; Rossi-Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Comparelli, Anna; Del Casale, Antonio; Carducci, Filippo; Romano, Andrea; Manfredi, Giovanni; Tatarelli, Roberto; Bozzao, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-09-05

    Brain structural changes have been described in bipolar disorder (BP), but usually studies focused on both I and II subtypes indiscriminately and investigated changes in either brain volume or white matter (WM) integrity. We used combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to track changes in the grey matter (GM) and WM in the brains of patients affected by BPII, as compared to healthy controls. Using VBM and DTI, we scanned 20 DSM-IV-TR BPII patients in their euthymic phase and 21 healthy, age- and gender-matched volunteers with no psychiatric history. VBM showed decreases in GM of BPII patients, compared to controls, which were diffuse in nature and most prominent in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the right superior temporal gurus. DTI showed significant and widespread FA reduction in BPII patients in all major WM tracts, including cortico-cortical association tracts. The small sample size limits the generalisability of our findings. Reduced GM volumes and WM integrity changes in BPII patients are not prominent like those previously reported in bipolar disorder type-I and involve cortical structures and their related association tracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bipolar characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction structure with AlGaN as buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Enchao; Wang, Xiaoliang; Xiao, Hongling; Wang, Cuimei; Yin, Haibo; Chen, Hong; Feng, Chun; Jiang, Lijuan; Hou, Xun; Wang, Zhanguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •2DEG and 2DHG coexist in the AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN DH-structure. •The sheet densities of 2DEG and 2DHG vary with buffer Al content and GaN thickness. •The conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. •Increasing buffer Al content provides better electron confinement. •Dislocation scattering is reduced in the DH-structure. -- Abstract: This is a theoretical study of AlGaN/AlN/GaN/AlGaN double heterojunction (DH) structure with AlGaN as buffer layer. Our calculation shows that as the buffer Al content increases, though two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) sheet density decreases, the channel back-barrier caused by polarization-induced electric field in GaN provides better electron confinement. And under certain conditions the DH-structure shows bipolar characteristics, with an additional two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at GaN/AlGaN interface. The influence of the buffer Al content and GaN channel thickness on the 2DEG and 2DHG sheet densities are investigated, and the conditions for the disappearance of 2DHG are discussed. Also, the mobility inhibited by dislocation scattering is enhanced in DH-structure due to the enhancement of screening effect of the 2DEG

  1. Structural brain abnormalities in patients with type I bipolar disorder and suicidal behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Dante G G; Neves, Maila de Castro L; Albuquerque, Maicon R; Turecki, Gustavo; Ding, Yang; de Souza-Duran, Fabio Luis; Busatto, Geraldo; Correa, Humberto

    2017-07-30

    Some studies have identified brain morphological changes in the frontolimbic network (FLN) in bipolar subjects who attempt suicide (SA). The present study investigated neuroanatomical abnormalities in the FLN to find a possible neural signature for suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I). We used voxel-based morphometry to compare euthymic patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide (n=20), who had not attempted suicide (n=19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=20). We also assessed the highest medical lethality of their previous SA. Compared to the participants who had not attempted suicide, the patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide exhibited significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which was more pronounced and extended further to the left ACC in the high-lethality subgroup (p<0.05, with family-wise error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons using small-volume correction). GMV in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex was also related to suicide lethality (p<0.05, FWE-corrected). The current findings suggest that morphological changes in the FLN could be a signature of previous etiopathogenic processes affecting regions related to suicidality and its severity in BD-I patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pleasure in activities once enjoyed Loss of self-esteem Thoughts of death or suicide Trouble getting to ... other. This is called rapid cycling. Exams and Tests To diagnose bipolar disorder, the provider may do ...

  3. Bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Colin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD presents in different phases over time and is oftencomplicated by comorbid conditions such as substance-use disordersand anxiety disorders. Treatment usually involves pharmacotherapywith combinations of different classes of medications and frequentmedication revisions.

  4. Unipolar and bipolar operation of InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Henrik A.; Caroff, Philippe; Lind, Erik; Pistol, Mats-Erik; Thelander, Claes; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2011-09-01

    We present temperature dependent electrical measurements on n-type InAs/InSb nanowire heterostructure field-effect transistors. The barrier height of the heterostructure junction is determined to be 220 meV, indicating a broken bandgap alignment. A clear asymmetry is observed when applying a bias to either the InAs or the InSb side of the junction. Impact ionization and band-to-band tunneling is more pronounced when the large voltage drop occurs in the narrow bandgap InSb segment. For small negative gate-voltages, the InSb segment can be tuned toward p-type conduction, which induces a strong band-to-band tunneling across the heterostructucture junction.

  5. CENP-W plays a role in maintaining bipolar spindle structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Kaczmarczyk

    Full Text Available The CENP-W/T complex was previously reported to be required for mitosis. HeLa cells depleted of CENP-W displayed profound mitotic defects, with mitotic timing delay, disorganized prometaphases and multipolar spindles as major phenotypic consequences. In this study, we examined the process of multipolar spindle formation induced by CENP-W depletion. Depletion of CENP-W in HeLa cells labeled with histone H2B and tubulin fluorescent proteins induced rapid fragmentation of originally bipolar spindles in a high proportion of cells. CENP-W depletion was associated with depletion of Hec1 at kinetochores. The possibility of promiscuous centrosomal duplication was ruled out by immunofluorescent examination of centrioles. However, centrioles were frequently observed to be abnormally split. In addition, a large proportion of the supernumerary poles lacked centrioles, but were positively stained with different centrosomal markers. These observations suggested that perturbation in spindle force distribution caused by defective kinetochores could contribute to a mechanical mechanism for spindle pole disruption. 'Spindle free' nocodazole arrested cells did not exhibit pole fragmentation after CENP-W depletion, showing that pole fragmentation is microtubule dependent. Inhibition of centrosome separation by monastrol reduced the incidence of spindle pole fragmentation, indicating that Eg5 plays a role in spindle pole disruption. Surprisingly, CENP-W depletion rescued the monopolar spindle phenotype of monastrol treatment, with an increased frequency of bipolar spindles observed after CENP-W RNAi. We overexpressed the microtubule cross-linking protein TPX2 to create spindle poles stabilized by the microtubule cross-linking activity of TPX2. Spindle pole fragmentation was suppressed in a TPX2-dependent fashion. We propose that CENP-W, by influencing proper kinetochore assembly, particularly microtubule docking sites, can confer spindle pole resistance to traction

  6. Magnetostriction of field-structured magnetoelastomers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulley, Gerald L. (Dominican University, River Forest, IL); Read, Douglas H.; Martin, James Ellis; Huber, Dale L.; Anderson, Robert Alan; Frankamp, Benjamin L.

    2005-12-01

    Field-structured magnetic particle composites are an important new class of materials that have great potential as both sensors and actuators. These materials are synthesized by suspending magnetic particles in a polymeric resin and subjecting these to magnetic fields while the resin polymerizes. If a simple uniaxial magnetic field is used, the particles will form chains, yielding composites whose magnetic susceptibility is enhanced along a single direction. A biaxial magnetic field, comprised of two orthogonal ac fields, forms particle sheets, yielding composites whose magnetic susceptibility is enhanced along two principal directions. A balanced triaxial magnetic field can be used to enhance the susceptibility in all directions, and biased heterodyned triaxial magnetic fields are especially effective for producing composites with a greatly enhanced susceptibility along a single axis. Magnetostriction is quadratic in the susceptibility, so increasing the composite susceptibility is important to developing actuators that function well at modest fields. To investigate magnetostriction in these field-structured composites we have constructed a sensitive, constant-stress apparatus capable of 1 ppm strain resolution. The sample geometry is designed to minimize demagnetizing field effects. With this apparatus we have demonstrated field-structured composites with nearly 10,000 ppm strain.

  7. On the Bipolar DC Flow Field-Effect-Transistor for Multifunctional Sample Handing in Microfluidics: A Theoretical Analysis under the Debye–Huckel Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present herein a novel method of bipolar field-effect control on DC electroosmosis (DCEO from a physical point of view, in the context of an intelligent and robust operation tool for stratified laminar streams in microscale systems. In this unique design of the DC flow field-effect-transistor (DC-FFET, a pair of face-to-face external gate terminals are imposed with opposite gate-voltage polarities. Diffuse-charge dynamics induces heteropolar Debye screening charge within the diffuse double layer adjacent to the face-to-face oppositely-polarized gates, respectively. A background electric field is applied across the source-drain terminal and forces the face-to-face counterionic charge of reversed polarities into induced-charge electroosmotic (ICEO vortex flow in the lateral direction. The chaotic turbulence of the transverse ICEO whirlpool interacts actively with the conventional plug flow of DCEO, giving rise to twisted streamlines for simultaneous DCEO pumping and ICEO mixing of fluid samples along the channel length direction. A mathematical model in thin-layer approximation and the low-voltage limit is subsequently established to test the feasibility of the bipolar DC-FFET configuration in electrokinetic manipulation of fluids at the micrometer dimension. According to our simulation analysis, an integrated device design with two sets of side-by-side, but upside-down gate electrode pair exhibits outstanding performance in electroconvective pumping and mixing even without any externally-applied pressure difference. Moreover, a paradigm of a microdevice for fully electrokinetics-driven analyte treatment is established with an array of reversed bipolar gate-terminal pairs arranged on top of the dielectric membrane along the channel length direction, from which we can obtain almost a perfect liquid mixture by using a smaller magnitude of gate voltages for causing less detrimental effects at a small Dukhin number. Sustained by theoretical

  8. Trivalued Memory Circuit Using Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Bipolar-Junction-Transistor Negative-Differential-Resistance Circuits Fabricated by Standard SiGe Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Kwang-Jow; Tsai, Cher-Shiung; Liang, Dong-Shong; Wen, Chun-Ming; Chen, Yaw-Hwang

    2006-09-01

    A trivalued memory circuit based on two cascoded metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor bipolar-junction-transistor negative-differential-resistance (MOS-BJT-NDR) devices is investigated. The MOS-BJT-NDR device is made of MOS and BJT devices, but it can show the NDR current-voltage characteristic by suitably arranging the MOS parameters. We demonstrate a trivalued memory circuit using the two-peak MOS-BJT-NDR circuit as the driver and a resistor as the load. The MOS-BJT-NDR devices and memory circuits are fabricated by the standard 0.35 μm SiGe process.

  9. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  10. Crystal structure of the HSV-1 Fc receptor bound to Fc reveals a mechanism for antibody bipolar bridging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Sprague

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type-1 expresses a heterodimeric Fc receptor, gE-gI, on the surfaces of virions and infected cells that binds the Fc region of host immunoglobulin G and is implicated in the cell-to-cell spread of virus. gE-gI binds immunoglobulin G at the basic pH of the cell surface and releases it at the acidic pH of lysosomes, consistent with a role in facilitating the degradation of antiviral antibodies. Here we identify the C-terminal domain of the gE ectodomain (CgE as the minimal Fc-binding domain and present a 1.78-angstroms CgE structure. A 5-angstroms gE-gI/Fc crystal structure, which was independently verified by a theoretical prediction method, reveals that CgE binds Fc at the C(H2-C(H3 interface, the binding site for several mammalian and bacterial Fc-binding proteins. The structure identifies interface histidines that may confer pH-dependent binding and regions of CgE implicated in cell-to-cell spread of virus. The ternary organization of the gE-gI/Fc complex is compatible with antibody bipolar bridging, which can interfere with the antiviral immune response.

  11. Structural dysconnectivity of key cognitive and emotional hubs in young people at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, G; Perry, A; Lord, A; Frankland, A; Leung, V; Holmes-Preston, E; Levy, F; Lenroot, R K; Mitchell, P B; Breakspear, M

    2018-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that psychiatric disorders are associated with disturbances in structural brain networks. Little is known, however, about brain networks in those at high risk (HR) of bipolar disorder (BD), with such disturbances carrying substantial predictive and etiological value. Whole-brain tractography was performed on diffusion-weighted images acquired from 84 unaffected HR individuals with at least one first-degree relative with BD, 38 young patients with BD and 96 matched controls (CNs) with no family history of mental illness. We studied structural connectivity differences between these groups, with a focus on highly connected hubs and networks involving emotional centres. HR participants showed lower structural connectivity in two lateralised sub-networks centred on bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left insular cortex, as well as increased connectivity in a right lateralised limbic sub-network compared with CN subjects. BD was associated with weaker connectivity in a small right-sided sub-network involving connections between fronto-temporal and temporal areas. Although these sub-networks preferentially involved structural hubs, the integrity of the highly connected structural backbone was preserved in both groups. Weaker structural brain networks involving key emotional centres occur in young people at genetic risk of BD and those with established BD. In contrast to other psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, the structural core of the brain remains intact, despite the local involvement of network hubs. These results add to our understanding of the neurobiological correlates of BD and provide predictions for outcomes in young people at high genetic risk for BD.

  12. Discharge dynamics of self-oriented microplasma coupling between cross adjacent cavities in micro-structure device driven by a bipolar pulse waveform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaogong; Zhang, Xiaoning; Liu, Lingguang; Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Chunliang; Zhang, Qiaogen

    2018-04-01

    The excitation dynamics and self-oriented plasma coupling of a micro-structure plasma device with a rectangular cross-section are investigated. The device consists of 7 × 7 microcavity arrays, which are blended into a unity by a 50 μm-thick bulk area above them. The device is operated in argon with a pressure of 200 Torr, driven by a bipolar pulse waveform of 20 kHz. The discharge evolution is characterized by means of electrical measurements and optical emission profiles. It has been found that different emission patterns are observed within microcavities. The formation of these patterns induced by the combined action between the applied electric field and surface deactivation is discussed. The microplasma distribution in some specific regions along the diagonal direction of cavities in the bulk area is observed, and self-oriented microplasma coupling is explored, while the plasma interaction occurred between cross adjacent cavities, contributed by the ionization wave propagation. The velocity of ionization wave propagation is measured to be 1.2 km/s to 3.5 km/s. The exploration of this plasma interaction in the bulk area is of value to applications in electromagnetics and signal processing.

  13. Examination of the predictive value of structural magnetic resonance scans in bipolar disorder: a pattern classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Rego, V; Jogia, J; Marquand, A F; Mourao-Miranda, J; Simmons, A; Frangou, S

    2014-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Patients are further disadvantaged by delays in accurate diagnosis ranging between 5 and 10 years. We applied Gaussian process classifiers (GPCs) to structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data to evaluate the feasibility of using pattern recognition techniques for the diagnostic classification of patients with BD. GPCs were applied to gray (GM) and white matter (WM) sMRI data derived from two independent samples of patients with BD (cohort 1: n = 26; cohort 2: n = 14). Within each cohort patients were matched on age, sex and IQ to an equal number of healthy controls. The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for GM was 73% in cohort 1 and 72% in cohort 2; the sensitivity and specificity of the GM classification were respectively 69% and 77% in cohort 1 and 64% and 99% in cohort 2. The diagnostic accuracy of the GPC for WM was 69% in cohort 1 and 78% in cohort 2; the sensitivity and specificity of the WM classification were both 69% in cohort 1 and 71% and 86% respectively in cohort 2. In both samples, GM and WM clusters discriminating between patients and controls were localized within cortical and subcortical structures implicated in BD. Our results demonstrate the predictive value of neuroanatomical data in discriminating patients with BD from healthy individuals. The overlap between discriminative networks and regions implicated in the pathophysiology of BD supports the biological plausibility of the classifiers.

  14. Effects of ankyrin 3 gene risk variants on brain structures in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miho; Hori, Hiroaki; Sato, Noriko; Yoshida, Fuyuko; Hattori, Kotaro; Teraishi, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2016-11-01

    The intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10994336 of the ankyrin 3 gene (ANK3 ) is one of the genome-wide supported risk variants for bipolar disorder (BD), and the T-allele of rs10761482 is also reported to have relevance to BD. We investigated the effect of ANK3 rs10761482 genetic variation on brain structure. Subjects were 43 BD patients and 229 healthy volunteers. We evaluated the effects of ANK3 rs10761482 genetic variation on diagnosis, and of the genotype-by-diagnosis interaction on the brain structure and the degree of age-related brain atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging data evaluated by voxel-based morphometry. BD patients showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy value in the bilateral parietal regions, left fronto-occipital fasciculus, and corpus callosum, compared to healthy subjects. Further, we found considerable decreases of fractional anisotropy in the forceps minor in non-T-allele BD patients compared with the T-carrier patient group. We also found significant lessening of age-related brain atrophy in the T-allele carrier groups compared with the non-T-allele carrier groups in the area around the cerebrospinal space, cingulate cortices, and cerebellum. Our results suggest the influence of the ANK3 on age-related brain atrophy. The ankyrin 3 genotype may be associated with pathogenesis of age-related neurodegeneration, and, in part, of BD. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  15. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth / For Teens / Bipolar Disorder What's in this ... Disorder Print en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  16. Field distribution analysis in deflecting structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonov, V.V. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    Deflecting structures are used now manly for bunch rotation in emittance exchange concepts, bunch diagnostics and to increase the luminosity. The bunch rotation is a transformation of a particles distribution in the six dimensional phase space. Together with the expected transformations, deflecting structures introduce distortions due to particularities - aberrations - in the deflecting field distribution. The distributions of deflecting fields are considered with respect to non linear additions, which provide emittance deteriorations during a transformation. The deflecting field is treated as combination of hybrid waves HE{sub 1} and HM{sub 1}. The criteria for selection and formation of deflecting structures with minimized level of aberrations are formulated and applied to known structures. Results of the study are confirmed by comparison with results of numerical simulations.

  17. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect friends and family? For More Information Share Bipolar Disorder Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  18. Structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls-a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Kuan, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Cheng-Ta; Su, Tung-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association. Voxel-based morphometry was performed using SPM12. In patients with BD, divergent thinking positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) in right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9), and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the medial prefrontal gyrus (BA 10). In the HCs, divergent thinking negatively correlated with the GMV in left superior frontal gyrus (BA 8) and positively correlated with the GMV in the precuneus and occipital regions, and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the hippocampus. Patients with BD were receiving various dosages of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizer. These medications may confound the GMV-creative thinking relationship in patients with BD. Our findings indicate that medial prefrontal cortex plays a major and positive role in creative thinking in patients with BD. By contrary, creative thinking involves more diverse structures, and the prefrontal cortex may have an opposite effect in HCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multimodal assessments of the hippocampal formation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Evidences from neurobehavioral measures and functional and structural MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Knöchel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential clinical and etiological overlap between schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD has long been a subject of discussion. Imaging studies imply functional and structural alterations of the hippocampus in both diseases. Thus, imaging this core memory region could provide insight into the pathophysiology of these disorders and the associated cognitive deficits. To examine possible shared alterations in the hippocampus, we conducted a multi-modal assessment, including functional and structural imaging as well as neurobehavioral measures of memory performance in BD and SZ patients compared with healthy controls. We assessed episodic memory performance, using tests of verbal and visual learning (HVLT, BVMT in three groups of participants: BD patients (n = 21, SZ patients (n = 21 and matched (age, gender, education healthy control subjects (n = 21. In addition, we examined hippocampal resting state functional connectivity, hippocampal volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and fibre integrity of hippocampal connections using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We found memory deficits, changes in functional connectivity within the hippocampal network as well as volumetric reductions and altered white matter fibre integrity across patient groups in comparison with controls. However, SZ patients when directly compared with BD patients were more severely affected in several of the assessed parameters (verbal learning, left hippocampal volumes, mean diffusivity of bilateral cingulum and right uncinated fasciculus. The results of our study suggest a graded expression of verbal learning deficits accompanied by structural alterations within the hippocampus in BD patients and SZ patients, with SZ patients being more strongly affected. Our findings imply that these two disorders may share some common pathophysiological mechanisms. The results could thus help to further advance and integrate current pathophysiological models of SZ and BD.

  20. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  1. Gauge field vacuum structure in geometrical aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2003-01-01

    Vacuum conception is one of the main conceptions of quantum field theory. Its meaning in classical field theory is also very profound. In this case the vacuum conception is closely connected with ideas of the space-time geometry. The global and local geometrical space-time conceptions lead to different vacuum definitions and therefore to different ways of physical theory construction. Some aspects of the gauge field vacuum structure are analyzed. It is shown that in the gauge field theory the vacuum Einstein equation solutions describe the relativistic vacuum as common vacuum of all gauge fields and its sources. Instantons (both usual and hyperbolical) are regarded as nongravitating matter, because they have zero energy-momentum tensors and correspond to vacuum Einstein equations

  2. Isolated electrostatic structures observed throughout the Cluster orbit: relationship to magnetic field strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Pickett

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated electrostatic structures are observed throughout much of the 4RE by 19.6RE Cluster orbit. These structures are observed in the Wideband plasma wave instrument's waveform data as bipolar pulses (one positive and one negative peak in the electric field amplitude and tripolar pulses (two positive and one negative peak, or vice versa. These structures are observed at all of the boundary layers, in the solar wind and magnetosheath, and along auroral field lines at 4.5-6.5RE. Using the Wideband waveform data from the various Cluster spacecraft we have carried out a survey of the amplitudes and time durations of these structures and how these quantities vary with the local magnetic field strength. Such a survey has not been carried out before, and it reveals certain characteristics of solitary structures in a finite magnetic field, a topic still inadequately addressed by theories. We find that there is a broad range of electric field amplitudes at any specific magnetic field strength, and there is a general trend for the electric field amplitudes to increase as the strength of the magnetic field increases over a range of 5 to 500nT. We provide a possible explanation for this trend that relates to the structures being Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode solitary waves. There is no corresponding dependence of the duration of the structures on the magnetic field strength, although a plot of these two quantities reveals the unexpected result that with the exception of the magnetosheath, all of the time durations for all of the other regions are comparable, whereas the magnetosheath time durations clearly are in a different category of much smaller time duration. We speculate that this implies that the structures are much smaller in size. The distinctly different pulse durations for the magnetosheath pulses indicate the possibility that the pulses are generated by a mechanism which is different from the mechanism operating in other regions.

  3. The Magnetic Field Structure of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Z. J.; Ding, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Zhong, J.; Poh, G.; Sun, W. J.; Wei, Y.; Chai, L. H.; Wan, W. X.; Shen, C.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we use the magnetic field data measured by MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the average magnetic field morphology of Mercury's magnetotail in the down tail 0-3 RM (RM = 2,440 km, Mercury's radius). It is found that Mercury has a terrestrial-like magnetotail; the magnetic field structure beyond 1.5 RM down tail is stretched significantly with typical lobe field 50 nT. A cross-tail current sheet separating the antiparallel field lines of lobes is present in the equatorial plane. The magnetotail width in north-south direction is about 5 RM, while the transverse width is about 4 RM. Thus, the magnetotail shows elongation along the north-south direction. At the cross-tail current sheet center, the normal component of magnetic field (10-20 nT) is much larger than the cross-tail component. The lobe-field-aligned component of magnetic field over current sheet can be well fitted by Harris sheet model. The curvature radius of field lines at sheet center usually reaches a minimum around midnight (100-200 km) with stronger current density (40-50 nA/m2), while the curvature radius increases toward both flanks (400-600 km) with the decreased current density (about 20 nA/m2). The half-thickness of current sheet around midnight is about 0.25 RM or 600 km, and the inner edge of current sheet is located at the down tail about 1.5 RM. Our results about the field structure in the near Mercury's tail show an evident dawn-dusk asymmetry as that found in the Earth's magnetotail, but reasons should be different. Possible reasons are discussed.

  4. Static electric field enhancement in nanoscale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepetit, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.lepetit@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr; Lemoine, Didier, E-mail: didier.lemoine@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Márquez-Mijares, Maykel, E-mail: mmarquez@instec.cu [Université de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire Collisions Agrégats Réactivité, IRSAMC, F-31062 Toulouse (France); CNRS, UMR 5589, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Avenida Salvador Allende 1110, Quinta de los Molinos, La Habana (Cuba)

    2016-08-28

    We study the effect of local atomic- and nano-scale protrusions on field emission and, in particular, on the local field enhancement which plays a key role as known from the Fowler-Nordheim model of electronic emission. We study atomic size defects which consist of right angle steps forming an infinite length staircase on a tungsten surface. This structure is embedded in a 1 GV/m ambient electrostatic field. We perform calculations based upon density functional theory in order to characterize the total and induced electronic densities as well as the local electrostatic fields taking into account the detailed atomic structure of the metal. We show how the results must be processed to become comparable with those of a simple homogeneous tungsten sheet electrostatic model. We also describe an innovative procedure to extrapolate our results to nanoscale defects of larger sizes, which relies on the microscopic findings to guide, tune, and improve the homogeneous metal model, thus gaining predictive power. Furthermore, we evidence analytical power laws for the field enhancement characterization. The main physics-wise outcome of this analysis is that limited field enhancement is to be expected from atomic- and nano-scale defects.

  5. Austerity and geometric structure of field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheyfets, A.

    1986-01-01

    The relation between the austerity idea and the geometric structure of the three basic field theories - electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory, and general relativity - is studied. One of the most significant manifestations of the austerity idea in field theories is thought to be expressed by the boundary of a boundary principle (BBP). The BBP says that almost all content of the field theories can be deduced from the topological identity of delta dot produced with delta = 0 used twice, at the 1-2-3-dimensional level (providing the homogeneous field equations), and at the 2-3-4-dimensional level (providing the conservation laws for the source currents). There are some difficulties in this line of thought due to the apparent lack of universality in application of the BBP to the three basic modern field theories above. This dissertation: (a) analyzes the difficulties by means of algebraic topology, integration theory, and modern differential geometry based on the concepts of principal bundles and Ehresmann connections: (b) extends the BBP to the unified Kaluza-Klein theory; (c) reformulates the inhomogeneous field equations and the BBP in terms of E. Cartan moment of rotation, in the way universal for the three theories and compatible with the original austerity idea; and (d) underlines the important role of the soldering structure on spacetime, and indicates that the future development of the austerity idea would involve the generalized theories

  6. Particle versus field structure in conformal quantum field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert

    2000-06-01

    I show that a particle structure in conformal field theory is incompatible with interactions. As a substitute one has particle-like excitations whose interpolating fields have in addition to their canonical dimension an anomalous contribution. The spectra of anomalous dimension is given in terms of the Lorentz invariant quadratic invariant (compact mass operator) of a conformal generator R μ with pure discrete spectrum. The perturbative reading of R o as a Hamiltonian in its own right, associated with an action in a functional integral setting naturally leads to the Ad S formulation. The formal service role of Ad S in order to access C QFT by a standard perturbative formalism (without being forced to understand first massive theories and then taking their scale-invariant limit) vastly increases the realm of conventionally accessible 4-dim. C QFT beyond those for which one had to use Lagrangians with supersymmetry in order to have a vanishing Beta-function. (author)

  7. The inversion layer of electric fields and electron phase-space-hole structure during two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.

  8. Differential interaction kinetics of a bipolar structure-specific endonuclease with DNA flaps revealed by single-molecule imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Rezgui

    Full Text Available As DNA repair enzymes are essential for preserving genome integrity, understanding their substrate interaction dynamics and the regulation of their catalytic mechanisms is crucial. Using single-molecule imaging, we investigated the association and dissociation kinetics of the bipolar endonuclease NucS from Pyrococcus abyssi (Pab on 5' and 3'-flap structures under various experimental conditions. We show that association of the PabNucS with ssDNA flaps is largely controlled by diffusion in the NucS-DNA energy landscape and does not require a free 5' or 3' extremity. On the other hand, NucS dissociation is independent of the flap length and thus independent of sliding on the single-stranded portion of the flapped DNA substrates. Our kinetic measurements have revealed previously unnoticed asymmetry in dissociation kinetics from these substrates that is markedly modulated by the replication clamp PCNA. We propose that the replication clamp PCNA enhances the cleavage specificity of NucS proteins by accelerating NucS loading at the ssDNA/dsDNA junctions and by minimizing the nuclease interaction time with its DNA substrate. Our data are also consistent with marked reorganization of ssDNA and nuclease domains occurring during NucS catalysis, and indicate that NucS binds its substrate directly at the ssDNA-dsDNA junction and then threads the ssDNA extremity into the catalytic site. The powerful techniques used here for probing the dynamics of DNA-enzyme binding at the single-molecule have provided new insight regarding substrate specificity of NucS nucleases.

  9. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  10. Bipolar disorder: an overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which is the reason that up to 69% of patients with BD are misdiagnosed.1 Bipolar ... Cyclothymic disorder. • Substance/medication induced bipolar and related disorder. • Bipolar and related disorder due to another medical condition ... patients. Keywords: bipolar disorder, mania, depression, pharmacological management.

  11. Antiferromagnetic bipolar semiconductor LaMnPO with ZrCuSiAs-type structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takumi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Shamoto, Shin-ichi; Kamiya, Toshio; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and magnetic properties of a layered compound LaMnPO are examined in relation to a newly discovered iso-structural superconductor LaFeAs(P)O. Neutron diffraction measurements, together with temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, clarify that LaMnPO is an antiferromagnet at least up to 375 K. The spin moment of a Mn ion is determined to be 2.26  µB at room temperature, and the spin configuration is antiparallel in the Mn–P plane and parallel between the Mn–P planes, which is...

  12. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  13. Structural Analysis of Field Sprayer Booms

    OpenAIRE

    KOÇ, Caner

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, structural analysis of a 21 meters wide field sprayer boom, designed for precision agricultureapplications, was conducted with finite element analysis. G-programming language, a data acquisition board andan inductive force transducer were used to measure the forces acting on the boom arms. An experimental setup,developed in a laboratory environment, was able to measure and record various forces in 5 miliseconds intervals.An ANSYS model was developed to analyze the forces record...

  14. Development of the field of structural physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUJIYOSHI, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Electron crystallography is especially useful for studying the structure and function of membrane proteins — key molecules with important functions in neural and other cells. Electron crystallography is now an established technique for analyzing the structures of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers that closely simulate their natural biological environment. Utilizing cryo-electron microscopes with helium-cooled specimen stages that were developed through a personal motivation to understand the functions of neural systems from a structural point of view, the structures of membrane proteins can be analyzed at a higher than 3 Å resolution. This review covers four objectives. First, I introduce the new research field of structural physiology. Second, I recount some of the struggles involved in developing cryo-electron microscopes. Third, I review the structural and functional analyses of membrane proteins mainly by electron crystallography using cryo-electron microscopes. Finally, I discuss multifunctional channels named “adhennels” based on structures analyzed using electron and X-ray crystallography. PMID:26560835

  15. Magnetic Field Structure in Relativistic Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jermak Helen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic jets are ubiquitous when considering an accreting black hole. Two of the most extreme examples of these systems are blazars and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs, the jets of which are thought to be threaded with a magnetic field of unknown structure. The systems are made up of a black hole accreting matter and producing, as a result, relativistic jets of plasma from the poles of the black hole. Both systems are viewed as point sources from Earth, making it impossible to spatially resolve the jet. In order to explore the structure of the magnetic field within the jet we take polarisation measurements with the RINGO polarimeters on the world’s largest fully autonomous, robotic optical telescope: The Liverpool Telescope. Using the polarisation degree and angle measured by the RINGO polarimeters it is possible to distinguish between global magnetic fields created in the central engine and random tangled magnetic fields produced locally in shocks. We also monitor blazar sources regularly during quiescence with periods of flaring monitored more intensively. Reported here are the early polarisation results for GRBs 060418 and 090102, along with future prospects for the Liverpool Telescope and the RINGO polarimeters.

  16. Integrable structures in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    This review was born as notes for a lecture given at the Young Researchers Integrability School (YRIS) school on integrability in Durham, in the summer of 2015. It deals with a beautiful method, developed in the mid-nineties by Bazhanov, Lukyanov and Zamolodchikov and, as such, called BLZ. This method can be interpreted as a field theory version of the quantum inverse scattering, also known as the algebraic Bethe ansatz. Starting with the case of conformal field theories (CFTs) we show how to build the field theory analogues of commuting transfer T matrices and Baxter Q -operators of integrable lattice models. These objects contain the complete information of the integrable structure of the theory, viz. the integrals of motion, and can be used, as we will show, to derive the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and nonlinear integral equations. This same method can be easily extended to the description of integrable structures of certain particular massive deformations of CFTs; these, in turn, can be described as quantum group reductions of the quantum sine-Gordon model and it is an easy step to include this last theory in the framework of BLZ approach. Finally we show an interesting and surprising connection of the BLZ structures with classical objects emerging from the study of classical integrable models via the inverse scattering transform method. This connection goes under the name of ODE/IM correspondence and we will present it for the specific case of quantum sine-Gordon model only. (topical review)

  17. COMPASS magnetic field coils and structure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, R.T.; Booth, J.A.; Hayward, R.J.; Keogh, P.; Pratt, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    COMPASS is a new experimental toroidal assembly of compact design and with a wide range of physics objectives. It is required to operate either as a Tokamak or as a Reversed Field Pinch with interchangeable circular and dee-section vacuum vessels. The Toroidal field is produced by 16 rectangular coils of 4 turns with tapered conductors on the inside which nest together to form a vault to resist the centering forces. The coils are designed to produce a maximum field on axis of 2.1T which requires a current of 91 kA per turn. Two central solenoids and five pairs of coils symmetrically positioned above and below the machine equator provide the poloidal field. Both coil systems are supported form a mechanical support structure which surrounds the machine. This is primarily designed to resist out-of-plane forces on the TF coils but also acts as the base support for the PF coils and vacuum vessels. An illustration of the COMPASS Load Assembly is given and shows the D-shaped vacuum vessel, the major components and the various field windings

  18. Intermittent structures in atmospheric wind fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueksek, Oersan; Muecke, Tanja; Peinke, Joachim [Wind Center for Wind Energy Research, University of Oldenburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    For design processes and load calculations of wind energy convertors (WEC) realistic synthetic wind fields are needed. The widely used norm is the standard IEC 61400. The IEC standard considers different simulation methods based on Gaussian statistics. However, the analysis of the measured wind fields by means of velocity increment statistics yields that these do not obey Gaussian statistics but are quite intermittent. The intermittent nature of atmospheric wind affects the whole chain of the wind energy conversion process and is assumed to be a major effect for additional loads and fatigue. A recently proposed method based on continuous time random walks (CTRWs) adequately reproduces the intermittency of turbulent atmospheric velocity increments on small time scales and provides wind fields with the desired high order two point statistics. In this work, we analyze highly time-resolved data sets measured in an extensive grid over the whole rotor plane of a WEC. The atmospheric wind fields are characterized statistically and the dependency of the higher order two point statistics on turbulence intensity, mean wind speed and height is shown. With this knowledge we are able to generate synthetic CTRW wind fields with the correct small scale structure.

  19. Alcoholism and anxiety in bipolar illness : Differential lifetime anxiety comorbidity in bipolar I women with and without alcoholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levander, Eric; Frye, Mark A.; McElroy, Susan; Suppes, Trisha; Grunze, Heinz; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Hwang, Sun; Mintz, Jim; Post, Robert M.

    Introduction: This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence rate of anxiety comorbidity in bipolar subjects with and without alcohol use disorders (AUD). Methods: Bipolar men and women who entered the Stanley Foundation Bipolar Network (SFBN) underwent a Structured Clinical Interview for

  20. Excellent selector performance in engineered Ag/ZrO2:Ag/Pt structure for high-density bipolar RRAM applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Song, Bing; Zeng, Zhongming

    2017-12-01

    A high-performance selector with bidirectional threshold switching (TS) characteristics of Ag/ZrO2/Pt structure was prepared by incorporating metallic Ag into the ZrO2 matrix. The bidirectional TS device exhibited excellent switching uniformity, forming-free behavior, ultra-low off current of volatile behavior could be explained by the self-dissolution of unstable filaments caused by minimization of the interfacial energy and thermal effect. Furthermore, a bipolar-type one selector-one resistor (1S-1R) memory device was successfully fabricated and exhibited significant suppression of the undesired sneak current, indicating the great potential as selector in a cross-point array.

  1. Bipolar Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiguchi Sumiyo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs as well as positive polarity items (PPIs. The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002 or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

  2. Resistive field structures for semiconductor devices and uses therof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinella, Matthew; DasGupta, Sandeepan; Kaplar, Robert; Baca, Albert G.

    2017-09-12

    The present disclosure relates to resistive field structures that provide improved electric field profiles when used with a semiconductor device. In particular, the resistive field structures provide a uniform electric field profile, thereby enhancing breakdown voltage and improving reliability. In example, the structure is a field cage that is configured to be resistive, in which the potential changes significantly over the distance of the cage. In another example, the structure is a resistive field plate. Using these resistive field structures, the characteristics of the electric field profile can be independently modulated from the physical parameters of the semiconductor device. Additional methods and architectures are described herein.

  3. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Amygdala Volumes in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Jonathan C.; Welge, Jeffrey; Strakowski. Stephen M.; Adler, Caleb M.; Delbello, Melissa P.

    2008-01-01

    The size of amygdala of bipolar youths and adults is investigated using neuroimaging studies. Findings showed that smaller volumes of amygdala were observed in youths with bipolar youths compared with children and adolescents without bipolar disorder. The structural amygdala abnormalities in bipolar youths are examined further.

  5. DMFC bipolar material and new processing for μDMFC microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bifeng; Guan, Tao; Wang, Yun

    2010-10-01

    DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell) is attractive as green energy with the characteristics of high energy conversion rate, lower carbon and emission, eco-friendly alternative energy. In DMFC, bipolar plate is one key component because of its high performance requirements, the bipolar plate nearly always makes about 60% contribution to the cost of all fuel cell, seriously affected the commercialization progress of DMFC. Furthermore, the flow channel design and arrangement in bipolar plate has a great influence on water and heat management, distribution of reactants and smooth resultant discharge. So the DMFC bipolar plate material and flow channel processing technique obtains more concerns. After introducing the bipolar plate structure and its functions, it points out that the bipolar plate material nowadays mainly involves the graphite materials, metals and composite. Then the corresponding preparation method, advantages and disadvantages of these three kinds of bipolar plate materials are analyzed. With the rapid development of Micro and Nano-technology and the demand for electricity supply of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical systems, micro-energy sources have been the focus, resulting in the miniaturization DMFC (μ DMFC). As the micro-bipolar plates has to survive the severe rugged working environment, such as high temperature, deep-etching, multi-field and alternating pressure), which challenges the material selection, flow channel configuration, processing method and precision. Therefore, hard-to-deform material such as titanium alloy is the preferred material for micro-bipolar plate. However, the new processing method has to be initialized for hard-to-deform material. This paper introduces the traditional and advanced processing methods of μDMFC bipolar plate. The existing problems of the DMFC bipolar plate material selection and processing are analyzed. We initialized one new technique that combines the laser-assisted heating method and micro die-pressing. The

  6. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  7. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many people have bipolar disorder along with another illness such as anxiety disorder, substance abuse, or an eating disorder. People with ... are sometimes misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. Anxiety and ADHD: ... such as bipolar disorder. Risk Factors Scientists are ...

  8. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  9. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  10. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients......BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...

  11. Psychotic and Bipolar Disorders: Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Sarah D

    2017-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... management strategies. In addition to medications and other types of treatment, successful management of your bipolar disorder includes living a healthy lifestyle, such as getting enough sleep, eating a healthy diet and being physically active. ...

  14. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  15. Excellent selector performance in engineered Ag/ZrO2:Ag/Pt structure for high-density bipolar RRAM applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A high-performance selector with bidirectional threshold switching (TS characteristics of Ag/ZrO2/Pt structure was prepared by incorporating metallic Ag into the ZrO2 matrix. The bidirectional TS device exhibited excellent switching uniformity, forming-free behavior, ultra-low off current of <1 nA and adjustable selectivity (from 102 to 107. The experiment results confirmed that metallic Ag clusters were penetrated into the ZrO2 matrix during the annealing process, which would function as an effective active source responsible for the bidirectional TS. The volatile behavior could be explained by the self-dissolution of unstable filaments caused by minimization of the interfacial energy and thermal effect. Furthermore, a bipolar-type one selector-one resistor (1S-1R memory device was successfully fabricated and exhibited significant suppression of the undesired sneak current, indicating the great potential as selector in a cross-point array.

  16. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  17. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  18. Improved model of the triple system V746 Cassiopeiae that has a bipolar magnetic field associated with the tertiary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmanec, P.; Brož, M.; Mayer, P.; Zasche, P.; Kotková, L.; Nemravová, J. A.; Dukes, R. J.; Korčáková, D.; Šlechta, M.; Kıran, E.; Kříček, R.; Juryšek, J.

    2018-01-01

    V746 Cas is known to be a triple system composed of a close binary with an alternatively reported period of either 25.^d4 or 27.^d8 and a distant third component in a 170 yr (62 000 d) orbit. The object was also reported to exhibit multiperiodic light variations with periods from 0.^d83 to 2.^d50, on the basis of which it was classified as a slowly pulsating B star. Interest in further investigation of this system was raised by the recent detection of a variable magnetic field. Analysing spectra from four instruments, earlier published radial velocities, and several sets of photometric observations, we arrived at the following conclusions: (1) The optical spectrum is dominated by the lines of the B-type primary (Teff 1 16 500(100) K), contributing 70% of the light in the optical region, and a slightly cooler B tertiary (Teff 3 13 620(150) K). The lines of the low-mass secondary are below our detection threshold; we estimate that it could be a normal A or F star. (2) We resolved the ambiguity in the value of the inner binary period and arrived at a linear ephemeris of Tsuper. conj.=HJD 2 443 838.78(81)+25.^d41569(42)× E. (3) The intensity of the magnetic field undergoes a sinusoidal variation in phase with one of the known photometric periods, namely 2.^d503867(19), which we identify with the rotational period of the tertiary. (4) The second dominant photometric 1.^d0649524(40) period is tentatively identified with the rotational period of the broad-lined B-type primary, but this interpretation is much less certain and needs further verification. (5) If our interpretation of photometric periods is confirmed, the classification of the object as a slowly pulsating B star should be revised. (6) Applying an N-body model to different types of available observational data, we can constrain the orbital inclination of the inner orbit to 60°

  19. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  20. New Benzimidazole-Based Bipolar Hosts: Highly Efficient Phosphorescent and Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Employing the Same Device Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yali; Wu, Chao; Qiu, Panlong; Li, Xiaoping; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Jiangshan; Ma, Dongge

    2016-02-03

    The rapid development of the thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters makes it necessary to produce new versatile host materials for both phosphorescent and TADF emitters. Three new bipolar host materials, 9,9'-(2'-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole) (o-mCPBI), 9,9'-(3'-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole) (m-mCPBI), and 9,9'-(4'-(1H-benzimidazol-1-yl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,5-diyl)bis(9H-carbazole) (p-mCPBI), are designed and synthesized by integrating mCP with benzimidazole moiety via the ortho-, meta-, and para-positions of N-phenyl. The influence of different linking modes on the thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, and charge transport properties of the compounds is studied. By employing the same device structure except the emitting layer, the device performances of the blue, green, yellow, red, white phosphorescent and blue, green TADF organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the three hosts are investigated. Among these three hosts, o-mCPBI exhibits the best device performance with external quantum efficiencies of over 20% for phosphorescent OLEDs and enhanced efficiencies for TADF devices. All these devices show relatively low efficiency roll-offs at high brightness. The versatility of the benzimidazole-based bipolar host o-mCPBI, such as an extremely high triplet energy level, suitable molecular orbital energy levels, improved thermal and charge transport properties, and excellent device performances for various colors, makes it a universal host material for highly efficient both phosphorescent and TADF OLEDs.

  1. Mean field approach to nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1993-01-01

    Several examples of mean-field calculations, relevant to the recent and planned low-spin experimental works, are presented. The perspectives for future studies (mainly related to spectroscopy of exotic nuclei) are reviewd

  2. MULTICYCLIC ACTION OF DRIFTING ICE FIELDS ON OFFSHORE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uvarova Tatyana Erikovna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the model of mechanical interaction of ice fields with offshore structures. This model allows to calculate the amount of loading cycles, duration of penetration, interaction length and loading regime of structure.

  3. Structural design of the superconducting toroidal field coils for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, F.M.G.; Sborchia, C.; Thome, R.J.; Malkov, A.; Titus, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Structural design issues and features of the superconducting toroidal field (TF) coils for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will be discussed. Selected analyses of the structural and mechanical behavior of the ITER TF coils will also be presented. (orig.)

  4. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  5. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  6. Sleep study in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder and Bipolar children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Prat, Xavier; Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Bleda-Hernández, María J; Camprodon-Rosanas, Ester; Batlle-Vila, Santiago; Pujals-Altes, Elena; Nascimento-Osorio, María T; Martín-López, Luís M; Álvarez-Martínez, Enric; Pérez-Solá, Víctor; Romero-Cela, Soledad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased need for sleep has been proposed as a core symptom of mania and it has been associated with the pathogenesis of Bipolar Disorder. The emergence of Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD) as a new diagnostic has been controversial and much has been speculated about its relationship with the bipolar spectrum. REM sleep fragmentation could be a biomarker of affective disorders and it would help us to differentiate them from other disorders. Polysomnographic cross-sectional study of children with DMDD, bipolar disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). All participants underwent a psychiatric semi-structured interview to obtain the diagnosis, comorbidities and primary sleep disorders. DMDD’s sample was performed following DSM5 criteria. Perform polysomnography in a sample of bipolar, DMDD and ADHD children and compare their profiles to provide more evidence about the differences or similarities between bipolar disorder and DMDD. Bipolar group had the highest REM density values while ADHD had the lowest. REM density was not statiscally different between bipolar phenotypes. REM density was associated with antidepressant treatment, episodes of REM and their interaction. REM latency was associated with antipsychotic treatment and school performance. Bipolar patients had higher scores on the depression scale than DMDD and ADHD groups. No significant differences between the two compared affective disorders were found. However there were differences in REM density between bipolar and ADHD groups. REM sleep study could provide a new theoretical framework to better understand the pathogenesis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

  7. Meaning Structures in a Contested Issue Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Renate; Höllerer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    When organizational concepts spread beyond national and cultural boundaries, they must pass through powerful filters of local cultural and structural opportunities and constraints in order to mobilize legitimacy. Struggles over their meaning are intensified if they challenge the prevailing order....

  8. Structure of magnetic field in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic surfaces, necessary to plasma confinement, can be extinguished by resonant helical perturbations with small intensities due to plasma oscillations or external helical currents. The mapping of magnetic field is obtained intergrating numerically the differential equation of its lines. Criteria which evaluate the chaotic distribution of lines between resonant magnetic islands are presented. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. Manipulation of molecular structures with magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boamfa, M.I.

    2003-01-01

    The present thesis deals with the use of magnetic fields as a handle to manipulate matter at a molecular level and as a tool to probe molecular properties or inter molecular interactions. The work consists of in situ optical studies of (polymer) liquid crystals and molecular aggregates in high

  10. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  11. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  12. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a "risk" allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are currently not fulfilled for common genomic variants in psychiatric disorders. Further work is clearly needed before genetic testing for common variants in

  13. Bipolar Disorder - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MP3 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - English MP4 Bipolar Disorder (An Introduction) - español (Spanish) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  14. Magnetic bipolar transistor

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, Jaroslav; Zutic, Igor; Sarma, S. Das

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bipolar transistor is a bipolar junction transistor with one or more magnetic regions, and/or with an externally injected nonequilibrium (source) spin. It is shown that electrical spin injection through the transistor is possible in the forward active regime. It is predicted that the current amplification of the transistor can be tuned by spin.

  15. Bipolar-FET combinational power transistors for power conversion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.; Chin, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four bipolar-FET (field-effect transistor) combinational transistor configurations are compared from the application point of view. The configurations included are FET-Darlington (cascade), emitter-open switch (cascode), parallel configuration, and FET-gated bipolar transistors (FGT).

  16. Field Implementation of RBI for Jacket Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tychsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    After a brief outline of the simplified and generic approach to reliability- and risk-based inspection planning, focus is set on a recent application of the methodology for the planning of in-service NDT inspections of fixed offshore steel jacket structures in the Danish part of the North Sea....... The study includes a sensitivity analysis performed for the identification of relevant generic parameters such as the bending to membrane stress ratio, the design fatigue life, and the material thickness. Based on the results of the sensitivity analysis, a significant number of inspection plans were...... for structural details subject to fatigue deterioration, as illustrated by an example in the paper....

  17. The impact of the CACNA1C risk allele on limbic structures and facial emotions recognition in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; Dias, Carolina Zadres; Bio, Danielle S; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Moreno, Ricardo Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) during all mood states. FER has been the focus of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies evaluating differential activation of limbic regions. Recently, the α1-C subunit of the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (CACNA1C) gene has been described as a risk gene for BD and its Met allele found to increase CACNA1C mRNA expression. In healthy controls, the CACNA1C risk (Met) allele has been reported to increase limbic system activation during emotional stimuli and also to impact on cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CACNA1C genotype on FER scores and limbic system morphology in subjects with BD and healthy controls. Thirty-nine euthymic BD I subjects and 40 healthy controls were submitted to a FER recognition test battery and genotyped for CACNA1C. Subjects were also examined with a 3D 3-Tesla structural imaging protocol. The CACNA1C risk allele for BD was associated to FER impairment in BD, while in controls nothing was observed. The CACNA1C genotype did not impact on amygdala or hippocampus volume neither in BD nor controls. Sample size. The present findings suggest that a polymorphism in calcium channels interferes FER phenotype exclusively in BD and doesn't interfere on limbic structures morphology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. High power gain switched laser diodes using a novel compact picosecond switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor structure for pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2006-04-01

    A number of up-to-date applications, including advanced optical radars with high single-shot resolution, precise 3 D imaging, laser tomography, time imaging spectroscopy, etc., require low-cost, compact, reliable sources enabling the generation of high-power (1-100 W) single optical pulses in the picosecond range. The well-known technique of using the gain-switching operation mode of laser diodes to generate single picosecond pulses in the mW range fails to generate high-power single picosecond pulses because of a lack of high-current switches operating in the picosecond range. We report here on the achieving of optical pulses of 45W / 70ps, or alternatively 5W / 40ps, with gain-switched commercial quantum well (QW) laser diodes having emitting areas of 250 × 200 μm and 75 × 2 μm, respectively. This was made possible by the use of a novel high-current avalanche switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure with a switching time (transistor structure.) A simulation code developed earlier but modified and carefully verified here allowed detailed comparison of the experimental and simulated laser responses and the transient spectrum.

  19. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  20. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  1. Improving the magnetic field homogeneity by varying magnetic field structure in a geophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Li; Wang, Wentao; Yao, Zhenjing; Gao, Qiang; Han, Zhiming

    2018-01-01

    The magnetic field structure is a key factor that affects performance of the magneto-electric geophone. In order to enhance the magnetic field homogeneity and magnetic induction intensity of the magnetic field structure, this paper proposes a new magnetic field structure. It consists of two cylindrical permanent magnets: an H-type magnetic boot and an external magnetic yoke. The proposed magnetic field structure can broaden the range of a uniform magnetic field and increase the magnetic field intensity of working air-gap. To confirm the validity of the design, the finite element analysis and real measurement experiments were conducted. The finite element simulations using the ANASYS Electromagnetics Suite 17.2.0 showed that the air-gap magnetic induction intensity is increased and the work space with a uniform magnetic field is broadened. Meanwhile, the output voltage of the coil is increased, and the harmonic distortion rate of output voltage is reduced. According to the real measurement experimental results, compared with the traditional magnetic field structure, the uniform range of the magnetic field is improved 23% in the entire air-gap path, and the magnetic induction intensity enhances 24% over the proposed new magnetic field structure.

  2. The Submicrosecond Structure of Lightning Radiation Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    lighting Technology , NASA Conf. Pub. 2128 and x iA-RD-80-30, pp. 39-82, 1980. 11. C. E. Baum, E. L. Breen, F. L. Pitts, G. D. Sower, and M. E. Thomas, "The Measurement of Lightning Environmental Parameters Related to Interaction with Electronic Systems", IEEE Trans, on EMC, Vol. EMC-24, pp. 123-137, 1982. 12. CD. Weidman and E. P. Krider, "The Radiation Field Waveforms Produced by Intra- cloud Lightning Discharge Processes", J. Geo- phys. Res., Vol. 84, pp. 3159-3164, 1979. 13. W. Beasley, M. A. Uman, and P. L. Rustan, Jr.,

  3. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  4. Laser fields in dynamically ionized plasma structures for coherent acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Luu-Thanh, Ph.; Pukhov, A.; Kostyukov, I.

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of the CAN (Coherent Amplification Network) laser technology, a new scheme for direct particle acceleration in periodic plasma structures has been proposed. By using our full electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code equipped with ionisation module, we simulate the laser fields dynamics in the periodic structures of different materials. We study how the dynamic ionization influences the field structure.

  5. Field Implementation of RBI for Jacket Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Straub, D.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper first gives a brief outline of the simplified and generic approach to reliability and risk based inspection planning and thereafter sets focus on a recent application of the methodology for planning of in-service NDT inspections of the fixed offshore steel jacket structures...... stress ratio, the design fatigue life and the material thickness. Based on the results of the sensitivity analysis a significant number of inspection plans were computed for fixed generic parameters (pre-defined generic plans) and a data-base named iPlan was developed from which inspection plans may...... be obtained by interpolation between the pre-defined generic plans. The iPian data-base facilitates the straightforward production of large numbers of inspection plans for structural details subject to fatigue deterioration. In the paper the application of the generic inspection plan database iPian is finally...

  6. "Is it menopause or bipolar?": a qualitative study of the experience of menopause for women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Parton, Chloe

    2017-11-16

    Menopause can be a time of change for women and may be marked by disturbances in mood. For women living with a mental illness, such as bipolar disorder, little is known about how they experience mood changes during menopause. This study aimed to explore how women with bipolar disorder constructed mood changes during menopause and how this impacted on treatment decisions. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with fifteen women who reported they had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Data was analysed using thematic analysis guided by a social constructionist framework. Themes identified included 'Constructions of mood change: menopause or bipolar disorder?',' Life events, bipolar disorder and menopause coming together'; 'Treatment choices for mood change during menopause'. The accounts suggested that women related to the experience of mood changes during menopause through the lens of their existing framework of bipolar disorder, with implications for understanding of self and treatment choices.

  7. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, M.; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  8. A gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipperian, T. E.; Dawson, L. R.; Chaffin, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high temperature (350 C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for geothermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p(+)n(-)pp(+) structure was formed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The initial design suffers from a series resistance problem which limits the transistor's usefulness at high temperatures.

  9. Quantum field theory and nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celenza, L.S.; Goulard, B.; Shakin, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss recent successful calculations of the properties of nuclear matter within the context of theories exhibiting mass generation through spontaneous symmetry breaking. We start with the sigma model of Gell-Mann and Levy and introduce the nucleon mass (in a vacuum) in the usual manner. We relate the expectation value of the sigma field in a vacuum to a finite value of the scalar density. If the vacuum is now filled with nucleons (nuclear matter) the scalar density is increased and the new value for the nucleon mass must be determined. We exhibit the equation whose solution determines the new mass, and we also define a perturbative scheme for the determination of this mass. This scheme involves an expansion of the various quantities of the theory in terms of matrix elements calculated with positive- and negative-energy spinors parametrized with the vacuum mass. Although the decrease in the mass upon going from vacuum to nuclear matter at the equilibrium density is quite large (approx.400 MeV), we are still able to exhibit a small parameter which allows for a perturbative expansion of the binding energy and other observables. The leading term in such an expansion reproduces the approximation widely used in other calculations of the properties of nuclear matter. The truncation of the expansion at the leading term is inadequate and this fact accounts for the lack of success in previous calculations using the standard formalism. We proceed to make a transformation to the Weinberg Lagrangian retaining the fluctuating parts of the sigma field. We further make a small-oscillation approximation, dropping the nonlinear terms in this Lagrangian

  10. Fine structure of oceanic natural radioactivity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'ichev, V.I.; Kobylyanskij, V.V.; Myagkikh, A.I.; Ol'shanskij, Yu.I.; Kharlamov, Yu.M.

    1989-01-01

    The precise measurement of the intensity of the natural ocean gamma-radiation in terms of fine thermochaline structure of water masses is carried out by the series of slow vertical probings using a high-sensitivity gamma-spectrometer with the synchronous measurement of hydrological characteristics (temperature, salinity, pressure). The existence of nonhomogeneity in the distribution of natural radioactivity in depth not accompanied by analogous changes in the salinity is shown. It is assumed that the main role in this case is played by the binary diffusion

  11. A study of genetic and environmental contributions to structural brain changes over time in twins concordant and discordant for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootsman, F; Brouwer, R M; Schnack, H G; Kemner, S M; Hillegers, M H J; Sarkisyan, G; van der Schot, A C; Vonk, R; Hulshoff Pol, H E; Nolen, W A; Kahn, R S; van Haren, N E M

    2016-08-01

    This is the first longitudinal twin study examining genetic and environmental contributions to the association between liability to bipolar disorder (BD) and changes over time in global brain volumes, and global and regional measures of cortical surface area, cortical thickness and cortical volume. A total of 50 twins from pairs discordant or concordant for BD (monozygotic: 8 discordant and 3 concordant pairs, and 1 patient and 3 co-twins from incomplete pairs; dizygotic: 6 discordant and 2 concordant pairs, and 1 patient and 7 co-twins from incomplete pairs) underwent magnetic resonance imaging twice. In addition, 57 twins from healthy twin pairs (15 monozygotic and 10 dizygotic pairs, and 4 monozygotic and 3 dizygotic subjects from incomplete pairs) were also scanned twice. Mean follow-up duration for all twins was 7.5 years (standard deviation: 1.5 years). Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling software OpenMx. The liability to BD was not associated with global or regional structural brain changes over time. Although we observed a subtle increase in cerebral white matter in BD patients, this effect disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Heritability of brain changes over time was generally low to moderate. Structural brain changes appear to follow similar trajectories in BD patients and healthy controls. Existing brain abnormalities in BD do not appear to progressively change over time, but this requires additional confirmation. Further study with large cohorts is recommended to assess genetic and environmental influences on structural brain abnormalities in BD, while taking into account the influence of lithium on the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The relationship between bipolar disorder and biological rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Rhythm disruption is a core feature of bipolar disorder and it has been hypothesized that disturbances of the circadian timing system play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disorder. We sought to investigate (1) theoretical models for biological rhythm disruptions in bipolar disorder, (2) physiological disturbances of biological rhythms in bipolar disorder, (3) clinical and therapeutic implications of biological rhythm disturbances in bipolar disorder, and (4) associations between circadian gene variations and bipolar disorder. PubMed database was searched systematically for articles that were published on or before May 5, 2013, and were written in English using the terms bipolar disorder, clock genes, endogenous clock, molecular clock, biological rhythms, circadian, suprachiasmatic nucleus, circadian rhythm, melatonin, and sleep. Seventy-four articles highlighting the objectives were included in the review. Data regarding exploring the association between bipolar disorder and circadian and chronobiological phenomena were reviewed and findings summarized. The literature reviewed suggests that circadian rhythm disturbance may be a feature of bipolar disorder. In toto, the literature suggests that circadian rhythm disturbances may be a feature of bipolar disorder. This area of research has received theoretical consideration as playing a significant role in the pathophysiology of the illness but has been understudied to this point. Further research in the field is warranted. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Bipolar resistive switching based on bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium complex: Mechanism and non-volatile memory application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Yang Ting; Xie Ji-Peng; Lü Wen-Li; Fan Guo-Ying; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    Stable and persistent bipolar resistive switching was observed in an organic diode with the structure of indium-tin oxide (ITO)/bis(8-hydroxyquinoline) cadmium (Cdq 2 )/Al. Aggregate formation and electric field driven trapping and de-trapping of charge carriers in the aggregate states that lie in the energy gap of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the organic molecule were proposed as the mechanism of the observed bipolar resistive switching, and this was solidly supported by the results of AFM investigations. Repeatedly set, read, and reset measurements demonstrated that the device is potentially applicable in non-volatile memories

  14. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  15. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Renk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005. Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered.

  16. Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Predictors of Clinical Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bearden, Carrie E.; Woogen, Michelle; Glahn, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Historically, bipolar disorder has been conceptualized as a disease involving episodic rather than chronic dysfunction. However, increasing evidence indicates that bipolar disorder is associated with substantial inter-episode psychosocial and vocational impairment. Here we review the contributions of neurocognitive deficits and structural and functional neuroanatomic alterations to the observed functional impairments. In particular, compelling evidence now suggests that neurocognitive impairm...

  17. Theoretical investigations of the electronic structures of carbazole-based triphenylphosphine oxide derivatives, potential bipolar host materials in blue-phosphorescent devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huili; Shen, Wei; Zhang, Xiaguang; Zhang, Dongmei; Li, Ming

    2015-12-01

    Density functional theory calculations were performed to investigate the electronic structures of bipolar host materials comprising a backbone of linked acceptor moieties where each acceptor was also linked to a pendant donor moiety. The acceptor was triphenylphosphine oxide with two of its phenyls substituted with fluorine atoms or nitrile groups (CN). The donor was carbazole (CZ) substituted, or not, with t-butyl groups. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels of these host molecules were mainly influenced by their respective hole- and electron-transport units. The t-butyl substituents on the CZ moieties had an adverse effect on the triplet energies (E T) of the host molecules, especially for molecules where the phenyls of the backbone chain were substituted with CN groups. While introducing CN substituents onto the backbone chain decreased the energy difference between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states (ΔE ST), it also caused the energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO to narrow. Among the host molecules investigated, that in which one of the phenyls in the acceptor moiety was linked to the donor while the other two phenyls in the acceptor were substituted with CN substituents exhibited the highest E T, balanced charge transport, a low charge-injection barrier, and a small ΔE ST, and is therefore a promising candidate host material for use in blue-phosphorescent devices. Graphical Abstract Density functional theory calculations were performed to explore the electronic properties of bipolar host materials comprising a backbone of linked acceptor moieties where each acceptor was also linked to a pendant donor moiety. All of the designed molecules with high triplet energies were found to be suitable for use as host materials when matched with a blue-light guest material. The results demonstrate that the host molecule in which one of the phenyls in the triphenylphosphine oxide acceptor moiety was linked to the carbazole donor while the other two phenyls in the

  18. Quantum field theory approaches to meson structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branz, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    Meson spectroscopy became one of the most interesting topics in particle physics in the last ten years. In particular, the discovery of new unexpected states in the charmonium spectrum which cannot be simply explained by the constituent quark model attracted the interest of many theoretical efforts. In the present thesis we discuss different meson structures ranging from light and heavy quark-antiquark states to bound states of hadrons-hadronic molecules. Here we consider the light scalar mesons f 0 (980) and a 0 (980) and the charmonium-like Y(3940), Y(4140) and Z ± (4430) states. In the discussion of the meson properties like mass spectrum, total and partial decay widths and production rates we introduce three different theoretical methods for the treatment and description of hadronic structure. For the study of bound states of mesons we apply a coupled channel approach which allows for the dynamical generation of meson-meson resonances. The decay properties of meson molecules are further on studied within a second model based on effective Lagrangians describing the interaction of the bound state and its constituents. Besides hadronic molecules the effective Lagrangian approach is also used to study the radiative and strong decay properties of ordinary quark-antiquark (q anti q) states. The AdS/QCD model forms the completion of the three theoretical methods introduced in the present thesis. This holographic model provides a completely different ansatz and is based on extra dimensions and string theory. Within this framework we calculate the mass spectrum of light and heavy mesons and their decay constants.

  19. Structure of the urban moisture field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, D.L.; Dirks, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In the 26 July 1974 case study in St. Louis as a part of Project METROMEX, aircraft and surface network stations were used to determine specific humidity and potential temperature patterns near the surface and at two levels within the mixing layer. From the data acquired at these three levels, three-dimensional analyses of the moisture fields in the mixing layer were constructed. The mesoscale dry regions observed throughout the mixing layer correspond to the more impervious surfaces of the urban area. From energy budget considerations, latent heat fluxes are small over these impervious surfaces owing to the large runoff of precipitation and the lack of moisture retention capabilities. Hence, urbanization obviously alters the local energy budget. Surface boundary layer conditions are determined by heat and moisture fluxes. A new internal boundary layer within the city is formed after the breakdown of the radiation inversion in order to compensate for the alteration of sensible heat and latent heat energies. Hence, isolated semistagnant urban air is replenished by moisture only as quickly as evapotranspiration from impervious surfaces will allow. The city surface, therefore, is not a sink of moisture, but rather a reduced source relative to rural areas

  20. Reorganization of microfilament structure induced by ac electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M.R.; Thatte, H.S.; Golan, D.E. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, R.C. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    AC electric fields induce redistribution of integral membrane proteins. Cell-surface receptor redistribution does not consistently follow electric field lines and depends critically on the frequency of the applied ac electric fields, suggesting that mechanisms other than electroosmosis are involved. We hypothesized that cytoskeletal reorganization is responsible for electric field-induced cell-surface receptor redistribution, and used fluorescence video microscopy to study the reorganization of microfilaments in human hepatoma (Hep3B) cells exposed to low-frequency electric fields ranging in strength from 25 mV/cm to 20 V/cm (peak to peak). The frequency of the applied electric field was varied from 1 to 120 Hz and the field exposure duration from 1 to 60 min. In control cells, cytoplasmic microfilaments were aligned in the form of continuous parallel cables along the longitudinal axis of the cell. Exposure of cells to ac electric fields induced alterations in microfilament structure in a manner that depended on the frequency of the applied field. A 1 or 10 Hz ac field caused microfilament reorganization from continuous, aligned cable structures to discontinuous globular patches. In contrast, the structure of microfilaments in cells exposed to 20-120 Hz electric fields did not offer from that in control cells. The extent of microfilament reorganization increased nonlinearly with the electric field strength. The characteristic time for microfilament reorganization in cells exposed to a 1 Hz, 20 V/cm electric field was {approx} 5 min. Applied ac electric fields could initiate signal transduction cascades, which in turn cause reorganization of cytoskeletal structures. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Organizational Fields and the Structuration Perspective: Analytical Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis L. Machado-da-Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the organizational field has been greatly dealt with in the literature on institutional theory in recent years. As the concept of field involves a relational and symbolic dimension, we propose that the theory of structuration, based on the logic of recursiveness between agency and structure should be adapted to theunderstanding of the field dynamically. In this way, the objective of this theoretical essay is to deal with the dynamic of the organizational field using structurationist logic, allowing that from this logic we recall both the importance of the practice in the structuration process of the organizational field and the historical and recursive character which may constrain or enable the actions of social actors. To this end, we revise the concept of field in different perspectives of analysis, reflecting on the implication of the theoretical presuppositions of each approach and then discuss in a critical manner the theoretical foundation of the structuration process of organizational fields based on the structurationist approach. We conclude the paper with propositions pertaining to the revision of the concept of field from a multiparadigmatic viewpoint in which structure and agency are recursively implied.

  2. Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields and energy flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Algebraic structure of general electromagnetic fields in stationary spacetime. → Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electomagnetic field tensor. → Energy-momentum in terms of eigenvectors and Killing vector. → Explicit form of reference frame with vanishing Poynting vector. → Application of formalism to Bessel beams. - Abstract: The algebraic structures of a general electromagnetic field and its energy-momentum tensor in a stationary space-time are analyzed. The explicit form of the reference frame in which the energy of the field appears at rest is obtained in terms of the eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor and the existing Killing vector. The case of a stationary electromagnetic field is also studied and a comparison is made with the standard short-wave approximation. The results can be applied to the general case of a structured light beams, in flat or curved spaces. Bessel beams are worked out as example.

  3. [Genetics of bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M; Forstner, A J; Adorjan, K; Schaupp, S K; Nöthen, M M; Schulze, T G

    2017-07-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has a multifactorial etiology. Its development is influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Large genome-wide association studies (GWAS), in which genetic risk allelic variants for the disorder could be replicated for the first time, marked the breakthrough in the identification of the responsible risk genes. In addition to these common genetic variants with moderate effects identified by GWAS, rare variants with a higher penetrance are expected to play a role in disease development. The results of recent studies suggest that copy number variants might contribute to BD development, although to a lesser extent than in other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia or autism. Results from the initial next generation sequencing studies indicate an enrichment of rare variants in pathways and genes that were previously found to be associated with BD. In the field of pharmacogenetics, a risk gene that influences the individual variance in the response to lithium treatment was identified for the first time in a recent large international GWAS. Currently the reported risk alleles do not sufficiently explain the phenotypic variance to be used for individual prediction of disease risk, disease course or response to medication. Future genetic research will provide important insights into the biological basis of BD by the identification of additional genes associated with BD. This knowledge of genetics will help identify potential etiological subgroups as well as cross-diagnostic disease mechanisms.

  4. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, Berit

    2014-01-01

    Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and bipolar ...

  5. [Antidepressants in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtet, P; Samalin, L; Olié, E

    2011-12-01

    Whereas mania defines the bipolar disorder, depression is the major challenge of treatment. In general, depressions are more frequent, longer, with a major prognostic impact in terms of disability and suicide. How should we treat a patient with bipolar depression? Antidepressants are the treatment of choice for depression, but not in the bipolar disorder. In this context, we have traditionally accepted that antidepressants are effective but they were inducing a significant risk of destabilization of the bipolar disorder, because of the transitions to mania and rapid cycling. Current data reconsider both the two aspects of this risk-benefit ratio. The effectiveness of antidepressants finally seems very limited, especially after the more recent studies with a robust methodology. Manic switches and rapid cycling may not be increased, particularly with new antidepressants and mood stabilizer combinations. The current literature reminds us that these course's modalities are inherent to the disease, with numerous risk factors, and among them, exposure to antidepressants. Who are the bipolar patients who only get the benefits of antidepressant treatment? Research will tell. They are in any case limited. How to navigate in our treatment strategies ? By choosing first drugs that demonstrated efficacy in bipolar depression. When the situation is more complex, "primum non nocere" should lead to support the prescription of the antidepressant in association with mood stabilizer. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface plasmon field enhancements in deterministic aperiodic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugayev, Roman

    2010-11-22

    In this paper we analyze optical properties and plasmonic field enhancements in large aperiodic nanostructures. We introduce extension of Generalized Ohm's Law approach to estimate electromagnetic properties of Fibonacci, Rudin-Shapiro, cluster-cluster aggregate and random deterministic clusters. Our results suggest that deterministic aperiodic structures produce field enhancements comparable to random morphologies while offering better understanding of field localizations and improved substrate design controllability. Generalized Ohm's law results for deterministic aperiodic structures are in good agreement with simulations obtained using discrete dipole method.

  7. Field-controlled structures in ferromagnetic cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medle Rupnik, Peter; Lisjak, Darja; Čopič, Martin; Čopar, Simon; Mertelj, Alenka

    2017-10-01

    One of the advantages of anisotropic soft materials is that their structures and, consequently, their properties can be controlled by moderate external fields. Whereas the control of materials with uniform orientational order is straightforward, manipulation of systems with complex orientational order is challenging. We show that a variety of structures of an interesting liquid material, which combine chiral orientational order with ferromagnetic one, can be controlled by a combination of small magnetic and electric fields. In the suspensions of magnetic nanoplatelets in chiral nematic liquid crystals, the platelet's magnetic moments orient along the orientation of the liquid crystal and, consequently, the material exhibits linear response to small magnetic fields. In the absence of external fields, orientations of the liquid crystal and magnetization have wound structure, which can be either homogeneously helical, disordered, or ordered in complex patterns, depending on the boundary condition at the surfaces and the history of the sample. We demonstrate that by using different combinations of small magnetic and electric fields, it is possible to control reversibly the formation of the structures in a layer of the material. In such a way, different periodic structures can be explored and some of them may be suitable for photonic applications. The material is also a convenient model system to study chiral magnetic structures, because it is a unique liquid analog of a solid helimagnet.

  8. Construction of alternative Hamiltonian structures for field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Educacion, Universidad Nacional Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Recursos Educativos Avanzados, CREA, Santiago (Chile)

    2001-08-10

    We use symmetry vectors of nonlinear field equations to build alternative Hamiltonian structures. We construct such structures even for equations which are usually believed to be non-Hamiltonian such as heat, Burger and potential Burger equations. We improve on a previous version of the approach using recursion operators to increase the rank of the Poisson bracket matrices. Cole-Hopf and Miura-type transformations allow the mapping of these structures from one equation to another. (author)

  9. Common and distinct structural features of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: The European Network on Psychosis, Affective disorders and Cognitive Trajectory (ENPACT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Maggioni

    Full Text Available Although schizophrenia (SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD share elements of pathology, their neural underpinnings are still under investigation. Here, structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI data collected from a large sample of BD and SCZ patients and healthy controls (HC were analyzed in terms of gray matter volume (GMV using both voxel based morphometry (VBM and a region of interest (ROI approach.The analysis was conducted on two datasets, Dataset1 (802 subjects: 243 SCZ, 176 BD, 383 HC and Dataset2, a homogeneous subset of Dataset1 (301 subjects: 107 HC, 85 BD and 109 SCZ. General Linear Model analyses were performed 1 at the voxel-level in the whole brain (VBM study, 2 at the regional level in the anatomical regions emerged from the VBM study (ROI study. The GMV comparison across groups was integrated with the analysis of GMV correlates of different clinical dimensions.The VBM results of Dataset1 showed 1 in BD compared to HC, GMV deficits in right cingulate, superior temporal and calcarine cortices, 2 in SCZ compared to HC, GMV deficits in widespread cortical and subcortical areas, 3 in SCZ compared to BD, GMV deficits in insula and thalamus (p<0.05, cluster family wise error corrected. The regions showing GMV deficits in the BD group were mostly included in the SCZ ones. The ROI analyses confirmed the VBM results at the regional level in most of the clusters from the SCZ vs. HC comparison (p<0.05, Bonferroni corrected. The VBM and ROI analyses of Dataset2 provided further evidence for the enhanced GMV deficits characterizing SCZ. Based on the clinical-neuroanatomical analyses, we cannot exclude possible confounding effects due to 1 age of onset and medication in BD patients, 2 symptoms severity in SCZ patients.Our study reported both shared and specific neuroanatomical characteristics between the two disorders, suggesting more severe and generalized GMV deficits in SCZ, with a specific role for insula and thalamus.

  10. Structural stability of interaction networks against negative external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2018-04-01

    We explore structural stability of weighted and unweighted networks of positively interacting agents against a negative external field. We study how the agents support the activity of each other to confront the negative field, which suppresses the activity of agents and can lead to collapse of the whole network. The competition between the interactions and the field shape the structure of stable states of the system. In unweighted networks (uniform interactions) the stable states have the structure of k -cores of the interaction network. The interplay between the topology and the distribution of weights (heterogeneous interactions) impacts strongly the structural stability against a negative field, especially in the case of fat-tailed distributions of weights. We show that apart from critical slowing down there is also a critical change in the system structure that precedes the network collapse. The change can serve as an early warning of the critical transition. To characterize changes of network structure we develop a method based on statistical analysis of the k -core organization and so-called "corona" clusters belonging to the k -cores.

  11. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  12. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  13. Coexistence of Cluster Structure and Mean-field-type Structure in Medium-weight Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Horiuchi, Hisashi; Kimura, Masaaki

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the coexistence of cluster structure and mean-field-type structure in 20Ne and 40Ca using Antisymmetrized Molecular Dynamics (AMD) + Generator Coordinate Method (GCM). By energy variation with new constraint for clustering, we calculate cluster structure wave function. Superposing cluster structure wave functions and mean-field-type structure wave function, we found that 8Be-12C, α-36Ar and 12C-28Si cluster structure are important components of K π = 0 3 + band of 20Ne, that of normal deformed band of 40Ca and that of super deformed band of 40Ca, respectively

  14. Fabrication of the KSTAR toroidal field coil structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.H.; Sa, J.W.; Park, H.K.; Hong, K.H.; Shin, H.; Kim, H.T.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S.; Kwak, J.H.; Moon, H.G.; Yoon, H.H.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, S.K.; Song, J.Y.; Nam, K.M.; Byun, S.E.; Kim, H.C.; Ha, E.T.; Ahn, H.J.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, J.S.; Park, K.H.; Hong, C.D.

    2005-01-01

    The KSTAR toroidal field (TF) coil structure is under fabrication upon completion of engineering design and prototype construction. The prototype TF coil structure has been fabricated within allowable tolerances. Encasing of the prototype TF coil (TF00) in the prototype structure has been carried out through major processes involving a coil encasing, an enclosing weld, a vacuum pressure impregnation, and an outer surface machining. During the enclosing weld of the TF00 coil structure, we have measured temperatures and stresses on the coil surface. Assembly test had been performed with the TF00 coil structure. We have chosen Type 316LN as material of the TF coil structure. We used the narrow-gap TIG welding method. Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction Company (DHI) will complete the fabrication of the TF coil structure in Feb. 2006. (author)

  15. Occurrence and significance of evanescent fields in structured samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jean-Pierre; Hingerl, Kurt

    2017-11-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is currently widely used to describe the polarimetric response of structured media. The conceptional shortcomings of the commonly used Fresnel approach to predict and simulate ellipsometric data of structured media is discussed using numerical solutions of Maxwell's equations. Fresnel's relations and Snell's law are, strictly speaking, not valid anymore. We explain via simple physical models the effects occurring at non-horizontal interfaces between different materials. At such interfaces, evanescent fields occur and modify the still well defined complex reflectivities for s- and p-polarization. When the field vector projected on the sample surface is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the interface, the fields for s- and p-polarization couple and cross-polarization arises from the different spatial behavior of the evanescent fields.

  16. Methodological approaches in estimating anomalous geochemical field structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, R; Rudmin, M

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical statistic methods were applied to analyze the core samples from vertical expendable wells in Chertovo Koryto gold ore field. The following methods were used to analyse gold in samples: assay tests and atomic absorption method (AAS), while emission spectrum semiquantative method was applied to identify traces. The analysis of geochemical association distribution in one central profile demonstrated that bulk metasomatic aureoles are characteristic of concentric zonal structure. The distribution of geochemical associations is correlated to the hydrothermal stages of mineral formation identified in this deposit. It was proved that the processed geochemical data by factor and cluster analyses provided additional information on the anomalous geochemical field structure in gold- bearing black-shale strata. Such methods are effective tools in interpretating specific features of geochemical field structures in analogous potential ore-bearing areas

  17. String field theory. Algebraic structure, deformation properties and superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenster, Korbinian

    2013-01-01

    This thesis discusses several aspects of string field theory. The first issue is bosonic open-closed string field theory and its associated algebraic structure - the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra. We describe the quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in the framework of homotopy involutive Lie bialgebras, as a morphism from the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string to the involutive Lie bialgebra on the Hochschild complex of open strings. The formulation of the classical/quantum open-closed homotopy algebra in terms of a morphism from the closed string algebra to the open string Hochschild complex reveals deformation properties of closed strings on open string field theory. In particular, we show that inequivalent classical open string field theories are parametrized by closed string backgrounds up to gauge transformations. At the quantum level the correspondence is obstructed, but for other realizations such as the topological string, a non-trivial correspondence persists. Furthermore, we proof the decomposition theorem for the loop homotopy Lie algebra of closed string field theory, which implies uniqueness of closed string field theory on a fixed conformal background. Second, the construction of string field theory can be rephrased in terms of operads. In particular, we show that the formulation of string field theory splits into two parts: The first part is based solely on the moduli space of world sheets and ensures that the perturbative string amplitudes are recovered via Feynman rules. The second part requires a choice of background and determines the real string field theory vertices. Each of these parts can be described equivalently as a morphism between appropriate cyclic and modular operads, at the classical and quantum level respectively. The algebraic structure of string field theory is then encoded in the composition of these two morphisms. Finally, we outline the construction of type II superstring field theory. Specific features of the

  18. Bipolar outflow in the active region orion KL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveenko, L. I.; Demichev, V. A.

    2010-11-01

    The fine structure of the region of formation of a protostar in the dense molecular cloud OMC-1 of the Orion Nebula was studied during a period of enhanced activity in 1998-1999, with an angular resolution of 50 µas and a velocity resolution of Δ v = 0.053 km/s. Inclusions of ice granules in the bipolar outflow were detected and identified. The velocity of the outflow reaches ˜50 km/s, while that of the granules is 5 mas), bullets corresponding to maser emission excited by the outflow in the surrounding medium are observed. The emission is amplified by the external medium at a velocity of v LSR = 7.65 km/s in the bandwidth Δ v ≈ 0.5 km/s. The sources of pumping are clusters of infrared sources. The bipolar outflow is inclined at a small angle to the plane of the sky. The acceleration of the maser inclusions also increases the longitudinal component of the velocity, reducing amplification of the emission. The brightness temperature of the components decreases: T b ˜ ρ -0.8±0.1. The activity terminates with the exponential decline of the maser emission, F ˜ exp(-0.5 t 2); in the saturated mode this is determined by a decrease in the optical depth, τ ˜ t 2. The material of the surrounding space, including the ice granules, is drawn into the disk, moves along spirals toward the nozzle, and is ejected as a highly collimated bipolar flow. The density of material in the outflow exceeds the surrounding density by three to four orders of magnitude. The accretion of the surrounding material and ejection of the bipolar outflow are a unified process accompanying the initial phase of formation of protostars. The counter motion of material at the center stimulates the formation of a central massive object, whose gravitational field accelerates the process and stabilizes the system. The ratio of the durations of periods of high and low activity is determined by the rates of ejection and disk replenishment, and is ˜1:10. The rotating bipolar flow is self-focused.

  19. A study of genetic and environmental contributions to structural brain changes over time in twins concordant and discordant for bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bootsman, F.; Brouwer, R. M.; Schnack, H. G.; Kemner, S. M.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Sarkisyan, G.; van der Schot, A. C.; Vonk, R.; Pol, H. E. Hulshoff; Nolen, W. A.; Kahn, R. S.; van Haren, N. E. M.

    This is the first longitudinal twin study examining genetic and environmental contributions to the association between liability to bipolar disorder (BD) and changes over time in global brain volumes, and global and regional measures of cortical surface area, cortical thickness and cortical volume.

  20. A Built-In Self-Test Structure (BIST) for Resistive RAMs characterization: Application to bipolar OxRRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziza, H.; Bocquet, M.; Moreau, M.; Portal, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is a form of nonvolatile storage that operates by changing the resistance of a specially formulated solid dielectric material [1]. Among RRAMs, oxide-based Resistive RAMs (so-called OxRRAMs) are promising candidates due their compatibility with CMOS processes and high ON/OFF resistance ratio. Common problems with OxRRAM are related to high variability in operating conditions and low yield. OxRRAM variability mainly impact ON/OFF resistance ratio. This ratio is a key parameter to determine the overall performance of an OxRRAM memory. In this context, the presented built-in structure allows collecting statistical data related to the OxRRAM memory array (ON/OFF resistance distributions) for reliability assessment of the technology.

  1. Structural Model of the Tucupita Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    The Tucupita Field has an area of 73,51 Km2, is located between the states of Monagas and Delta Amacuro, geologically is located at the greater Temblador area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin, where the Oficina Formation's sands represent the main hydrocarbons reservoirs. From the results of the seismic reprocessing realized by Fusion Petroleum Technologies, Inc., the structural model of this field was done as initial step to the geocellular model of the Oficina-40 Reservoir, which was defined as a Faulted Relay Ramp, where the normal faults are dominant with NE-SW orientation Introduction The Tucupita Field is a mature oilfield at the greater Temblador area, however most of the wells were completed in the upper sands, therefore the main study is focused in the geological characterization of the Oficina-40 Reservoir's lower sands, starting by the structural model Previous Studies 1. Proyecto Tucupita 3D The seismic data of the Tucupita Field were adquired in 1996 by Western Atlas of Venezuela for the Benton Vinccler Company. The UTM coordinates of the wells used in this project, have been taken to make this geological model 2. Soporte Geofísico Integrado The seismic project Tucupita was processed by Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc., in Houston and consisted of reprocessing and pre-stack migration in time (PSTM) and pre-stack migration in depth (PSDM), this data belong to the Petrodelta Company Based on the regional stratigraphy, were validated the "picks" to make the structural sections to support research with hard data. After, it proceeded to interpret the structural style of the field from the seismic amplitude cube. Then, it was done the faults modelling and the stratigraphic horizons to carry out the geocellular model Three structural sections were realized, which was interpreted like a faulted monocline, whose peak is located southward, where justly the wells are located. The contact oil-water was interpreted to -5648'. Echelon faults were interpreted in a

  2. Fine structure of fields in 2D photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Volkov, V. S.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2006-01-01

    We resolve fine structure of fields in a single-row missing photonic crystal waveguide by finite-difference time-domain modelling and SNOM measurements. Both linear dispersion and slow-light regimes in proximity of the cutoff are addressed in the analysis.......We resolve fine structure of fields in a single-row missing photonic crystal waveguide by finite-difference time-domain modelling and SNOM measurements. Both linear dispersion and slow-light regimes in proximity of the cutoff are addressed in the analysis....

  3. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  4. Structural analysis of TFTR toroidal field coil conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.A.

    1975-10-01

    The conceptual design evaluation of the V-shaped toroidal field coils on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor has been performed by detailed structural analysis with the finite element method. The innovation provided by this design and verified in this work is the capability to support toroidal field loads while simultaneously performing the function of twist restraint against the device axial torques resulting from the vertical field loads. The evaluations made for the conceptual design provide predictions for coil deflections and stresses. The results are available for the separate effects from toroidal fields, poloidal fields, and the thermal expansion of the coils as well as for the superposition of the primary loads and the primary plus thermal loads

  5. Temperature dependency of silicon structures for magnetic field gradient sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabsch, Alexander; Rosenberg, Christoph; Stifter, Michael; Keplinger, Franz

    2018-02-01

    This work describes the temperature dependence of two sensors for magnetic field gradient sensors and demonstrates a structure to compensate for the drift of resonance frequency over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect of the sensing element is based on internal stresses induced by the thermal expansion of material, therefore FEM is used to determine the change of the eigenvalues of the sensing structure. The experimental setup utilizes a Helmholtz coil system to generate the magnetic field and to excite the MEMS structure with Lorentz forces. The MEMS structure is placed on a plate heated with resistors and cooled by a Peltier element to control the plate temperature. In the second part, we describe how one can exploit temperature sensitivity for temperature measurements and we show the opportunity to include the temperature effect to increase the sensitivity of single-crystal silicon made flux density gradient sensors.

  6. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...... hospitalization. METHOD: The Antidepressant Compliance Questionnaire (ADCQ) was mailed to a large population of patients with depressive or bipolar disorder, representative of patients treated in hospital settings in Denmark. RESULTS: Of the 1005 recipients, 49.9% responded to the letter. A large proportion....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations...

  7. Oxide bipolar electronics: materials, devices and circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Marius; Klüpfel, Fabian; Karsthof, Robert; Schlupp, Peter; Schein, Friedrich-Leonhard; Splith, Daniel; Yang, Chang; Bitter, Sofie; von Wenckstern, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We present the history of, and the latest progress in, the field of bipolar oxide thin film devices. As such we consider primarily pn-junctions in which at least one of the materials is a metal oxide semiconductor. A wide range of n-type and p-type oxides has been explored for the formation of such bipolar diodes. Since most oxide semiconductors are unipolar, challenges and opportunities exist with regard to the formation of heterojunction diodes and band lineups. Recently, various approaches have led to devices with high rectification, namely p-type ZnCo2O4 and NiO on n-type ZnO and amorphous zinc-tin-oxide. Subsequent bipolar devices and applications such as photodetectors, solar cells, junction field-effect transistors and integrated circuits like inverters and ring oscillators are discussed. The tremendous progress shows that bipolar oxide electronics has evolved from the exploration of various materials and heterostructures to the demonstration of functioning integrated circuits. Therefore a viable, facile and high performance technology is ready for further exploitation and performance optimization.

  8. ANALYSIS OF FIELD STRUCTURE AND JUSTIFICATION OF VOLTAGES OF DIAGNOSTICS BY PARTIAL DISCHARGES OF SHIELDED TWISTED PAIRS INSULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Bezprozvannych

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the electrostatic field of a cable twisted shielded pair for various types of test voltage: symmetric bipolar, unipolar and asymmetric is carried out. Voltage selection affects the location of the most probable place of arising of the partial discharges, phase characteristics of which are used for technical diagnostics of insulation.

  9. Low-field accelerator structure couplers and design techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Nantista

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent experience with X-band accelerator structure development has shown the rf input coupler to be the region most prone to rf breakdown and degradation, effectively limiting the operating gradient. A major factor in this appears to be high magnetic fields at the sharp edges of the coupling irises. As a first response to this problem, couplers with rounded and thickened iris horns have been employed and successfully tested at high power. To further reduce fields for higher power flow, conceptually new coupler designs have been developed, in which power is coupled through the broad wall of the feed waveguide, rather than through terminating irises. A “mode-launcher” coupler, which launches the TM_{01} mode in circular waveguide before coupling through a matching cell into the main structure, has been tested with great success. With peak surface fields below those in the body of the structure, this coupler represented a breakthrough in the Next Linear Collider structure program. The design of this coupler and of variations which use beam line space more efficiently are described here. The latter include a coupler in which power passes directly through an iris in the broad wall of the rectangular waveguide into a matching cell, also successfully implemented, and a variation which makes the waveguide itself an accelerating cell. We also discuss in some detail a couple of techniques for matching such couplers to traveling-wave structures using a field solver. The first exploits the cell number independence of a traveling-wave match, and the second optimizes using the fields of an internally driven structure.

  10. Simulation study of dynamo structure in reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, A.; Sato, K.I.; Ashida, H.; Amano, T.

    1992-10-01

    The dynamo structure in the reversed field pinch (RFP) is studied through the nonlinear dynamics of single-helicity mode. Simulation is concentrated upon the physical structure of nonlinear interactions of the plasma flow and magnetic fluctuation. The result indicates that when the initial equilibrium profile is deformed by resistive diffusion, the radial flow is driven near the core of the plasma. As this flow forms a vortex structure and magnetic fluctuation grows radially, the dynamo electric field is spirally induced just inside the reversal surface and then the toroidal flux is increased. This dynamo electric field correlates to nonlinear evolution of the kinetic energy of m=1 mode, and the increase of the toroidal flux is originated in the growth process of the magnetic energy of this mode. Consequently, the RFP configuration can be sustained by the single-helicity evolution of m=1 mode alone, and the electric field induced by the interactions of the toroidal velocity and the radial magnetic field is the most dominant source on the dynamo action. (author)

  11. A Yang-Mills structure for string field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsousheung Tsun

    1990-01-01

    String theorists believe that one way to achieve a fully quantized theory of string is through string field theory. The other way is to study conformal field theory on Riemann surfaces of different genera, which is the subject of many of the talks at this Conference. In a way, string field theory is the more conservative approach, since it aims just to replace the spacetime points of conventional quantum field theory by string, which are extended objects. However, from this point of view string theory has one rather unsatisfactory aspect, in the sense that although it has been very well developed and minutely studied, we are still rather unclear about its basic structure. We can contrast this to both general relativity, which is based on the geometry of spacetime, and to gauge theory, which is about the structure of various natural bundles over spacetime. And yet string theory is supposed to embody both these two essentially geometric theories. To paraphrase Witten, in string theory we seem to have to work backwards to get at the still unknown basic structure. Some joint work with Chan Hong-Mo is reported in an attempt to gain some understanding in that general direction. It seems that one could in some sense consider string field theory as a generalized Yang-Mills theory. This idea is explored. (author)

  12. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... ing data with potential field data to investigate the structural details of the basin architecture in order to comprehend the tectonic development of the basin. In this endeavor, we have utilized state of the art Geosoft 6.4.2 (GEOSOFT Oasis Montaj 2008) software for the analysis and interpretation of G–.

  13. From quantum fields to fractal structures: intermittency in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschanski, R.

    1991-01-01

    Some features and theoretical interpretations of the intermittency phenomenon observed in high-energy multi-particle production are recalled. One develops on the various connections found with fractal structuration of fluctuations in turbulence, spin-glass physics and aggregation phenomena described by the non-linear Smoluchowski equation. This may lead to a new approach to quantum field properties

  14. Complex Colloidal Structures by Self-assembly in Electric Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is exploiting the directed self-assembly of both isotropic and anisotropic colloidal particles to achieve the fabrication of one-, two-, and three-dimensional complex colloidal structures using external electric fields and/or a simple in situ thermal annealing

  15. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... intrusive having remanent magnetization corresponding to upper normal and reverse polarity (29N and 29R) of the Deccan basalt magnetostratigrahy. Analysis of remote sensing and geological data also reveals the predominance of ENE–WSW structural faults. Integration of remote sensing, geological and potential field ...

  16. Charged Particle Dynamics in a Magnetodisc-Field Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guio, P.; O'Brien, W.; Achilleos, N. A.; Arridge, C. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Earth's internal magnetic field is to a good approximation dipolar, and charged particles from the magnetosphere, depending on their kinetic energy, pitch angle and distance can remain trapped in this field. The motion of such trapped particles is characterised by their bounce, drift and cyclotron (gyration) periods. High-energy electron and proton populations in the two radiation (van Allen) belts are such examples.At the gas giants, Jupiter and Saturn, the total magnetic field deviates from a dipolar configuration due to internal sources of plasma provided by the moons Io and Enceladus respectively. In addition, the rapid rotation of these planets (period of order 10h) plays a role in the development of a disk-like field structure near the equator where centrifugal force is dominant - a configuration referred to as a magnetodisc.We present results of numerical simulations of charged particle motion in such a magnetodisc field structure using particle tracing and the UCL Magnetodisc Model, and we use these simulations to characterise and quantify the differences between particle motion in magnetodisc and dipole fields.

  17. Implications of confining force field structures in hard hadronic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, H.-U.

    1983-04-01

    This thesis is centered on the study of confining force field structures in hard scattering processes. Perturbative QCD provides the means of calculating any process on the parton level, but to be able accurately to describe the actual outcome of an event, one still needs a phenomenological model for how quarks and gluons transform into observable hadrons. One such model is based on the assumption that the particles are produced by the confining fields stretched between the partons. The actual particle distributions will then depend on the topology of the confining fields. We have developed a Monte Carlo program to simulate complete events in hard scattering, and we use this to study the properties of the confining field in different trigger situations. We further look at the amount of hard processes that can be expected in experiments that trigger on transverse energy sum (calorimeter experiments). Finally, we investigate charm production within our model. (author)

  18. Fine structure of the vapor field in evaporating dense sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villermaux, Emmanuel; Moutte, Alexandre; Amielh, Muriel; Meunier, Patrice

    2017-11-01

    Making use of an original technique which permits the simultaneous measurement of both the displacement field of evaporating droplets in a spray, and of their vapor, we investigate the relevance of a scenario introduced earlier to describe the evaporation dynamics of dense sprays. A plume of dense acetone droplets evaporating in air is studied, for which the stirring field is measured by particle image velocimetry of the droplets, and the vapor field is imaged quantitatively by laser-induced fluorescence. We show, thanks to these unique in situ measurements, that the spray boundary with the diluting environment is slaved to the dynamics of its saturating vapor concentration field, whose structure is analyzed for different well defined local flow topologies.

  19. MEMS magnetic field sensor based on silicon bridge structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Guangtao; Chen Xiangdong; Lin Qibin; Li Hui; Guo Huihui, E-mail: xdchen@home.swjtu.edu.c [School of Information Science and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2010-10-15

    A MEMS piezoresistive magnetic field sensor based on a silicon bridge structure has been simulated and tested. The sensor consists of a silicon sensitivity diaphragm embedded with a piezoresistive Wheatstone bridge, and a ferromagnetic magnet adhered to the sensitivity diaphragm. When the sensor is subjected to an external magnetic field, the magnetic force bends the silicon sensitivity diaphragm, producing stress and resistors change of the Wheatstone bridge and the output voltage of the sensor. Good agreement is observed between the theory and measurement behavior of the magnetic field sensor. Experimental results demonstrate that the maximum sensitivity and minimum resolution are 48 m V/T and 160 {mu}T, respectively, making this device suitable for strong magnetic field measurement. Research results indicate that the sensor repeatability and dynamic response time are about 0.66% and 150 ms, respectively. (semiconductor devices)

  20. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neu trosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Akram; Musavarah Sarwar

    2017-01-01

    In this research article, we present certain notions of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We study the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  1. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  2. A hierarchical structure for human behavior classification using STN local field potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshan, Hosein M; Hebb, Adam O; Hanrahan, Sara J; Nedrud, Joshua; Mahoor, Mohammad H

    2018-01-01

    Classification of human behavior from brain signals has potential application in developing closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems. This paper presents a human behavior classification using local field potential (LFP) signals recorded from subthalamic nuclei (STN). A hierarchical classification structure is developed to perform the behavior classification from LFP signals through a multi-level framework (coarse to fine). At each level, the time-frequency representations of all six signals from the DBS leads are combined through an MKL-based SVM classifier to classify five tasks (speech, finger movement, mouth movement, arm movement, and random segments). To lower the computational cost, we alternatively use the inter-hemispheric synchronization of the LFPs to make three pairs out of six bipolar signals. Three classifiers are separately trained at each level of the hierarchical approach, which lead to three labels. A fusion function is then developed to combine these three labels and determine the label of the corresponding trial. Using all six LFPs with the proposed hierarchical approach improves the classification performance. Moreover, the synchronization-based method reduces the computational burden considerably while the classification performance remains relatively unchanged. Our experiments on two different datasets recorded from nine subjects undergoing DBS surgery show that the proposed approaches remarkably outperform other methods for behavior classification based on LFP signals. The LFP signals acquired from STNs contain useful information for recognizing human behavior. This can be a precursor for designing the next generation of closed-loop DBS systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Magnetic field effects on charge structure factors of gapped graphene structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Hamed; Tawoose, Nasrin

    2018-02-01

    We present the behaviors of dynamical and static charge susceptibilities of undoped gapped graphene using the Green's function approach in the context of tight binding model Hamiltonian. Specially, the effects of magnetic field on the plasmon modes of gapped graphene structure are investigated via calculating correlation function of charge density operators. Our results show the increase of magnetic field leads to disappear high frequency plasmon mode for gapped case. We also show that low frequency plasmon mode has not affected by increase of magnetic field and chemical potential. Finally the temperature dependence of static charge structure factor of gapp graphene structure is studied. The effects of both magnetic field and gap parameter on the static structure factor are discusses in details.

  4. [Spouses and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouze, F; Ayedi, S; Cherif, W; Ben Abla, T; M'rad, M F

    2011-02-01

    To assess the quality of life of a population of spouses of bipolar patients compared with a control population. We conducted a cross-sectional study which included two groups: a group of 30 spouses of patients followed for bipolar I disorder according to DSM IV criteria and a second group of 30 subjects from the general population. Both groups were matched by age, sex, marital status and socioeconomic level. This device was designed to limit the differences between the two groups solely those of the bipolar illness. Evaluating the quality of life was achieved using the quality of life scale: SF-36. This is a scale that has already been translated and validated in dialect Arabic. Regarding sociodemographic variables, the two study groups differed only for: recreation, friendly relations and the couple relationship that included more and better skills among the control group. In the categorical approach, the quality of life was impaired in 60% of spouses and 40% of controls with a statistically significant difference. The following standardized dimensions: mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6) and perceived health (D8) and mental component (CM) were significantly altered in patients' spouses compared to controls. We found significant differences between the two groups for: overall average score (51.1 vs. 68.2), mental health (D4), limitation due to mental health (D5), life and relationship with others (D6), perceived health (D8) and perceived health (D8) standards. The impairment of quality of life of bipolar patients' spouses is related to the extra responsibility, stress, financial problems and health problems, stigma, and loss of security of the person loved. Considering the consequences that the appearance of bipolar disorder on the patient's spouse may have, certain measures must be proposed to improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2010 L'Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All

  5. Structural investigations of Great Basin geothermal fields: Applications and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulds, James E [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Hinz, Nicholas H. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Coolbaugh, Mark F [Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Because fractures and faults are commonly the primary pathway for deeply circulating hydrothermal fluids, structural studies are critical to assessing geothermal systems and selecting drilling targets for geothermal wells. Important tools for structural analysis include detailed geologic mapping, kinematic analysis of faults, and estimations of stress orientations. Structural assessments are especially useful for evaluating geothermal fields in the Great Basin of the western USA, where regional extension and transtension combine with high heat flow to generate abundant geothermal activity in regions having little recent volcanic activity. The northwestern Great Basin is one of the most geothermally active areas in the USA. The prolific geothermal activity is probably due to enhanced dilation on N- to NNE-striking normal faults induced by a transfer of NW-directed dextral shear from the Walker Lane to NW-directed extension. Analysis of several geothermal fields suggests that most systems occupy discrete steps in normal fault zones or lie in belts of intersecting, overlapping, and/or terminating faults. Most fields are associated with steeply dipping faults and, in many cases, with Quaternary faults. The structural settings favoring geothermal activity are characterized by subvertical conduits of highly fractured rock along fault zones oriented approximately perpendicular to the WNW-trending least principal stress. Features indicative of these settings that may be helpful in guiding exploration for geothermal resources include major steps in normal faults, interbasinal highs, groups of relatively low discontinuous ridges, and lateral jogs or terminations of mountain ranges.

  6. Crystal field and crossover effects in the scheelite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazei, Z.A. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: kazei@plms.phys.msu.su; Snegirev, V.V. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Andreenko, A.S. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, O.D. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-05-15

    The Zeeman effect, magnetization and differential magnetic susceptibility of a DyLiF{sub 4} crystal are investigated experimentally and theoretically in pulsed magnetic fields. Energy level crossing of the Dy{sup 3+} ion is found for H-parallel [0 0 1], resulting in peaks of the differential magnetic susceptibility dM/dH and inflection points in the magnetization curves M(H) at low temperatures. Magnetic anomalies at the crossover in DyLiF{sub 4} are shown to be sensitive to the electron structure of the Dy{sup 3+} ion, which allows this effect to be used for refining the crystal field parameters.

  7. The fixed point structure of lattice field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, R.; Reusch, H.J.; Lang, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    Monte-Carlo renormalization group methods allow to analyze lattice regularized quantum field theories. The properties of the quantized field theory in the continuum may be recovered at a critical point of the lattice model. This requires a study of the phase diagram and the renormalization flow structure of the coupling constants. As an example the authors discuss the results of a recent MCRG investigation of the SU(2) adjoint Higgs model, where they find evidence for the existence of a tricritical point at finite values of the inverse gauge coupling β

  8. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Broumi, Said; Talea, Mohamed; Bakali, Assia; Smarandache, Florentin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  9. Magnetar Giant Flares in Multipolar Magnetic Fields. III. Multipolar Magnetic Field Structure Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guang-Rui; Huang, Lei; Yu, Cong; Shen, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    We have analyzed the multipolar magnetic field structure variation at neutron star surface by means of the catastrophic eruption model and find that the variation of the geometry of multipolar fields on the magnetar surface could result in the catastrophic rearrangement of the magnetosphere, which provides certain physical mechanism for the outburst of giant flares. The magnetospheric model we adopted consists of two assumptions: (1) a helically twisted flux rope is suspended in an ideal force-free magnetosphere around the magnetar, and (2) a current sheet emerges during the flux rope evolution. Magnetic energy accumulates during the flux rope’s gradual evolution along with the variation of magnetar surface magnetic structure before the eruption. The two typical behaviors, either state transition or catastrophic escape, would take place once the flux rope loses equilibrium; thus, tremendous accumulated energy is radiated. We have investigated the equilibrium state of the flux rope and the energy release affected by different multipolar structures and find structures that could trigger violent eruption and provide the radiation approximately 0.5% of the total magnetic energy during the giant flare outburst. Our results provide certain multipolar structures of the neutron star’s magnetic field with an energy release percentage 0.42% in the state transition and 0.51% in the catastrophic escape case, which are sufficient for the previously reported energy release from SGR 1806–20 giant flares.

  10. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  11. Electric Field Structures in Thin Films: Formation and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, Andrew; Plekan, Oksana; Balog, Richard

    2014-01-01

    by combining layers of different spontelectric materials. This is demonstrated using the spontelectric materials nitrous oxide, toluene, isoprene, isopentane, and CF2Cl2. These yield a variety of tailored electric field structures, with individual layers harboring fields between 107 and 108 V/m. Fields may......A newly discovered class of molecular materials, so-called “spontelectrics”, display spontaneous electric fields. Here we show that the novel properties of spontelectrics can be used to create composite spontelectrics, illustrating how electric fields in solid films may be structured on the nanoscale...

  12. The integrable structure of nonrational conformal field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bytsko, A. [Steklov Mathematics Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Teschner, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-02-15

    Using the example of Liouville theory, we show how the separation into left- and rightmoving degrees of freedom of a nonrational conformal field theory can be made explicit in terms of its integrable structure. The key observation is that there exist separate Baxter Q-operators for left- and right-moving degrees of freedom. Combining a study of the analytic properties of the Q-operators with Sklyanin's Separation of Variables Method leads to a complete characterization of the spectrum. Taking the continuum limit allows us in particular to rederive the Liouville reflection amplitude using only the integrable structure. (orig.)

  13. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-01-24

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention.

  14. Low-degree Structure in Mercury's Planetary Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian J.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Korth, Haje; Winslow, Reka M.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Purucker, Michael E.; Slavin, James A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Zuber, Maria T.; McNutt, Ralph L. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The structure of Mercury's internal magnetic field has been determined from analysis of orbital Magnetometer measurements by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We identified the magnetic equator on 531 low-altitude and 120 high-altitude equator crossings from the zero in the radial cylindrical magnetic field component, Beta (sub rho). The low-altitude crossings are offset 479 +/- 6 km northward, indicating an offset of the planetary dipole. The tilt of the magnetic pole relative to the planetary spin axis is less than 0.8 deg.. The high-altitude crossings yield a northward offset of the magnetic equator of 486 +/- 74 km. A field with only nonzero dipole and octupole coefficients also matches the low-altitude observations but cannot yield off-equatorial Beta (sub rho) = 0 at radial distances greater than 3520 km. We compared offset dipole and other descriptions of the field with vector field observations below 600 km for 13 longitudinally distributed, magnetically quiet orbits. An offset dipole with southward directed moment of 190 nT-R-cube (sub M) yields root-mean-square (RMS) residuals below 14 nT, whereas a field with only dipole and octupole terms tuned to match the polar field and the low-altitude magnetic equator crossings yields RMS residuals up to 68 nT. Attributing the residuals from the offset-dipole field to axial degree 3 and 4 contributions we estimate that the Gauss coefficient magnitudes for the additional terms are less than 4% and 7%, respectively, relative to the dipole. The axial alignment and prominent quadrupole are consistent with a non-convecting layer above a deep dynamo in Mercury's fluid outer core.

  15. Giant Magnetic Field Enhancement in Hybridized MIM Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Alrasheed, Salma

    2017-10-23

    We propose numerically an approach to narrow the plasmon linewidth and enhance the magnetic near field intensity at a magnetic hot spot in a hybridized metal-insulatormetal (MIM) structure. First we insert in part of the dielectric layer of the MIM, at its center, another dielectric material of a high refractive index (HRI). This results in an increase in the magnetic near field enhancement of the magnetic plasmon (MP) resonance by 82% compared with the MIM without the HRI material. We then couple this enhanced MP resonance to a propagating surface plasmon polariton (SPP) to achieve a further enhancement of 438%. The strong coupling between the MP and the SPP is demonstrated by the large anti-crossing in the reflection spectra. The resulting maximum magnetic field enhancement at the gap is ~ |H / Hi|² = 3555.

  16. Force Fields and Point Charges for Crystal Structure Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Svärd, Michael; Rasmuson, Åke C.

    2009-01-01

    Molecular simulation is increasingly used by chemical engineers and industrial chemists in process and product development. In particular, the possibility to predict the structure and stability of potential polymorphs of a substance is of tremendous interest to the pharmaceutical and specialty chemicals industry. Molecular mechanics modeling relies on the use of parametrized force fields and methods of assigning point charges to the atoms in the molecules. In commercial molecular simulation s...

  17. The ontology of quantum field theory: Structural realism vindicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, David

    2016-10-01

    In this paper I elicit a prediction from structural realism and compare it, not to a historical case, but to a contemporary scientific theory. If structural realism is correct, then we should expect physics to develop theories that fail to provide an ontology of the sort sought by traditional realists. If structure alone is responsible for instrumental success, we should expect surplus ontology to be eliminated. Quantum field theory (QFT) provides the framework for some of the best confirmed theories in science, but debates over its ontology are vexed. Rather than taking a stand on these matters, the structural realist can embrace QFT as an example of just the kind of theory SR should lead us to expect. Yet, it is not clear that QFT meets the structuralist's positive expectation by providing a structure for the world. In particular, the problem of unitarily inequivalent representations threatens to undermine the possibility of QFT providing a unique structure for the world. In response to this problem, I suggest that the structuralist should endorse pluralism about structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  19. Computer modeling of electrical and thermal performance during bipolar pulsed radiofrequency for pain relief

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Juan J. [Instituto de Investigación Interuniversitario en Bioingeniería y Tecnología Orientada al Ser Humano, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia 46022 (Spain); Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan J. [Pain Unit and Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, University of Navarra, Pamplona 31008 (Spain); Muñoz, Víctor [Neurotherm Spain, Barcelona 08303 (Spain); Berjano, Enrique, E-mail: eberjano@eln.upv.es [Biomedical Synergy, Electronic Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de València 46022 (Spain)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Pulsed RF (PRF) is a nonablative technique for treating neuropathic pain. Bipolar PRF application is currently aimed at creating a “strip lesion” to connect the electrode tips; however, the electrical and thermal performance during bipolar PRF is currently unknown. The objective of this paper was to study the temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF. Methods: The authors developed computer models to study temperature and electric field distributions during bipolar PRF and to assess the possible ablative thermal effect caused by the accumulated temperature spikes, along with any possible electroporation effects caused by the electrical field. The authors also modeled the bipolar ablative mode, known as bipolar Continuous Radiofrequency (CRF), in order to compare both techniques. Results: There were important differences between CRF and PRF in terms of electrical and thermal performance. In bipolar CRF: (1) the initial temperature of the tissue impacts on temperature progress and hence on the thermal lesion dimension; and (2) at 37 °C, 6-min of bipolar CRF creates a strip thermal lesion between the electrodes when these are separated by a distance of up to 20 mm. In bipolar PRF: (1) an interelectrode distance shorter than 5 mm produces thermal damage (i.e., ablative effect) in the intervening tissue after 6 min of bipolar RF; and (2) the possible electroporation effect (electric fields higher than 150 kV m{sup −1}) would be exclusively circumscribed to a very small zone of tissue around the electrode tip. Conclusions: The results suggest that (1) the clinical parameters considered to be suitable for bipolar CRF should not necessarily be considered valid for bipolar PRF, and vice versa; and (2) the ablative effect of the CRF mode is mainly due to its much greater level of delivered energy than is the case in PRF, and therefore at same applied energy levels, CRF, and PRF are expected to result in same outcomes in terms of

  20. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  1. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association between bipolar ...

  2. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  3. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    literature. While the structures of the first system were in the micrometer regime, the capability to probe buried nanostructures is demonstrated at a sample of indium arsenide quantum dots. Those dots are covered by a thick layer of gallium arsenide. For the first time ever, it is shown experimentally that transitions between electron states in single quantum dots can be investigated by near-field microscopy. By monitoring the near-field response of these quantum dots while scanning the wavelength of the incident light beam, it was possible to obtain characteristic near-field signatures of single dots. Near-field contrasts up to 30 % could be measured for resonant excitation of electrons in the conduction band of the indium arsenide dots. (orig.)

  4. Scanning near-field infrared microscopy on semiconductor structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rainer

    2011-01-15

    literature. While the structures of the first system were in the micrometer regime, the capability to probe buried nanostructures is demonstrated at a sample of indium arsenide quantum dots. Those dots are covered by a thick layer of gallium arsenide. For the first time ever, it is shown experimentally that transitions between electron states in single quantum dots can be investigated by near-field microscopy. By monitoring the near-field response of these quantum dots while scanning the wavelength of the incident light beam, it was possible to obtain characteristic near-field signatures of single dots. Near-field contrasts up to 30 % could be measured for resonant excitation of electrons in the conduction band of the indium arsenide dots. (orig.)

  5. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  6. Bipolar Disorder and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Comorbid endocrine and cardiovascular situations with bipolar disorder usually result from the bipolar disorder itself or as a consequence of its treatment. With habits and lifestyle, genetic tendency and side effects, this situation is becoming more striking. Subpopulations of bipolar disorders patients should be considered at high risk for diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in bipolar disorder may be three times greater than in the general population. Comorbidity of diabetes causes a pathophysiological overlapping in the neurobiological webs of bipolar cases. Signal mechanisms of glycocorticoid/insulin and immunoinflammatory effector systems are junction points that point out the pathophysiology between bipolar disorder and general medical cases susceptible to stress. Glycogen synthetase kinase (GSK-3 is a serine/treonine kinase and inhibits the transport of glucose stimulated by insulin. It is affected in diabetes, cancer, inflammation, Alzheimer disease and bipolar disorder. Hypoglycemic effect of lithium occurs via inhibiting glycogen synthetase kinase. When comorbid with diabetes, the other disease -for example bipolar disorder, especially during its acute manic episodes-, causes a serious situation that presents its influences for a lifetime. Choosing pharmacological treatment and treatment adherence are another important interrelated areas. The aim of this article is to discuss and review the etiological, clinical and therapeutic properties of diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder comorbidity.

  7. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Turbulent flow field structure of initially asymmetric jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Bong Whan; Kim, Suk Woo

    2000-01-01

    The near field structure of round turbulent jets with initially asymmetric velocity distributions is investigated experimentally. Experiments are carried out using a constant temperature hot-wire anemomentry system to measure streamwise velocity in the jets. The measurements are undertaken across the jet at various streamwise stations in a range starting from the jet exit plane and up to a downstream location of twelve diameters. The experimental results include the distributions of mean and instantaneous velocities, vorticity field, turbulence intensity, and the Reynolds shear stresses. The asymmetry of the jet exit plane was obtained by using circular cross-section pipes with a bend upstream of the exit. Three pipes used here include a straight pipe, and 90 and 160 degree-bend pipes. Therefore, at the upstream of the pipe exit, secondary flow through the bend and mean streamwise velocity distribution could be controlled by changing the curvature of pipes. The jets into the atmosphere have two levels of initial velocity skewness in addition to an axisymmetric jet from a straight pipe. In case of the curved pipe, a six diameterlong straight pipe section follows the bend upstream of the exit. The Reynolds number based on the exit bulk velocity is 13,400. The results indicate that the near field structure is considerably modified by the skewness of an initial mean velocity distribution. As the skewness increases, the decay rate of mean velocity at the centerline also increases

  9. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, 2550 Willow Street, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V5Z 3N9Abstract: Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC and temporal pole (TP structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects.Keywords: bipolar disorder, diffusion tensor imaging, white matter tractography, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, mood dysphoria, creativity, ventral semantic stream, writing ability, artistic aptitude

  10. Filament shape versus coronal potential magnetic field structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, B.

    2016-01-01

    Solar filament shape in projection on disc depends on the structure of the coronal magnetic field. We calculate the position of polarity inversion lines (PILs) of coronal potential magnetic field at different heights above the photosphere, which compose the magnetic neutral surface, and compare with them the distribution of the filament material in Hα chromospheric images. We found that the most of the filament material is enclosed between two PILs, one at a lower height close to the chromosphere and one at a higher level, which can be considered as a height of the filament spine. Observations of the same filament on the limb by the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft confirm that the height of the spine is really very close to the value obtained from the PIL and filament border matching. Such matching can be used for filament height estimations in on-disc observations. Filament barbs are housed within protruding sections of the low-level PIL. On the base of simple model, we show that the similarity of the neutral surfaces in potential and non-potential fields with the same sub-photospheric sources is the reason for the found tendency for the filament material to gather near the potential-field neutral surface.

  11. Annular dark field transmission electron microscopy for protein structure determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeck, Philip J B

    2016-02-01

    Recently annular dark field (ADF) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been advocated as a means of recording images of biological specimens with better signal to noise ratio (SNR) than regular bright field images. I investigate whether and how such images could be used to determine the three-dimensional structure of proteins given that an ADF aperture with a suitable pass-band can be manufactured and used in practice. I develop an approximate theory of ADF-TEM image formation for weak amplitude and phase objects and test this theory using computer simulations. I also test whether these simulated images can be used to calculate a three-dimensional model of the protein using standard software and discuss problems and possible ways to overcome these. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Toward constructing an endophenotype strategy for bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Drevets, Wayne C; Gould, Todd D; Gottesman, Irving I; Manji, Husseini K

    2006-07-15

    Research aimed at elucidating the underlying neurobiology and genetics of bipolar disorder, and factors associated with treatment response, have been limited by a heterogeneous clinical phenotype and lack of knowledge about its underlying diathesis. We used a survey of clinical, epidemiological, neurobiological, and genetic studies to select and evaluate candidate endophenotypes for bipolar disorder. Numerous findings regarding brain function, brain structure, and response to pharmacological challenge in bipolar patients and their relatives deserve further investigation. Candidate brain function endophenotypes include attention deficits, deficits in verbal learning and memory, cognitive deficits after tryptophan depletion, circadian rhythm instability, and dysmodulation of motivation and reward. We selected reduced anterior cingulate volume and early-onset white matter abnormalities as candidate brain structure endophenotypes. Symptom provocation endophenotypes might be based on bipolar patients' sensitivity to sleep deprivation, psychostimulants, and cholinergic drugs. Phenotypic heterogeneity is a major impediment to the elucidation of the neurobiology and genetics of bipolar disorder. We present a strategy constructed to improve the phenotypic definition of bipolar disorder by elucidating candidate endophenotypes. Studies to evaluate candidate endophenotypes with respect to specificity, heritability, temporal stability, and prevalence in unaffected relatives are encouraged.

  13. Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Rotational augmentation of horizontal axis wind turbine blade aerodynamics currently remains incompletely characterized and understood. To address this, the present study concurrently analysed experimental measurements and computational predictions, both of which were unique and of high quality...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...... production during rotating conditions. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  14. Electric field effect in superconductor-ferroelectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemanov, V. V.

    1995-01-01

    Electric field effect (the E-effect) in superconductors has been studied since 1960 when Glover and Sherill published their results on a shift of the critical temperature T(sub c) about 0.1 mK in Sn and In thin films under the action Off the field E=300 kV/cm. Stadler was the first to study the effect or spontaneous polarization of ferroelectric substrate on the electric properties of superconductors. He observed that the reversal of polarization of TGS substrate under action of external electric field in Sn-TGS structures induced the T(sub c) shift in Sn about 1.3 mK. Since in this case the effect is determined not by the electric field but by the spontaneous polarization, we may call this effect the P-effect. High-T(sub c) superconductors opened the new possibilities to study the E- and P-effects due to low charge carrier density, as compared to conventional superconductors, and to anomalously small coherence length. Experiments in this field began in many laboratories but a breakthrough was made where a shift in T(sub c) by 50 mK was observed in YBCO thin films. Much higher effects were observed in subsequent studies. The first experiments on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors were reported elsewhere. In this report we shall give a short description of study on the P-effect in high-T(sub c) superconductors.

  15. Generation of metal composition gradients by means of bipolar electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserant, Gwendoline; Fattah, Zahra; Ayela, Cédric; Roche, Jérome; Plano, Bernard; Zigah, Dodzi; Goudeau, Bertrand; Kuhn, Alexander; Bouffier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A bipolar electrochemistry approach for the preparation of surface gradients is reported. • Several metals are simultaneously deposited on a bipolar electrode. • The elemental composition and thickness of the deposit varies alongside the bipolar electrode. • The deposit affects the surface properties and exhibits a barcode feature. - Abstract: Bipolar electrochemistry is an unconventional technique that currently encounters a renewal of interest due to modern applications in the fields of analytical chemistry or materials science. The approach is particularly relevant for the preparation of asymmetric objects or surfaces such as Janus particles for example. Bipolar electrochemistry allows spatially controlled deposition of various layers from electroactive precursors, selectively at one side of a bipolar electrode. We report here the concomitant cathodic deposition of up to three different metals at the same time in a single experiment. The deposits were characterized by optical and electron microscopy imaging as well as profilometry and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. As a result, the deposited layer is composed of several areas exhibiting both a composition and a thickness gradient. Such a variation directly modifies the optical and electronic properties alongside the surface and gives access to the design of composite surfaces exhibiting a visual gradient feature.

  16. The impact of bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic, intermittent illness that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition, patients with bipolar disorder often have comorbid psychiatric conditions (such as anxiety disorders, alcohol or substance abuse, and eating disorders) or medical disorders (such as obesity), which result in increased burden of illness for the patients, family members, and treating clinicians. Although bipolar disorder consists of recurring episodes of mania and depression, patients spend more time depressed than manic. Bipolar depression is associated with a greater risk of suicide and of impairment in work, social, or family life than mania. This health burden also results in direct and indirect economic costs to the individual and society at large. Bipolar depression is often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed as unipolar depression, resulting in incorrect or inadequate treatment. Available treatments for bipolar depression include medications such as lithium, selected anticonvulsants, and the atypical antipsychotics. Traditional antidepressants are not recommended as monotherapy for bipolar depression as they can induce switching to mania. Early and accurate diagnosis, aggressive management, and earlier prophylactic treatment regimens are needed to overcome the impact of depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder.

  17. Magnetic field structure of experimental high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniz, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field structure of several low and high β tokamaks in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) was determined by high-impedance internal magnetic probes. From the measurement of the magnetic field, the poloidal flux, toroidal flux, toroidal current, and safety factor are calculated. In addition, the plasma position and cross-sectional shape are determined. The extent of the perturbation of the plasma by the probe was investigated and was found to be acceptably small. The tokamaks have major radii of approx.0.24 m, minor radii of approx.0.05 m, toroidal plasma current densities of approx.10 6 A/m 2 , and line-integrated electron densities of approx.10 20 m -2 . The major difference between the low and high β tokamaks is that the high β tokamak was observed to have an outward shift in major radius of both the magnetic center and peak of the toroidal current density. The magnetic center moves inward in major radius after 20 to 30 μsec, presumably because the plasma maintains major radial equilibrium as its pressure decreases from radiation due to impurity atoms. Both the equilibrium and the production of these tokamaks from a toroidal field stabilized z-pinch are modeled computationally. One tokamak evolves from a state with low β features, through a possibly unstable state, to a state with high β features

  18. Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.

  19. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  20. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  1. Characterization of ionizing radiation effects in MOS structures by study of bipolar operation; Caracterisation des effets induits par irradiations ionisantes dans des structures MOS a partir de leur fonctionnement en regime bipolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhtiar, H. [Univ. Teknologi Malaysia, Dept. of Physics, Johor (Malaysia); Picard, C.; Brisset, C. [CEA Saclay, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique, LETI, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bakhtiar, H.; Hoffmann, A.; Charles, J.P. [Metz Univ., LICM-CLOES-Supelec, 57 (France)

    1999-07-01

    This work presents an original method to characterize radiation effects of micronic transistors. The characterization includes a study of the transistor substrate-drain junction and current gain variation of the bipolar transistor (drain-substrate-source as emitter-base-collector) for different gate voltages. (author000.

  2. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  3. Domain structure of a Reggeon field theory with three couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geer, K.A.; Pinsky, S.S.

    1974-01-01

    The high energy behavior of a Reggeon field theory with a three-Reggeon coupling and two four-Reggeon couplings is considered. Using the renormalization group equations which are calculated in lowest order for this model, one studies the way the couplings evolve to the fixed points in the high energy limit. It was found that there are three fixed points (plus a fourth at infinity) to which the couplings can evolve. The space of couplings divides into four domains, two of which are two-dimensional and two of which are three-dimensional. The couplings in one of the three-dimensional domains are found to evolve to infinity and the couplings in the other three domains are found to evolve to the fixed point couplings. The boundaries of these domains and some characteristic evolution curves are shown. The implications of the domain structure of the model are discussed. (U.S.)

  4. Structure of boundary layers of plasmas confined by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, G.; Pellat, R.

    1963-01-01

    The structure of a transition sheath between a magnetically confined plasma and vacuum is investigated. A one-dimensional, static solution of the collisionless Vlasov equation is sought. The two kinds of particles are assumed to have unequal masses, M- and M+, and temperatures, T- and T+; and the parameter λ 2 = (M-/M+) (T-/T+) = (R-/R+) (R-, R+ are Larmor radii) is introduced. For non-relativistic particles, the result is obtained that no physical solution can exist except for λ = 1 without trapped particles. The problem for Maxwellian distribution functions, no charge separation field λ = 1 + α with α small, and with trapped particles, is investigated. For negative α, only trapped ions are needed, and the distribution function of trapped particles that provides the thinnest sheath can be calculated. A complete solution of the problem with unequal masses, charge separation field, and trapped electrons is given. The sheath thickness is about four Larmor radii, a good physical picture if stable. (authors) [fr

  5. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  6. Review on structured optical field generated from array beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Tianyue; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Zhi, Dong

    2018-03-01

    Structured optical field (SOF), which includes vortex beams, non-diffraction beams, cylindrical vector beams and so on, has been under intensive investigation theoretically and experimentally in recent years. Generally, current research focus on the extraordinary properties (non-diffraction propagation, helical wavefront, rotation of electrical field, et al), which can be widely applied in micro-particle manipulation, super-resolution imaging, free-space communication and so on. There are mainly two technical routes, that is, inner-cavity and outer-cavity (spatial light modulators, diffractive phase holograms, q-plates). To date, most of the SOFs generated from both technical routes involves with single monolithic beam. As a novel technical route, SOF based on array beams has the advantage in more flexible freedom degree and power scaling potential. In this paper, research achievements in SOF generation based on array beams are arranged and discussed in detail. Moreover, experiment of generating exotic beam by array beams is introduced, which illustrates that SOF generated from array beams is theoretically valid and experimentally feasible. SOF generated from array beams is also beneficial for capacity increasing and data receiving for free-space optical communication systems at long distance.

  7. Prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar I and II disorder, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremaschi, Laura; Kardell, Mathias; Johansson, Viktoria; Isgren, Anniella; Sellgren, Carl M; Altamura, A Carlo; Hultman, Christina M; Landén, Mikael

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies on the relationship between autoimmune diseases, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder are mainly based on hospital discharge registers with insufficient coverage of outpatient data. Furthermore, data is scant on the prevalence of autoimmune diseases in bipolar subgroups. Here we estimate the self-reported prevalences of autoimmune diseases in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder type I and II, and controls. Lifetime prevalence of autoimmune diseases was assessed through a structured interview in a sample of 9076 patients (schizophrenia N = 5278, bipolar disorder type I N = 1952, type II N = 1846) and 6485 controls. Comparative analyses were performed using logistic regressions. The prevalence of diabetes type 1 did not differ between groups. Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism regardless of lithium effects, rheumatoid arthritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica were most common in bipolar disorder. Systemic lupus erythematosus was less common in bipolar disorder than in the other groups. The rate of autoimmune diseases did not differ significantly between bipolar subgroups. We conclude that prevalences of autoimmune diseases show clear differences between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, but not between the bipolar subgroups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Bipolar disorder and the risk of fracture: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-An; Cheng, Bi-Hua; Huang, Yin-Cheng; Lee, Chuan-Pin; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lu, Mong-Liang; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Lee, Yena; McIntyre, Roger S; Chin Lin, Tzu; Chin-Hung Chen, Vincent

    2017-08-15

    The co-primary aims are: 1) to compare the risk of fracture between adults with bipolar disorder and those without bipolar disorder; and 2) to assess whether lithium, anticonvulsants and antipsychotics reduce risk of fracture among individuals with bipolar disorder. The analysis herein is a population-based retrospective cohort study, utilizing the National Health Insurance (NHI) medical claims data collected between 1997 and 2013 in Taiwan. We identified 3705 cases with incident diagnoses of bipolar disorder during study period and 37,050 matched controls without bipolar diagnoses. Incident diagnosis of fracture was operationalized as any bone fracture after the diagnosis of bipolar disorder or after the matched index date for controls. Bipolar patients had significantly higher risk of facture when compared to matched controls (17.6% versus 11.7%, respectively pbipolar disorder and a prior history of psychiatric hospitalization were had higher risk for bone fracture than those without prior history of psychiatric hospitalization when compared to match controls. Higher cumulative dose of antipsychotics or mood stabilizers did not increase the risk of fracture. The diagnoses of bipolar disorder were not confirmed with structured clinical interview. Drug adherence, exact exposure dosage, smoking, lifestyle, nutrition and exercise habits were unable to be assessed in our dataset. Bipolar disorder is associated with increased risk of fracture, and higher cumulative dose of mood stabilizers and antipsychotics did not further increase the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  10. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  11. A Hamiltonian structure for the linearized Einstein vacuum field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    By considering the Einstein vacuum field equations linearized about the Minkowski metric, the evolution equations for the gauge-invariant quantities characterizing the gravitational field are written in a Hamiltonian form. A Poisson bracket between functionals of the field, compatible with the constraints satisfied by the field variables, is obtained (Author)

  12. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Durán

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009, we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  13. Indirect bipolar electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Roche, Jérome; Gianessi, Eugenio; Bouffier, Laurent; Kuhn, Alexander

    2012-12-12

    Based on the principles of bipolar electrochemistry, localized pH gradients are generated at the surface of conducting particles in solution. This allows the toposelective deposition of inorganic and organic polymer layers via a pH-triggered precipitation mechanism. Due to the intrinsic symmetry breaking of the process, the concept can be used to generate in a straightforward way Janus particles, with one section consisting of deposits obtained from non-electroactive precursors. These indirect electrodeposits, such as SiO(2), TiO(2), or electrophoretic paints, can be further used as an immobilization matrix for other species like dyes or nanoparticles, thus opening promising perspectives for the synthesis of a variety of bifunctional objects with a controlled shape.

  14. Cortical complexity in bipolar disorder applying a spherical harmonics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Yotter, Rachel A; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2017-05-30

    Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, and left fusiform and posterior cingulate cortices. While our analysis is preliminary, it suggests that early neurodevelopmental pathologies might contribute to bipolar disorder, possibly through genetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  16. Unexplored areas of psychotherapy in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Dina; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Murphy, Paula; Colom, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Several psychological interventions-including group psychoeducation, family-focused psychoeducation, and interpersonal social-rhythm therapy-have demonstrated prophylactic efficacy as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorders (BDs). The field of psychological interventions for BD has experienced impressive progress over the last 15 years. Certain unexplored areas, however, require further research in order to establish the full potential of psychological interventions for BD. Such research should focus, among other things, on cognitive impairment associated with BD, BD in the elderly, comorbid anxiety disorders and other comorbidities, the treatment of BD in pregnant women, and the improvement of patients' overall physical health.

  17. Structural aspects of Lorentz-violating quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambiaso, M.; Lehnert, R.; Potting, R.

    2018-01-01

    In the last couple of decades the Standard Model Extension has emerged as a fruitful framework to analyze the empirical and theoretical extent of the validity of cornerstones of modern particle physics, namely, of Special Relativity and of the discrete symmetries C, P and T (or some combinations of these). The Standard Model Extension allows to contrast high-precision experimental tests with posited alterations representing minute Lorentz and/or CPT violations. To date no violation of these symmetry principles has been observed in experiments, mostly prompted by the Standard-Model Extension. From the latter, bounds on the extent of departures from Lorentz and CPT symmetries can be obtained with ever increasing accuracy. These analyses have been mostly focused on tree-level processes. In this presentation I would like to comment on structural aspects of perturbative Lorentz violating quantum field theory. I will show that some insight coming from radiative corrections demands a careful reassessment of perturbation theory. Specifically I will argue that both the standard renormalization procedure as well as the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formalism need to be adapted given that the asymptotic single-particle states can receive quantum corrections from Lorentz-violating operators that are not present in the original Lagrangian.

  18. Coherent drift wave structures in sheared magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Horton, W.

    1993-01-01

    For the problem of calculating the coherent drift wave structures in sheared magnetic fields, the authors have found it useful to derive the governing nonlinear pde from a variational principle. The variational principle is based on the free energy functional F[var-phi] = ∫ V F(var-phi, ∇ var-phi, x)dx dy. The method is applied to the vortex with speed u derived in Su et al., given by ∇ 2 var-phi = (1 - v d /u) var-phi - S m 2 /u 2 (x - var-phi/u) (x - var-phi/2u) var-phi where space is measured in units of ρ s , var-phi = (eΦ/T e )(L n /ρ s ) and the magnetic shear parameter is S m . While the linearized problem (var-phi much-lt ux) describes the usual shear induced damping, nonlinear solutions with trapped flow (var-phi > ur 0 ) form nonlinear self-bound states, which are maxima of the free energy F. The authors discuss the analytic properties and the numerical procedures for solving these types of nonlinear pde's

  19. Structural and functional properties of starches from field peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Sharp, Peter; Copeland, Les

    2011-06-15

    Starch was isolated from seven varieties of field peas (Pisumsativum L.) and characterised using a combination of physical, chemical and functional tests. The total starch content of the peas ranged between 34% and 42.7% of dry matter, and the amylose content of the starch was between 35% and 38%. Average particle diameter of the seven starches varied between 21.4 and 26.1μm. All of the pea starches gave a typical C-type X-ray diffraction pattern, with relative crystallinity ranging between 36% and 55% and the proportion of B-type crystallites between 3.8% and 30.4%. Although there were only small differences between the starches in amylose content, they displayed significant variability in functional properties, including swelling power, pasting characteristics, thermal transition temperatures in the differential scanning calorimeter, and in susceptibility to invitro attack by α-amylase. The results indicate the importance of structural characteristics of starch molecules, particularly amylopectin, as determinants of the properties of native starch granules. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices.

  1. Simultaneous integration of MOS and bipolar transistors. Application to a fast complex memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, E.; Montier, M.

    1975-01-01

    A technology allowing for a simultaneous integration of two devices T MOS and T BIP (bipolar T) is presented. The technological results obtained and an application in the field of fast complex memories are given [fr

  2. Evaluation of the impact of two flow field designs with bipolar plate flow on the performance of a PEM fuel cell; Evaluacion del impacto de dos disenos de campo de flujo de placa bipolar en el desempeno de una celda de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyola-Morales, F.; Cano-Castillo, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: feloyola@yahoo.com.mx

    2009-09-15

    The flow field (FF) designs of bipolar plates play a fundamental role in the performance of a set of PEM fuel cells. The FF is directly related with diverse processes that occur inside the cells, such as: feeding and uniform distribution of reactant gases and the handling of water produced by the overall electrochemical reaction. Therefore, a FF design that promotes each one of those processes in an optimal manner is of utmost importance to attain the best performance of a set of fuel cells. The present work evaluated the impact of two different FF on the performance of a fuel cell. The FF designs evaluated were 4 serpentine and parallels (4SP) and 2 serpentine counter flow (SC). The stability tests for the operation of the cell applied to each of the flow fields were: flood tolerance, dehydration tolerance conditions and stoichiometry performance of 1.1, 1.3, 1.5 and 2.5. The 4SP design showed high performance stability during operation with a gradual process of flooding the system and operating at different stoichiometries. Only for the test with dehydration conditions was there a gradual decrease in its performance, of up to 27%. Compared to these results, the SC design showed a rapid fall of 45% in its performance when operating under gradual flooding of the system, a constant fall in its performance (also around 45%) with stoichiometries of 1.1, 1.3 and 1.5 due to accumulation of water, and only with a stoichiometry of 2.5 did it have highly stable performance as a result of good water handling. In the test of operations under dehydration conditions, the performance of the SC design dropped to 40% and remained at this value during the rest of the test. According to these results, the performance of the 4SP design was more stable than the SC design for all of the tests implemented. [Spanish] Los disenos de campo de flujo (CF) de las placas bipolares tienen un papel fundamental en el desempeno de un conjunto de celdas de combustible tipo PEM. Los CF tienen una

  3. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  4. field occurrence and structural characteristics of basement rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    NNW/NW- (65.68%). • E - W (8.28%). • NE - SW (26.04%). The brittle structures trend predominantly in the. NNW/NW direction while the ductile structures trend in the. NNE/NE direction. Table 3: Summary of strike azimuth frequency data of structures (foliations, joints/fractures and veins) in the study area. Structural Elements.

  5. Interactions between Radial Electric Field, Transport and Structure in Helical Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi and others

    2006-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. Particle and heat transport, that determines the radial structure of density and electron profiles, sensitive to the structure of radial electric field. On the other hand, the radial electric field itself is determined by the plasma parameters. In general, the sign of the radial electric field is determined by the plasma collisionality, while the magnitude of the radial electric field is determined by the temperature and/or density gradients. Therefore the structure of radial electric field and temperature and density are strongly coupled through the particle and heat transport and formation mechanism of radial electric field. Interactions between radial electric field, transport and structure in helical plasmas is discussed based on the experiments on Large Helical Device

  6. Total Dose Effects in Conventional Bipolar Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swift, G. W.; Rax, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines various factors in bipolar device construction and design, and discusses their impact on radiation hardness. The intent of the paper is to improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms for practical devices without special test structures, and to provide (1) guidance in ways to select transistor designs that are more resistant to radiation damage, and (2) methods to estimate the maximum amount of damage that might be expected from a basic transistor design. The latter factor is extremely important in assessing the risk that future lots of devices will be substantially below design limits, which are usually based on test data for older devices.

  7. ON Cone Bipolar Cell Axonal Synapses in the OFF Inner Plexiform Layer of the Rabbit Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritzen, J. Scott; Anderson, James R.; Jones, Bryan W.; Watt, Carl B.; Mohammed, Shoeb; Hoang, John V.; Marc, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the rabbit retinal connectome RC1 reveals that the division between the ON and OFF inner plexiform layer (IPL) is not structurally absolute. ON cone bipolar cells make non-canonical axonal synapses onto specific targets and receive amacrine cell synapses in the nominal OFF layer, creating novel motifs, including inhibitory crossover networks. Automated transmission electron microscope (ATEM) imaging, molecular tagging, tracing, and rendering of ≈ 400 bipolar cells reveals axonal ribbons in 36% of ON cone bipolar cells, throughout the OFF IPL. The targets include GABA-positive amacrine cells (γACs), glycine-positive amacrine cells (GACs) and ganglion cells. Most ON cone bipolar cell axonal contacts target GACs driven by OFF cone bipolar cells, forming new architectures for generating ON-OFF amacrine cells. Many of these ON-OFF GACs target ON cone bipolar cell axons, ON γACs and/or ON-OFF ganglion cells, representing widespread mechanisms for OFF to ON crossover inhibition. Other targets include OFF γACs presynaptic to OFF bipolar cells, forming γAC-mediated crossover motifs. ON cone bipolar cell axonal ribbons drive bistratified ON-OFF ganglion cells in the OFF layer and provide ON drive to polarity-appropriate targets such as bistratified diving ganglion cells (bsdGCs). The targeting precision of ON cone bipolar cell axonal synapses shows that this drive incidence is necessarily a joint distribution of cone bipolar cell axonal frequency and target cell trajectories through a given volume of the OFF layer. Such joint distribution sampling is likely common when targets are sparser than sources and when sources are coupled, as are ON cone bipolar cells. PMID:23042441

  8. Enhancement and electric charge-assisted tuning of nonlinear light generation in bipolar plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Wei; Zhou, Liangcheng; Chou, Stephen Y

    2014-05-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new plasmonic nonlinear light generation (NLG) structure, termed plasmonic-enhanced, charge-assisted second-harmonic generator (p-CASH), that not only achieves high second-harmonic generation (SHG) enhancement (76-fold), large SHG tunability by bias (8%/V), wide tuning range (280%), 7.8 × 10(-9) conversion efficiency, and high stability but also exhibits a SHG tuning, that is bipolar rather than unipolar, not due to the third-order nonlinear polarization term, hence fundamentally different from the classic electric field induced SHG-tuning (EFISH). We propose a new SHG tuning mechanism: the second-order nonlinear polarization term enhanced by plasmonic effects, changed by charge injection and negative oxygen vacancies movement, and is nearly 3 orders of magnitude larger than EFISH. p-CASH is a bipolar parallel-plate capacitor with thin layers of plasmonic nanostructures, a TiOx (semiconductor and nonlinear) and a SiO2 (insulator) sandwiched between two electrodes. Fabrication of p-CASH used nanoimprint on 4″ wafer and is scalable to wallpaper-sized areas. The new structure, new properties, and new understanding should open up various new designs and applications of NLG in various fields.

  9. Composition and doping control for metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of InP-based double heterojunction bipolar transistor with hybrid base structure consisting of GaAsSb contact and InGaAsSb graded layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Takuya; Kashio, Norihide; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Kurishima, Kenji; Ida, Minoru; Matsuzaki, Hideaki

    2017-07-01

    We report on a method for composition and doping control for metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of a double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) with a hybrid base structure consisting of a compositionally graded InGaAsSb for boosting an average electron velocity and a heavily doped thin GaAsSb for lowering the base contact resistivity. The GaAsSb contact layer can be formed by simply turning off the supply of In precursor tetramethylindium (TMIn) after the growth of the composition and doping graded InGaAsSb base. Consequently, the solid composition and hole concentration of hybrid base can be properly controlled by just modulating the supply of only TMIn and carbon tetrabromide. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy for the DHBT wafer reveals that the contents of In, Ga, and C inside the base are actually modulated from the collector side to the emitter side as expected. Transmission-line-model measurements were performed for the compositionally graded-InGaAsSb/GaAsSb hybrid base. The contact resistivity is estimated to be 5.3 Ω µm2, which is lower than half the value of a compositionally graded InGaAsSb base without the GaAsSb contact layer. The results indicate that the compositionally-graded-InGaAsSb/GaAsSb-contact hybrid base structure grown by this simple method is very advantageous for obtaining DHBTs with a very high maximum oscillation frequency.

  10. Association between childhood dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adulthood clinical severity of bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etain, Bruno; Lajnef, M; Loftus, J; Henry, C; Raust, A; Gard, S; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Scott, J; Bellivier, F

    2017-04-01

    Clinical features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be frequently observed in cases with bipolar disorders and associated with greater severity of bipolar disorders. Although designed as a screening tool for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the Wender Utah Rating Scale could, given its factorial structure, be useful in investigating the early history of impulsive, inattentive or mood-related symptoms among patients with bipolar disorders. We rated the Wender Utah Rating Scale in 276 adult bipolar disorder cases and 228 healthy controls and tested its factorial structure and any associations with bipolar disorder phenomenology. We confirmed a three-factor structure for the Wender Utah Rating Scale (' impulsivity/temper', ' inattentiveness' and ' mood/self-esteem'). Cases and controls differed significantly on Wender Utah Rating Scale total score and sub-scale scores ( p-values bipolar disorder cases versus 5% of controls were classified as ' WURS positive' (odds ratio = 5.21 [2.73-9.95]). In bipolar disorders, higher Wender Utah Rating Scale score was associated with earlier age at onset, severity of suicidal behaviors and polysubstance misuse; multivariate analyses, controlling for age and gender, confirmed the associations with age at onset ( p = 0.001) and alcohol and substance misuse ( p = 0.001). Adults with bipolar disorders who reported higher levels of childhood symptoms on the Wender Utah Rating Scale presented a more severe expression of bipolar disorders in terms of age at onset and comorbidity. The Wender Utah Rating Scale could be employed to screen for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder but also for ' at-risk behaviors' in adult bipolar disorder cases and possibly for prodromal signs of early onset in high-risk subjects.

  11. Structural aspects of quantum field theory and noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Grensing, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to the subject of quantum field theory. It is divided into two volumes. The first can serve as a textbook on the main techniques and results of quantum field theory, while the second treats more recent developments, in particular the subject of quantum groups and noncommutative geometry, and their interrelation. The first volume is directed at graduate students who want to learn the basic facts about quantum field theory. It begins with a gentle introduction to classical field theory, including the standard model of particle physics, general relativity, and also supergravity. The transition to quantized fields is performed with path integral techniques, by means of which the one-loop renormalization of a self-interacting scalar quantum field, of quantum electrodynamics, and the asymptotic freedom of quantum chromodynamics is treated. In the last part of the first volume, the application of path integral methods to systems of quantum statistical mechanics is covered. The book ends with a r...

  12. Atypical depression is associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gistau, V; Colom, F; Mané, A; Romero, S; Sugranyes, G; Vieta, E

    2009-07-01

    There is a dearth of research focusing on factors associated with suicide attempts. High rates of atypical depression have been reported in studies including unipolar and bipolar II patients. In this study, the association between suicide attempt and atypical depression, in addition to other major risk factors, was evaluated in 390 bipolar I and II out-patients. Variables were defined according to DSM-IV criteria, and assessed with a Structured Interview for DSM-IV (axis I and II). History of suicide attempt was obtained through interviews with patients and relatives. Attempters and non-attempters were compared using univariate and multivariate analysis. Attempters showed significantly higher rates of atypical depression, family history of completed suicide, depression at index episode and cluster B personality disorder. Our results highlight the relevance of atypical depression in bipolar disorder. A more accurate identification of potential attempters may contribute to the development of effective preventive treatment strategies.

  13. A Field Study of Air Force Organization Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-05-01

    Definition of Structure The structure of an organization is reflected on tie or, anization chart. The organization chart represents a number of...This structure decentralizes decision making to a level beneath the wing con- mander. The functional activities converge on the organization chart at

  14. Near-Field Optical Microscopy of Fractal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Victor; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Using a photon scanning tunnelling microscope combined with a shear-force feedback system, we image both topographical and near-field optical images (at the wavelengths of 633 and 594 nm) of silver colloid fractals. Near-field optical imaging is calibrated with a standing evanescent wave pattern...

  15. Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We investigate the impact of magnetic fields on the electron distribution of the electrosphere of quark stars. For moderately strong magnetic fields of ∼ 1013 G, quantization effects are generally weak due to the large number density of electrons at surface, but can nevertheless affect the photon emission properties of quark ...

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... Think about death or suicide Can children and teens with bipolar disorder have other problems? Young people ...

  17. IRAS-22568+6141 - A NEW BIPOLAR PLANETARY-NEBULA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LARIO, PG; MANCHADO, A; RIERA, A; MAMPASO, A; POTTASCH, [No Value

    When carrying out a survey of IRAS sources with infrared colours similar to those of planetary nebulae, IRAS 22568 + 6141 was found to be a new young planetary nebula. It shows an extension of 8" and a bipolar structure. From its optical low resolution spectrum we have derived a high extinction

  18. Impulse control disorder comorbidity among patients with bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Gonca; Tamam, Lut

    2011-01-01

    Impulsivity is associated with mood instability, behavioral problems, and action without planning in patients with bipolar disorder. Increased impulsivity levels are reported at all types of mood episodes. This association suggests a high comorbidity between impulse control disorders (ICDs) and bipolar disorder. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of ICDs and associated clinical and sociodemographic variables in euthymic bipolar I patients. A total of 124 consecutive bipolar I patients who were recruited from regular attendees from the outpatient clinic of our Bipolar Disorder Unit were included in the study. All patients were symptomatically in remission. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Impulse control disorders were investigated using the modified version of the Minnesota Impulsive Disorders Interview. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Version 11. Furthermore, all patients completed the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scale Form V. The prevalence rate of all comorbid ICDs in our sample was 27.4% (n = 34). The most common ICD subtype was pathologic skin picking, followed by compulsive buying, intermittent explosive disorder, and trichotillomania. There were no instances of pyromania or compulsive sexual behavior. There was no statistically significant difference between the sociodemographic characteristics of bipolar patients with and without ICDs with regard to age, sex, education level, or marital status. Comorbidity of alcohol/substance abuse and number of suicide attempts were higher in the ICD(+) group than the ICD(-) group. Length of time between mood episodes was higher in the ICD(-) group than the ICD(+) group. There was a statistically significant difference between the total number of mood episodes between the 2 groups, but the number of depressive episodes was higher in the ICD(+) patients

  19. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Interactions between bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder in trait impulsivity and severity of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, A C; Lijffijt, M; Lane, S D; Steinberg, J L; Moeller, F G

    2010-06-01

    We investigated trait impulsivity in bipolar disorder and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with respect to severity and course of illness. Subjects included 78 controls, 34 ASPD, 61 bipolar disorder without Axis II disorder, and 24 bipolar disorder with ASPD, by Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) (SCID-I and -II). Data were analyzed using general linear model and probit analysis. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) scores were higher in ASPD (effect sizes 0.5-0.8) or bipolar disorder (effect size 1.45) than in controls. Subjects with both had more suicide attempts and previous episodes than bipolar disorder alone, and more substance-use disorders and suicide attempts than ASPD alone. BIS-11 scores were not related to severity of crimes. Impulsivity was higher in bipolar disorder with or without ASPD than in ASPD alone, and higher in ASPD than in controls. Adverse effects of bipolar disorder in ASPD, but not of ASPD in bipolar disorder, were accounted for by increased impulsivity.

  1. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  2. Differences in clinical presentation between bipolar I and II disorders in the early stages of bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Rie Lambaek; Kirkegaard, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    AIM: In a naturalistic clinical study of patients in the early stages of bipolar disorders the aim was to assess differences between patients with bipolar I (BD I) and bipolar II (BD II) disorders on clinical characteristics including affective symptoms, subjective cognitive complaints, functional...... level, the presence of comorbid personality disorders and coping strategies. METHODS: Diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Clinical symptoms were rated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and functional status...... using the Functional Assessment Short Test. Cognitive complaints were assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire, the presence of comorbid personality disorders using the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale and coping style...

  3. Effect of the ionic strength of pulsed electric field treatment medium on the physicochemical and structural characteristics of lactoferrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Qian; Roginski, Hubert; Williams, Roderick P W; Wooster, Tim J; Versteeg, Cornelis; Wan, Jason

    2010-11-24

    Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment (35 kV cm(-1) for 19.2 μs using bipolar 2 μs pulses) was conducted on bovine lactoferrin (LF; 0.4 mg mL(-1)) prepared in simulated milk ultrafiltrate (SMUF), at concentrations between 0.2× and 2× normal strength, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.17 to 1.04 S m(-1). The physicochemical and structural characteristics (LF content by a spectrophotometric and an ELISA method, surface hydrophobicity, electrophoretic mobility, far-UV circular dichroism spectra, and tryptophan fluorescence) of LF dissolved in SMUF of all strengths tested were not changed after PEF treatment. The PEF treatment of LF in 0.2 strength SMUF did not cause the release of LF-bound ferric ion into the aqueous phase, with a concentration of LF-bound iron being the same as that of the untreated LF control (174 μg L(-1)). However, in treatment media with higher ionic strengths, ferric ion was released from the LF molecule into the aqueous phase. The concentration of LF-bound iron decreased from 174 μg L(-1) for the LF treated in 0.2 strength SMUF to 80 μg L(-1) for that treated in double-strength SMUF. The results suggest that the PEF-induced iron depletion of LF does not appear to cause an appreciable conformational change in LF molecules. PEF treatment could be developed as a novel physical way to produce iron-depleted LF, as an alternative to the existing chemical method.

  4. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisas recentes têm implicado fatores imunes na patogênese de diversos transtornos neuropsiquiátricos. O objetivo do presente trabalho é revisar os trabalhos que investigaram a associação entre transtorno bipolar e alterações em parâmetros imunes. MÉTODOS: Artigos que incluíam as palavras-chave: "bipolar disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" e "tumor necrosis factor" foram selecionados em uma revisão sistemática da literatura. As bases de dados avaliadas foram MedLine e Scopus, entre os anos de 1980 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 28 trabalhos que estudaram alterações imunes em pacientes com transtorno bipolar. Seis artigos investigaram genes relacionados à resposta imune; cinco, autoanticorpos; quatro, populações leucocitárias; 13, citocinas e/ou moléculas relacionadas à resposta imune e seis, leucócitos de pacientes in vitro. CONCLUSÕES: Embora haja evidências na literatura correlacionando o transtorno bipolar a alterações imunes, os dados não são conclusivos. O transtorno bipolar parece estar associado a níveis mais elevados de autoanticorpos circulantes, assim como à tendência à ativação imune com produção de citocinas pró-inflamatórias e redução de parâmetros anti-inflamatórios.OBJECTIVE: Emerging research has implicated immune factors in the pathogenesis of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. The objective of the present paper is to review the studies that investigated the association between bipolar disorder and immune parameters. METHODS: Papers that included the keywords "bipolar to disorder", "mania", "immunology", "cytokines", "chemokines", "interleukins", "interferon" and "tumor necrosis factor" were selected in a systematic review of the literature. The evaluated databases were MedLine and Scopus in the period between 1980 and 2008. RESULTS: Twenty eight works were found. Six studies investigated immune response

  5. Near-Field Optical Microscopy of Fractal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coello, Victor; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Using a photon scanning tunnelling microscope combined with a shear-force feedback system, we image both topographical and near-field optical images (at the wavelengths of 633 and 594 nm) of silver colloid fractals. Near-field optical imaging is calibrated with a standing evanescent wave pattern....... Near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement (by up to 20 times) in the form of round bright spots, whose positions and brightness are found to be sensitive to the light wavelength, polarization and angle of incidence. The observed phenomenon...

  6. Reversible ?triple-Q? elastic field structures in a chiral magnet

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three ?triple-Q? structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three ?triple-Q? displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for ...

  7. Electrostriction in Field-Structured Composites: Basis for a Fast Artificial Muscle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.A.; Martin, J.E.

    1999-01-27

    The electrostriction of composites consisting of dielectric particles embedded in a gel or elastomer is discussed. It is shown that when these particles are organized by a uniaxial field before gelation, the resulting field-structured composites are expected to exhibit enhanced electrostriction in a uniform field applied along the same axis as the structuring field. The associated stresses might be large enough to form the basis of a polymer-based fast artificial muscle.

  8. Simulation of Heating of an Oil-Cooled Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors Converter Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ovrebo, Gregory

    2004-01-01

    I used SolidWorks a three-dimensional modeling software, and FloWorks, a fluid dynamics analysis tool, to simulate oil flow and heat transfer in a heat sink structure attached to three insulated gate bipolar transistors...

  9. Theoretical study of structure of electric field in helical toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2001-06-01

    A set of transport equations is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the electric field. The structure of the electric field is studied by use of the theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities. The steep gradient of the electric field is obtained at the electric domain. The suppression of the anomalous transport diffusivity is studied in the presence of the strong shear of the electric field. The hard transition with the multiple ambipolar solutions is examined in the structure of the radial electric field. The details of the structure of the electric domain interface are investigated. (author)

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MAGNETIC FIELD STRUCTURE IN CYLINDRICAL FILM SCREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Gromyko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method for solving the boundary value problem for a nonlinear magnetostatic equation describing the external magnetostatic field penetration through the cylindrical film coating is developed. A mathematical model of the shielding problem based on the use of the boundary conditions of the third kind on the film surface is studied. The nonlinear dependence of the film magnetic permeability on magnetic field conforms with experimental data. The distribution of the magnetic field strength in the film layer and the magnetic permeability of the film material depending on the magnitude of the external magnetic field strength are investigated numerically.

  11. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  12. “Is it menopause or bipolar?”: a qualitative study of the experience of menopause for women with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Perich, Tania; Ussher, Jane; Parton, Chloe

    2017-01-01

    Background Menopause can be a time of change for women and may be marked by disturbances in mood. For women living with a mental illness, such as bipolar disorder, little is known about how they experience mood changes during menopause. This study aimed to explore how women with bipolar disorder constructed mood changes during menopause and how this impacted on treatment decisions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with fifteen women who reported they had been diagnosed with ...

  13. Durability of marine concrete structures - field investigations and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Rooij, M.R. de

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a series of investigations on six concrete structures along the North Sea coast in The Netherlands. They had ages between 18 and 41 years and most of them were made using Blast Furnace Slag cement. Visual inspections showed corrosion damage in only one structure, related to

  14. Durability of marine concrete structures - field investigations and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Rooij, M.R. de

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a series of investigations on six concrete structures along the North Sea coast in The Netherlands. They had ages between 18 and 41 years and most of them were made using Blast Furnace Slag cement. Visual inspections showed corrosion damage in only one structure, related to

  15. Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Marsal; Jorge, Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management o...

  16. Reversible "triple-Q" elastic field structures in a chiral magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2016-07-26

    The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three "triple-Q" structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three "triple-Q" displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for increasing external magnetic field, one type of "triple-Q" displacement structure and stress structure undergo a "configurational reversal", where the initial and the final field configuration share similar pattern but with opposite direction of all the field vectors. The solution obtained is of fundamental significance for understanding the emergent mechanical properties of skyrmions in chiral magnets.

  17. Reversible “triple-Q” elastic field structures in a chiral magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yangfan; Wang, Biao

    2016-01-01

    The analytical solution of the periodic elastic fields in chiral magnets caused by presence of periodically distributed eigenstrains is obtained. For the skyrmion phase, both the periodic displacement field and the stress field are composed of three “triple-Q” structures with different wave numbers. The periodic displacement field, obtained by combining the three “triple-Q” displacement structures, is found to have the same lattice vectors with the magnetic skyrmion lattice. We find that for increasing external magnetic field, one type of “triple-Q” displacement structure and stress structure undergo a “configurational reversal”, where the initial and the final field configuration share similar pattern but with opposite direction of all the field vectors. The solution obtained is of fundamental significance for understanding the emergent mechanical properties of skyrmions in chiral magnets. PMID:27457629

  18. Nelson's stochastic quantization of free linearized gravitational field and its Markovian structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1983-05-01

    It is shown that by applying Nelson's stochastic quantization scheme to free linearized gravitational field tensor one can associate with the resulting stochastic system a stochastic tensor field which coincides with the ''space'' part of the Riemannian tensor in Euclidean space-time. However, such a stochastic field fails to satisfy the Markov property. Instead, it satisfies the reflection positivity. The Markovian structure of the stochastic fields associated with the electromagnetic field is also discussed. (author)

  19. Bipolar disorders and Wilson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carta Mauro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the risk for Bipolar Disorder (BD in Wilson’s disease (WD and to measure the impaired Quality of Life (QL in BD with WD using standardized psychiatric diagnostic tools and a case control design. Methods This was a case control study. The cases were 23 consecutive patients with WD treated at the University Hospital in Cagliari, Italy, and the controls were 92 sex- and age-matched subjects with no diagnosis of WD who were randomly selected from a database used previously for an epidemiological study. Psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV criteria were determined by physicians using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID. QL was measured by means of SF-12. Results Compared to controls, WD patients had lower scores on the SF-12 and higher lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV major depressive disorders (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.4–17.3 and bipolar disorders (OR = 12.9, 95% CI 3.6–46.3. BD was associated with lower SF-12 in WD patients. Conclusions This study was the first to show an association between BD and WD using standardized diagnostic tools and a case control design. Reports in the literature about increased schizophrenia-like psychosis in WD and a lack of association with bipolar disorders may thus have been based on a more inclusive diagnosis of schizophrenia in the past. Our findings may explain the frequent reports of loss of emotional control, hyperactivity, loss of sexual inhibition, and irritability in WD patients. This study was limited by a small sample size.

  20. FIRST SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF MOVING MAGNETIC FEATURES IN PHOTOSPHERIC INTENSITY AND MAGNETIC FIELD DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Goode, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The formation and the temporal evolution of a bipolar moving magnetic feature (MMF) was studied with high-spatial and temporal resolution. The photometric properties were observed with the New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory using a broadband TiO filter (705.7 nm), while the magnetic field was analyzed using the spectropolarimetric data obtained by Hinode. For the first time, we observed a bipolar MMF simultaneously in intensity images and magnetic field data, and studied the details of its structure. The vector magnetic field and the Doppler velocity of the MMF were also studied. A bipolar MMF with its positive polarity closer to the negative penumbra formed, accompanied by a bright, filamentary structure in the TiO data connecting the MMF and a dark penumbral filament. A fast downflow (≤2 km s –1 ) was detected at the positive polarity. The vector magnetic field obtained from the full Stokes inversion revealed that a bipolar MMF has a U-shaped magnetic field configuration. Our observations provide a clear intensity counterpart of the observed MMF in the photosphere, and strong evidence of the connection between the MMF and the penumbral filament as a serpentine field.

  1. Magnetoamplification in a bipolar magnetic junction transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaraju, N; Peters, J A; Wessels, B W

    2010-09-10

    We have demonstrated the first bipolar magnetic junction transistor using a dilute magnetic semiconductor. For an InMnAs p-n-p transistor magnetoamplification is observed at room temperature. The observed magnetoamplification is attributed to the magnetoresistance of the magnetic semiconductor InMnAs heterojunction. The magnetic field dependence of the transistor characteristics confirm that the magnetoamplification results from the junction magnetoresistance. To describe the experimentally observed transistor characteristics, we propose a modified Ebers-Moll model that includes a series magnetoresistance attributed to spin-selective conduction. The capability of magnetic field control of the amplification in an all-semiconductor transistor at room temperature potentially enables the creation of new computer logic architecture where the spin of the carriers is utilized.

  2. Field induced heliconical structure of cholesteric liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.; Shiyanovsii, Sergij V.; Xiang, Jie; Kim, Young-Ki

    2017-06-27

    A diffraction grating comprises a liquid crystal (LC) cell configured to apply an electric field through a cholesteric LC material that induces the cholesteric LC material into a heliconical state with an oblique helicoid director. The applied electric field produces diffracted light from the cholesteric LC material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet. The axis of the heliconical state is in the plane of the liquid crystal cell or perpendicular to the plane, depending on the application. A color tuning device operates with a similar heliconical state liquid crystal material but with the heliconical director axis oriented perpendicular to the plane of the cell. A power generator varies the strength of the applied electric field to adjust the wavelength of light reflected from the cholesteric liquid crystal material within the visible, infrared or ultraviolet.

  3. [Artistic creativity and bipolar mood disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janka, Zoltán

    2004-08-15

    ndel, Klemperer, Mahler, and Schumann. Further example is the enigmatic silence and withdrawal from opera composing of Gioacchino Rossini (1792-1868), which is still a matter of various theories and explanations. Until his life of 37 years he composed 39 operas and lived almost another 40 years without composing any new one. Biographies show that severe depressive sufferings played a role in that withdrawal and silence, while in his juvenile years most probably hypomanic personality traits contributed to the extreme achievements and very fast composing techniques. Analysing the available biographies of Rossini and the character of music he composed (e.g. opera buffa, Rossini crescendo) strongly suggests the medical diagnosis of a bipolar affective illness. Comparing to the general population, bipolar mood disorder is highly overrepresented among writers and artists. The cognitive and other psychological features of artistic creativity resemble many aspects of the hypomanic symptomatology. It may be concluded that bipolar mood traits might contribute to highly creative achievements in the field of art. At the same time, considering the risks, the need of an increased medical care is required.

  4. Molecular-Field Calculation of the Magnetic Structure in Erbium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J.

    1976-01-01

    A molecular-field calculation of the magnetic configurations in Er is found to reproduce the neutron diffraction results of the three different magnetic phases and to give a reasonable fit to the magnetization data at 4.2K. The two-ion coupling is considered to be described by the inter......-planar coupling parameters deduced from the dispersion of the spin waves in the low temperature conical phases. The four (effective) crystal-field parameters are determined by the fit to the experimental data. Projecting the magnetic moments present in the intermediate phase of Er (18-52.4K) to a common origin...

  5. Disease management apps and technical assistance systems for bipolar disorder: Investigating the patients´ point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daus, Henning; Kislicyn, Natalia; Heuer, Stephan; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2018-03-15

    Smartphone-based disease management has become increasingly interesting for research in the field of bipolar disorders. This article investigates the attitudes of persons affected by this disorder towards the appropriation of mobile apps or assistance systems for the management of their disease. We conducted two separate studies. Study 1 was an online survey with 88 participants. In study 2 we consulted 15 participants during a semi-structured interview. All the participants had formerly been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. More than half of the participants of study 1 and most participants of study 2 agreed with the use of an app or assistance system for self-ratings, third party ratings and an objective symptom monitoring. Potential interventions that were popular in both groups included a regular feedback, the visualization of monitored data and advice in crises. With study 1 we were not able to ensure correct diagnoses or to interact in a flexible way. In Study 2 those issues were resolved, but the small number of participants raises the question of a possible generalisability of the results. Furthermore, for both studies a selection bias could not be excluded. Our results indicate positive attitudes of bipolar patients towards disease management apps and assistance systems. Even new and innovative features such as partner apps or the analysis of facial expressions in video data were appreciated and daily interactions were favoured. However, the variety of answers calls for flexible systems which allow activating or deactivating certain features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  7. Epidemiologia do transtorno bipolar Epidemiology of bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Silva de Lima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A formulação de políticas em saúde mental depende essencialmente de informações a respeito da freqüência e distribuição dos transtornos mentais. Nas últimas duas décadas, pesquisas de base populacional em epidemiologia psiquiátrica têm sido conduzidas, gerando informações detalhadas sobre freqüência, fatores de risco, incapacidade social e utilização de serviços de saúde. Neste artigo, dados sobre a epidemiologia do transtorno bipolar (TB são discutidos, a partir de resultados de recentes pesquisas populacionais: o estudo da Área de Captação Epidemiológica do Instituto Nacional de Saúde Mental dos Estados Unidos (ECA-NIMH, a Pesquisa Nacional de Comorbidade (NCS, a Pesquisa de Morbidade Psiquiátrica na Grã-Bretanha (OPCS, o Estudo Brasileiro Multicêntrico de Morbidade Psiquiátrica e os estudos longitudinais conduzidos por Angst, em Zurique. As estimativas de prevalências de transtorno bipolar são relativamente baixas, independentemente do lugar onde a pesquisa foi conduzida, do tipo de instrumento diagnóstico usado e dos períodos de tempo para os quais a prevalência se aplica. A partir da introdução do conceito de espectro bipolar, ampliando as fronteiras diagnósticas do TB, as estimativas de prevalências encontradas são substancialmente mais altas. Tais estimativas, entretanto, ainda carecem de validação em estudos populacionais. O transtorno afetivo bipolar é igualmente prevalente entre homens e mulheres, sendo mais freqüente entre solteiros ou separados. Indivíduos acometidos têm maiores taxas de desemprego e estão mais sujeitos a utilizarem serviços médicos e serem hospitalizados. O custo e a eficácia dos tratamentos do TB devem ser balanceados com o alto custo individual e social associados à enfermidade.Information about the epidemiology of bipolar disorders is essential for providing a framework for the formulation of effective mental health policy. In the last two decades, population

  8. Surface structure of quark stars with magnetic fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the formation of quark stars, with particular attention to the attractive quark-nova scenario which may be connected to r-process nucleosynthesis. 2. Degenerate electron gas in a strong magnetic field. Recently, a few authors [21] pointed out that the deficit of (massive) strange quarks due to surface effects on the star can lead ...

  9. Algebraic structure of cohomological field theory models and equivariant cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stora, R.; Thuillier, F.; Wallet, J.Ch.

    1994-01-01

    The definition of observables within conventional gauge theories is settled by general consensus. Within cohomological theories considered as gauge theories of an exotic type, that question has a much less obvious answer. It is shown here that in most cases these theories are best defined in terms of equivariant cohomologies both at the field level and at the level of observables. (author). 21 refs

  10. Conformal field theory between supersymmetry and indecomposable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, H.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis considers conformal field theory in its supersymmetric extension as well as in its relaxation to logarithmic conformal field theory. This thesis is concerned with the subspace of K3 compactifications which is not well known yet. In particular, we inspect the intersection point of the Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold subvarieties within the K3 moduli space, explicitly identify the two corresponding points on the subvarieties geometrically, and give an explicit isomorphism of the three conformal field theory models located at that point, a specific Z 2 and Z 4 orbifold model as well as the Gepner model (2) 4 . We also prove the orthogonality of the two subvarieties at the intersection point. This is the starting point for the programme to investigate generic points in K3 moduli space. We use the coordinate identification at the intersection point in order to relate the coordinates of both subvarieties and to explicitly calculate a geometric geodesic between the two subvarieties as well as its generator. A generic point in K3 moduli space can be reached by such a geodesic originating at a known model. We also present advances on the conformal field theoretic side of deformations along such a geodesic using conformal deformation theory. Moreover, we regard a relaxation of conformal field theory to logarithmic conformal field theory. In particular, we study general augmented c p,q minimal models which generalise the well-known (augmented) c p,1 model series. We calculate logarithmic nullvectors in both types of models. But most importantly, we investigate the low lying Virasoro representation content and fusion algebra of two general augmented c p,q models, the augmented c 2,3 =0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c 2,5 =-22/5. In particular, the true vacuum representation is rather given by a rank 1 indecomposable but not irreducible subrepresentation of a rank 2 representation. We generalise these generic examples to give the representation content and

  11. Conformal field theory between supersymmetry and indecomposable structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberle, H.

    2006-07-15

    This thesis considers conformal field theory in its supersymmetric extension as well as in its relaxation to logarithmic conformal field theory. This thesis is concerned with the subspace of K3 compactifications which is not well known yet. In particular, we inspect the intersection point of the Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} orbifold subvarieties within the K3 moduli space, explicitly identify the two corresponding points on the subvarieties geometrically, and give an explicit isomorphism of the three conformal field theory models located at that point, a specific Z{sub 2} and Z{sub 4} orbifold model as well as the Gepner model (2){sup 4}. We also prove the orthogonality of the two subvarieties at the intersection point. This is the starting point for the programme to investigate generic points in K3 moduli space. We use the coordinate identification at the intersection point in order to relate the coordinates of both subvarieties and to explicitly calculate a geometric geodesic between the two subvarieties as well as its generator. A generic point in K3 moduli space can be reached by such a geodesic originating at a known model. We also present advances on the conformal field theoretic side of deformations along such a geodesic using conformal deformation theory. Moreover, we regard a relaxation of conformal field theory to logarithmic conformal field theory. In particular, we study general augmented c{sub p,q} minimal models which generalise the well-known (augmented) c{sub p,1} model series. We calculate logarithmic nullvectors in both types of models. But most importantly, we investigate the low lying Virasoro representation content and fusion algebra of two general augmented c{sub p,q} models, the augmented c{sub 2,3}=0 model as well as the augmented Yang-Lee model at c{sub 2,5}=-22/5. In particular, the true vacuum representation is rather given by a rank 1 indecomposable but not irreducible subrepresentation of a rank 2 representation. We generalise these generic

  12. Self-organization of physical fields and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I.B.

    2008-01-01

    The subject of the present investigation is the laws of intrinsic self-organization of fundamental physical fields. In the framework of the Theory of Self-Organization the geometrical and physical nature of spin phenomena is uncovered. The key points are spin symmetry (the fundamental realization of the concept of geometrical internal symmetry) and the spinning field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). It is shown that the essence of spin is the bipolar structure of spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potentials. The bipolar structure provides natural violation of spin symmetry and leads to spinstatics (theory of spinning field outside the time) and spindynamics. The equations of spinstatics and spindynamics are derived. It is shown that Sommerfeld's formula can be derived from the equations of spindynamics and hence the correspondence principle is valid. This means that the Theory of Self-Organization provides the new understanding of spin phenomena

  13. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2017-04-01

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  14. Field application of cathodic prevention on reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzoni, A.; Bazzoni, B.; Lazzari, L. [Cescor srl, Milano (Italy); Bertolini, L.; Pedeferri, P. [Politecnico di Milano (Italy). Dept. di Chimica Fisica Applicata

    1996-11-01

    This paper illustrates the results gained during the first three years of cathodic protection application to Frejus highway viaducts in northern Italy. CP applications deal with corrosion control of chloride contaminated structures (cathodic protection application properly said) and the corrosion prevention of new non-contaminated structures, constructed with incorporated cathodic protection systems (so-called cathodic prevention). Both normal and post-tensioned structures are present: in the latter case the problems connected with the risk of hydrogen embrittlement of the tendons are discussed. The paper illustrates also the computerized system for gathering and monitoring data and the criteria adopted to evaluate and control the cathodic protection and cathodic prevention conditions as well as to avoid overprotection.

  15. High Field Studies for CLIC Accelerating Structures Development

    CERN Document Server

    Profatilova, I

    2017-01-01

    Compact Linear Collider RF structures need to be able to achieve the very high average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. One of the main challenges in reaching such high accelerating gradients is to avoid vacuum electrical breakdown within CLIC accelerating structures. Accelerating structure tests are carried out in the klystron-based test stands known as the XBoxes. In order to investigate vacuum breakdown phenomena and its statistical characteristics in a simpler system and get results in a faster way, pulsed dc systems have been developed at CERN. To acquire sufficient breakdown data in a reasonable period of time, high repetition rate pulse generators are used in the systems for breakdown studies, so-called pulsed dc system. This paper describes the pulsed dc systems and the two high repetition rate circuits, which produce high-voltage pulses for it, available at CERN.

  16. The Field of Foucaultian Discourse Analysis: Structures, Developments and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis. The FOUCAULTian concept of discourse is introduced, and methodological positions and methodological developments are sketched. Compared to other qualitative social research approaches, the different researchers and research groups that have adopted the FOUCAULTian concept of discourse are not linked by a fully integrated common research paradigm. However, they share common methodological problems and areas of methodological research resulting from various references to FOUCAULTian positions. In the last decade, different research groups have become aware of these shared commonalities, so that one can speak of an emerging field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis rather than an emerging paradigm. The article gives insight into the discourse analytic research in selected countries, discusses the internationalisation of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis and highlights current trends and perspectives. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702305

  17. Gravity field and internal structure of Mercury from MESSENGER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Hauck, Steven A; Lemoine, Frank G; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Peale, Stanton J; Margot, Jean-Luc; Johnson, Catherine L; Torrence, Mark H; Perry, Mark E; Rowlands, David D; Goossens, Sander; Head, James W; Taylor, Anthony H

    2012-04-13

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/MR(2) = 0.353 ± 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(m)/C = 0.452 ± 0.035. A model for Mercury's radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  18. Progress in nuclear structure beyond the mean-field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colò, G; Bortignon, P F; Brenna, M; Roca-Maza, X; Vigezzi, E; Moghrabi, K; Grasso, M; Mizuyama, K

    2014-01-01

    Although self-consistent mean-field methods, or implementations of the density functional theory for atomic nuclei, are becoming increasingly accurate, some observables are not well reproduced by those models. In particular, the fragmentation and the decay properties of both single-particle and vibrational states cannot be accounted for. Models based on the introduction of further correlations or, in other words, that go beyond the mean-field approximation, have often been discussed in the past. We have recently developed a consistent model based on the use of a Skyrme-type force without the intervention of any other ad hoc parameter. A few typical results are discussed, after we have mentioned briefly the essential features of the model. Moreover, we discuss the necessity of fitting a new force within this context, the difficulties arising because of divergences that need to be renormalized, and our roadmap for curing these divergences

  19. New foundations for applied electromagnetics the spatial structure of fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mikki, Said

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive new resource focuses on applied electromagnetics and takes readers beyond the conventional theory with the use of contemporary mathematics to improve the practical use of electromagnetics in emerging areas of field communications, wireless power transfer, metamaterials, MIMO and direction-of-arrival systems. The book explores the existing and novel theories and principles of electromagnetics in order to help engineers analyze and design devices for todays applications in wireless power transfers, NFC, and metamaterials.

  20. Doppler velocity fields in magnetic structures and their surroundings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klvaňa, Miroslav; Bumba, Václav; Švanda, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2006), s. 21-30 ISSN 1845-8319. [Central European Solar Physics Meeting /2./. Bairisch Kölldorf, 19.05.2005-21.05.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003404; GA ČR GA205/04/2129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : solar photosphere * velocity field * magnetic and non-magnetic regions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Analysis of field coordination on heat exchanger shell side with different diameter tubes and holding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Lu Minshan; Dong Qiwu

    2009-01-01

    In order to overcome the disadvantages of the rod-baffle heat exchanger, which achieves the high heat transfer efficiency only at high flow velocity, and which with non compact layout of tubes and is weak in the resistance of operation mode changes, this paper proposed two sizes of heat exchange tubes and holding and support structures to replace the traditional rod-baffle support unit, to increase the heat exchange coefficient on shell side and the heat exchange effectiveness. Three-dimensional numerical simulation was conducted on the shellside flow field and heat exchange field by the CFD software, and the calculation method was proposed for the included angle for the shellside velocity-temperature gradient fields of the vertical flow heat exchanger with complex structure. The quantitative relationship of the field coordination angle for the shellside velocity field and temperature gradient field was obtained and it is proved that the new structure is with better field coordination relation. (authors)

  2. Prevention of brittle fracture of steel structures by controlling the local stress and strain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyseychik Evgeniy Alekseevich

    Full Text Available In the article the author offers a classification of the methods to increase the cold resistance of steel structural shapes with a focus on the regulation of local fields of internal stresses and strains to prevent brittle fracture of steel structures. The need of a computer thermography is highlighted not only for visualization of temperature fields on the surface, but also to control the fields of residual stresses and strains in a controlled element.

  3. Pressure effects of the magnetic structures of TbNi2Si2 in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, S.; Fukui, S.; Onodera, A.; Amita, F.; Katano, S.

    1997-01-01

    Single crystal neutron diffraction studies of the field-induced magnetic structures of TbNi 2 Si 2 have been performed at 1.7 K without pressure and under 0.7 GPa using a cryomagnetic high pressure system. Without pressure at 1.7 K four intermediate structures have been identified between a zero-field simple antiferromagnetic structure and a fully ferromagnetic one. Under 0.7 GPa two field-induced phases with an antiphase-type modulation along the left angle 110 right angle direction was newly observed above 4 T, while below 3.3 T zero pressure structures are still retained. (orig.)

  4. Field occurrence and structural characteristics of basement rocks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunu Area in part of Kabba-Lokoja-Igarra Schist Belt, southwestern Nigeria. ... structures in the NW-SE to N-S directions are filled by quartz veins, dolerites and pegmatite dykes and serve as conduits and pathway of the gold bearing ore fluids.

  5. Structural Mapping Based on Potential Field and Remote Sensing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    exploration program sponsored by oil industries (Bijendra Singh et al. 2009). G-M surveys revealed ... structural details of the basin architecture in order to comprehend the tectonic development of the basin. In this endeavor, we have utilized ..... increasing frequency (Spector and Grant 1970). In this approach, depth to the ...

  6. Structural mapping based on potential field and remote sensing data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swarnapriya Chowdari

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... a variety of investigations, such as mineral and energy resources, environmental characterizations, groundwater and geohazard studies. The integra- tion of geological, remote-sensing, and geophysical. **Deceased. data aids in the detection and geological interpretation of the structural features and has ...

  7. A prospective study of diagnostic conversion of major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder in pregnancy and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Xie, Bin; Campbell, M Karen; Penava, Debbie; Hampson, Elizabeth; Mazmanian, Dwight; Pope, Carley J

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the rate of, and risk factors for, a change in diagnosis from major depressive disorder to bipolar disorder, and from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder in pregnancy and postpartum. Patients with a prior history of major depressive disorder or bipolar II disorder were recruited between 24 and 28 weeks' gestation and followed through to one year postpartum. Diagnostic interviews were conducted using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV at study intake and repeated using the Mini-International Psychiatric Interview at one, three, six, and 12 months after childbirth. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the association between various risk factors and diagnostic switch. A total of 146 participants completed the intake interview and at least one follow-up interview postpartum. Of these, 92 were diagnosed with major depressive disorder and 54 with bipolar II disorder at intake. Six women (6.52%) experienced a diagnostic change from major depressive disorder to bipolar II disorder during the first six months after childbirth. There were no cases of switching to bipolar I disorder, but in one participant the diagnosis changed from bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder during the three months after childbirth. Bipolar switch was associated with a family history of bipolar disorder. The postpartum period appears to be a time of high risk for a new onset of hypomania in women with major depressive disorder. Our rate of diagnostic switching to bipolar II disorder (6.52%) is at least 11- to 18-fold higher than the rates of switching in similar studies conducted in both men and women. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  9. Self-healing structural properties of thermoplastics in HF field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Filippenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article concerns one of the possible ways for safe operation of polymer products with initiating a process of their self-healing. This is especially true for products from polymer materials, used in hard-to-reach areas and units of machines and mechanisms. In this regard, the aim of this study was to develop techniques for a self-healing process of the mechanical properties of products from polymer materials.To achieve this goal, the author has solved problems to define a complex method of HF self-healing of polymer material: damage detection in products from polymer materials, determination of signal initiating the recovery process, determining the efficiency of material regeneration. The present study uses proposed and developed by the author methods for the determination of necessary and sufficient indicators of the strength characteristics of products under realmeteorological and climatic conditions of their operation.To determine the practical results of the developed algorithm for self-healing the polymer products in the HF field, a series of experimental studies has been conducted to regenerate the polyamide cage fatigue destruction of the rolling stock axle equipment of Russian Railways JSC.The obtained results of the strength characteristics of the material under investigation prove the self-healing process of polymer materials in HF field.According to research results, the conclusion is drawn that it is required to provide a technological HF self-healing process of products from polymer materials. The created algorithm of regeneration enables a new approach to study the effects of electromagnetic fields on polymer and polymer-based composite materials when solving the practical tasks to improve the quality of repairing parts from thermoplastics.

  10. Plasma ICR heating antennas: adaptation, radiated field structure, coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegourie, B.

    1982-01-01

    The transmission line theory has been used to find the antenna adapattion improvement possibilities, so as to optimize the power transfer from generator to plasma. ICR heating antennas are described, radiated magnetic field is measured, and superstructures (diaphragms and electrostatic screen) is studied from a mock-up and a numerical model. Results about antenna radiation and electric property modifications due to superstructures, without plasma, are presented. At last, TFR antenna coupling properties, in terms of frequency, electromagnetic wave and plasma conditions, are studied. In the whole work, we tried to define, when possible the construction criteria fitted to cyclotron heating in the big tokamak experiments under construction [fr

  11. Far field scattering pattern of differently structured butterfly scales

    OpenAIRE

    Giraldo, M. A.; Yoshioka, S.; Stavenga, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    The angular and spectral reflectance of single scales of five different butterfly species was measured and related to the scale anatomy. The scales of the pierids Pieris rapae and Delias nigrina scatter white light randomly, in close agreement with Lambert's cosine law, which can be well understood from the randomly organized beads on the scale crossribs. The reflectance of the iridescent blue scales of Morpho aega is determined by multilayer structures in the scale ridges, causing diffractio...

  12. Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurau, Bogdan [Nuvant Systems Inc., Crown Point, IN (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.

  13. Gravity Field and Internal Structure of Mercury from MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Phillips, Roger J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Hauck, Steven A., II; Lemoine, Frank G.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Peale, Stanton J.; Margot, Jean-Luc; hide

    2012-01-01

    Radio tracking of the MESSENGER spacecraft has provided a model of Mercury's gravity field. In the northern hemisphere, several large gravity anomalies, including candidate mass concentrations (mascons), exceed 100 milli-Galileos (mgal). Mercury's northern hemisphere crust is thicker at low latitudes and thinner in the polar region and shows evidence for thinning beneath some impact basins. The low-degree gravity field, combined with planetary spin parameters, yields the moment of inertia C/M(R(exp 2) = 0.353 +/- 0.017, where M and R are Mercury's mass and radius, and a ratio of the moment of inertia of Mercury's solid outer shell to that of the planet of C(sub m)/C = 0.452 +/- 0.035. A model for Mercury s radial density distribution consistent with these results includes a solid silicate crust and mantle overlying a solid iron-sulfide layer and an iron-rich liquid outer core and perhaps a solid inner core.

  14. Examining the comorbidity of bipolar disorder and autism spectrum disorders: a large controlled analysis of phenotypic and familial correlates in a referred population of youth with bipolar I disorder with and without autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Gagan; Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter; Goldin, Rachel L; Furtak, Stephannie L; Wozniak, Janet

    2013-06-01

    Although mood dysregulation is frequently associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and autistic traits are common in youth with bipolar disorder, uncertainties remain regarding the comorbid occurrence of bipolar disorder and ASD. This study examines the clinical and familial correlates of bipolar disorder when it occurs with and without ASD comorbidity in a well-characterized, research-referred population of youth with bipolar disorder. We hypothesized that in youth with bipolar disorder, the clinical and familial correlates of bipolar disorder will be comparable irrespective of the comorbidity with ASD. Clinical correlates and familial risk were assessed by secondary analysis of the data from a large family study of youth with bipolar I disorder (diagnosis based on DSM-IV criteria; probands n = 157, relatives n = 487; study period: November 1997-September 2002). Findings in bipolar I youth were compared with those in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria) without bipolar I disorder (probands n = 162, relatives n = 511) and age- and sex-matched controls without bipolar I disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (probands n = 136, relatives n = 411). All subjects were comprehensively assessed using structured diagnostic interviews and a wide range of nonoverlapping measures assessing multiple dimensions of functioning. Thirty percent (47/155) of the bipolar I probands met criteria for ASD (diagnosis based on DSM-III-R criteria). The mean ± SD age at onset of bipolar I disorder was significantly earlier in the presence of ASD comorbidity (4.7 ± 2.9 vs 6.3 ± 3.7 years; P = .01). The phenotypic and familial correlates of bipolar disorder were similar in youth with and without ASD comorbidity. A clinically significant minority of youth with bipolar I disorder suffers from comorbid ASD. Phenotypic and familial correlates of bipolar disorder were typical of the disorder in the presence of ASD

  15. Seasonal changes, sleep length and circadian preference among twins with bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koskenvuo Markku

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed at studying the seasonal changes in mood and behaviour, the distribution of hospital admissions by season, and the persistence of the circadian type in twins with bipolar disorder and their healthy co-twins. Methods All Finnish like-sex twins born from 1940 to 1969 were screened for a diagnosis of bipolar type I disorder. The diagnosis was assessed with a structured research interview, and the study subjects (n = 67 filled in the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ. For studying the persistence of the habitual sleep length and circadian type, we used data derived from the Finnish Twin Cohort Questionnaire (FTCQ. Bipolar twins were compared with their healthy co-twins. Results Bipolar twins had greater seasonal changes in sleep length (p = 0.01 and mood (p = 0.01, and higher global seasonality scores (p = 0.03 as compared with their co-twins with no mental disorder. Sunny days (p = 0.03 had a greater positive effect on wellbeing in the bipolar than healthy co-twins. Conclusions Our results support the view that bipolar disorder is sensitive to the environmental influence in general and to the seasonal effect in specific. Exposure to natural light appears to have a substantial effect on wellbeing in twins with bipolar disorder.

  16. Structure of superheavy elements with Meson field theory and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter Greiner

    2005-01-01

    The extension of the periodic system into various new areas is investigated. Experiments for the synthesis of superheavy elements and the predictions of magic numbers with modern meson field theories are reviewed. Furtheron, different channels of nuclear decay are discussed including cluster radioactivity, cold fission and cold multifragmentation. A perspective for future research is given. We also study the possibility of producing a new kind of nuclear system that in addition to ordinary nucleons contains a few antibaryons. The properties of such systems are described within the relativistic mean-field model by employing G-parity transformed interactions for antibaryons. Calculations are first done for infinite systems and then for finite nuclei from 4 He to 208 Pb. It is demonstrated that the presence of a real antibaryon leads to a strong rearrangement of a target nucleus, resulting in a significant increase of its binding energy and local compression. Noticeable effects remain even after the antibaryon coupling constants are reduced by a factor of 3-4 compared to G-parity motivated values. We have performed detailed calculations of the antibaryon annihilation rates in the nuclear environment by applying a kinetic approach. It is shown that owing to significant reduction of the reaction Q values, the in-medium annihilation rates should be strongly suppressed, leading to relatively long-lived antibaryon- nucleus systems. Multinucleon annihilation channels are analyzed too. We have also estimated formation probabilities of bound antibaryon-nucleus systems in antiproton- nucleus reactions and have found that their observation will be feasible at the future GSI antiproton facility. Several observable signatures are proposed. The possibility of producing cold multi-quark-antiquark clusters is discussed. This opens the possibility for cold compression of nuclear matter - in contrast to the creation of hot and dense nuclear matter in nuclear shock waves created in

  17. Field plate structural optimization for enhancing the power gain of GaN-based HEMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Cao Meng-Yi; Lei Xiao-Yi; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Yang Li-Yuan; Zheng Xue-Feng; Ma Xiao-Hua; Hao Yue

    2013-01-01

    A novel source-connected field plate structure, featuring the same photolithography mask as the gate electrode, is proposed as an improvement over the conventional field plate (FP) techniques to enhance the frequency performance in GaN-based HEMTs. The influences of the field plate on frequency and breakdown performance are investigated simultaneously by using a two-dimensional physics-based simulation. Compared with the conventional T-gate structures with a field plate length of 1.2 μm, this field plate structure can induce the small signal power gain at 10 GHz to increase by 5-9.5 dB, which depends on the distance between source FP and dramatically shortened gate FP. This technique minimizes the parasitic capacitances, especially the gate-to-drain capacitance, showing a substantial potential for millimeter-wave, high power applications. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Genetic Relationships Between Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizoaffective Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardno, Alastair G.

    2014-01-01

    There is substantial evidence for partial overlap of genetic influences on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, with family, twin, and adoption studies showing a genetic correlation between the disorders of around 0.6. Results of genome-wide association studies are consistent with commonly occurring genetic risk variants, contributing to both the shared and nonshared aspects, while studies of large, rare chromosomal structural variants, particularly copy number variants, show a stronger influence on schizophrenia than bipolar disorder to date. Schizoaffective disorder has been less investigated but shows substantial familial overlap with both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A twin analysis is consistent with genetic influences on schizoaffective episodes being entirely shared with genetic influences on schizophrenic and manic episodes, while association studies suggest the possibility of some relatively specific genetic influences on broadly defined schizoaffective disorder, bipolar subtype. Further insights into genetic relationships between these disorders are expected as studies continue to increase in sample size and in technical and analytical sophistication, information on phenotypes beyond clinical diagnoses are increasingly incorporated, and approaches such as next-generation sequencing identify additional types of genetic risk variant. PMID:24567502

  19. Post-stroke emotional incontinence or bipolar disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mnif L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leila Mnif,1 Rim Sellami,2 Jawaher Masmoudi2 1Department of Psychiatry “D”, Razi University hospital, Tunis, 2Department of Psychiatry “A”, Hédi Chaker University Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia Introduction: Post-stroke emotional incontinence and bipolar disorder are two disorders that involve the dysfunction of brain structures responsible for emotional regulation. The objective of this work is to study the links between these disorders through a clinical case. Case report: We present the case of a 43-year-old man without previous psychiatric history who experienced emotional incontinence after cerebrovascular events. He reacted promptly to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. However, he experienced his first episode of hypomania after 6 months of antidepressant therapy. Adjunctive therapy with valproic acid and low-dose paroxetine was eventually added, resulting in complete improvement of both emotional incontinence and hypomania after 4 additional months of treatment. Conclusion: The clinician should carefully explore any history of premorbid bipolar disorder, personality disorder characterized by mood instability, and family history of bipolar disorder. Keywords: stroke, emotional incontinence, bipolar disorder

  20. Micropatterning of a Bipolar Plate Using Direct Laser Melting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jeong-hwan; Joo, Byeong-don; Mun, Sung-min; Moona, Young-hoon

    2010-06-01

    Direct laser melting (DLM) technology has been used to fabricate the micro-pattern of the bipolar plate in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). A suitable approach to enhance the performance of the bipolar plate has been performed to optimize the DLM process. To fabricate the micro pattern, a DLM process with 316L stainless steel powder has been used. For the melted height of 1 mm, the DLM process conditions were optimized such as; laser power of 200 W, scan rate of 36.62 mm/s and the 8-layer structures. To characterize the effect of material type, the bipolar plates of various types were analyzed. In case of the 316L stainless steel DLM patterning, a current density of 297 mA/cm2 was achieved but the case of the 316L stainless steel plate, 248 mA/cm2 current density that is lower than that of other materials was achieved. The overall cell performance of 316L stainless steel DLM patterning bipolar plate was better than that of the 316L stainless steel plate. This has significant advantages for the micropatterning using DLM process. The use of 316L stainless steel powder material as micro pattern material will reduce the machining cost as well as volume of the fuel cell stack.

  1. Chemical Design and Example of Transparent Bipolar Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Iimura, Soshi; Kim, Junghwan; Toda, Yoshitake; Ueda, Shigenori; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-11-29

    Transparent bipolar semiconductors (TBSCs) are in demand for transparent electronics to serve as the basis for next generation optoelectronic devices. However, the poor carrier controllability in wide-bandgap materials makes the realization of a bipolar nature difficult. Only two materials, CuInO 2 and SnO, have been reported as TBSCs. To satisfy demand for the coexistence of transparency and bipolarity, we propose a design concept with three strategies; choice of early transition metals (eTM) such as Y 3+ and Zr 4+ for improving controllability of carrier doping, design of chemical bonds to obtain an appropriate band structure for bipolar doping, and use of a forbidden band-edge transition to retain transparency. This approach is verified through a practical examination of a candidate material, tetragonal ZrOS, which is chosen by following the criteria. ZrOS exhibits an excellent controllability of the electrical conductivity (10 -7 -10 -2 S cm -1 ), p- or n-type nature with ∼10 -2 S cm -1 by Y or F doping, respectively, and optically wide gap (below 10 -4 cm -1 up to ∼2.5 eV). This concept provides a new kind of TBSC based on eTM ionic compounds.

  2. Heliospheric magnetic field polarity inversions driven by radial velocity field structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr; Velli, M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 14 (2006), L14101/1-L14101/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) HRPN-CT-2001-00310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind * magnetic field polarity inversions * microstreams * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  3. A new support structure for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Hafalia, R R; Caspi, S; Dietderich, D R; Gourlay, S A; Hannaford, R; Lietzke, A F; Liggins, N; McInturff, A D; Sabbi, G L; Scanlan, R M; O'Neill, J; Swanson, J H

    2002-01-01

    Pre-stress of superconducting magnets can be applied directly through the magnet yoke structure. We have replaced the collar functionality in our 14 Tesla R&D Nb//3Sn dipole magnets with an assembly procedure based on an aluminum shell and bladders. Bladders, placed between the coil pack and surrounding yoke inside the shell, are pressurized up to 10 ksi left bracket 70 MPa right bracket to create an interference gap. Keys placed into the interference gap replace the bladder functionality. Following the assembly, the bladders are deflated and removed. Strain gauges mounted directly on the shell are used to monitor the stress of the entire magnet structure, thereby providing a high degree of pre-stress control without the need for high tolerances. During assembly, a force of 8.2 multiplied by 10**5 lbs /ft left bracket 12 MN/m right bracket is generated by the bladders and the stress in the 1.57 double prime left bracket 40 mm right bracket aluminum shell reaches 20.3 ksi left bracket 140 MPa right bracket...

  4. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Perlis, Roy H.

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder,

  5. Temperature- and field-induced structural transitions in magnetic colloidal clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rojas, J.; Calvo, F.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic colloidal clusters can form chain, ring, and more compact structures depending on their size. In the present investigation we examine the combined effects of temperature and external magnetic field on these configurations by means of extensive Monte Carlo simulations and a dedicated analysis based on inherent structures. Various thermodynamical, geometric, and magnetic properties are calculated and altogether provide evidence for possibly multiple structural transitions at low external magnetic field. Temperature effects are found to overcome the ordering effect of the external field, the melted stated being associated with low magnetization and a greater compactness. Tentative phase diagrams are proposed for selected sizes.

  6. Resilience concepts in psychiatry demonstrated with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G; Allen, Craig R; Persson, Maj-Liz

    2018-02-09

    The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime. In this context, resilience is an emergent property of complex systems. We argue that both resilience definitions and uses are appropriate in psychology and psychiatry, but although the differences are subtle, the implications and uses are profoundly different. We borrow from the field of ecology to discuss resilience concepts in the mental health sciences. In psychology and psychiatry, the prevailing view of resilience is adaptation to, coping with, and recovery (engineering resilience) from adverse social and environmental conditions. Ecological resilience may be useful for describing vulnerability, onset, and the irreversibility patterns of mental disorders. We discuss this in the context of bipolar disorder. Rebound, adaptation, and coping are processes that are subsumed within the broader systemic organization of humans, from which ecological resilience emanates. Discerning resilience concepts in psychology and psychiatry has potential for a mechanistically appropriate contextualization of mental disorders at large. This might contribute to a refinement of theory and contextualize clinical practice within the broader systemic functioning of mental illnesses.

  7. Wide bandgap collector III-V double heterojunction bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flitcroft, R.M.

    2000-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs) designed for high voltage operation. The work concentrates on the use of wide bandgap III-V semiconductor materials as the collector material and their associated properties influencing breakdown, such as impact ionisation coefficients. The work deals with issues related to incorporating a wide bandgap collector into double heterojunction structures such as conduction band discontinuities at the base-collector junction and results are presented which detail, a number of methods designed to eliminate the effects of such discontinuities. In particular the use of AlGaAs as the base material has been successful in eliminating the conduction band spike at this interface. A method of electrically injecting electrons into the collector has been employed to investigate impact ionisation in GaAs, GaInP and AlInP which has used the intrinsic gain of the devices to extract impact ionisation coefficients over a range of electric fields beyond the scope of conventional optical injection techniques. This data has enabled the study of ''dead space'' effects in HBT collectors and have been used to develop an analytical model of impact ionisation which has been incorporated into an existing Ebers-Moll HBT simulator. This simulator has been shown to accurately reproduce current-voltage characteristics in both the devices used in this work and for external clients. (author)

  8. Brain structure–function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K.; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain–behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain–behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18–87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain–behaviour associations and test whether brain–behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain–behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar

  9. The Child Behavior Checklist-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder profile predicts a subsequent diagnosis of bipolar disorder and associated impairments in ADHD youth growing up: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Evans, Margaret; Parcell, Tiffany; Faraone, Stephen V; Wozniak, Janet

    2009-04-21

    To examine the predictive utility of the Child Behavior Checklist-Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (CBCL-PBD) profile to help identify children at risk for bipolar disorder. Subjects were ascertained from 2 identically designed longitudinal case-control family studies of subjects (males and females aged 6-18 years) with DSM-III-R attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Based on data from the baseline assessment, ADHD subjects without a lifetime diagnosis of bipolar disorder were stratified by the presence (CBCL-PBD positive, N=28) or absence (CBCL-PBD negative, N=176) of a CBCL-PBD score > or = 210 (total of attention, aggression, and anxious/depressed subscales). Subjects were comprehensively assessed at follow-up with structured psychiatric interviews. Data were collected from April 1988 to February 2003. Over a mean follow-up period of 7.4 years, a positive CBCL-PBD score predicted subsequent diagnoses of bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and conduct disorder, as well as impaired psychosocial functioning and higher risk for psychiatric hospitalization. This work suggests that a positive CBCL-PBD score based on elevations on the attention problems, aggressive behavior, and anxious/depressed subscales predicts subsequent pediatric bipolar disorder and associated syndrome-congruent impairments. If confirmed in other studies, the CBCL-PBD score has the potential to help identify children at high risk to develop bipolar disorder. Copyright 2009 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  10. An ISBD perspective on the sociocultural challenges of managing bipolar disorder: A content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oedegaard, Christine H; Berk, Lesley; Berk, Michael; Youngstrom, Eric A; Dilsaver, Steven C; Belmaker, Robert H; Oedegaard, Ketil J; Fasmer, Ole B; Engebretsen, Ingunn M

    2016-11-01

    Clinical management of bipolar disorder patients might be affected by culture and is further dependent on the context of healthcare delivery. There is a need to understand how healthcare best can be delivered in various systems and cultures. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain knowledge about culture-specific values, beliefs and practices in the medical care provided to patients with bipolar disorders from a provider perspective in various areas of the world. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) network provided the framework for this qualitative study. An electronic interview with open-ended questions was administered to 19 international experts on bipolar spectrum disorder representing the International Society for Bipolar Disorders chapter network in 16 countries and six continents. In addition, there were two in-depth interviews with bipolar spectrum disorder experts done prior to the survey. The data were analysed using content analysis, and the information was structured using the software NVivo by QSR International Pty Ltd. All participants described sociocultural factors as important in healthcare delivery to bipolar patients in their part of the world, both in accessing healthcare and in providing culturally appropriate care. Factors that affected the provider's ability to supply good clinical management of patients were access to treatment options and long-term follow-up, as well as general strategies to combat stigma. In some societies, the patients' use of alternative treatments, gender issues and religion were also important factors. Understanding the impact of such culturally specific factors was overall regarded as essential for proper treatment interventions. Sociocultural factors clearly affect the nature and quality of medical services delivered to bipolar patients. Financial, social and cultural factors affect patients' health-seeking behaviour, and this highlights the need for knowledge about such factors in

  11. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  13. Strain fields and electronic structure of antiferromagnetic CrN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Tomas; Ulloa, Sergio E.

    2017-09-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the role that strain plays on the electronic structure of chromium nitride (CrN) crystals. We use local spin-density approximation + U calculations to study the elastic constants, deformation potentials, and strain dependence of electron and hole masses near the fundamental gap. We consider the lowest energy antiferromagnetic models believed to describe CrN at low temperatures, and apply strain along different directions. We find relatively large deformation potentials for all models, and find increasing gaps for tensile strain along most directions. Most interestingly, we find that compressive strains should be able to close the relatively small indirect gap (≃100 meV) at moderate amplitudes ≃1.3 % . We also find large and anisotropic changes in the effective masses with strain, with principal axes closely related to the magnetic ordering of neighboring layers in the antiferromagnet. It would be interesting to consider the role that these effects may have on typical film growth on different substrates, and the possibility of monitoring optical and transport properties of thin films as strain is applied.

  14. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  15. Structural and electric field effects of ions in aqueous nanodrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prell, James S; O'Brien, Jeremy T; Williams, Evan R

    2011-04-06

    Ensemble infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectra in the hydrogen stretch region (∼2950-3800 cm(-1)) are reported for M(H(2)O)(35-37), with M = I(-), Cl(-), HCO(3)(-), OH(-), tetrabutyl-, tetrapropyl-, and tetramethylammonium, Cs(+), Na(+), Li(+), H(+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Co(2+), Mg(2+), La(3+), and Tm(3+), at 133 K. A single, broad feature is observed in the bonded-OH region of the spectra that indicates that the water network in these clusters is bulk-like and likely resembles liquid water more strongly than ice. The free-OH region for all of these clusters is dominated by peaks corresponding to water molecules that accept two and donate one hydrogen bond (AAD water molecules), indicating that AAD water molecules are more abundant at the surface of these ions than AD water molecules. A-only water molecules are present in significant abundance only for the trivalent metal cations. The frequency of the AAD free-OH stretch band shifts nearly linearly with the charge state of the ion, consistent with a Stark shift attributable to the ion's electric field. From these data, a frequency range of 3704.9-3709.7 cm(-1) is extrapolated for the free-OH of AAD water molecules at the (uncharged) bulk liquid water surface, consistent with sum-frequency generation spectroscopy experiments. Differences in both the bonded- and the free-OH regions of the spectra for these ions are attributable to ion-induced patterning of the water network that extends to the surface of the clusters, which includes water molecules in the third and fourth solvation shells; that is, these ions pattern water molecules at long distance to various extents. These spectra are simulated using two different electrostatic models previously used to calculate OH-stretch spectra of bulk water and aqueous solutions and parametrized for bonded-OH frequencies. These models qualitatively reproduce a number of features in the experimental spectra, although it is evident that more sophisticated treatment of water

  16. Exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets loaded on bipolar exchange membranes interfaces as advanced catalysts for water dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jian; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Zhu, Junyong

    2018-01-01

    Over the last few decades, ion exchange membranes have evolved from a laboratory tool to industrial products with significant technical and commercial impacts. Electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) is a technology that can produce acids and bases from the corresponding salt solutions....... Bipolar membranes are key factors for splitting water at the interface of a cation and anion exchange layer in an electric field. The ideal bipolar membrane should have a low energy consumption, a high current efficiency and long-term stability. In order to investigate the catalytic effect of a monolayer...... this prediction. Furthermore, a bipolar membrane prepared at 90°C had a low swelling ratio of about 7.5% while maintaining a high water uptake of 71.6%. From the calculation of current efficiency and energy consumption, the bipolar membrane with a monolayer of MoS2 has a higher current efficiency (45...

  17. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  18. [Bipolar disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013 the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) edited by the American Psychiatric Association was published. The DSM-5 has also brought some important changes regarding bipolar disorders. The goal of this manuscript is to review the novelties in DSM-5 and to evaluate the implications of these changes. The diagnostic criteria as well as the additional remarks provided in the running text of DSM-5 were carefully appraised. For the first time diagnostic criteria are provided for disorders which up to now have been considered as subthreshold bipolar disorders. Furthermore, mixed episodes were eliminated and instead a mixed specifier was introduced. An increase in goal-directed activity/energy is now one of the obligatory symptoms for a (hypo)manic episode. Diagnostic guidance is provided as to when a (hypo)manic episode that has developed during treatment with an antidepressant has to be judged to be causally related to antidepressants and when this episode has only occurred coincidentally with antidepressant use. While some of the novelties are clearly useful, e.g. addition of increased goal-directed activity/energy as obligatory symptom for (hypo)manic episodes, this remains to be demonstrated for others, such as the definition of various subthreshold bipolar disorders.

  19. Obesity and bipolar disorder: synergistic neurotoxic effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Celina S; Carvalho, André F; Mansur, Rodrigo B; McIntyre, Roger S

    2013-11-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling and chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that is typified by a complex illness presentation, episode recurrence and by its frequent association with psychiatric and medical comorbidities. Over the past decade, obesity has emerged as one of many comorbidities generating substantial concern in the BD population due to important prognostic implications. This comprehensive review details the bidirectional relationship between obesity and BD as evidenced by alterations in the structure and function of the central nervous system, in addition to greater depressive recurrence, cognitive dysfunction and risk of suicidality. Drawing on current research results, this article presents several putative mechanisms underlying the synergistic toxic effects and provides a framework for future treatment options for the obesity-BD comorbidity. There is a need for more large-scale prospective studies to investigate the bidirectional relationships between obesity and BD.

  20. Field plate structural optimization for enhancing the power gain of GaN-based HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Cao, Meng-Yi; Lei, Xiao-Yi; Zhao, Sheng-Lei; Yang, Li-Yuan; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue

    2013-09-01

    A novel source-connected field plate structure, featuring the same photolithography mask as the gate electrode, is proposed as an improvement over the conventional field plate (FP) techniques to enhance the frequency performance in GaN-based HEMTs. The influences of the field plate on frequency and breakdown performance are investigated simultaneously by using a two-dimensional physics-based simulation. Compared with the conventional T-gate structures with a field plate length of 1.2 μm, this field plate structure can induce the small signal power gain at 10 GHz to increase by 5-9.5 dB, which depends on the distance between source FP and dramatically shortened gate FP. This technique minimizes the parasitic capacitances, especially the gate-to-drain capacitance, showing a substantial potential for millimeter-wave, high power applications.

  1. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  2. Compressive sensing of full wave field data for structural health monitoring applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso; De Marchi, Luca; Perelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Numerous nondestructive evaluations and structural health monitoring approaches based on guide waves rely on analysis of wave fields recorded through scanning laser Doppler vibrometers (SLDVs) or ultrasonic scanners. The informative content which can be extracted from these inspections is relevan...

  3. Activists and incumbents structuring change: The interplay of agency, culture, and networks in field evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, J.J.; Stam, W.; Elfring, T.; Zietsma, C.; den Hond, F.

    2013-01-01

    We examine organizational field change instigated by activists. Contrary to existing views emphasizing incumbent resistance, we suggest that collaboration between incumbents and challenger movements may emerge when a movement's cultural and relational fabric becomes moderately structured, creating

  4. A video-image study of electrolytic flow structure in parallel electric-magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Z.H.; Fahidy, T.Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structure of free convective flow propagating from a vertical cathode into the electrolyte bulk has been studied via video-imaging. The enhancing effect of imposed horizontal uniform magnetic fields is manifest by vortex propagation and bifurcating flow

  5. Geometrical structure factors of the crystal-field coefficients in ionic and metallic cubic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, S.; Adam, G.; Corciovei, A.

    1977-01-01

    The crystal-field Hamiltonian for cubic compounds is brought into the standard form of the crystal-field theory by a general symmetrization technique which uses point group considerations only. The obtained crystal-field coefficients are expressed as products between those given by Hutchings and some geometrical structure factors, which include the relative contribution of all the neighbouring ions to the crystal-field. Assuming point charges in vacuum, numerical values are reported for the geometrical structure factors of several cubic structures and significant departures from Hutchings' results are found in some cases. Then, the screening effect of the conduction electrons in cubic metallic structures is investigated supposing a screened Coulomb interionic potential. (author)

  6. Controlling the dynamics of a self-organized structure using a rf-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talasman, S.J.; Ignat, M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the influence of an external rf-field upon a plasma self-organized structure. We show that depending on the intensity of this field, though it is at very low values, the dynamics of the structure can be easily controlled over a wide range of the state parameters values. This could be considered as a non-feedback method of dynamics control

  7. Crystal structure prediction of flexible molecules using parallel genetic algorithms with a standard force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonah; Orendt, Anita M; Ferraro, Marta B; Facelli, Julio C

    2009-10-01

    This article describes the application of our distributed computing framework for crystal structure prediction (CSP) the modified genetic algorithms for crystal and cluster prediction (MGAC), to predict the crystal structure of flexible molecules using the general Amber force field (GAFF) and the CHARMM program. The MGAC distributed computing framework includes a series of tightly integrated computer programs for generating the molecule's force field, sampling crystal structures using a distributed parallel genetic algorithm and local energy minimization of the structures followed by the classifying, sorting, and archiving of the most relevant structures. Our results indicate that the method can consistently find the experimentally known crystal structures of flexible molecules, but the number of missing structures and poor ranking observed in some crystals show the need for further improvement of the potential. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Bi-Metallic Composite Structures With Designed Internal Residual Stress Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMA) have a unique ability to recover small amounts of plastic strain through a temperature induced phase change. For these materials, mechanical displacement can be accomplished by heating the structure to induce a phase change, through which some of the plastic strain previously introduced to the structure can be reversed. This paper introduces a concept whereby an SMA phase is incorporated into a conventional alloy matrix in a co-continuous reticulated arrangement forming a bi-metallic composite structure. Through memory activation of the mechanically constrained SMA phase, a controlled residual stress field is developed in the interior of the structure. The presented experimental data show that the memory activation of the SMA composite component significantly changes the residual stress distribution in the overall structure. Designing the structural arrangement of the two phases to produce a controlled residual stress field could be used to create structures that have much improved durability and damage tolerance properties.

  9. On the group structure and root system of SL n over a field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given a commutative field F, the Whitehead functor K1 and Steinberge functor K2 are closely related to the theory of general linear group through exact sequences of groups. In this paper, the group structure of SLn over a field F is closely examined and its root system is computed. Only the case n = 3 is considered.

  10. Magnetization of Steel Building Materials and Structures in the Natural Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Čermáková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the physical basis of the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials and shows their relationships with external geomagnetic field. It graphically processes the experimental data detected by an HMR magnetometer. Taking into account the natural geomagnetic field under the effects of steel U profiles, variations of the natural geomagnetic field in a steel structure building are indicated and the potential existence of Sick Building Syndrome (SBS in these types of buildings is pointed out. 

  11. Clinical, demographic, and familial correlates of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A; Kupfer, David J; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-04-01

    Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years, of 233 parents with BP-I or BP-II (via the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Offspring diagnoses were determined using the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, Present and Lifetime version (KSADS-PL). Analyses focused on the 41 offspring who were diagnosed with BP-I (N = 9), BP-II (N = 5), or BP-NOS (N = 27). Offspring with BP had proband parents who were significantly younger at the time of their birth, were more likely to be female, and had lower socio-economic status, versus proband parents of offspring without BP. Parental clinical variables and obstetric variables were not significantly associated with BP among offspring. History of physical and/or sexual abuse, exposure to antidepressants, and exposure to stimulants was significantly greater among offspring with versus without BP. There was significantly greater prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders, oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), and exposure to stimulants and antidepressants among offspring with versus without BP. Variables significantly associated with BP among offspring in regression analyses were as follows: older offspring age, younger parent age at birth, offspring anxiety disorders and ODD/CD, and biological coparent with BP. History of anxiety and/or disruptive behavior disorders, as well as presence of bi-lineal parental BP, is associated with elevated risk of bipolar spectrum disorders among offspring. If replicated prospectively, these findings could have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychopathology among BP offspring.

  12. The Reciprocal Relationship between Bipolar Disorder and Social Interaction: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Rebecca; Gooding, Patricia; Dempsey, Robert; Jones, Steven

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that social support can influence relapse rates, functioning and various clinical outcomes in people with bipolar disorder. Yet 'social support' is a poorly defined construct, and the mechanisms by which it affects illness course in bipolar disorder remain largely unknown. Key aims of this study were to ascertain which facets of social interaction affect mood management in bipolar disorder, and how symptoms of bipolar disorder can influence the level of support received. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 20 individuals with bipolar disorder. Questions were designed to elicit: the effects of social interaction upon the management and course of bipolar disorder; and the impact of bipolar disorder upon social relationships. An inductive thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Empathy and understanding from another person can make it easier to cope with bipolar disorder. Social interaction can also provide opportunities to challenge negative ruminative thoughts and prevent the onset of a major mood episode. The loss of social support, particularly through bereavement, creates a loss of control and can trigger mania or depression. Hypomanic symptoms can facilitate new social connections, whereas disinhibited and risky behaviour exhibited during mania can cause the breakdown of vital relationships. An in-depth clinical formulation of an individual's perceptions of how their illness affects and is affected by social interaction is crucial to understanding psychosocial factors which influence mood management. These results have clear application in interventions which aim to promote improved wellbeing and social functioning in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The relationship between bipolar-related experiences and social interaction is complex and multi-faceted. Bipolar disorder can damage social relationships and create a loss of social control via extreme mood states, but it can also offer a

  13. Assembly of Reconfigurable Colloidal Structures by Multidirectional Field-Induced Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Bhuvnesh; Velev, Orlin D

    2015-07-28

    Field-directed colloidal assembly has shown remarkable recent progress in increasing the complexity, degree of control, and multiscale organization of the structures. This has largely been achieved by using particles of complex shapes and polarizabilites (Janus, patchy, shaped, and faceted). We review the fundamentals of the interactions leading to the directed assembly of such structures, the ways to simulate the dynamics of the process, and the effect of particle size, shape, and properties on the type of structure obtained. We discuss how directional polarization interactions induced by external electric and magnetic fields can be used to assemble complex particles or particle mixtures into lattices of tailored structure. Examples of such systems include isotropic and anisotropic shaped particles with surface patches, which form networks and crystals of unusual symmetry by dipolar, quadrupolar, and multipolar interactions in external fields. The emerging trends in making reconfigurable and dynamic structures are discussed.

  14. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-01-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission. - Highlights: • Applications of DFT to electron field emission of nano-structures are reviewed. • Fundamental concepts of field emission are re-visited with emphasis on the many-body effects. • New insights to field emission of nano-structures are obtained by multi-scale DFT calculations. • It is shown that the exchange–correlation effect on the emission barrier is significant. • Spontaneous symmetry breaking in field emission of CNT has been predicted.

  16. Global enhancement and structure formation of the magnetic field in spiral galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoperskov, Sergey A.; Khrapov, Sergey S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we study numerically large-scale magnetic field evolution and its enhancement in gaseous disks of spiral galaxies. We consider a set of models with the various spiral pattern parameters and the initial magnetic field strength with taking into account gas self-gravity and cooling and heating processes. In agreement with previous studies we find out that galactic magnetic field is mostly aligned with gaseous structures, however small-scale gaseous structures (spurs and clumps) are more chaotic than the magnetic field structure. In spiral arms magnetic field often coexists with the gas distribution, in the inter-arm region we see filamentary magnetic field structure. These filaments connect several isolated gaseous clumps. Simulations reveal the presence of the small-scale irregularities of the magnetic field as well as the reversal of magnetic field at the outer edge of the large-scale spurs. We provide evidences that the magnetic field in the spiral arms has a stronger mean-field component, and there is a clear inverse correlation between gas density and plasma-beta parameter, compared to the rest of the disk with a more turbulent component of the field and an absence of correlation between gas density and plasma-beta. We show the mean field growth up to >3-10 μG in the cold gas during several rotation periods (>500-800 Myr), whereas ratio between azimuthal and radial field is equal to >4/1. We find an enhancement of random and ordered components of the magnetic field. Mean field strength increases by a factor of >1.5-2.5 for models with various spiral pattern parameters. Random magnetic field component can reach up to 25% from the total strength. By making an analysis of the time-dependent evolution of the radial Poynting flux, we point out that the magnetic field strength is enhanced more strongly at the galactic outskirts which is due to the radial transfer of magnetic energy by the spiral arms pushing the magnetic field outward. Our results also

  17. High accuracy electromagnetic field solvers for cylindrical waveguides and axisymmetric structures using the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.M.

    1993-12-01

    Some two-dimensional finite element electromagnetic field solvers are described and tested. For TE and TM modes in homogeneous cylindrical waveguides and monopole modes in homogeneous axisymmetric structures, the solvers find approximate solutions to a weak formulation of the wave equation. Second-order isoparametric lagrangian triangular elements represent the field. For multipole modes in axisymmetric structures, the solver finds approximate solutions to a weak form of the curl-curl formulation of Maxwell's equations. Second-order triangular edge elements represent the radial (ρ) and axial (z) components of the field, while a second-order lagrangian basis represents the azimuthal (φ) component of the field weighted by the radius ρ. A reduced set of basis functions is employed for elements touching the axis. With this basis the spurious modes of the curl-curl formulation have zero frequency, so spurious modes are easily distinguished from non-static physical modes. Tests on an annular ring, a pillbox and a sphere indicate the solutions converge rapidly as the mesh is refined. Computed eigenvalues with relative errors of less than a few parts per million are obtained. Boundary conditions for symmetric, periodic and symmetric-periodic structures are discussed and included in the field solver. Boundary conditions for structures with inversion symmetry are also discussed. Special corner elements are described and employed to improve the accuracy of cylindrical waveguide and monopole modes with singular fields at sharp corners. The field solver is applied to three problems: (1) cross-field amplifier slow-wave circuits, (2) a detuned disk-loaded waveguide linear accelerator structure and (3) a 90 degrees overmoded waveguide bend. The detuned accelerator structure is a critical application of this high accuracy field solver. To maintain low long-range wakefields, tight design and manufacturing tolerances are required

  18. [Thinking organization and defense mechanisms in bipolar disorders. Clinical and psychopathological study on bipolar I and bipolar II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Baido, Rosa; Di Blasi, Marie; Alfano, Pietro; Audino, Palma; Bellavia, Carmela; Blando, Anna Antonia; Merendino, Adelaide; Messina, Rossana; Poma, Maria Luisa; La Grutta, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore the psychical functioning in bipolar I or bipolar II disorder people through the analysis and comparison of their thought styles and defense patterns. 29 bipolar I and bipolar II people afferent to Palermo University Policlinical Psychriatic Hospital Department were selected during the whole 2009-2010 year. The following tests were administred: Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale-R (WAIS-R) in order to measure the general cognitive function; Defense Mechanisms Inventory (DMI) in order to measure defense patterns. Afterwards, the results of the two tests were analysed and compared. Bipolar disorder people use cognitive mechanisms and defense strategies that are very different from standard population. Bipolar I subjects show both wider and more serious cognitive deterioration and stricter defense mechanisms than bipolar II subjects. Generally bipolar patients show an immature personality based on archaic mechanisms that can be found in all the spheres of their personality: emotions, cognition, Ego-strength, adaptability to reality. The peculiar achieved cognitive and defense profile leads to important considerations about how psychological strategies can contribute to use "bespoke" treatments for these patients.

  19. Bipolar Switching Characteristics of RRAM Cells with CaBi4Ti4O15 Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yang Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conduction and bipolar switching properties of resistive random access memory (RRAM cells with transparent calcium bismuth titanate (CaBi4Ti4O15—CBTi144 thin films were investigated. Experimentally, the (119-oriented CBTi144 thin films were deposited onto the ITO/glass substrates by RF magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA at a temperature range of 450–550°C. The surface morphologies and crystal structures of the CBTi144 thin films were examined by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements. The on/off ratio and switching behaviors of the transparent Al/CBTi144/ITO/glass RRAM devices were further discussed in this work.

  20. Nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability with toroidal magnetic fields in structured disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the global nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability (RVI) in a differentially rotating, compressible magnetized accretion disk with radial density structures. Equilibrium magnetic fields are assumed to have only the toroidal component. Using linear theory analysis, we show that the density structure can be unstable to nonaxisymmetric modes. We find that, for the magnetic field profiles we have studied, magnetic fields always provide a stabilizing effect to the unstable RVI modes. We discuss the physical mechanism of this stabilizing effect. The threshold and properties of the unstable modes are also discussed in detail. In addition, we present linear stability results for the global magnetorotational instability when the disk is compressible.

  1. Direct Visualization of Local Electromagnetic Field Structures by Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Findlay, Scott D; Matsumoto, Takao; Kohno, Yuji; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2017-07-18

    The functional properties of materials and devices are critically determined by the electromagnetic field structures formed inside them, especially at nanointerface and surface regions, because such structures are strongly associated with the dynamics of electrons, holes and ions. To understand the fundamental origin of many exotic properties in modern materials and devices, it is essential to directly characterize local electromagnetic field structures at such defect regions, even down to atomic dimensions. In recent years, rapid progress in the development of high-speed area detectors for aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with sub-angstrom spatial resolution has opened new possibilities to directly image such electromagnetic field structures at very high-resolution. In this Account, we give an overview of our recent development of differential phase contrast (DPC) microscopy for aberration-corrected STEM and its application to many materials problems. In recent years, we have developed segmented-type STEM detectors which divide the detector plane into 16 segments and enable simultaneous imaging of 16 STEM images which are sensitive to the positions and angles of transmitted/scattered electrons on the detector plane. These detectors also have atomic-resolution imaging capability. Using these segmented-type STEM detectors, we show DPC STEM imaging to be a very powerful tool for directly imaging local electromagnetic field structures in materials and devices in real space. For example, DPC STEM can clearly visualize the local electric field variation due to the abrupt potential change across a p-n junction in a GaAs semiconductor, which cannot be observed by normal in-focus bright-field or annular type dark-field STEM imaging modes. DPC STEM is also very effective for imaging magnetic field structures in magnetic materials, such as magnetic domains and skyrmions. Moreover, real-time imaging of electromagnetic field structures can

  2. Ballistic charge carrier transmission through graphene multi-barrier structures in uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubarev, A; Dragoman, D

    2014-01-01

    We investigate charge carrier transport in graphene multi-barrier structures placed in a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient is found analytically by generalizing the transfer matrix method for the case of graphene regions subjected to a uniform magnetic field. The transmission coefficient through the structure can be modulated by varying the gate voltages, the magnetic field and/or the width of the gated regions. Such a configuration could be used in multiple-valued logic circuits, since it has several output states with discrete and easily selectable transmission/current values. (paper)

  3. Phase Structure Of Fuzzy Field Theories And Multi trace Matrix Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We review the interplay of fuzzy field theories and matrix models, with an emphasis on the phase structure of fuzzy scalar field theories. We give a self-contained introduction to these topics and give the details concerning the saddle point approach for the usual single trace and multi trace matrix models. We then review the attempts to explain the phase structure of the fuzzy field theory using a corresponding random matrix ensemble, showing the strength and weaknesses of this approach. We conclude with a list of challenges one needs to overcome and the most interesting open problems one can try to solve. (author)

  4. A Model for Periodic Nonlinear Electric Field Structures in Space Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.N.S.; Shi Jiankui; Liu Zhenxing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present a physical model to explain the generation mechanism of nonlinear periodic waves with a large amplitude electric field structures propagating obliquely and exactly parallel to the magnetic field. The 'Sagdeev potential' from the MHD equations is derived and the nonlinear electric field waveforms are obtained when the Mach number, direction of propagation, and the initial electric field satisfy certain plasma conditions. For the parallel propagation, the amplitude of the electric field waves with ion-acoustic mode increases with the increase of initial electric field and Mach number but its frequency decreases with the increase of Mach number. The amplitude and frequency of the electric field waves with ion-cyclotron mode decrease with the increase of Mach number and become less spiky, and its amplitude increases with the increase of initial electric field. For the oblique propagation, only periodic electric field wave with an ion-cyclotron mode obtained, its amplitude and frequency increase with the increase of Mach number and become spiky. From our model the electric field structures show periodic, spiky, and saw-tooth behaviours corresponding to different plasma conditions.

  5. Cryogenic magnet case and distributed structural materials for high-field superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, L.T.; Miller, J.R.; Kerns, J.A.; Myall, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    The superconducting magnets of the Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER II) will generate high magnetic fields over large bores. The resulting electromagnetic forces require the use of large volumes of distributed steel and thick magnet case for structural support. Here we review the design allowables, calculated loads and forces, and structural materials selection for TIBER II. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Characterization of high-power RF structures using time-domain field codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, C.C.; DeFord, J.F.; Swatloski, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    We have modeled gyrotron windows and gyrotron amplifier sever structures for TE modes in the 100--150 GHz range and have computed the reflection and transmission characteristics from the field data. Good agreement with frequency domain codes and analytic analysis have been obtained for some simple geometries. We present results for realistic structures with lousy coatings and describe implementation of microwave diagnostics

  7. Structural-design considerations for the FED 50-kA equilibrium field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, G.; Bennett, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The structural support system for two equilibrium field coil conductor concepts is considered for the fusion energy design (FED) 8/10T baseline magnetic-fusion system. Both conductor concepts are discussed. Results indicate that regardless of the conductor concept employed, an external support beam/frame structural system is required to equilibrate the accumulative loadings

  8. Assessment of radiation fields from neutron irradiated structural components of the 40 MW research reactor CIRUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, S.; Sharma, S.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper summarizes the results of an assessment of the radiation fields from the long-lived neutron activation products (including the decay chain products) in the various structural components of the CIRUS reactor. Special attention is given for the analysis of neutron activation of impurity elements present in the materials of the structure. 16 refs, 4 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Poorer sustained attention in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shih-Heng

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly all information processing during cognitive processing takes place during periods of sustained attention. Sustained attention deficit is among the most commonly reported impairments in bipolar disorder (BP. The majority of previous studies have only focused on bipolar I disorder (BP I, owing to underdiagnosis or misdiagnosis of bipolar II disorder (BP II. With the refinement of the bipolar spectrum paradigm, the goal of this study was to compare the sustained attention of interepisode patients with BP I to those with BP II. Methods In all, 51 interepisode BP patients (22 with BP I and 29 with BP II and 20 healthy controls participated in this study. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Young Mania Rating Scale. All participants undertook Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II to evaluate sustained attention. Results After controlling for the severity of symptoms, age and years of education, BP I patients had a significantly longer reaction times (F(2,68 = 7.648, P = 0.001, worse detectability (d' values (F(2,68 = 6.313, P = 0.003 and more commission errors (F(2,68 = 6.182, P = 0.004 than BP II patients and healthy controls. BP II patients and controls scored significantly higher than BP I patients for d' (F = 6.313, P = 0.003. No significant difference was found among the three groups in omission errors and no significant correlations were observed between CPT-II performance and clinical characteristics in the three groups. Conclusions These findings suggested that impairments in sustained attention might be more representative of BP I than BP II after controlling for the severity of symptoms, age, years of education and reaction time on the attentional test. A longitudinal follow-up study design with a larger sample size might be needed to provide more information on chronological sustained attention deficit in BP patients, and to illustrate

  10. Structure and viscosity of a transformer oil-based ferrofluid under an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajnak, M., E-mail: rajnak@saske.sk [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Timko, M.; Kopcansky, P.; Paulovicova, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics SAS, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia); Tothova, J.; Kurimsky, J.; Dolnik, B.; Cimbala, R. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, 04200 Košice (Slovakia); Avdeev, M.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Petrenko, V.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Moscow region, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Taras Shevchenko Kyiv National University, Volodymyrska Street 64, 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine); Feoktystov, A. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS) at Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    Various structural changes of ferrofluids have been intensively studied under external magnetic fields. In this work we present an experimental evidence of similar changes induced by an electric field. In the context of the electric field effect on ferrofluids structure, we studied a simple ferrofluid consisting of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with oleic acid and dispersed in transformer oil. The structural changes have been observed both on macroscopic and microscopic scale. We also demonstrate a remarkable impact of the electric field on the ferrofluid viscosity in relation to the reported structural changes. It was found that the electric field induced viscosity changes are analogous to the magnetoviscous effect. These changes and the electroviscous effect are believed to stem from the dielectric permittivity contrast between the iron oxide nanoparticles and transformer oil, giving rise to the effective electric polarization of the nanoparticles. It is highlighted that this electrorheological effect should be considered in studies of ferrofluids for high voltage engineering applications, as it can have impact on the thermomagnetic convection or the dielectric breakdown performance. - Highlights: • An experimental evidence of the electric field induced structural changes in a ferrofluid is presented. • An electroviscous effect in the transformer oil-based ferrofluid is shown. • The dielectric contrast between the particles and the carrier fluid is the key factor. • The potential impact on the thermomagnetic convection of ferrofluids in power transformers is highlighted.

  11. Coherent gradient sensing method for measuring thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coherent gradient sensing (CGS method can be used to measure the slope of a reflective surface, and has the merits of full-field, non-contact, and real-time measurement. In this study, the thermal stress field of thermal barrier coating (TBC structures is measured by CGS method. Two kinds of powders were sprayed onto Ni-based alloy using a plasma spraying method to obtain two groups of film–substrate specimens. The specimens were then heated with an oxy-acetylene flame. The resulting thermal mismatch between the film and substrate led to out-of-plane deformation of the specimen. The deformation was measured by the reflective CGS method and the thermal stress field of the structure was obtained through calibration with the help of finite element analysis. Both the experiment and numerical results showed that the thermal stress field of TBC structures can be successfully measured by CGS method.

  12. Density filament and helical field line structures in three dimensional Weibel-mediated collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moritaka, Toseo; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Sakawa, Youichi; Yamaura, Yuta; Ishikawa, Taishi; Takabe, Hideaki; Morita, Taichi

    2016-01-01

    Collisionless shocks mediated by Weibel instability are attracting attention for their relevance to experimental demonstrations of astrophysical shocks in high-intensity laser facilities. The three dimensional structure of Weibel-mediated shocks is investigated through a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. The structures obtained are characterized by the following features: (i) helical magnetic field lines elongated in the direction upstream of the shock region, (ii) high and low density filaments inside the helical field lines. These structures originate from the interaction between counter-streaming plasma flow and magnetic vortexes caused by Weibel instability, and potentially affect the shock formation mechanism. (paper)

  13. Effects of seed magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic implosion structure and dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2014-12-01

    The effects of various seed magnetic fields on the dynamics of cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Here, we present a fundamental investigation of this problem utilizing cylindrical and spherical Riemann problems under three seed field configurations to initialize the implosions. The resulting flows are simulated numerically, revealing rich flow structures, including multiple families of magnetohydrodynamic shocks and rarefactions that interact non-linearly. We fully characterize these flow structures, examine their axi- and spherisymmetry-breaking behaviour, and provide data on asymmetry evolution for different field strengths and driving pressures for each seed field configuration. We find that out of the configurations investigated, a seed field for which the implosion centre is a saddle point in at least one plane exhibits the least degree of asymmetry during implosion.

  14. Magnetic field structure near the plasma boundary in helical systems and divertor tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1990-02-01

    Magnetic field structure of the scrape off layer (SOL) region in both helical systems and divertor tokamaks is studied numerically by using model fields. The connection length of the field line to the wall is calculated. In helical systems, the connection length, L, has a logarithmic dependence on the distance from the outermost magnetic surface or that from the residual magnetic islands. The effect of axisymmetric fields on the field structure is also determined. In divertor tokamaks, the connection length also has logarithmic properties near the separatrix. Even when the perturbations, which resonate to rational surfaces near the plasma boundary, are added, logarithmic properties still remain. We compare the connection length of torsatron/helical-heliotron systems with that of divertor tokamaks. It is found that the former is shorter than the latter by one order magnitude with similar aspect ratio. (author)

  15. Electric field driven evolution of topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, S. H.; Lin, L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.; Cheong, S.-W.

    2017-10-01

    Controlling and manipulating the topological state represents an important topic in condensed matters for both fundamental researches and applications. In this work, we focus on the evolution of a real-space topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites driven by electric field, using the analytical and numerical calculations based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory. It is revealed that the electric field drives a transition of the topological domain structure from the type-I pattern to the type-II one. In particular, it is identified that a high electric field can enforce the two antiphase-plus-ferroelectric (AP +FE ) domain walls with Δ Φ =π /3 to approach each other and to merge into one domain wall with Δ Φ = 2 π /3 eventually if the electric field is sufficiently high, where Δ Φ is the difference in the trimerization phase between two neighboring domains. Our simulations also reveal that the vortex cores of the topological structure can be disabled at a sufficiently high critical electric field by suppressing the structural trimerization therein, beyond which the vortex core region is replaced by a single ferroelectric domain without structural trimerization (Q = 0 ). Our results provide a stimulating reference for understanding the manipulation of real-space topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites.

  16. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  17. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  18. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  19. NO signaling in retinal bipolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, A; Vielma, A H; Cadiz, B; Couve, E; Schmachtenberg, O

    2017-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a neuromodulator involved in physiological and pathological processes in the retina. In the inner retina, a subgroup of amacrine cells have been shown to synthesize NO, but bipolar cells remain controversial as NO sources. This study correlates NO synthesis in dark-adapted retinas, through labeling with the NO marker DAF-FM, with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible NOS expression, and presence of the NO receptor soluble guanylate cyclase in bipolar cells. NO containing bipolar cells were morphologically identified by dialysis of DAF fluorescent cells with intracellular dyes, or by DAF labeling followed by immunohistochemistry for nNOS and other cellular markers. DAF fluorescence was observed in all types of bipolar cells that could be identified, but the most intense DAF fluorescence was observed in bipolar cells with severed processes, supporting pathological NO signaling. Among nNOS expressing bipolar cells, type 9 was confirmed unequivocally, while types 2, 3a, 3b, 4, 5, 7, 8 and the rod bipolar cell were devoid of this enzyme. These results establish specific bipolar cell types as NO sources in the inner retina, and support the involvement of NO signaling in physiological and pathological processes in the inner retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Disease mongering and bipolar disorder in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Frequently used in a pejorative sense, "disease mongering" connotes a widening of the diagnostic boundaries of illness. Pharmaceutical companies conduct disease awareness campaigns on the pretext of educating the public about the prevention of illness or the promotion of health. Encouraged by disease awareness advertisements, people gradually become filled with concern that they are ill and need medical treatment. As a result, pharmacotherapy is increasingly being applied to ever-milder conditions, leading to potentially unnecessary medication, wasted resources, and even adverse side effects. Among all fields of clinical medicine, psychiatry is undoubtedly the most vulnerable to the danger of disease mongering. In Japan, depression provides the most drastic example of the impact of disease awareness campaigns on the number of patients seeking treatment. Until the late 1990s, Japanese psychiatrists focused almost exclusively on psychosis and endogenous depression, the latter being severe enough to require conventional forms of antidepressants, known as tricyclic antidepressants, and even hospitalization. At this time, people's attitude toward depression was generally unfavorable. Indeed, the Japanese word for clinical depression, utubyo, has a negative connotation, implying severe mental illness. This situation, however, changed immediately after fluvoxiamine (Luvox-Fujisawa, Depromel-Meiji Seika), the first selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) to receive approval in Japan, was introduced in 1999. In order to aid the drug's acceptance by the Japanese public, pharmaceutical companies began using the catchphrase kokoro no kaze, which literally means "a cold of the soul". Thus armed with this phrase, the pharmaceutical industry embarked on a campaign to lessen the stigma surrounding depression. According to national data from the Ministry of Health and Welfare, the number of patients with a diagnosis of mood disorder increased from 327,000 in 1999 to 591

  1. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subho Chakrabarti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and can induce hypothyroidism or exacerbate a preexisting hypothyroid state. Even minor perturbations of the HPT axis may affect the outcome of bipolar disorder, necessitating careful monitoring of thyroid functions of patients on treatment. Supplementation with high dose thyroxine can be considered in some patients with treatment-refractory bipolar disorder. Neurotransmitter, neuroimaging, and genetic studies have begun to provide clues, which could lead to an improved understanding of the thyroid-bipolar disorder connection, and more optimal ways of managing this potentially disabling condition.

  2. Diagnostic stability in pediatric bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel Kessing, Lars; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic stability of pediatric bipolar disorder has not been investigated previously. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic stability of the ICD-10 diagnosis of pediatric mania/bipolar disorder.METHODS: All patients below 19 years of age who got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar...... disorder at least once in a period from 1994 to 2012 at psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contact in Denmark were identified in a nationwide register.RESULTS: Totally, 354 children and adolescents got a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder at least once; a minority, 144 patients (40.7%) got the diagnosis...... at the first contact whereas the remaining patients (210; 59.3%) got the diagnosis at later contacts before age 19. For the latter patients, the median time elapsed from first treatment contact with the psychiatric service system to the first diagnosis with a manic episode/bipolar disorder was nearly 1 year...

  3. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan Pan Bennett Au

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we

  4. Nanofluidic diode and bipolar transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiguji, Hirofumi; Oka, Yukiko; Shirono, Katsuhiro

    2005-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of ionic distribution and transport in a nanochannel containing a surface charge on its wall, 30 nm high and 5 microm long, suggests that ionic current can be controlled by locally modifying the surface charge density through a gate electrode, even if the electrical double layers are not overlapped. When the surface charge densities at the right and left halves of a channel are the same absolute value but of different signs, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic diode. When the surface charge density at the middle part of a channel is modified, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic bipolar transistor.

  5. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnicity and suicide attempt: analysis in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Fatemi, Ali; Polsinelli, Gina; Kennedy, James L; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2013-10-08

    Evidence is mixed as to whether White Europeans are at a higher risk for suicide attempts or completions compared to other ethnic groups. The present analysis assessed whether risk for suicide attempt was associated with White European ethnicity in 907 subjects with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Subjects were diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and ethnicity was determined by self-report. Subjects were recruited from psychiatric care centers in Toronto, Canada. Logistic regression correcting for clinical covariates like age, gender and diagnosis, was used in this study. We found no difference in suicide attempter status in white and non-white subjects who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Our study does not support the evidence that White-European patients in North America are at higher risk for suicide attempt compared to non-European descent subjects. However, this result has to be replicated in larger studies in patients with these disorders.

  7. Vertical bipolar charge plasma transistor with buried metal layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M Jagadesh

    2015-01-19

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · f(T) product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities.

  8. First Cluster results of the magnetic field structure of the mid- and high-altitude cusps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft from the mid- and high-altitude cusp are presented. Cluster underwent two encounters with the mid-altitude cusp during its commissioning phase (24 August 2000. Evidence for field-aligned currents (FACs was seen in the data from all three operating spacecraft from northern and southern cusps. The extent of the FACs was of the order of 1 RE in the X-direction, and at least 300 km in the Y-direction. However, fine-scale field structures with scales of the order of the spacecraft separation (300 km were observed within the FACs. In the northern crossing, two of the spacecraft appeared to lie along the same magnetic field line, and observed very well matched signals. However, the third spacecraft showed evidence for structuring transverse to the field on scales of a few hundred km. A crossing of the high-altitude cusp from 13 February 2001 is presented. It is revealed to be a highly dynamic structure with the boundaries moving with velocities ranging from a few km/s to tens of km/s, and having structure on timescales ranging from less than one minute up to several minutes. The cusp proper is associated with the presence of a very disordered magnetic field, which is entirely different from the magnetosheath turbulence.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers – Space plasma physics (discontinuities

  9. Borderline personality-bipolar spectrum relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benazzi, Franco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorders, especially bipolar-II disorder (BP-II), is unclear. Several reviews on the topic have come to opposite conclusions, i.e., that BPD is a bipolar spectrum disorder or instead that it is unrelated to bipolar disorders. Study aim was to find which items of BPD were related to BP-II, and which instead had no relationship with BP-II. An outpatient psychiatry private practice, more representative of mood disorders usually seen in clinical practice in Italy. INTERVIEWER: A senior clinical and mood disorder research psychiatrist. A consecutive sample of 138 BP-II and 71 major depressive disorder (MDD) remitted outpatients. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS: The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinician Version (SCID-CV) was used for diagnosing, the SCID-II Personality Questionnaire was used by patients to self-assess borderline personality traits. Interview methods: Patients were interviewed with the SCID-CV to diagnose BP-II and MDD. The questions of the Personality Questionnaire relative to borderline personality were self-assessed by patients. As clinically significant distress or impairment of functioning was not assessed by the questionnaire, a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder could not be made, but borderline personality traits (BPT) could be assessed (i.e., all DSM-IV BPD items but not the impairment criterion). BPT items were significantly more common in BP-II versus MDD. The best combination of sensitivity and specificity for predicting BP-II was found by using a cutoff number of BPT items > or =5: specificity was 71.4%, sensitivity was 45.9%. BPT (defined by > or =5 items) was present in 29.5% of MDD and in 46.3% of BP-II (p=0.019). Logistic regression of BP-II versus BPT items number found a significant association. Principal component factor analysis of BPT items found two orthogonal factors: "affective instability" including unstable mood, unstable

  10. Auditory M50 and M100 sensory gating deficits in bipolar disorder: a MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Feng, Yigang; Jia, Yanbin; Wang, Wensheng; Xie, Yanping; Guan, Yufang; Zhong, Shuming; Zhu, Dan; Huang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Auditory sensory gating deficits have been reported in subjects with bipolar disorder, but the hemispheric and neuronal origins of this deficit are not well understood. Moreover, gating of the auditory evoked components reflecting early attentive stage of information processing has not been investigated in bipolar disorder. The objectives of this study were to investigate the right and left hemispheric auditory sensory gating of the M50 (preattentive processing) and M100 (early attentive processing) in patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder by utilizing magnetoencephalography (MEG). Whole-head MEG data were acquired during the standard paired-click paradigm in 20 bipolar I disorder patients and 20 healthy controls. The M50 and the M100 responses were investigated, and dipole source localizations were also investigated. Sensory gating were determined by measuring the strength of the M50 and the M100 response to the second click divided by that of the first click (S2/S1). In every subject, M50 and M100 dipolar sources localized to the left and right posterior portion of superior temporal gyrus (STG). Bipolar I disorder patients showed bilateral gating deficits in M50 and M100. The bilateral M50 S2 source strengths were significantly higher in the bipolar I disorder group compared to the control group. The sample size was relatively small. More studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. Bipolar subjects were taking a wide range of medications that could not be readily controlled for. These findings suggest that bipolar I disorder patients have auditory gating deficits at both pre-attentive and early attentive levels, which might be related to STG structural abnormality. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factor analysis of temperament and personality traits in bipolar patients: Correlates with comorbidity and disorder severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Frank; Akiskal, Hagop S; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2017-01-01

    Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available. Dimension reduction across two inventories identified 18 factors explaining 39% of the variance. The two largest factors reflected affective instability and general anxiety/worry, respectively. Subsequent analyses of the clinical features associated with bipolar disorder revealed specificity for the factors in a predictable pattern. Cluster analysis of the factors identified a subgroup defined by a strong lack of general anxiety and low affective instability represented by the first two factors. The remaining subjects could be distinguished into two clusters by the presence of either more positive characteristics, including persistence/drive, spirituality, expressivity, and humor, or more negative characteristics of depression and anxiety. These analyses involved bipolar I subjects only and must be extended to other bipolar spectrum diagnoses, unaffected relatives, and individuals at risk. These results suggest that temperament and personality measures access latent traits associated with important clinical features of bipolar disorder. By translating clinical variables into quantitative traits, we may identify subgroups of bipolar patients with distinct clinical profiles, thereby facilitating both individual treatment strategies and genetic analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a bipolar disorder biobank: differential phenotyping for subsequent biomarker analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A; McElroy, Susan L; Fuentes, Manuel; Sutor, Bruce; Schak, Kathryn M; Galardy, Christine W; Palmer, Brian A; Prieto, Miguel L; Kung, Simon; Sola, Christopher L; Ryu, Euijung; Veldic, Marin; Geske, Jennifer; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo; Seymour, Lisa R; Mori, Nicole; Crowe, Scott; Rummans, Teresa A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to establish a bipolar disorder biobank to serve as a resource for clinical and biomarker studies of disease risk and treatment response. Here, we describe the aims, design, infrastructure, and research uses of the biobank, along with demographics and clinical features of the first participants enrolled. Patients were recruited for the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Biobank beginning in July 2009. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV was used to confirm bipolar diagnosis. The Bipolar Biobank Clinical Questionnaire and Participant Questionnaire were designed to collect detailed demographic and clinical data, including clinical course of illness measures that would delineate differential phenotypes for subsequent analyses. Blood specimens were obtained from participants, and various aliquots were stored for future research. As of September 2014, 1363 participants have been enrolled in the bipolar biobank. Among these first participants, 69.0 % had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I. The group was 60.2 % women and predominantly white (90.6 %), with a mean (SD) age of 42.6 (14.9) years. Clinical phenotypes of the group included history of psychosis (42.3 %), suicide attempt (32.5 %), addiction to alcohol (39.1 %), addiction to nicotine (39.8 %), obesity (42.9 %), antidepressant-induced mania (31.7 %), tardive dyskinesia (3.2 %), and history of drug-related serious rash (5.7 %). Quantifying phenotypic patterns of illness beyond bipolar subtype can provide more detailed clinical disease characteristics for biomarker research, including genomic-risk studies. Future research can harness clinically useful biomarkers using state-of-the-art research technology to help stage disease burden and better individualize treatment selection for patients with bipolar disorder.

  13. Diffusion Entropy: A Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker of Bipolar Disorder in the Temporal Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuhler, Karl; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Ding, Jie; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Despite much research, bipolar depression remains poorly understood, with no clinically useful biomarkers for its diagnosis. The paralimbic system has become a target for biomarker research, with paralimbic structural connectivity commonly reported to distinguish bipolar patients from controls in tractography-based diffusion MRI studies, despite inconsistent findings in voxel-based studies. The purpose of this analysis was to validate existing findings with traditional diffusion MRI metrics and investigate the utility of a novel diffusion MRI metric, entropy of diffusion, in the search for bipolar depression biomarkers. We performed group-level analysis on 9 un-medicated (6 medication-naïve; 3 medication-free for at least 33 days) bipolar patients in a major depressive episode and 9 matched healthy controls to compare: (1) average mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and; (2) MD and FA histogram entropy-a statistical measure of distribution homogeneity-in the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. We also conducted classification analyses with leave-one-out and separate testing dataset (N = 11) approaches. We did not observe statistically significant differences in average MD or FA between the groups in any region. However, in the temporal pole, we observed significantly lower MD entropy in bipolar patients; this finding suggests a regional difference in MD distributions in the absence of an average difference. This metric allowed us to accurately characterize bipolar patients from controls in leave-one-out (accuracy = 83%) and prediction (accuracy = 73%) analyses. This novel application of diffusion MRI yielded not only an interesting separation between bipolar patients and healthy controls, but also accurately classified bipolar patients from controls. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Insight in bipolar mania: evaluation of its heterogeneity and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2016-07-15

    Studies on insight in bipolar mania are not numerous and usually consider insight as a unitary construct. Evaluate how different facets of insight are affected in bipolar mania and investigate correlations between insight for each specific object in bipolar disorder and manic symptomatology. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed during a year, with 51 patients having manic episodes according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. The study found that insight regarding symptoms is worse than insight of having bipolar disorder, social relationships and self esteem. Moreover, poor global insight (total ISAD) correlates with more severe changes in mood, speech and thought structure, with worse insight about symptoms correlating with the same alterations and also with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy. Although a large sample of bipolar patients was followed up, the final sample composed of patients with at least one manic episode was relatively smaller. Moreover, the fact that the study was performed in a university hospital may have led to selection biases. Results suggest that patients with BD are reasonably capable of identifying that their condition implies consequences but have more impaired awareness of their energy and activity levels. A lower level of insight specifically about symptoms correlates with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy, which suggests a psychomotor nucleus able to impair insight in mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between history of psychosis and cardiovascular disease in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Miguel L; McElroy, Susan L; Hayes, Sharonne N; Sutor, Bruce; Kung, Simon; Bobo, William V; Fuentes, Manuel E; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Crow, Scott; Ösby, Urban; Chauhan, Mohit; Westman, Jeanette; Geske, Jennifer R; Colby, Colin L; Ryu, Euijung; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether clinical features of bipolar disorder, such as history of psychosis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors contribute to a higher risk of CVD among patients with bipolar disorder. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 988 patients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder or schizoaffective bipolar type confirmed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR disorders (SCID). Medical comorbidity burden was quantified utilizing the Cumulative Illness Severity Rating Scale (CIRS). This 13-item organ-based scale includes cardiac disease severity quantification. Confirmed by medical record review, patients who scored 1 (current mild or past significant problem) or higher in the cardiac item were compared by logistic regression to patients who scored 0 (no impairment), adjusting for CVD risk factors that were selected using a backwards stepwise approach or were obtained from the literature. In a multivariate model, age [odds ratio (OR) = 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-5.54, p bipolar disorder may reflect higher illness severity with associated cardiac comorbidity. Further studies are encouraged to clarify the effect of the disease burden (i.e., depression), lifestyle, and treatment interventions (i.e., atypical antipsychotics) on this risk association. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Comparison of depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and in major depressive disorder within bipolar disorder pedigrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Philip B; Frankland, Andrew; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Roberts, Gloria; Corry, Justine; Wright, Adam; Loo, Colleen K; Breakspear, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Although genetic epidemiological studies have confirmed increased rates of major depressive disorder among the relatives of people with bipolar affective disorder, no report has compared the clinical characteristics of depression between these two groups. To compare clinical features of depressive episodes across participants with major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder from within bipolar disorder pedigrees, and assess the utility of a recently proposed probabilistic approach to distinguishing bipolar from unipolar depression. A secondary aim was to identify subgroups within the relatives with major depression potentially indicative of 'genetic' and 'sporadic' subgroups. Patients with bipolar disorder types 1 and 2 (n = 246) and patients with major depressive disorder from bipolar pedigrees (n = 120) were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies. Logistic regression was used to identify distinguishing clinical features and assess the utility of the probabilistic approach. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups within the major depressive disorder sample. Bipolar depression was characterised by significantly higher rates of psychomotor retardation, difficulty thinking, early morning awakening, morning worsening and psychotic features. Depending on the threshold employed, the probabilistic approach yielded a positive predictive value ranging from 74% to 82%. Two clusters within the major depressive disorder sample were found, one of which demonstrated features characteristic of bipolar depression, suggesting a possible 'genetic' subgroup. A number of previously identified clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression were confirmed among participants from within bipolar disorder pedigrees. Preliminary validation of the probabilistic approach in differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression is consistent with dimensional distinctions between the two disorders and offers clinical utility in

  17. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonlinear waves in bipolar complex viscous astroclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Haloi, A.

    2017-05-01

    A theoretical evolutionary model to analyze the dynamics of strongly nonlinear waves in inhomogeneous complex astrophysical viscous clouds on the gravito-electrostatic scales of space and time is procedurally set up. It compositionally consists of warm lighter electrons and ions (Boltzmanian); and cold massive bi-polar dust grains (inertial fluids) alongside vigorous neutral dynamics in quasi-neutral hydrodynamic equilibrium. Application of the Sagdeev pseudo-potential method reduces the inter-coupled structure equations into a pair of intermixed forced Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers (f-KdVB) equations. The force-terms are self-consistently sourced by inhomogeneous gravito-electrostatic interplay. A numerical illustrative shape-analysis based on judicious astronomical parametric platform shows the electrostatic waves evolving as compressive dispersive shock-like eigen-modes. A unique transition from quasi-monotonic to non-monotonic oscillatory compressive shock-like patterns is found to exist. In contrast, the self-gravitational and effective perturbations grow purely as non-monotonic compressive oscillatory shock-like structures with no such transitory features. It is seen that the referral frame velocity acts as amplitude-reducing agent (stabilizing source) for the electrostatic fluctuations solely. A comparison in the prognostic light of various earlier satellite-based observations and in-situ measurements is presented. The paper ends up with synoptic highlights on the main implications and non-trivial applications in the interstellar space and cosmic plasma environments leading to bounded structure formation.

  19. Staging in bipolar disorder: from theoretical framework to clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Post, Robert; Ratheesh, Aswin; Gliddon, Emma; Singh, Ajeet; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, Andre F; Ashton, Melanie M; Berk, Lesley; Cotton, Susan M; McGorry, Patrick D; Fernandes, Brisa S; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Dodd, Seetal

    2017-10-01

    Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures. These include progressive biochemical, neuroimaging and cognitive changes, and potentially stage-specific differences in response to pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. Mechanistically, staging models imply the presence of an active disease process that, if not remediated, can lead to neuroprogression, a more malignant disease course and functional deterioration. Biological elements thought to be operative in bipolar disorder include a genetic diathesis, physical and psychic trauma, epigenetic changes, altered neurogenesis and apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Many available agents, such as lithium, have effects on these targets. Staging models also suggest the utility of stage-specific treatment approaches that may not only target symptom reduction, but also impede illness neuroprogression. These treatment approaches range from prevention for at-risk individuals, to early intervention strategies for prodromal and newly diagnosed individuals, complex combination therapy for rapidly recurrent illness, and palliative-type approaches for those at chronic, late stages of illness. There is hope that prompt initiation of potentially disease modifying therapies may preclude or attenuate the cognitive and structural changes seen in the later stages of bipolar disorder. The aims of this paper are to: a

  20. Effective field study of ising model on a double perovskite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngantso, G. Dimitri; El Amraoui, Y. [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco); Center of Materials and Nanomaterials, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); El Kenz, A., E-mail: elkenz@fsr.ac.ma [LMPHE, (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V, Rabat (Morocco)

    2017-02-01

    By using the effective field theory (EFT), the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model adapted to a double perovskite structure has been studied. The EFT calculations have been carried out from Ising Hamiltonian by taking into account first and second nearest-neighbors interactions and the crystal and external magnetic fields. Both first- and second-order phase transitions have been found in phase diagrams of interest. Depending on crystal-field values, the thermodynamic behavior of total magnetization indicated the compensation phenomenon existence. The hysteresis behaviors are studied by investigating the reduced magnetic field dependence of total magnetization and a series of hysteresis loops are shown for different reduced temperatures around the critical one. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskite Structure have been studied. • Compensation temperature has been observed below the critical temperature. • Hysteresis behaviors have been studied.

  1. Effective field study of ising model on a double perovskite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngantso, G. Dimitri; El Amraoui, Y.; Benyoussef, A.; El Kenz, A.

    2017-01-01

    By using the effective field theory (EFT), the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model adapted to a double perovskite structure has been studied. The EFT calculations have been carried out from Ising Hamiltonian by taking into account first and second nearest-neighbors interactions and the crystal and external magnetic fields. Both first- and second-order phase transitions have been found in phase diagrams of interest. Depending on crystal-field values, the thermodynamic behavior of total magnetization indicated the compensation phenomenon existence. The hysteresis behaviors are studied by investigating the reduced magnetic field dependence of total magnetization and a series of hysteresis loops are shown for different reduced temperatures around the critical one. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of double perovskite Structure have been studied. • Compensation temperature has been observed below the critical temperature. • Hysteresis behaviors have been studied.

  2. Analysis of structure and transition of radial electric field in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2001-03-01

    A set of transport equations is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the radial electric field in toroidal helical systems. Calculations are made simulating CHS experiments. Both hard and soft transitions are found in the profile of the radial electric field. Whether the electric domain interface exists or not is examined. The electric domain interface is found to exist, depending on the ratio of the electron temperature to the ion temperature. The structure of the electric domain interface is also studied. The steep gradient of the radial electric field is obtained and the width of the electric domain interface is determined by the anomalous diffusivity of the electric field. The region where the electron root and ion root co-exist is obtained when changing the density or the heating power of electrons. The various types of the electrostatic potential structures are found. The condition for the turbulence suppression is examined in the parameter regime studied here. (author)

  3. Ray calibration and phase mapping for structured-light-field 3D reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z

    2018-03-19

    In previous work, we presented a structured light field (SLF) method combining light field imaging with structured illumination to perform multi-view depth measurement. However, the previous work just accomplishes depth rather than 3D reconstruction. In this paper, we propose a novel active method involving ray calibration and phase mapping, to achieve SLF 3D reconstruction. We performed the ray calibration for the first time to determine each light field ray with metric spatio-angular parameters, making the SLF realize multi-view 3D reconstruction. Based on the ray parametric equation, we further derived the phase mapping in the SLF that spatial coordinates can be directly mapped from phase. A flexible calibration strategy was correspondently designed to determine mapping coefficients for each light field ray, achieving high-efficiency SLF 3D reconstruction. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was suitable for high-efficiency multi-view 3D reconstruction in the SLF.

  4. Internal Mode Structure of Resonant Field Amplification in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanctot, M. J.; Navratil, G.; Reimerdes, H.; Bogatu, I. N.; in, Y.; Chu, M. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.; Turnbull, A. D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Okabayashi, M.; Solomon, W. M.

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of high-β plasmas to error fields is caused by a paramagnetic plasma response to error fields with a topology that is resonant with the structure of weakly-damped resistive wall modes (RWM), a phenomenon referred to as resonant field amplification (RFA) [1]. The RFA has been driven in DIII-D H-mode plasmas by applying slowly-rotating, low-n magnetic fields with a set of 12 coils located inside the vacuum vessel. Measurements of the RFA mode structure have been obtained using a pair of soft x-ray photodiode cameras. A virtual diagnostic has been developed to compare the measurements to the eigenfunctions for the free boundary external kink and the RWM, which were calculated using the stability codes GATO and MARS-F. Details of the analysis will be presented. 6pt [1] A.H. Boozer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5059 (2001).

  5. Can neuroimaging disentangle bipolar disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozer, Franz; Houenou, Josselin

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder heterogeneity is large, leading to difficulties in identifying neuropathophysiological and etiological mechanisms and hindering the formation of clinically homogeneous patient groups in clinical trials. Identifying markers of clinically more homogeneous groups would help disentangle BD heterogeneity. Neuroimaging may aid in identifying such groups by highlighting specific biomarkers of BD subtypes or clinical dimensions. We performed a systematic literature search of the neuroimaging literature assessing biomarkers of relevant BD phenotypes (type-I vs. II, presence vs. absence of psychotic features, suicidal behavior and impulsivity, rapid cycling, good vs. poor medication response, age at onset, cognitive performance and circadian abnormalities). Consistent biomarkers were associated with suicidal behavior, i.e. frontal/anterior alterations (prefrontal and cingulate grey matter, prefrontal white matter) in patients with a history of suicide attempts; and with cognitive performance, i.e. involvement of frontal and temporal regions, superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right thalamic radiation, and corpus callosum in executive dysfunctions. For the other dimensions and sub-types studied, no consistent biomarkers were identified. Studies were heterogeneous both in methodology and outcome. Though theoretically promising, neuroimaging has not yet proven capable of disentangling subtypes and dimensions of bipolar disorder, due to high between-study heterogeneity. We issue recommendations for future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Delineation of connectivity structures in 2-D heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields

    OpenAIRE

    Tyukhova Alina R.; Kinzelbach Wolfgang; Willmann Matthias

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Connectivity is a critical aquifer property controlling anomalous transport behavior at large scales. But connectivity cannot be easily defined in a continuous field based on information of the hydraulic conductivity alone. We conceptualize it as a connecting structure a connected subset of a continuous hydraulic conductivity field that consists of paths of least hydraulic resistance. We develop a simple and robust numerical method to...

  7. Electronic and Magnetic Structures, Magnetic Hyperfine Fields and Electric Field Gradients in UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sajid; Yazdani-Kachoei, Majid; Jalali-Asadabadi, Saeid; Farooq, Muhammad Bilal; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2018-02-01

    Cubic uranium compounds such as UX3 (X is a non-transition element of groups IIIA or IVA) exhibit highly diverse magnetic properties, including Pauli paramagnetism, spin fluctuation and anti-ferromagnetism. In the present paper, we explore the structural, electronic and magnetic properties as well as the hyperfine fields (HFFs) and electric field gradients (EFGs) with quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb) compounds using local density approximation, Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof parametrization of generalized gradient approximation (PBE-GGA) including the Hubbard U parameter (GGA + U), a revised version of PBE-GGA that improves equilibrium properties of densely packed solids and their surfaces (PBEsol-GGA), and a hybrid functional (HF-PBEsol). The spin orbit-coupling calculations have been added to investigate the relativistic effect of electrons in these materials. The comparison between the experimental parameters and our calculated structural parameters we confirm the consistency and effectiveness of our theoretical tools. The computed magnetic moments show that magnetic moment increases from indium to lead in the UX3 family, and all these compounds are antiferromagnetic in nature. The EFGs and HFFs, as well as the quadrupole coupling constant of UX3 (X = In, Tl, Pb), are discussed in detail. These properties primarily originate from f and p states of uranium and post-transition sites.

  8. 3D Biomimetic Magnetic Structures for Static Magnetic Field Stimulation of Osteogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Alexandra Paun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We designed, fabricated and optimized 3D biomimetic magnetic structures that stimulate the osteogenesis in static magnetic fields. The structures were fabricated by direct laser writing via two-photon polymerization of IP-L780 photopolymer and were based on ellipsoidal, hexagonal units organized in a multilayered architecture. The magnetic activity of the structures was assured by coating with a thin layer of collagen-chitosan-hydroxyapatite-magnetic nanoparticles composite. In vitro experiments using MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for 3D structures with gradients of pore size helped us to find an optimum pore size between 20–40 µm. Starting from optimized 3D structures, we evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively the effects of static magnetic fields of up to 250 mT on cell proliferation and differentiation, by ALP (alkaline phosphatase production, Alizarin Red and osteocalcin secretion measurements. We demonstrated that the synergic effect of 3D structure optimization and static magnetic stimulation enhances the bone regeneration by a factor greater than 2 as compared with the same structure in the absence of a magnetic field.

  9. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  10. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  11. Calculation of longitudinal and transverse wake-field effects in dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.

    1989-01-01

    The electro-magnetic radiation of a charged particle passing through a dielectric structure has many applications to accelerator physics. Recently a new acceleration scheme, called the dielectric wake field accelerator, has been proposed. It also can be used as a pick up system for a storage ring because of its slow wave characteristics. In order to study these effects in detail, in this paper we will calculate the wake field effects produced in a dielectric structure by a charged particle. 8 refs., 2 figs

  12. Dark-field X-ray microscopy for multiscale structural characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; King, A.; Ludwig, W.

    2015-01-01

    Many physical and mechanical properties of crystalline materials depend strongly on their internal structure, which is typically organized into grains and domains on several length scales. Here we present dark-field X-ray microscopy; a non-destructive microscopy technique for the three...... of the interactions between crystalline elements is a key step towards the formulation and validation of multiscale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of a material. Furthermore, dark-field X-ray microscopy is well suited to applied topics, where the structural evolution of internal nanoscale elements...

  13. Three-dimensional imaging of vortex structure in a ferroelectric nanoparticle driven by an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, D; Liu, Z; Rolo, T Dos Santos; Harder, R; Balachandran, P V; Xue, D; Lookman, T; Fohtung, E

    2017-08-17

    Topological defects of spontaneous polarization are extensively studied as templates for unique physical phenomena and in the design of reconfigurable electronic devices. Experimental investigations of the complex topologies of polarization have been limited to surface phenomena, which has restricted the probing of the dynamic volumetric domain morphology in operando. Here, we utilize Bragg coherent diffractive imaging of a single BaTiO 3 nanoparticle in a composite polymer/ferroelectric capacitor to study the behavior of a three-dimensional vortex formed due to competing interactions involving ferroelectric domains. Our investigation of the structural phase transitions under the influence of an external electric field shows a mobile vortex core exhibiting a reversible hysteretic transformation path. We also study the toroidal moment of the vortex under the action of the field. Our results open avenues for the study of the structure and evolution of polar vortices and other topological structures in operando in functional materials under cross field configurations.Imaging of topological states of matter such as vortex configurations has generally been limited to 2D surface effects. Here Karpov et al. study the volumetric structure and dynamics of a vortex core mediated by electric-field induced structural phase transition in a ferroelectric BaTiO 3 nanoparticle.

  14. Quantum group structure and local fields in the algebraic approach to 2D gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Schnittger, Jens

    1994-01-01

    This review contains a summary of work by J.-L. Gervais and the author on the operator approach to 2d gravity. Special emphasis is placed on the construction of local observables -the Liouville exponentials and the Liouville field itself - and the underlying algebra of chiral vertex operators. The double quantum group structure arising from the presence of two screening charges is discussed and the generalized algebra and field operators are derived. In the last part, we show that our construction gives rise to a natural definition of a quantum tau function, which is a noncommutative version of the classical group-theoretic representation of the Liouville fields by Leznov and Saveliev.

  15. Structural control of metamaterial oscillator strength and electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiser, G. R.; Seren, H. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The design of artificial nonlinear materials requires control over internal resonant charge densities and local electric field distributions. We present a MM design with a structurally controllable oscillator strength and local electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies. The MM consists...... of a split ring resonator (SRR) array stacked above an array of closed conducting rings. An in-plane, lateral shift of a half unit cell between the SRR and closed ring arrays results in an increase of the MM oscillator strength by a factor of 4 and a 40% change in the amplitude of the resonant electric field...

  16. The Auckland volcanic field, New Zealand: Geophysical evidence for structural and spatio-temporal relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, John; Locke, Corinne A.

    2010-08-01

    Geophysical data from the monogenetic Auckland volcanic field reveal complex structural and spatio-temporal relationships at different scales. The volcanic field is coincident with regional magnetic and gravity anomalies that mark a major crustal suture and with a discontinuity marking a significant structural asperity. Here, the linear regional magnetic anomaly splays into a wide band of NNW-trending lineaments, arising from serpentinised shear zones in the upper crust, that matches the extent of the volcanic field and that may reflect a region of crustal weakness creating preferential permeability. However, there appears to be no simple correlation between the locations of individual vents and these lineaments that might delineate more shallow structural controls with this orientation, probably as a consequence of other structural influences. High-resolution aeromagnetic data over the volcanic field show that the volcanoes have a wide range of magnetic signatures indicating a variability of subsurface structure. Scoria cone volcanoes typically have strong anomalies (up to several 100 nT) whilst tuff-ring volcanoes typically have weak anomalies (less than 50 nT), though the surface geology is not always an indicator of the nature and extent of the subsurface deposits. Both cone and tuff-ring volcanoes in the Auckland field appear to be underlain by subsurface bowl-shaped bodies of basalt, implying that their eruption histories commonly involve lava ponding into early excavated craters. The present geophysical data give no evidence for subsurface dyke-like structures or for substantial near-surface volumes of basaltic rocks where there are no known eruption centres or buried flows. Aeromagnetic and palaeomagnetic data suggest that a number of adjacent vents with an implied structural linkage may be contemporaneous, though other examples occur where vents of clearly different ages exploit the same apparent structure. A unique feature of the Auckland field is that at

  17. Neutron Star Structure in the Presence of Conformally Coupled Scalar Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Bose, Benjamin; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    Neutron star models are studied in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, using two different numerical equations of state (EoS) representing different degrees of stiffness. In both cases we obtain a complete solution by matching the interior numerical solution of the coupled Einstein-scalar field hydrostatic equations, with an exact metric on the surface of the star. These are then used to find the effect of the scalar field and its coupling to geometry, on the neutron star structure, particularly the maximum neutron star mass and radius. We show that in the presence of a conformally coupled scalar field, neutron stars are less dense and have smaller masses and radii than their counterparts in the minimally coupled case, and the effect increases with the magnitude of the scalar field at the center of the star.

  18. Effect of long-range structural corrugations on magnetotransport properties of phosphorene in tilted magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogulkoc, A.; Modarresi, M.; Rudenko, A. N.

    2017-08-01

    Rippling is an inherent quality of two-dimensional materials playing an important role in determining their properties. Here, we study the effect of structural corrugations on the electronic and transport properties of monolayer black phosphorus (phosphorene) in the presence of tilted magnetic field. We follow a perturbative approach to obtain analytical corrections to the spectrum of Landau levels induced by a long-wavelength corrugation potential. We show that surface corrugations have a non-negligible effect on the electronic spectrum of phosphorene in tilted magnetic field. Particularly, the Landau levels are shown to exhibit deviations from the linear field dependence. The observed effect become especially pronounced at large tilt angles and corrugation amplitudes. Magnetotransport properties are further examined in the low temperature regime taking into account impurity scattering. We calculate magnetic field dependence of the longitudinal and Hall resistivities and find that the nonlinear effects reflecting the corrugation might be observed even in moderate fields (B <10 T).

  19. Group velocity effect on resonant, long-range wake-fields in slow wave structures

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, A V

    2002-01-01

    Synchronous wake-fields in a dispersive waveguide are derived in a general explicit form on the basis of a rigorous electro-dynamical approach using Fourier transformations. The fundamental role of group velocity in wake-field propagation, calculation of attenuation, amplitudes, form-factors and loss-factors is analyzed for single bunch radiation. Adiabatic tapering of the waveguide and bunch density variation is taken into account analytically for the time-domain fields. Effects of field 'compression/expansion' and group delays are demonstrated. The role of these effects is discussed for single bunch wake-fields, transient beam loading, BBU and HOMs. A novel waveguide structure with central rf coupling and both positive and negative velocities is proposed. It can be used effectively in both high-energy accelerators and single-section linacs.

  20. Density functional theory for field emission from carbon nano-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhibing

    2015-12-01

    Electron field emission is understood as a quantum mechanical many-body problem in which an electronic quasi-particle of the emitter is converted into an electron in vacuum. Fundamental concepts of field emission, such as the field enhancement factor, work-function, edge barrier and emission current density, will be investigated, using carbon nanotubes and graphene as examples. A multi-scale algorithm basing on density functional theory is introduced. We will argue that such a first principle approach is necessary and appropriate for field emission of nano-structures, not only for a more accurate quantitative description, but, more importantly, for deeper insight into field emission. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volavka, Jan

    2013-03-01

    Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such

  2. Parallel and perpendicular field investigations of coupled high {Tc} multilayer structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fivat, P.; Triscone, J.M.; Andersson, M.; Decroux, M.; Fischer, O. [Univ. of Geneva (Switzerland)

    1994-12-31

    The authors report on the behavior of high {Tc} superconductors coupled multilayer structures in magnetic field parallel and perpendicular to the ab plane. These structures consist of N 24{angstrom} thick DyBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} layers, each separated from the next by 96{angstrom} of an (Y{sub 0.45}Pr{sub 0.55})Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} alloy. This alloy allows a coupling of the superconducting layers as demonstrated by measurements of the activation energies for flux motion U. For a N = 15 sample one finds, in perpendicular fields, that a correlated motion of pancake vortices occurs with a characteristic length of about 480 {angstrom}. Additionally, U is found to be proportional to logB at low fields while at higher fields a power law behavior is observed. In parallel field they find U to be field independent up to 1T, suggesting that the vortices are trapped at low fields in the material where weak superconductivity is induced by proximity effect.

  3. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-05-29

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.

  4. Tratamento do transtorno bipolar: eutimia Bipolar disorder treatment: euthymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Gomes de Matos e Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno bipolar é um quadro complexo caracterizado por episódios de depressão, mania ou hipomania e fases assintomáticas. O tratamento visa ao controle de episódios agudos e prevenção de novos episódios. O tratamento farmacológico iniciou-se com o lítio. Até o momento, o lítio permanece como o tratamento com mais evidências favoráveis na fase de manutenção. Outros tratamentos demonstram eficácia nessa fase, como o valproato, a carbamazepina e os antipsicóticos atípicos. Dos antipsicóticos atípicos o mais estudado nesta fase do tratamento é a olanzapina. Mais estudos prospectivos são necessários para confirmar a ação profilática de novos agentes.Bipolar disorder is a complex disorder characterized by depression episodes, mania or hypomania and asymptomatic phases. The treatment aims at the control of acute episodes and prevention of new episodes. The pharmacological treatment was inaugurated with lithium. Until the moment, lithium remains as the treatment with more favorable evidences in the maintenance phase. Other treatments demonstrate efficacy in this phase, as valproate, carbamazepine and atypical antipsychotics. Of the atypical antipsychotics, the most studied in this phase of treatment is olanzapine. More prospective studies are necessary to confirm prophylactic action of new agents.

  5. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  6. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Mackali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is an early-onset, chronic disorder. It impairs occupational, social, and family functioning, which makes learning to adapt living with the disorder and its treatment critically important. Therefore, it has now become common knowledge that psychosocial interventions are also necessary in the treatment of bipolar disorder adjunctive to pharmacotherapy. Thus, whichever psychosocial interventions are more effective in bipolar disorder is a crucial research question. In this article, cognitive-behavioral therapy, which is applied adjunctive to pharmacotherapy, will be addressed and the findings of research about the effectiveness of these applications will be reviewed.

  8. Sexuality and Sexual Dysfunctions in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Namli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the clinical course of bipolar disorder, there is a reduction in sexual will during depressive episodes and inappopriate sexual experiences and hypersexuality occurs during manic episodes. Up to now, studies focused on sexual side effects of drugs. Sexual violence, sexually transmitted diseases, contraception methods, unplanned pregnancies need to be assessed carefully in bipolar disorder patients. This review focused on sexuality and sexual dysfunctions in the course of bipolar disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(4.000: 309-320

  9. A novel scale for measuring mixed states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jonathan; Schwannauer, Matthias; Power, Mick; Goodwin, Guy M

    2009-01-01

    Conventional descriptions of bipolar disorder tend to treat the mixed state as something of an afterthought. There is no scale that specifically measures the phenomena of the mixed state. This study aimed to test a novel scale for mixed state in a clinical and community population of bipolar patients. The scale included clinically relevant symptoms of both mania and depression in a bivariate scale. Recovered respondents were asked to recall their last manic episode. The scale allowed endorsement of one or more of the manic and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency analyses were carried out using Cronbach alpha. Factor analysis was carried out using a standard Principal Components Analysis followed by Varimax Rotation. A confirmatory factor analytic method was used to validate the scale structure in a representative clinical sample. The reliability analysis gave a Cronbach alpha value of 0.950, with a range of corrected-item-total-scale correlations from 0.546 (weight change) to 0.830 (mood). The factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution for the manic and depressed items which accounted for 61.2% of the variance in the data. Factor 1 represented physical activity, verbal activity, thought processes and mood. Factor 2 represented eating habits, weight change, passage of time and pain sensitivity. This novel scale appears to capture the key features of mixed states. The two-factor solution fits well with previous models of bipolar disorder and concurs with the view that mixed states may be more than the sum of their parts.

  10. Investigation of the field dependent spin structure of exchange coupled magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurieva, Tatiana

    2016-05-01

    This thesis describes the investigation of the field dependent magnetic spin structure of an antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled Fe/Cr heterostructure sandwiched between a hardmagnetic FePt buffer layer and a softmagnetic Fe top layer. The depth-resolved experimental studies of this system were performed via Magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE), Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) and various measuring methods based on nuclear resonant scattering (NRS) technique. Nucleation and evolution of the magnetic spiral structure in the AF coupled Fe/Cr multilayer structure in an azimuthally rotating external magnetic field were observed using NRS. During the experiment a number of time-dependent magnetic side effects (magnetic after-effect, domain-wall creep effect) caused by the non-ideal structure of a real sample were observed and later explained. Creation of the magnetic spiral structure in rotating external magnetic field was simulated using a one-dimensional micromagnetic model.The cross-sectional magnetic X-ray diffraction technique was conceived and is theoretically described in the present work. This method allows to determine the magnetization state of an individual layer in the magnetic heterostructure. It is also applicable in studies of the magnetic structure of tiny samples where conventional x-ray reflectometry fails.

  11. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  12. The role of Internal electric fields in III-N quantum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlin, P.; Lepkowski, S.P.; Teisseyre, H.; Suski, T.

    2001-01-01

    Binary nitrides: of wurtzite GaN, AlN, InN, and their solid solutions represent family of semiconductors of crucial importance for modern optoelectronics. Strained quantum wells, like GaN/AlGaN and specially InGaN/GaN, from active layers of the light emitters working in green-UV part of spectrum. The operation of these devices strongly depends on the emission spectra of considered quantum structures which are greatly influenced by the presence of built-in electric fields. The electric field acting via quantum confined Stark effect in the mentioned structures changes the energies and intensity of the emitted light. The effect can lead to the spectral shift of a photo- and electroluminescence by many hundreds of MeV. In this review we will briefly cover the influence of internal electric fields on both optical and electrical properties of nitride based heterostructures and quantum wells. We would like to draw reader's attention to the usefulness of high-pressure investigation in the study of electric fields in nitrides and to show the interpretation of these experiments influences the way we calculate the electric fields in the quantum structures. (author)

  13. IBEX views the global structure of the heliosphere influenced by the Interstellar Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan

    The IBEX ribbon has been separated from the surrounding globally distributed flux (GDF), revealing ENA emission largely from the inner heliosheath. The line-of-sight (LOS) integrated pressure in the GDF is quite large, requiring that the interstellar magnetic field be sufficiently strong (e.g. 3 microG) to balance the pressure of the inner heliosheath. The LOS emissions from the GDF have revealed signatures of the nose of the heliosphere, and the heliotail, which has been examined carefully. The strong interstellar magnetic field has broad implications for the structure of the heliosphere and the existence or lack of a bow shock. These global heliospheric structures also filter primary interstellar neutral atoms and lead to creation of secondary atoms through charge-exchange in the outer heliosheath. IBEX observations of H atoms from the Local Interstellar Medium reveal remarkable signatures of both filtration and the secondary component likely reflecting influences of the interstellar magnetic field on the outer heliosheath. New determinations of the LISM velocity from neutral atom measurments and the LISM magnetic field direction from the IBEX ribbon are shown to be consistent with the interstellar modulation of TeV cosmic rays revealed in global anisotropy maps of Milagro, Asgamma and IceCube. Thus, IBEX observations reveal a new picture of heliospheric structures and interactions that are strongly influenced by the interstellar magnetic field.

  14. Estimation of the Lithospheric Component Share in the Earth Natural Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkov, S. Y.; Gordeev, V. F.; Polyvach, V. I.; Shtalin, S. G.; Pustovalov, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    Article describes the results of the atmosphere and Earth’s crust climatic and ecological parameters integrated monitoring. The estimation is made for lithospheric component share in the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field structure. To estimate lithospheric component we performed a round-the-clock monitoring of the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field background variations at the experiment location and measured the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field under electric shields. Natural materials in a natural environment were used for shielding, specifically lakes with varying parameters of water conductivity. Skin effect was used in the experiment - it is the tendency of electromagnetic waves amplitude to decrease with greater depths in the conductor. Atmospheric and lithospheric component the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field data recorded on terrain was compared against the recorded data with atmosphere component decayed by an electric shield. In summary we have demonstrated in the experiment that thunderstorm discharge originating electromagnetic field decay corresponds to the decay calculated using Maxwell equations. In the absence of close lightning strikes the ratio of field intensity recorded on terrain to shielded field intensity is inconsistent with the ratio calculated for atmospheric sources, that confirms there is a lithospheric component present to the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field.

  15. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  16. Low energy structure of the nucleon from chiral effective field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcón Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present some updated results regarding the scalar and electromagnetic structure of the nucleon obtained by the relativistic formulation of chiral effective field theory with baryons. We compare them with previous determinations available in the literature, and show their relevance for searches of physics beyond the standard model in the low energy frontier.

  17. Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1986-01-01

    are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  18. Designing Microstructures/Structures for Desired Functional Material and Local Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    elucidated its ramification in engineering multifunctional soft materials, and (iii) demonstrated the possibility of concurrent magnetoelectricity and... piezoelectricity in soft materials. Concerning local field in heterogeneous structures, we have shown designs of thermoelectric composites and the...temperature gradient. These designs can be used to improve sensitivity of telecommunication receivers and efficiency of heat engines

  19. Structure of the floating water bridge and water in an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Lawrie B; Benmore, Chris J; Shyam, Badri; Weber, J K R; Parise, John B

    2012-10-09

    The floating water bridge phenomenon is a freestanding rope-shaped connection of pure liquid water, formed under the influence of a high potential difference (approximately 15 kV). Several recent spectroscopic, optical, and neutron scattering studies have suggested that the origin of the bridge is associated with the formation of anisotropic chains of water molecules in the liquid. In this work, high energy X-ray diffraction experiments have been performed on a series of floating water bridges as a function of applied voltage, bridge length, and position within the bridge. The two-dimensional X-ray scattering data showed no direction-dependence, indicating that the bulk water molecules do not exhibit any significant preferred orientation along the electric field. The only structural changes observed were those due to heating, and these effects were found to be the same as for bulk water. These X-ray scattering measurements are supported by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations which were performed under electric fields of 10(6) V/m and 10(9) V/m. Directional structure factor calculations were made from these simulations parallel and perpendicular to the E-field. The 10(6) V/m model showed no significant directional-dependence (anisotropy) in the structure factors. The 10(9) V/m model however, contained molecules aligned by the E-field, and had significant structural anisotropy.

  20. Linking lipid architecture to bilayer structure and mechanics using self-consistent field modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pera, H.; Kleijn, J.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    To understand how lipid architecture determines the lipid bilayer structure and its mechanics, we implement a molecularly detailed model that uses the self-consistent field theory. This numerical model accurately predicts parameters such as Helfrichs mean and Gaussian bending modulus k c and k ¯ and

  1. Spatial correlation structure of the ionosphere predicted by geomagnetic indices and application to global field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, M.; Ferrat, K.; Lesur, V.; Stolle, C.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric fields are modelled in terms of random structures taking into account a mean behaviour as well as random fluctuations which are described through two point correlation kernels. These kernels are estimated from long time series of numerical simulations from various models. These correlations are best expressed in SM system of coordinates. For the moment we limit ourselves to spatial correlations only in this coordinate system. We study the influence of various indices as possible predictor parameters for these correlations as well as seasonal effects. The various time series of ionospheric fields are stored in a HDF5 database which is accessible via a web interface. The obtained correlation structures serve as prior information to separate external and internal field components from observatory based measurements. We present a model that predicts the correlations as a function of time and some geomagnetic indices. First results of the inversion from observatory data are presented.

  2. A diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorder predicts diagnostic conversion from unipolar depression to bipolar disorder: a 5-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Young Sup; Shim, In Hee; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Song, Hoo Rim; Jun, Tae-Youn; Bahk, Won-Myong

    2015-03-15

    The major aims of this study were to identify factors that may predict the diagnostic conversion from major depressive disorder (MDD) to bipolar disorder (BP) and to evaluate the predictive performance of the bipolar spectrum disorder (BPSD) diagnostic criteria. The medical records of 250 patients with a diagnosis of MDD for at least 5 years were retrospectively reviewed for this study. The diagnostic conversion from MDD to BP was observed in 18.4% of 250 MDD patients, and the diagnostic criteria for BPSD predicted this conversion with high sensitivity (0.870) and specificity (0.917). A family history of BP, antidepressant-induced mania/hypomania, brief major depressive episodes, early age of onset, antidepressant wear-off, and antidepressant resistance were also independent predictors of this conversion. This study was conducted using a retrospective design and did not include structured diagnostic interviews. The diagnostic criteria for BPSD were highly predictive of the conversion from MDD to BP, and conversion was associated with several clinical features of BPSD. Thus, the BPSD diagnostic criteria may be useful for the prediction of bipolar diathesis in MDD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differences in clinical presentation between bipolar I and II disorders in the early stages of bipolar disorder: A naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Maj; Mikkelsen, Rie Lambaek; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-15

    In a naturalistic clinical study of patients in the early stages of bipolar disorders the aim was to assess differences between patients with bipolar I (BD I) and bipolar II (BD II) disorders on clinical characteristics including affective symptoms, subjective cognitive complaints, functional level, the presence of comorbid personality disorders and coping strategies. Diagnoses were confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Clinical symptoms were rated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and functional status using the Functional Assessment Short Test. Cognitive complaints were assessed using the Massachusetts General Hospital Cognitive and Physical Functioning Questionnaire, the presence of comorbid personality disorders using the Standardized Assessment of Personality - Abbreviated Scale and coping style using the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. In total, 344 patients were included (BD I (n=163) and BD II (n=181). Patients with BD II presented with significantly more depressive symptoms, more cognitive complaints, lower overall functioning, and a higher prevalence of comorbid personality disorders. Finally, they exhibited a trend towards using less adaptive coping styles. It cannot be omitted that some patients may have progressed from BD II to BD I. Most measures were based on patient self report. Overall, BD II was associated with a higher disease burden. Clinically, it is important to differentiate BD II from BD I and research wise, there is a need for tailoring and testing specific interventions towards BD II. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  5. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  6. First Cluster results of the magnetic field structure of the mid- and high-altitude cusps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    Full Text Available Magnetic field measurements from the four Cluster spacecraft from the mid- and high-altitude cusp are presented. Cluster underwent two encounters with the mid-altitude cusp during its commissioning phase (24 August 2000. Evidence for field-aligned currents (FACs was seen in the data from all three operating spacecraft from northern and southern cusps. The extent of the FACs was of the order of 1 RE in the X-direction, and at least 300 km in the Y-direction. However, fine-scale field structures with scales of the order of the spacecraft separation (300 km were observed within the FACs. In the northern crossing, two of the spacecraft appeared to lie along the same magnetic field line, and observed very well matched signals. However, the third spacecraft showed evidence for structuring transverse to the field on scales of a few hundred km. A crossing of the high-altitude cusp from 13 February 2001 is presented. It is revealed to be a highly dynamic structure with the boundaries moving with velocities ranging from a few km/s to tens of km/s, and having structure on timescales ranging from less than one minute up to several minutes. The cusp proper is associated with the presence of a very disordered magnetic field, which is entirely different from the magnetosheath turbulence.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (current systems; magnetopause, cusp, and boundary layers – Space plasma physics (discontinuities

  7. Electropermeabilization by uni- or bipolar nanosecond electric pulses: The impact of extracellular conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianulis, Elena C; Casciola, Maura; Xiao, Shu; Pakhomova, Olga N; Pakhomov, Andrei G

    2018-02-01

    Cellular effects caused by nanosecond electric pulses (nsEP) can be reduced by an electric field reversal, a phenomenon known as bipolar cancellation. The reason for this cancellation effect remains unknown. We hypothesized that assisted membrane discharge is the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. CHO-K1 cells bathed in high (16.1mS/cm; HCS) or low (1.8mS/cm; LCS) conductivity solutions were exposed to either one unipolar (300-ns) or two opposite polarity (300+300-ns; bipolar) nsEP (4-40kV/cm) with increasing interpulse intervals (0.1-50μs). Time-lapse YO-PRO-1 (YP) uptake revealed enhanced membrane permeabilization in LCS compared to HCS at all tested voltages. The time-dependence of bipolar cancellation was similar in both solutions, using either identical (22kV/cm) or isoeffective nsEP treatments (12 and 32kV/cm for LCS and HCS, respectively). However, cancellation was significantly stronger in LCS when the bipolar nsEP had no, or very short (<1μs), interpulse intervals. Finally, bipolar cancellation was still present with interpulse intervals as long as 50μs, beyond the time expected for membrane discharge. Our findings do not support assisted membrane discharge as the mechanism for bipolar cancellation. Instead they exemplify the sustained action of nsEP that can be reversed long after the initial stimulus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychosocial morbidity associated with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder in psychiatric out-patients: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy

    2015-10-01

    The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders. To compare the levels of psychosocial morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed with semi-structured interviews. We compared 307 patients with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder but without bipolar disorder and 236 patients with bipolar disorder but without borderline personality disorder. The patients with borderline personality disorder less frequently were college graduates, were diagnosed with more comorbid disorders, more frequently had a history of substance use disorder, reported more suicidal ideation at the time of the evaluation, more frequently had attempted suicide, reported poorer social functioning and were rated lower on the Global Assessment of Functioning. There was no difference between the two patient groups in history of admission to psychiatric hospital or time missed from work during the past 5 years. The level of psychosocial morbidity associated with borderline personality disorder was as great as (or greater than) that experienced by patients with bipolar disorder. From a public health perspective, efforts to improve the detection and treatment of borderline personality disorder might be as important as efforts to improve the recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  9. Experimental Studies of W-Band Accelerator Structures at High Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Marc E

    2001-02-09

    A high-gradient electron accelerator is desired for high-energy physics research, where frequency scalings of breakdown and trapping of itinerant beamline particles dictates operation of the accelerator at short wavelengths. The first results of design and test of a high-gradient mm-wave linac with an operating frequency at 91.392 GHz (W-band) are presented. A novel approach to particle acceleration is presented employing a planar, dielectric lined waveguide used for particle acceleration. The traveling wave fields in the planar dielectric accelerator (PDA) are analyzed for an idealized structure, along with a circuit equivalent model used for understanding the structure as a microwave circuit. Along with the W-band accelerator structures, other components designed and tested are high power rf windows, high power attenuators, and a high power squeeze-type phase shifter. The design of the accelerator and its components where eased with the aide of numerical simulations using a finite-difference electromagnetic field solver. Manufacturing considerations of the small, delicate mm-wave components and the steps taken to reach a robust fabrication process are detailed. These devices were characterized under low power using a two-port vector network analyzer to verify tune and match, including measurements of the structures' fields using a bead-pull. The measurements are compared with theory throughout. Addition studies of the W-band structures were performed under high power utilizing a 11.424 GHz electron linac as a current source. Test results include W-band power levels of 200 kW, corresponding to fields in the PDA of over 20 MV/m, a higher gradient than any collider. Planar accelerator devices naturally have an rf quadrupole component of the accelerating field. Presented for the first time are the measurements of this effect.

  10. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  11. Gene environment interactions in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregelj, Peter

    2011-09-01

    It has been estimated that the heritable component of bipolar disorder ranges between 80 and 90%. However, even genome-wide association studies explain only a fraction of phenotypic variability not resolving the problem of "lost heritability". Although direct evidence for epigenetic dysfunction in bipolar disorder is still limited, methodological technologies in epigenomic profiling have advanced, offering even single cell analysing and resolving the problem of cell heterogeneity in epigenetics research. Gene overlapping with other mental disorders represents another problem in identifying potential susceptibility genes in bipolar disorder. Better understanding of the interplay between multiple environmental and genetic factors involved in the patogenesis of bipolar disorder could provide relevant information for treatment of patients with this complex disorder. Future studies on the role of these factors in psychopathological conditions, subphenotypes and endophenotypes may greatly benefit by using more precise clinical data and a combined approach with multiple research tools incorporated into a single study.

  12. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  13. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information...... for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage...

  14. [The concept of temperament and its contribution to the understanding of the bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, I; Polizoidou, V; Fountoulakis, K N

    2017-01-01

    The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,The present article attempts first to provide a historical overview of the concept of temperament,since its foundation by Polybos (4th century B.C.) and the school of Cos, its predominant role in theshaping of the anthropological and humanitarian sciences, until the modern theoretical formulations,such as those proposed by Robert Cloninger and Hagop Akiskal. Secondly, recent literature ispresented, which suggests a strong link of different temperament structures to mental health andpsychopathology. Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) was the first psychologist to establish approaches topersonality differences and to distinguish three dimensions of personality: Neuroticism, Extraversionand Psychotisism. Eysenck was followed by McCrae and Costa who proposed that there are five basicdimensions of personality ("Big Five"). In the mid-1980s, Robert Cloninger developed a distinctivedimensional model of temperament and character traits. Hagop Akiskal emphasized on the affectivecomponents of temperament and their possible connections to mood disorders and creativity.Specifically, temperament assessment seems to help in differentiating between the relationship ofvarious temperaments and the clinical manifestations of bipolar illness. Within the area of mood disorders,specific affective temperaments might constitute vulnerability factors, as well as clinical pictureand illness course modifiers. Viewing mood disorders under this prism gives birth to the concept ofthe bipolar spectrum with major implications for all aspects of mental health research and providingof care. The hyperthymic and the depressive temperaments are related to the more 'classic' bipolarpicture (that is euphoria, grandiose and paranoid thinking, antisocial behavior, psychomotor accelerationand reduced sleep and depressive episodes respectively). On the contrary cyclothymic, anxiousand irritable temperaments are related

  15. Ultrasound influence on materials structure in parts reconditioned by welding with ultrasonic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Dobrotă

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research presented in the paper refers to the structural analysis of materials that are thermally influenced for loading by welding of pieces in the classical variant of manual coated electric arc welding and the version that in which the welding bath is activated by ultrasounds. The structural analysis made refer to: the size of the grains of the structure obtained under certain loading conditions through welding, grain size variation on the submission of a single layer in the ultrasonic field, the mode of solidification and fragmentation of grains when loaded in welding in a ultrasonic field, acceleration of the diffusion process for ultrasonic activation, the appearance of hard carbides between grains.

  16. Manipulation of structural color reflection in graphene oxide dispersions using electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seung-Ho; Shen, Tian-Zi; Song, Jang-Kun

    2015-07-27

    Aqueous graphene oxide (GO) dispersions with a photonic crystal structure are carefully prepared to produce structural color reflection. We fabricate a simple reflective GO cell with a unique electrode design and demonstrate that the resulting structural color reflection is electrically erasable and rewritable. GO concentration and the direction of the electric field are vital factors in the development of the device. The resulting device works well, although it exhibits a rather slow response time; in particular, the spontaneous recovery time from dark to bright color reflection requires tens of minutes. Through the application of a horizontal electric field parallel to the substrate, the recovery time can be improved, resulting in a recovery period of 3 min. Although many unsolved issues remain, the findings in GO dispersion may provide a new possibility for color filter-less bi-stable color displays with low power consumption.

  17. An All-Atom Force Field for Tertiary Structure Prediction of Helical Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herges, T.; Wenzel, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed an all-atom free-energy force field (PFF01) for protein tertiary structure prediction. PFF01 is based on physical interactions and was parameterized using experimental structures of a family of proteins believed to span a wide variety of possible folds. It contains empirical, although sequence-independent terms for hydrogen bonding. Its solvent-accessible surface area solvent model was first fit to transfer energies of small peptides. The parameters of the solvent model were then further optimized to stabilize the native structure of a single protein, the autonomously folding villin headpiece, against competing low-energy decoys. Here we validate the force field for five nonhomologous helical proteins with 20–60 amino acids. For each protein, decoys with 2–3 Å backbone root mean-square deviation and correct experimental Cβ–Cβ distance constraints emerge as those with the lowest energy. PMID:15507688

  18. Lexicographical structuring: the number and types of fields, data distribution, searching and data presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Pedersen, Heidi Agerbo

    2015-01-01

    dictionaries. However, only by producing monofunctional dictionaries is it possible to avoid the type of information overload, which makes polyfunctional dictionaries close to useless on electronic devices such as tablets and smartphones. In the case of monofunctional dictionaries, lexicographical structuring......This contribution will not describe the structure in existing dictionaries. Instead, it will focus on the decisions that lexicographers make when they draw up the concept for and carry out the production of one or more new dictionaries, or when they consider making changes in the data presentation...... in an existing dictionary. This part of the lexicographical work is what we call structuring, which encompasses a number of various lexicographical decisions. One of these is choosing the fields that a database should contain. Typically, for some of these field types, it will be easy to distribute data...

  19. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  20. How genes and environmental factors determine the different neurodevelopmental trajectories of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demjaha, Arsime; MacCabe, James H; Murray, Robin M

    2012-03-01

    The debate endures as to whether schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are separate entities or different manifestations of a single underlying pathological process. Here, we argue that this sterile argument obscures the fact that the truth lies somewhere in between. Thus, recent studies support a model whereby, on a background of some shared genetic liability for both disorders, patients with schizophrenia have been subject to additional genetic and/or environmental factors that impair neurodevelopment; for example, copy number variants and obstetric complications are associated with schizophrenia but not with bipolar disorder. As a result, children destined to develop schizophrenia show an excess of neuromotor delays and cognitive difficulties while those who later develop bipolar disorder perform at least as well as the general population. In keeping with this model, cognitive impairments and brain structural abnormalities are present at first onset of schizophrenia but not in the early stages of bipolar disorder. However, with repeated episodes of illness, cognitive and brain structural abnormalities accumulate in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, thus clouding the picture.

  1. The ternary alloy with a structure of Prussian blue analogs in a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dely, J.; Bobak, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of applied transverse field on transition and compensation temperatures of the AB p C 1-p ternary alloy consisting of spins S A =3/2 , S B =2, and S C =5/2 are investigated by the use of a mean-field theory. The structure and the spin values of the model correspond to the Prussian blue analog of the type (Fe p II Mn 1-p II ) 1.5 [Cr III (CN) 6 ].nH 2 O. We find that two or even three compensation points may be induced by a transverse field for the system with appropriate values of the parameters in the model Hamiltonian. In particular, the influence of a transverse field on the compensation point in the ground state is examined

  2. Planck intermediate results XXXIV. The magnetic field structure in the Rosette Nebula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    , the Rosette Nebula in the Monoceros molecular cloud, to study its magnetic field structure and the impact of an expanding H II region on the morphology of the field. We derive an analytical solution for the magnetic field, assumed to evolve from an initially uniform configuration following the expansion...... of ionized gas and the formation of a shell of swept-up ISM. From the RM data we estimate a mean value of the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field of about 3 mu G (towards the observer) in the Rosette Nebula, for a uniform electron density of about 12 cm(-3). The dust shell that surrounds...... molecular cloud is in the range 6.5-9 mu G. The present analytical model is able to reproduce the RM distribution across the ionized nebula, as well as the mean dust polarization properties of the swept-up shell, and can be directly applied to other similar objects....

  3. Electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned PMN-PT/NiFe structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziętek, Slawomir, E-mail: zietek@agh.edu.pl; Skowroński, Witold; Stobiecki, Tomasz [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Ogrodnik, Piotr, E-mail: piotrogr@if.pw.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Electronics, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, ul. Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warszawa (Poland); Stobiecki, Feliks [Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland); Dijken, Sebastiaan van [NanoSpin, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 15100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Barnaś, Józef [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); Institute of Molecular Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Smoluchowskiego 17, 60-179 Poznań (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    Dynamic properties of NiFe thin films on PMN-PT piezoelectric substrate are investigated using the spin-diode method. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra of microstrips with varying width are measured as a function of magnetic field and frequency. The FMR frequency is shown to depend on the electric field applied across the substrate, which induces strain in the NiFe layer. Electric field tunability of up to 100 MHz per 1 kV/cm is achieved. An analytical model based on total energy minimization and the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, taking into account the magnetostriction effect, is used to explain the measured dynamics. Based on this model, conditions for optimal electric-field tunable spin diode FMR in patterned NiFe/PMN-PT structures are derived.

  4. Physical mechanism determining the radial electric field and its radial structure in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae

    1994-10-01

    Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs

  5. Effect of temperature field on solidification structure of pure Al under pulse magneto-oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Bo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the effect of temperature field on the Pulse Magneto-Oscillation (PMO induced solidification refinement of pure aluminium to provide more information for the industrial application of the PMO solidification technology. The temperature field is altered mainly by applied variable cooling conditions and pulse parameters. Experimental results show that the refinement effect in the case of full sand mould applied is weakened with the decreasing of cooling rate, however, in the alternative case, the sand mould whose sand bottom was replaced by a graphite block is favorable to the survival of equiaxed nucleus. The refinement mechanism is discussed in terms of the relationship between temperature field and the formation process of solidified structure. The formation or survival of nucleus depends on both temperature field and Joule heat produced by PMO, both low pulse frequency and high pulse current were experimentally confirmed to be effective; and PMO was demonstrated high potential in industrial application.

  6. Thyroid Functions and Bipolar Affective Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Subho

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis dysfunction is relevant to the pathophysiology and clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. Hypothyroidism, either overt or more commonly subclinical, appears to the commonest abnormality found in bipolar disorder. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction is also likely to be greater among patients with rapid cycling and other refractory forms of the disorder. Lithium-treatment has potent antithyroid effects and c...

  7. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Transtorno afetivo bipolar: um enfoque transcultural

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches,Marsal; Jorge,Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.

  9. Magnetic field structure in accretion columns on HMXB and effects on CRSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In accreting neutron star binaries, matter is channelled by the magnetic fields from the accretion disc to the poles of neutron stars forming an accretion mound. We model such mounds by numerically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation for axisymmetric static MHD equilibria. From our solutions we infer local distortion of field lines due to the weight of accreted matter. Variation in mass loading at the accretion disc will alter the shape of the accretion mound which will also affect the local field distortion. From simulations of cyclotron resonance scattering features from HMXBs, we conclude that local field distortion will greatly affect the shape and nature of the CRSF. From phase resolved spectral analysis one can infer the local field structure and hence the nature of mass loading of field lines at the accretion disc. We also study the stability of such mounds by performing MHD simulations using the PLUTO MHD code. We find that pressure and gravity driven instabilities depend on the total mass accreted and the nature of mass loading of the field lines.

  10. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  11. Sexual health and women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCandless, Fiona; Sladen, Claire

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the importance of sexual health promotion strategies for women with bipolar disorder in order to stimulate interest and debate in this area of care. Sexual health promotion is an important aspect of holistic nursing care. However, the literature indicates that nurses are reluctant to discuss sexual health and sexual behaviour with their clients. People with bipolar disorder warrant special consideration with regards to sexual health because the nature of the manic, or hypomanic, mood state is associated in some cases with sexually risky behaviour. For women with bipolar disorder, the associated risks include the threat of unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. To ignore sexual health and sexual behaviour in mental health care increases the vulnerability of women who may already be at risk of sexual exploitation. CASE EXAMPLE: A brief case example is included to demonstrate how the sexual health of a young woman with bipolar disorder was promoted. The sexual health promotion that was incorporated into her care enabled her to make a choice about appropriate contraception, and also provided her with the opportunity to explore acceptable boundaries in different types of interpersonal relationships. As a result of the episodic nature of Bipolar disorder, it is impossible to state whether the positive outcomes from this strategy will be enduring or not. Consideration of sexual health is an essential element of the care of women with Bipolar disorder. To ignore it is to neglect an important sphere of human behaviour that can be affected by the condition.

  12. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  13. Early maladaptive schemas in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Mehmet; Lapsekili, Nergis; Haciomeroglu, Bikem; Sutcigil, Levent; Turkcapar, Hakan

    2012-09-01

    According to the cognitive model of depression, negative schemas, formed in early life, increase susceptibility to depression. The objective of this study was to investigate schemas that are proposed to increase susceptibility of depression in bipolar disorder patients who have had depressive episodes. Eighteen patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder according to DSM-IV and a healthy control group (N= 20) constituted the sample of the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Young Schema Scale were applied to patients in order to determine the level of symptoms and schemas. When the scores obtained from Young Schema Scale were compared between groups, significant differences were observed between bipolar patients and control group on all the schemas except abandonment, emotional deprivation, defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness, and approval seeking. The negative schema scores of bipolar patients were significantly higher than those of the control group. Of all schemas included in the Young Schema Scale, the scores of bipolar group were higher than the scores of the control group. These findings suggest that, in cognitive-based psychotherapeutic approaches for patients with bipolar disorder, it would be more effective to focus on schemas related to the perception and allowance of feelings at the proper time and the instability of self-perceptions. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Bipolar resistive switching behaviours in ZnMn2O4 film deposited on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ohm's law, trap-filled-limited and Child's law conduction procedure at room temperature. Keywords. ZnMn2O4; bipolar; resistive switching; chemical solution deposition. 1. Introduction. Non-volatile memories (NVMs) based on resistive switch- ing between two-terminal electrodes induced by an exter- nal electric field were ...

  15. Near-field soil-structure interaction analysis using nonlinear hybrid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, I.; Chen, C.; Lee, Y.J.; Jean, W.Y.; Penzien, J.

    1989-01-01

    The hybrid modeling method (Gupta and Penzien 1980) and associated analysis procedure for solving a three-dimensional soil-structure interaction problem was developed by Gupta and Penzien (1981) and Gupta et al.(1982). Subsequently, successive modifications have been made to the original modeling method and analysis procedure allowing more general treatment of the SSI problem (Penzien, 1988). Through many correlation studies of field test data obtained under forced-vibration and earthquake-excitation conditions, it has been shown that the HASSI programs can effectively predict the dynamic response of a soil-structure system, if realistic soil parameters are adopted. In the above, the entire structure-foundation system is considered to respond in a linear fashion. Since the reflected three-dimensional waves at the soil-structure interface decays very rapidly with distance away from the structure (Katayama, 1987 (a)), the response of the soil close to the base of the structure may greatly affect its response; therefore, proper modeling of the non-linear soil behavior characteristic is essential. The nonlinear behavior of near-field soil has been taken into consideration in HASSI-7 by the standard equivalent linearization procedures used in programs SHAKE and FLUSH

  16. The Far Field Structure of a Jet in Cross-Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanitis, Nicolas; Dawson, James

    2013-11-01

    Time-resolved resolved Stereoscopic PIV measurements were performed in the far field of a cross-flow jet in order to study the large-scale vortex structures present. Measurements were taken in the spanwise-wall normal plane (y-z) containing the Counter-Rotating vortex Pair (CVP) and converted to three-dimensional volumetric data via the use of Taylor's hypothesis. The jet Reynolds number was Rejet = 2 ×104 based on the jet diameter of dj = 4 mm . Measurements were taken for a jet to cross-flow velocity ratio of Vr = 10 at the downstream positions of x /dj = 15 , 30 , 85 . The 3D velocity field at x /dj = 15 shows a high level of coherency which is reduced with downstream distance. A series of three main vortex structures are identified. First are horseshoe structures with their head on the windward side, side-arms titled forwards in the downstream direction and tails extending downstream forming the CVP. Second are arch shaped roller structures, of opposite sign to the horshoe vortex, which appear on the windward side between successive horseshoe structures. Third are straight wake vortices of alternating sign extending from the CVP into the wake. An eddy model was developed using these three main structures with the aim of reproducing the main turbulent features.

  17. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray probes of large scale structure and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2004-01-01

    We study signatures of a structured universe in the multi-pole moments, auto-correlation function, and cluster statistics of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays above 10 19 eV. We compare scenarios where the sources are distributed homogeneously or according to the baryon density distribution obtained from a cosmological large scale structure simulation. The influence of extragalactic magnetic fields is studied by comparing the case of negligible fields with fields expected to be produced along large scale shocks with a maximal strength consistent with observations. We confirm that strongly magnetized observers would predict considerable anisotropy on large scales, which is already in conflict with current data. In the best fit scenario only the sources are strongly magnetized, although deflection can still be considerable, of order 20 deg. up to 10 20 eV, and a pronounced GZK cutoff is predicted. We then discuss signatures for future large scale full-sky detectors such as the Pierre Auger and EUSO projects. Auto-correlations are sensitive to the source density only if magnetic fields do not significantly affect propagation. In contrast, for a weakly magnetized observer, degree scale auto-correlations below a certain level indicate magnetized discrete sources. It may be difficult even for next generation experiments to distinguish between structured and unstructured source distributions

  18. Field emission characteristics of nano-structured carbon films deposited on differently pretreated Mo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Longyang; Wang Xiaoping; Wang Lijun; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    Nano-structured carbon films (NCFs) were grown on Mo layers by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) system. The Mo layers were deposited on ceramic substrates by electron beam deposition method and were pretreated by different techniques, which include ultrasonically scratching and laser-grooving technology (10 line/mm). NCFs were characterized by a field emission type scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), Raman spectra and field emission (FE) I-V measurements. Effects of process parameters on morphologies, structures and FE properties of NCFs were examined. The experimental results show that two kinds of NCFs deposited at the same parameters employed for the MPCVD process were respectively composed of carbon nano-balls and reticular carbon nano-tubes inlayed by carbon nano-balls with dissimilar disorder structures, both NCFs showed each merits and exhibited good field emission properties, especially shown in the uniformity of FE, the uniform field emission images with areas of 4 cm 2 were obtained. Growth mechanism influenced by different pretreated method was discussed and the possible FE mechanisms of the NCFs were also investigated. Finally, the process characteristics of laser-grooving technology were analyzed, and its potential applications were predicted.

  19. Direct current electric field assembly of colloidal crystals displaying reversible structural color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aayush A; Ganesan, Mahesh; Jocz, Jennifer; Solomon, Michael J

    2014-08-26

    We report the application of low-voltage direct current (dc) electric fields to self-assemble close-packed colloidal crystals in nonaqueous solvents from colloidal spheres that vary in size from as large as 1.2 μm to as small as 0.1 μm. The assemblies are created rapidly (∼2 min) from an initially low volume fraction colloidal particle suspension using a simple capacitor-like electric field device that applies a steady dc electric voltage. Confocal microscopy is used to observe the ordering that is produced by the assembly method. This spatial evidence for ordering is consistent with the 6-fold diffraction patterns identified by light scattering. Red, green, and blue structural color is observed for the ordered assemblies of colloids with diameters of 0.50, 0.40, and 0.29 μm, respectively, consistent with spectroscopic measurements of reflectance. The diffraction and spectrophotometry results were found to be consistent with the theoretical Bragg's scattering expected for closed-packed crystals. By switching the dc electric field from on to off, we demonstrate reversibility of the structural color response on times scales ∼60 s. The dc electric field assembly method therefore represents a simple method to produce reversible structural color in colloidal soft matter.

  20. Network dysfunction of emotional and cognitive processes in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakspear, Michael; Roberts, Gloria; Green, Melissa J; Nguyen, Vinh T; Frankland, Andrew; Levy, Florence; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Mitchell, Philip B

    2015-11-01

    The emotional and cognitive vulnerabilities that precede the development of bipolar disorder are poorly understood. The inferior frontal gyrus-a key cortical hub for the integration of cognitive and emotional processes-exhibits both structural and functional changes in bipolar disorder, and is also functionally impaired in unaffected first-degree relatives, showing diminished engagement during inhibition of threat-related emotional stimuli. We hypothesized that this functional impairment of the inferior frontal gyrus in those at genetic risk of bipolar disorder reflects the dysfunction of broader network dynamics underlying the coordination of emotion perception and cognitive control. To test this, we studied effective connectivity in functional magnetic resonance imaging data acquired from 41 first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder, 45 matched healthy controls and 55 participants with established bipolar disorder. Dynamic causal modelling was used to model the neuronal interaction between key regions associated with fear perception (the anterior cingulate), inhibition (the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) and the region upon which these influences converge, namely the inferior frontal gyrus. Network models that embodied non-linear, hierarchical relationships were the most strongly supported by data from our healthy control and bipolar participants. We observed a marked difference in the hierarchical influence of the anterior cingulate on the effective connectivity from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the inferior frontal gyrus that is unique to the at-risk cohort. Non-specific, non-hierarchical mechanisms appear to compensate for this network disturbance. We thus establish a specific network disturbance suggesting dysfunction in the processes that support hierarchical relationships between emotion and cognitive control in those at high genetic risk for bipolar disorder. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf