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Sample records for bipolar active regions

  1. Factor analysis of regional brain activation in bipolar and healthy individuals reveals a consistent modular structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, David E; Welge, Jeffrey A; Eliassen, James C; Adler, Caleb M; DelBello, Melissa P; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2018-07-01

    The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward a complex system understanding of bipolar disorder: A chaotic model of abnormal circadian activity rhythms in euthymic bipolar disorder.

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    Hadaeghi, Fatemeh; Hashemi Golpayegani, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Sajad; Murray, Greg

    2016-08-01

    In the absence of a comprehensive neural model to explain the underlying mechanisms of disturbed circadian function in bipolar disorder, mathematical modeling is a helpful tool. Here, circadian activity as a response to exogenous daily cycles is proposed to be the product of interactions between neuronal networks in cortical (cognitive processing) and subcortical (pacemaker) areas of the brain. To investigate the dynamical aspects of the link between disturbed circadian activity rhythms and abnormalities of neurotransmitter functioning in frontal areas of the brain, we developed a novel mathematical model of a chaotic system which represents fluctuations in circadian activity in bipolar disorder as changes in the model's parameters. A novel map-based chaotic system was developed to capture disturbances in circadian activity across the two extreme mood states of bipolar disorder. The model uses chaos theory to characterize interplay between neurotransmitter functions and rhythm generation; it aims to illuminate key activity phenomenology in bipolar disorder, including prolonged sleep intervals, decreased total activity and attenuated amplitude of the diurnal activity rhythm. To test our new cortical-circadian mathematical model of bipolar disorder, we utilized previously collected locomotor activity data recorded from normal subjects and bipolar patients by wrist-worn actigraphs. All control parameters in the proposed model have an important role in replicating the different aspects of circadian activity rhythm generation in the brain. The model can successfully replicate deviations in sleep/wake time intervals corresponding to manic and depressive episodes of bipolar disorder, in which one of the excitatory or inhibitory pathways is abnormally dominant. Although neuroimaging research has strongly implicated a reciprocal interaction between cortical and subcortical regions as pathogenic in bipolar disorder, this is the first model to mathematically represent this

  3. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...

  4. Bipolar disorder and the pseudoautosomal region: An association study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsian, A.; Todd, R.D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1994-03-15

    From family, adoption, and twin studies it is clear that genetic factors play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder (McGuffin and Katz: The Biology of Depression, Gaskell, London, 1986). Recently Yoneda et al. reported an association between an allele (A4) of a VNTR marker (DXYS20) for the pseudoautosomal region and bipolar disorder in a Japanese population. In order to test for this association in a Caucasian population, we have typed a sample of 52 subjects with bipolar disorder and 61 normal controls. The bipolar subjects are probands of multiple incidence families. The normal controls are an epidemiologically ascertained sample of middle-aged, unrelated individuals. The two groups were matched for sex and ethnic background. There were no significant differences in the allele or genotype frequencies of DXYS20 between the two groups. In particular, there was no significant difference in the frequency of the A4 allele in normal controls and bipolar patients (0.377 vs. 0.317, respectively). The prevalence of the A4 allele in bipolar patients and normal controls was 0.567 and 0.622, respectively. We were not able to replicate the results of the 1992 Yoneda et al. study. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  5. Bipolar H II regions produced by cloud-cloud collisions

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    Whitworth, Anthony; Lomax, Oliver; Balfour, Scott; Mège, Pierre; Zavagno, Annie; Deharveng, Lise

    2018-05-01

    We suggest that bipolar H II regions may be the aftermath of collisions between clouds. Such a collision will produce a shock-compressed layer, and a star cluster can then condense out of the dense gas near the center of the layer. If the clouds are sufficiently massive, the star cluster is likely to contain at least one massive star, which emits ionizing radiation, and excites an H II region, which then expands, sweeping up the surrounding neutral gas. Once most of the matter in the clouds has accreted onto the layer, expansion of the H II region meets little resistance in directions perpendicular to the midplane of the layer, and so it expands rapidly to produce two lobes of ionized gas, one on each side of the layer. Conversely, in directions parallel to the midplane of the layer, expansion of the H II region stalls due to the ram pressure of the gas that continues to fall towards the star cluster from the outer parts of the layer; a ring of dense neutral gas builds up around the waist of the bipolar H II region, and may spawn a second generation of star formation. We present a dimensionless model for the flow of ionized gas in a bipolar H II region created according to the above scenario, and predict the characteristics of the resulting free-free continuum and recombination-line emission. This dimensionless model can be scaled to the physical parameters of any particular system. Our intention is that these predictions will be useful in testing the scenario outlined above, and thereby providing indirect support for the role of cloud-cloud collisions in triggering star formation.

  6. Ionised gas kinematics in bipolar H II regions

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    Dalgleish, Hannah S.; Longmore, Steven N.; Peters, Thomas; Henshaw, Jonathan D.; Veitch-Michaelis, Joshua L.; Urquhart, James S.

    2018-05-01

    Stellar feedback plays a fundamental role in shaping the evolution of galaxies. Here we explore the use of ionised gas kinematics in young, bipolar H II regions as a probe of early feedback in these star-forming environments. We have undertaken a multi-wavelength study of a young, bipolar H II region in the Galactic disc, G316.81-0.06, which lies at the centre of a massive (˜103 M⊙) infrared-dark cloud filament. It is still accreting molecular gas as well as driving a ˜0.2 pc ionised gas outflow perpendicular to the filament. Intriguingly, we observe a large velocity gradient (47.81 ± 3.21 km s-1 pc-1) across the ionised gas in a direction perpendicular to the outflow. This kinematic signature of the ionised gas shows a reasonable correspondence with the simulations of young H II regions. Based on a qualitative comparison between our observations and these simulations, we put forward a possible explanation for the velocity gradients observed in G316.81-0.06. If the velocity gradient perpendicular to the outflow is caused by rotation of the ionised gas, then we infer that this rotation is a direct result of the initial net angular momentum in the natal molecular cloud. If this explanation is correct, this kinematic signature should be common in other young (bipolar) H II regions. We suggest that further quantitative analysis of the ionised gas kinematics of young H II regions, combined with additional simulations, should improve our understanding of feedback at these early stages.

  7. Physical conditions in the corona for a bipolar magnetic region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorpahl, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    The S-056 X-ray data from Skylab has been used to determine quantitative values for the coronal conditions characterizing a new bipolar magnetic region (BMR). In particular, the author includes (a) the time variation of the total soft X-ray flux from the BMR as a function of time; (b) the temporal and spatial variation of the temperature and emission measure; (c) the variation with time of thermal energy density; (d) the (calculated) magnetic field configuration and magnetic flux density in the corona; and (e) the temporal variation of the magnetic field energy in the corona. Detailed comparisons are made between the configuration of X-ray features and the magnetic field topology. (Auth.)

  8. Waiting to win: elevated striatal and orbitofrontal cortical activity during reward anticipation in euthymic bipolar disorder adults

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    Nusslock, Robin; Almeida, Jorge RC; Forbes, Erika E; Versace, Amelia; Frank, Ellen; LaBarbara, Edmund J; Klein, Crystal R; Phillips, Mary L

    2012-01-01

    Objective Bipolar disorder may be characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant stimuli, potentially underlying the emotional lability and dysregulation that characterizes the illness. In parallel, research highlights the predominant role of striatal and orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) regions in reward-processing and approach-related affect. We aimed to examine whether bipolar disorder, relative to healthy, participants displayed elevated activity in these regions during reward processing. Methods Twenty-one euthymic bipolar I disorder and 20 healthy control participants with no lifetime history of psychiatric disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning during a card-guessing paradigm designed to examine reward-related brain function to anticipation and receipt of monetary reward and loss. Data were collected using a 3T Siemens Trio scanner. Results Region-of-interest analyses revealed that bipolar disorder participants displayed greater ventral striatal and right-sided orbitofrontal [Brodmann area (BA) 11] activity during anticipation, but not outcome, of monetary reward, relative to healthy controls (p anticipation (p anticipation may represent a neural mechanism for predisposition to expansive mood and hypo/mania in response to reward-relevant cues that characterizes bipolar disorder. Our findings contrast with research reporting blunted activity in the ventral striatum during reward processing in unipolar depressed individuals, relative to healthy controls. Examination of reward-related neural activity in bipolar disorder is a promising research focus to facilitate identification of biological markers of the illness. PMID:22548898

  9. Bipolar membranes in forward bias region for fuel cell reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobyntseva, Elena; Kallio, Tanja; Kontturi, Kyoesti

    2006-01-01

    Three bipolar membranes, two home-made composed of commercial cation (DuPont) and anion (FuMA-Tech) exchange membranes (called Nafion/FT-FAA and Nafion/FT-FAS) and a commercial one, BP-1 from FuMA-Tech, were investigated in order to characterize their suitability to use in a H 2 /O 2 fuel cell intended to produce hydrogen peroxide on the cathode instead of water. The Nafion/FT-FAA and Nafion/FT-FAS membranes were prepared using a hot-pressing method. The optimal hot-pressing conditions were determined by measuring the ionic conductivity of the membranes. The latter was observed to depend on the relative humidity of the bipolar membrane. Of the studied bipolar membranes, Nafion/FT-FAA showed the best performance. The transport number of protons measured in a concentration cell was observed to depend on the direction of the proton diffusion flux through these membranes so that transport numbers of ca. unity were obtained when the cation exchange side faced the solution with higher proton concentration. In the opposite case, when the higher concentration faced anion exchange side, the transport number of proton was clearly lower, indicating the usefulness of the bipolar membranes for hydrogen peroxide production in the fuel cell

  10. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    -measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 outpatients with bipolar disorder. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk...... states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states....

  11. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panischev, O Yu; Demin, S A; Muhametshin, I G; Yu Demina, N

    2015-01-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome. (paper)

  12. Synchronization of EEG activity in patients with bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu

    2015-12-01

    In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  13. Regional homogeneity within the default mode network in bipolar depression: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hong Liu

    Full Text Available AIM: We sought to use a regional homogeneity (ReHo approach as an index in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate the features of spontaneous brain activity within the default mode network (DMN in patients suffering from bipolar depression (BD. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with BD and 26 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy subjects participated in the resting-state fMRI scans. We compared the differences in ReHo between the two groups within the DMN and investigated the relationships between sex, age, years of education, disease duration, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD total score, and ReHo in regions with significant group differences. RESULTS: Our results revealed that bipolar depressed patients had increased ReHo in the left medial frontal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobe compared to healthy controls. No correlations were found between regional ReHo values and sex, age, and clinical features within the BD group. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that abnormal brain activity is mainly distributed within prefrontal-limbic circuits, which are believed to be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying bipolar depression.

  14. Immune activation by casein dietary antigens in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severance, E.G.; Dupont, D.; Dickerson, F.B.; Stallings, C.R.; Origoni, A.E.; Krivogorsky, B.; Yang, S.; Haasnoot, W.; Yolken, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Inflammation and other immune processes are increasingly linked to psychiatric diseases. Antigenic triggers specific to bipolar disorder are not yet defined. We tested whether antibodies to bovine milk caseins were associated with bipolar disorder, and whether patients recognized

  15. Regional homogeneity of resting-state brain abnormalities in bipolar and unipolar depression.

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    Liu, Chun-Hong; Ma, Xin; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Fu-Chun; Li, Feng; Tie, Chang-Le; Dong, Jie; Wang, Yong-Jun; Yang, Zhi; Wang, Chuan-Yue

    2013-03-05

    Bipolar disorder patients experiencing a depressive episode (BD-dep) without an observed history of mania are often misdiagnosed and are consequently treated as having unipolar depression (UD), leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. An essential solution to this problem is to identify objective biological markers that distinguish BD-dep and UD patients at an early stage. However, studies directly comparing the brain dysfunctions associated with BD-dep and UD are rare. More importantly, the specificity of the differences in brain activity between these mental disorders has not been examined. With whole-brain regional homogeneity analysis and region-of-interest (ROI) based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, we aimed to compare the resting-state brain activity of BD-dep and UD patients. Furthermore, we examined the specific differences and whether these differences were attributed to the brain abnormality caused by BD-dep, UD, or both. Twenty-one bipolar and 21 unipolar depressed patients, as well as 26 healthy subjects matched for gender, age, and educational levels, participated in the study. We compared the differences in the regional homogeneity (ReHo) of the BD-dep and UD groups and further identified their pathophysiological abnormality. In the brain regions showing a difference between the BD-dep and UD groups, we further conducted receptive operation characteristic (ROC) analyses to confirm the effectiveness of the identified difference in classifying the patients. We observed ReHo differences between the BD-dep and UD groups in the right ventrolateral middle frontal gyrus, right dorsal anterior insular, right ventral anterior insular, right cerebellum posterior gyrus, right posterior cingulate cortex, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum anterior gyrus. Further ROI comparisons and ROC analysis on these ROIs showed that the right parahippocampal gyrus reflected abnormality specific to the BD-dep group, while the right

  16. Effects of emitter junction and passive base region on low dose rate effect in bipolar devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershenkov, V.S.; Cherepko, S.V.; Maslov, V.B.; Belyakov, V.V.; Sogoyan, A.V.; Ulimov, N.; Emelianov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Low dose rate effect in bipolar devices consists in the increase of peripheral surface recombination current with dose rate decrease. This is due to the more rapid positive oxide charge and interface trap density build-up as the dose rate becomes lower. High dose rate elevated temperature irradiation is proposed for simulation if the low dose rate effect. In the present we tried to separate the effect of radiation-induced charge in the thick passivation oxide over the emitter junction and passive base regions of npn bipolar transistor. Its goal is to improve bipolar device design for use in space environments and nuclear installations. Three experiments were made during this work. 1. Experiment on radiation-induced charge neutralization (RICN) effect under elevated temperature was performed to show transistor degradation dependence on emitter-base bias. 2. High dose rate elevated and room temperature irradiation of bipolar transistors were performed to separate effects of emitter-junction and passive base regions. 3. Pre- and post- irradiation hydrogen ambient storage was used to investigate its effect on radiation-induced charge build-up over the passive base region. All experiments were performed with npn and pnp transistors. (authors)

  17. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC REGIONS ON THE SUN: GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE SOHO/MDI DATA SET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenflo, J. O.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic flux that is generated by dynamo processes inside the Sun emerges in the form of bipolar magnetic regions. The properties of these directly observable signatures of the dynamo can be extracted from full-disk solar magnetograms. The most homogeneous, high-quality synoptic data set of solar magnetograms has been obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft during 1995-2011. We have developed an IDL program that has, when applied to the 73,838 magnetograms of the MDI data set, automatically identified 160,079 bipolar magnetic regions that span a range of scale sizes across nearly four orders of magnitude. The properties of each region have been extracted and statistically analyzed, in particular with respect to the polarity orientations of the bipolar regions, including their tilt-angle distributions and their violations of Hale's polarity law. The latitude variation of the average tilt angles (with respect to the E-W direction), which is known as Joy's law, is found to closely follow the relation 32. 0 1 × sin (latitude). There is no indication of a dependence on region size that one may expect if the tilts were produced by the Coriolis force during the buoyant rise of flux loops from the tachocline region. A few percent of all regions have orientations that violate Hale's polarity law. We show explicit examples, from different phases of the solar cycle, where well-defined medium-size bipolar regions with opposite polarity orientations occur side by side in the same latitude zone in the same magnetogram. Such oppositely oriented large bipolar regions cannot be part of the same toroidal flux system, but different flux systems must coexist at any given time in the same latitude zones. These examples are incompatible with the paradigm of coherent, subsurface toroidal flux ropes as the source of sunspots, and instead show that fluctuations must play a major role at all scales for the

  18. Elevated left mid-frontal cortical activity prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder

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    Nusslock, Robin; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.; Urosevic, Snezana; Goldstein, Kim; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a hypersensitivity to reward-relevant cues and a propensity to experience an excessive increase in approach-related affect, which may be reflected in hypo/manic symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between relative left-frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, a proposed neurophysiological index of approach-system sensitivity and approach/reward-related affect, and bipolar course and state-related variables. Fifty-eight individuals with cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder and 59 healthy control participants with no affective psychopathology completed resting EEG recordings. Alpha power was obtained and asymmetry indices computed for homologous electrodes. Bipolar spectrum participants were classified as being in a major/minor depressive episode, a hypomanic episode, or a euthymic/remitted state at EEG recording. Participants were then followed prospectively for an average 4.7 year follow-up period with diagnostic interview assessments every four-months. Sixteen bipolar spectrum participants converted to bipolar I disorder during follow-up. Consistent with hypotheses, elevated relative left-frontal EEG activity at baseline 1) prospectively predicted a greater likelihood of converting from cyclothymia or bipolar II disorder to bipolar I disorder over the 4.7 year follow-up period, 2) was associated with an earlier age-of-onset of first bipolar spectrum episode, and 3) was significantly elevated in bipolar spectrum individuals in a hypomanic episode at EEG recording. This is the first study to identify a neurophysiological marker that prospectively predicts conversion to bipolar I disorder. The fact that unipolar depression is characterized by decreased relative left-frontal EEG activity suggests that unipolar depression and vulnerability to hypo/mania may be characterized by different profiles of frontal EEG asymmetry. PMID:22775582

  19. Differential Patterns of Abnormal Activity and Connectivity in the Amygdala-Prefrontal Circuitry in Bipolar-I and Bipolar-NOS Youth

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    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Farchione, Tiffany; Diwadkar, Vaibhav; Pruitt, Patrick; Radwan, Jacqueline; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Phillips, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The functioning of neural systems supporting emotion processing and regulation in youth with bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) remains poorly understood. We sought to examine patterns of activity and connectivity in youth with BP-NOS relative to youth with bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) and healthy controls (HC). Method:…

  20. Decreased activation and subsyndromal manic symptoms predict lower remission rates in bipolar depression.

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    Caldieraro, Marco Antonio; Walsh, Samantha; Deckersbach, Thilo; Bobo, William V; Gao, Keming; Ketter, Terence A; Shelton, Richard C; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Tohen, Mauricio; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael E; Kocsis, James H; Sylvia, Louisa G; Nierenberg, Andrew A

    2017-11-01

    Activation encompasses energy and activity and is a central feature of bipolar disorder. However, the impact of activation on treatment response of bipolar depression requires further exploration. The aims of this study were to assess the association of decreased activation and sustained remission in bipolar depression and test for factors that could affect this association. We assessed participants with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed) bipolar depression ( n = 303) included in a comparative effectiveness study of lithium- and quetiapine-based treatments (the Bipolar CHOICE study). Activation was evaluated using items from the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale. The selection of these items was based on a dimension of energy and interest symptoms associated with poorer treatment response in major depression. Decreased activation was associated with lower remission rates in the raw analyses and in a logistic regression model adjusted for baseline severity and subsyndromal manic symptoms (odds ratio = 0.899; p = 0.015). The manic features also predicted lower remission (odds ratio = 0.934; p bipolar depression. Patients with these features may require specific treatment approaches, but new studies are necessary to identify treatments that could improve outcomes in this population.

  1. Automatic vs. Human Detection of Bipolar Magnetic Regions: Using the Best of Both Worlds

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    Munoz-Jaramillo, A.; DeLuca, M. D.; Windmueller, J. C.; Longcope, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    The solar cycle can be understood as a process that alternates the large-scale magnetic field of the Sun between poloidal and toroidal configurations. Although the process that transitions the solar cycle between toroidal and poloidal phases is still not fully understood, theoretical studies, and observational evidence, suggest that this process is driven by the emergence and decay of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) at the photosphere. Furthermore, the emergence of BMRs at the photosphere is the main driver behind solar variability and solar activity in general; making the study of their properties doubly important for heliospheric physics. However, in spite of their critical role, there is still no unified catalog of BMRs spanning multiple instruments and covering the entire period of systematic measurement of the solar magnetic field (i.e. 1975 to present).One of the interesting aspects of the detection of BMRs is that, due to the time and spatial scales of interest, it is tractable for both human observers and automatic detection algorithms. This makes it ideal for comparative studies of the advantages and failing of both approaches. In this presentation we will compare three different BMR catalogs, reduced from magnetograms taken by SOHO/MDI, using human, automatic, and hybrid methods of detection. The focus will be the comparative performance between the three methods, their merits, and disadvantages, and the lessons that can be applied to other imaging data sets.

  2. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  3. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

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    Steinacher, Arno; Wright, Kim A

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  4. Decreased medial prefrontal cortex activation during self-referential processing in bipolar mania.

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    Herold, Dorrit; Usnich, Tatiana; Spengler, Stephanie; Sajonz, Bastian; Bauer, Michael; Bermpohl, Felix

    2017-09-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder in mania exhibit symptoms pointing towards altered self-referential processing, such as decreased self-focus, flight of ideas and high distractibility. In depression, the opposite pattern of symptoms has been connected to increased activation of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during self-referential processing. In this study, we hypothesized that (1) patients with mania will exhibit decreased activation in the mPFC during self-referential processing and (2) will be more alexithymic and that levels of alexithymia will correlate negatively with mPFC activation. The neural response to standardized pictures was compared in 14 patients with bipolar I disorder in mania to 14 healthy controls using blood oxygen level dependent contrast magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were asked to indicate with button press during the scanning session for each picture whether the pictures personally related to them or not. Toronto alexithymia scale (TAS) scores were recorded from all participants. In the group analysis, patients with mania exhibited decreased activation in a predefined region of interest in the mPFC during self-referential processing compared to healthy controls. Patients with mania showed significantly higher levels of alexithymia, attributable to difficulties in identifying and describing emotions. Activation in the mPFC correlated negatively with levels of alexithymia. Results presented here should be replicated in a larger group, potentially including unmedicated patients. The finding of decreased mPFC activation during self-referential processing in mania may reflect decreased self-focus and high distractibility. Support for this view comes from the negative correlation between higher alexithymia scores and decreased mPFC activation. These findings represent an opposite clinical and neuroimaging pattern to findings in depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. TILT ANGLE AND FOOTPOINT SEPARATION OF SMALL AND LARGE BIPOLAR SUNSPOT REGIONS OBSERVED WITH HMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager—Debrecen Data with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within ±96 hr of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (≈30 MSH), midsize (≈50 MSH), and large (≈110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions for separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.°6), midsize (5.°9), and large (9.°3) regions. Within ±48 hr of the time of peak umbral area, large regions steadily increase in tilt angle, midsize regions are nearly constant, and small regions show evidence of negative tilt during emergence. A period of growth in footpoint separation occurs over a 72-hr period for all of the regions from roughly 40 to 70 Mm. The smallest bipoles (<9 MSH) are outliers in that they do not obey Joy's law and have a much smaller footpoint separation. We confirm the Muñoz-Jaramillo et al. results that the sunspots appear to be two distinct populations

  6. Active regions, ch. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martres, M.J.; Bruzek, A.

    1977-01-01

    The solar Active Region is an extremely complex phenomenon comprising a large variety of features (active,region phenomena) in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. The occurrence of the various active phenomena depends on the phase and state of evolution of the AR; their appearance depends on the radiation used for the observation. The various phenomena are described and illustrated with photographs. Several paragraphs are dedicated to magnetic classification of AR, Mt. Wilson Spot Classification, solar activity indices, and solar activity data publications

  7. Bipolar I disorder and major depressive disorder show similar brain activation during depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, Michael A; Eliassen, James C; Smith, Christopher T; Fleck, David E; Nelson, Erik B; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Lamy, Martine; DelBello, Melissa P; Adler, Caleb M; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Despite different treatments and courses of illness, depressive symptoms appear similar in major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar I disorder (BP-I). This similarity of depressive symptoms suggests significant overlap in brain pathways underlying neurovegetative, mood, and cognitive symptoms of depression. These shared brain regions might be expected to exhibit similar activation in individuals with MDD and BP-I during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was used to compare regional brain activation in participants with BP-I (n = 25) and MDD (n = 25) during a depressive episode as well as 25 healthy comparison (HC) participants. During the scans, participants performed an attentional task that incorporated emotional pictures. During the viewing of emotional images, subjects with BP-I showed decreased activation in the middle occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared to both subjects with MDD and HC participants. During attentional processing, participants with MDD had increased activation in the parahippocampus, parietal lobe, and postcentral gyrus. However, among these regions, only the postcentral gyrus also showed differences between MDD and HC participants. No differences in cortico-limbic regions were found between participants with BP-I and MDD during depression. Instead, the major differences occurred in primary and secondary visual processing regions, with decreased activation in these regions in BP-I compared to major depression. These differences were driven by abnormal decreases in activation seen in the participants with BP-I. Posterior activation changes are a common finding in studies across mood states in participants with BP-I. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A genome-wide association study of bipolar disorder with comorbid eating disorder replicates the SOX2-OT region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohua; Kelsoe, John R; Greenwood, Tiffany A

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heterogeneous mood disorder associated with several important clinical comorbidities, such as eating disorders. This clinical heterogeneity complicates the identification of genetic variants contributing to bipolar susceptibility. Here we investigate comorbidity of eating disorders as a subphenotype of bipolar disorder to identify genetic variation that is common and unique to both disorders. We performed a genome-wide association analysis contrasting 184 bipolar subjects with eating disorder comorbidity against both 1370 controls and 2006 subjects with bipolar disorder only from the Bipolar Genome Study (BiGS). The most significant genome-wide finding was observed bipolar with comorbid eating disorder vs. controls within SOX2-OT (p=8.9×10(-8) for rs4854912) with a secondary peak in the adjacent FXR1 gene (p=1.2×10(-6) for rs1805576) on chromosome 3q26.33. This region was also the most prominent finding in the case-only analysis (p=3.5×10(-7) and 4.3×10(-6), respectively). Several regions of interest containing genes involved in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection processes were also identified. While our primary finding did not quite reach genome-wide significance, likely due to the relatively limited sample size, these results can be viewed as a replication of a recent study of eating disorders in a large cohort. These findings replicate the prior association of SOX2-OT with eating disorders and broadly support the involvement of neurodevelopmental/neuroprotective mechanisms in the pathophysiology of both disorders. They further suggest that different clinical manifestations of bipolar disorder may reflect differential genetic contributions and argue for the utility of clinical subphenotypes in identifying additional molecular pathways leading to illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of activation rate on left atrial bipolar voltage in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Steven E; Linton, Nick; O'Neill, Louisa; Harrison, James; Whitaker, John; Mukherjee, Rahul; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Gill, Jaswinder; Niederer, Steven; Wright, Matthew; O'Neill, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar voltage is used during electroanatomic mapping to define abnormal myocardium, but the effect of activation rate on bipolar voltage is not known. We hypothesized that bipolar voltage may change in response to activation rate. By examining corresponding unipolar signals we sought to determine the mechanisms of such changes. LA extrastimulus mapping was performed during CS pacing in 10 patients undergoing first time paroxysmal atrial fibrillation ablation. Bipolar and unipolar electrograms were recorded using a PentaRay catheter (4-4-4 spacing) and indifferent IVC electrode, respectively. An S1S2 pacing protocol was delivered with extrastimulus coupling interval reducing from 350 to 200 milliseconds. At each recording site (119 ± 37 per LA), bipolar peak-to-peak voltage, unipolar peak to peak voltage and activation delay between unipole pairs was measured. Four patterns of bipolar voltage/extrastimulus coupling interval curves were seen: voltage attenuation with plateau voltage >1 mV (48 ± 15%) or voltage unaffected by coupling interval with plateau voltage >1 mV (17 ± 10%) or voltage attenuation were associated with significantly greater unipolar voltage attenuation at low (25 ± 28 mV/s vs. 9 ± 11 mV/s) and high (23 ± 29 mV/s vs. 6 ± 12 mV/s) plateau voltage sites (P voltage attenuation (P = 0.026). Bipolar electrogram voltage is dependent on activation rate at a significant proportion of sites. Changes in unipolar voltage and timing underlie these effects. These observations have important implications for use of voltage mapping to delineate abnormal atrial substrate. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Mood instability in bipolar disorder type I versus type II-continuous daily electronic self-monitoring of illness activity using smartphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Ritz, Christian; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients with bipolar disorder remain symptomatic during inter-episode periods, and mood instability is associated with high risk of relapse and hospitalization. Few studies have investigated long-term daily illness activity and none has compared bipolar ty...... with bipolar disorder type I, but despite on-going treatment only for half of the time for patients with bipolar disorder type II. This emphasizes the need for improving treatment strategies for bipolar disorder type II....

  11. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Amygdala Activation in Youths with and without Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Akula, Nirmala; Skup, Martha; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen; McMahon, Francis J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to characterize brain activity underlying a variety of psychiatric disorders. A previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study found that amygdala activation during a face-processing task differed between pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy controls. We…

  12. The polygenic risk for bipolar disorder influences brain regional function relating to visual and default state processing of emotional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Danai; de Jong, Simone; Breen, Gerome; Frangou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wise association studies have identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each of small effect, associated with risk to bipolar disorder (BD). Several risk-conferring SNPs have been individually shown to influence regional brain activation thus linking genetic risk for BD to altered brain function. The current study examined whether the polygenic risk score method, which models the cumulative load of all known risk-conferring SNPs, may be useful in the identification of brain regions whose function may be related to the polygenic architecture of BD. We calculated the individual polygenic risk score for BD (PGR-BD) in forty-one patients with the disorder, twenty-five unaffected first-degree relatives and forty-six unrelated healthy controls using the most recent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to define task-related brain activation patterns in response to facial affect and working memory processing. We found significant effects of the PGR-BD score on task-related activation irrespective of diagnostic group. There was a negative association between the PGR-BD score and activation in the visual association cortex during facial affect processing. In contrast, the PGR-BD score was associated with failure to deactivate the ventromedial prefrontal region of the default mode network during working memory processing. These results are consistent with the threshold-liability model of BD, and demonstrate the usefulness of the PGR-BD score in identifying brain functional alternations associated with vulnerability to BD. Additionally, our findings suggest that the polygenic architecture of BD is not regionally confined but impacts on the task-dependent recruitment of multiple brain regions.

  13. Abnormal Amygdala and Prefrontal Cortex Activation to Facial Expressions in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Amy S.; Reiss, Allan L.; Howe, Meghan E.; Kelley, Ryan G.; Singh, Manpreet K.; Adleman, Nancy E.; Karchemskiy, Asya; Chang, Kiki D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in pediatric bipolar disorder (BD) have reported greater amygdala and less dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation to facial expressions compared to healthy controls. The current study investigates whether these differences are associated with the early or late…

  14. Altered regional homogeneity in pediatric bipolar disorder during manic state: a resting-state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xiao

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD is a severely debilitating illness, which is characterized by episodes of mania and depression separated by periods of remission. Previous fMRI studies investigating PBD were mainly task-related. However, little is known about the abnormalities in PBD, especially during resting state. Resting state brain activity measured by fMRI might help to explore neurobiological biomarkers of the disorder. METHODS: Regional homogeneity (ReHo was examined with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI on 15 patients with PBD in manic state, with 15 age-and sex-matched healthy youth subjects as controls. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, the patients with PBD showed altered ReHo in the cortical and subcortical structures. The ReHo measurement of the PBD group was negatively correlated with the score of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS in the superior frontal gyrus. Positive correlations between the ReHo measurement and the score of YMRS were found in the hippocampus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the PBD group. CONCLUSIONS: Altered regional brain activity is present in patients with PBD during manic state. This study presents new evidence for abnormal ventral-affective and dorsal-cognitive circuits in PBD during resting state and may add fresh insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PBD.

  15. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W.; Geyer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object-interaction were assessed using a multivariate ...

  16. Cytokines in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Vedel Kessing, Lars

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current research and hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggests the involvement of immune system dysfunction that is possibly related to disease activity. Our objective was to systematically review evidence of cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder according...... to affective state. METHODS: We conducted a systemtic review of studies measuring endogenous cytokine concentrations in patients with bipolar disorder and a meta-analysis, reporting results according to the PRISMA statement. RESULTS: Thirteen studies were included, comprising 556 bipolar disorder patients...

  17. Comparative linkage meta-analysis reveals regionally-distinct, disparate genetic architectures: application to bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brady Tang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available New high-throughput, population-based methods and next-generation sequencing capabilities hold great promise in the quest for common and rare variant discovery and in the search for "missing heritability." However, the optimal analytic strategies for approaching such data are still actively debated, representing the latest rate-limiting step in genetic progress. Since it is likely a majority of common variants of modest effect have been identified through the application of tagSNP-based microarray platforms (i.e., GWAS, alternative approaches robust to detection of low-frequency (1-5% MAF and rare (<1% variants are of great importance. Of direct relevance, we have available an accumulated wealth of linkage data collected through traditional genetic methods over several decades, the full value of which has not been exhausted. To that end, we compare results from two different linkage meta-analysis methods--GSMA and MSP--applied to the same set of 13 bipolar disorder and 16 schizophrenia GWLS datasets. Interestingly, we find that the two methods implicate distinct, largely non-overlapping, genomic regions. Furthermore, based on the statistical methods themselves and our contextualization of these results within the larger genetic literatures, our findings suggest, for each disorder, distinct genetic architectures may reside within disparate genomic regions. Thus, comparative linkage meta-analysis (CLMA may be used to optimize low-frequency and rare variant discovery in the modern genomic era.

  18. Smartphone data as an electronic biomarker of illness activity in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Objective methods are lacking for continuous monitoring of illness activity in bipolar disorder. Smartphones offer unique opportunities for continuous monitoring and automatic collection of real-time data. The objectives of the paper were to test the hypotheses that (i) daily electronic...... self-monitored data and (ii) automatically generated objective data collected using smartphones correlate with clinical ratings of depressive and manic symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods Software for smartphones (the MONARCA I system) that collects automatically generated objective......-monitored data (i.e., mood and activity) and scores on the YMRS. Finally, the automatically generated objective data were able to discriminate between affective states. Conclusions Automatically generated objective data and self-monitored data collected using smartphones correlate with clinically rated...

  19. Common proteomic changes in the hippocampus in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and particular evidence for involvement of cornu ammonis regions 2 and 3.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-05-01

    The hippocampus is strongly implicated in schizophrenia and, to a lesser degree, bipolar disorder. Proteomic investigations of the different regions of the hippocampus may help us to clarify the basis and the disease specificity of the changes.

  20. Influences of patient informed cognitive complaints on activities of daily living in patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Träger, Conny; Decker, Lone; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2017-01-01

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) experience debilitating cognitive deficits, with risk of impaired occupational and psychosocial functioning. However, knowledge of how these deficits impact the patients’ ability to perform Activities of Daily Living (ADL), tasks related to self...... Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment questionnaire (COBRA)) were included. Objective neurocognitive function was evaluated with a short comprehensive cognitive test battery and ADL ability was evaluated with the performance-based Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) in the homes......-care and domestic life is limited. We explored the relation between impaired cognitive function and the ability to perform ADL in patients with BD. A total of 42 outpatients (mean age 36 years (range 19.0–58.0 years), 69% women) with BD in remission and with subjective cognitive complaints (≥ 13 on the Cognitive...

  1. FORMATION OF CORONAL HOLES ON THE ASHES OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachik, Nina V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Abramenko, Valentyna I.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the formation of isolated non-polar coronal holes (CHs) on the remnants of decaying active regions (ARs) at the minimum/early ascending phase of sunspot activity. We follow the evolution of four bipolar ARs and measure several parameters of their magnetic fields including total flux, imbalance, and compactness. As regions decay, their leading and following polarities exhibit different dissipation rates: loose polarity tends to dissipate faster than compact polarity. As a consequence, we see a gradual increase in flux imbalance inside a dissipating bipolar region, and later a formation of a CH in place of more compact magnetic flux. Out of four cases studied in detail, two CHs had formed at the following polarity of the decaying bipolar AR, and two CHs had developed in place of the leading polarity field. All four CHs contain a significant fraction of magnetic field of their corresponding AR. Using potential field extrapolation, we show that the magnetic field lines of these CHs were closed on the polar CH at the North, which at the time of the events was in imbalance with the polar CH at the South. This topology suggests that the observed phenomenon may play an important role in transformation of toroidal magnetic field to poloidal field, which is a key step in transitioning from an old solar cycle to a new one. The timing of this observed transition may indicate the end of solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  2. Elevated amygdala activity to sad facial expressions: a state marker of bipolar but not unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Jorge R C; Versace, Amelia; Hassel, Stefanie; Kupfer, David J; Phillips, Mary L

    2010-03-01

    Difficulties in emotion processing and poor social function are common to bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) depression, resulting in many BD depressed individuals being misdiagnosed with MDD. The amygdala is a key region implicated in processing emotionally salient stimuli, including emotional facial expressions. It is unclear, however, whether abnormal amygdala activity during positive and negative emotion processing represents a persistent marker of BD regardless of illness phase or a state marker of depression common or specific to BD and MDD depression. Sixty adults were recruited: 15 depressed with BD type 1 (BDd), 15 depressed with recurrent MDD, 15 with BD in remission (BDr), diagnosed with DSM-IV and Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Research Version criteria; and 15 healthy control subjects (HC). Groups were age- and gender ratio-matched; patient groups were matched for age of illness onset and illness duration; depressed groups were matched for depression severity. The BDd were taking more psychotropic medication than other patient groups. All individuals participated in three separate 3T neuroimaging event-related experiments, where they viewed mild and intense emotional and neutral faces of fear, happiness, or sadness from a standardized series. The BDd-relative to HC, BDr, and MDD-showed elevated left amygdala activity to mild and neutral facial expressions in the sad (p sad and neutral faces might be a depression-specific marker in BD but not MDD, suggesting different pathophysiologic processes for BD versus MDD depression. Copyright 2010 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Birth and development of active region and chromospheric network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartashova, L G

    1975-01-01

    Formation and development of 15 active regions of a simple bipolar configuration with small-sized spots and without noticeable penumbras have been studied by the data of observations with a coronograph CA n the centre and wings of the Hsub(a) line. Resolution on the photographs is 2''. The following conclusions have been drawn: first bright details of the active region formed are generated through brightening of bright points of the chromosphere grid; intensification and stretching of dark points of the chromosphere grid results in the formation of fibrous structure in the vicinity of active region; spots appear either between the flocculi points, or near them closer to the centre of the corresponding cell of the chromosphere grid, among dark points of the chromosphere grid no spots are usually formed; in the process of growing of a simple bipolar group the leader and tail spots draw apart together with the chromosphere grid cells, in which they are formed; at the stage of fast growth in the neighbourhood of most large of the groups under studies a formation of arcs or of almost closed contours of the chromosphere grid is observed in the wings of the line. This rearrangement of the chromosphere grid is apparently closely connected with the formation of a fibrous structure around the active region.

  4. The risk variant in ODZ4 for bipolar disorder impacts on amygdala activation during reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Tzschoppe, Jelka; Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Bühler, Mira; Steiner, Sabina; Bach, Christiane; Poustka, Luise; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Garavan, Hugh; Gallinat, Jürgen; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Smolka, Michael; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Witt, Stephanie; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter; Rietschel, Marcella; Nees, Frauke

    2013-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe mood disorder, which normally begins during adolescence or early adulthood and has a heritability of up to 80%. The largest genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder recently identified a new genome-wide associated variant in OZD4 (rs12576775). The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the role of this risk variant in the disease process using an imaging genetics approach. As increased amygdala and striatal responses during the processing of reward and emotion are characteristic for bipolar disorder patients, it was tested whether the risk variant has an influence on this endophenotype in healthy adolescents. We examined the impact of the risk variant rs12576775 on functional magnetic resonance imaging data in an adolescent sample (N = 485). Differential activation between carriers of the risk allele (G-allele) and homozygous A-allele carriers in the amygdala and the striatum during a modification of the monetary incentive delay task (examining reward) and a face task (examining emotion) was analyzed. Carriers of the risk allele showed an increased blood oxygen level-dependent response in the amygdala during reward sensitivity (p = 0.05) and reward expectation (p < 0.05) but not during the face task. No significant group differences were found in the striatum during both reward and emotion processing. Our results indicate that the ODZ4 risk variant influences reward processing in the amygdala. Alterations in the processing of emotion may have different underlying mechanisms and need to be further examined. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Management of bipolar disorder in the intercontinental region: an international, multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study in real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, Ludovic; Vieta, Eduard; Okasha, Tarek Ahmed; Uddin, Mm Jalal; Ahmadi Abhari, Seyed Ali; Nacef, Fethi; Mishyiev, Vyacheslav; Aizenberg, Dovi; Ratner, Yaël; Melas-Melt, Lydie; Sedeki, Idir; Llorca, Pierre Michel

    2016-05-16

    Most of the existing data on real-life management of bipolar disorder are from studies conducted in western countries (mostly United States and Europe). This multinational, observational cohort study aimed to describe the management and clinical outcomes of bipolar patients in real-life conditions across various intercontinental countries (Bangladesh, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Tunisia, and Ukraine). Data on socio-demographic and disease characteristics, current symptomatology, and pharmacological treatment were collected. Comparisons between groups were performed using standard statistical tests. Overall, 1180 patients were included. The median time from initial diagnosis was 80 months. Major depressive disorder was the most common initial diagnosis. Mood stabilizers and antipsychotics were the most common drugs being prescribed at the time of the study. Antidepressants (mainly selective serotonin uptake inhibitors [SSRIs]) were administered to 36.1% of patients. Patients with bipolar I disorder received higher number of antipsychotics and anxiolytics than those with bipolar II disorder (p Bipolar disorder real-life management practice, irrespective of region, shows a delay in diagnosis and an overuse of antidepressants. Clinical decision-making appears to be based on a multidimensional approach related to current symptomatology and type of bipolar disorder.

  6. Brain activation during self- and other-reflection in bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis : Comparison to schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Liwen; Opmeer, Esther M.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Reflecting on the self and on others activates specific brain areas and contributes to metacognition and social cognition. The aim of the current study is to investigate brain activation during self-and other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In addition, we examined

  7. Bipolar electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosdick, Stephen E; Knust, Kyle N; Scida, Karen; Crooks, Richard M

    2013-09-27

    A bipolar electrode (BPE) is an electrically conductive material that promotes electrochemical reactions at its extremities (poles) even in the absence of a direct ohmic contact. More specifically, when sufficient voltage is applied to an electrolyte solution in which a BPE is immersed, the potential difference between the BPE and the solution drives oxidation and reduction reactions. Because no direct electrical connection is required to activate redox reactions, large arrays of electrodes can be controlled with just a single DC power supply or even a battery. The wireless aspect of BPEs also makes it possible to electrosynthesize and screen novel materials for a wide variety of applications. Finally, bipolar electrochemistry enables mobile electrodes, dubbed microswimmers, that are able to move freely in solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures…

  9. Reduced activation in the mirror neuron system during a virtual social cognition task in euthymic bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eosu; Jung, Young-Chul; Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, So Young; Kim, Sun I; Cho, Hyun-Sang

    2009-11-13

    Social cognition entails both cognitive and affective processing, and impairments in both have accounted for residual symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD). However, there has been a lack of studies identifying neural substrates responsible for social cognitive difficulties in BD patients. Fourteen euthymic BD patients and 14 healthy normal controls underwent functional MRI while performing a virtual reality social cognition task, which incorporated both cognitive and emotional dimensions, simulating real-world social situations. During the scanning, subjects tried to guess (attribute) possible reasons for expressed emotion of virtual humans (avatars) while viewing their facial expressions, just after observing their verbal and nonverbal (facial) expressions which were emotionally valenced (happy, angry and neutral). BD patients compared to normal controls showed delayed reaction times in emotional conditions, with comparable response accuracy. Healthy normal controls activated the right anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal, and insular cortex in emotional conditions contrasted with neutral control conditions, that is, the regions that have been related to empathic processes during viewing others' emotional expression. Relative to normal controls, BD patients showed reduced activations in the 'mirror neuron system', including the right inferior frontal cortex, premotor cortex, and insula, mainly in angry or happy condition. These results may suggest that, even during euthymic state, BD patients have difficulties in recruiting brain regions for the utilization of emotional cues as a means for understanding others. Clinical attention should be paid to emotion-related residual symptoms to help improve social outcomes in these patients.

  10. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.

  11. Composition-Graded MoWSx Hybrids with Tailored Catalytic Activity by Bipolar Electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shu Min; Pumera, Martin

    2017-12-06

    Among transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based composites, TMD/graphene-related material and bichalcogen TMD composites have been widely studied for application toward energy production via the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). However, scarcely any literature explored the possibility of bimetallic TMD hybrids as HER electrocatalysts. The use of harmful chemicals and harsh preparation conditions in conventional syntheses also detracts from the objective of sustainable energy production. Herein, we present the conservational alternative synthesis of MoWS x via one-step bipolar electrochemical deposition. Through bipolar electrochemistry, the simultaneous fabrication of composition-graded MoWS x hybrids, i.e., sulfur-deficient Mo x W (1-x) S 2 and Mo x W (1-x) S 3 (MoWS x /BPE cathodic and MoWS x /BPE anodic , respectively) under cathodic and anodic overpotentials, was achieved. The best-performing MoWS x /BPE cathodic and MoWS x /BPE anodic materials exhibited Tafel slopes of 45.7 and 50.5 mV dec -1 , together with corresponding HER overpotentials of 315 and 278 mV at -10 mA cm -2 . The remarkable HER activities of the composite materials were attributed to their small particle sizes, as well as the near-unity value of their surface Mo/W ratios, which resulted in increased exposed HER-active sites and differing active sites for the concurrent adsorption of protons and desorption of hydrogen gas. The excellent electrocatalytic performances achieved via the novel methodology adopted here encourage the empowerment of electrochemical deposition as the foremost fabrication approach toward functional electrocatalysts for sustainable energy generation.

  12. Brain activation during self- and other-reflection in bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis: Comparison to schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Opmeer, Esther M.; Ruhé, Henricus G.; Aleman, André; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reflecting on the self and on others activates specific brain areas and contributes to metacognition and social cognition. The aim of the current study is to investigate brain activation during self- and other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In addition, we examined whether potential abnormal brain activation in BD patients could distinguish BD from patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Methods During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 17 BD patients, 17 SZ patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs) performed a self-reflection task. The task consisted of sentences divided into three conditions: self-reflection, other-reflection and semantic control. Results BD patients showed less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) extending to the precuneus during other-reflection compared to HCs (p = 0.028 FWE corrected on cluster-level within the regions of interest). In SZ patients, the level of activation in this area was in between BD patients and HCs, with no significant differences between patients with SZ and BD. There were no group differences in brain activation during self-reflection. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the PCC/precuneus activation during other-reflection and cognitive insight in SZ patients, but not in BD patients. Conclusions BD patients showed less activation in the PCC/precuneus during other-reflection. This may support an account of impaired integration of emotion and memory (evaluation of past and current other-related information) in BD patients. Correlation differences of the PCC/precuneus activation with the cognitive insight in patients with BD and SZ might reflect an important difference between these disorders, which may help to further explore potentially distinguishing markers. PMID:26106544

  13. Brain activation during self- and other-reflection in bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis: Comparison to schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwen; Opmeer, Esther M; Ruhé, Henricus G; Aleman, André; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Reflecting on the self and on others activates specific brain areas and contributes to metacognition and social cognition. The aim of the current study is to investigate brain activation during self- and other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In addition, we examined whether potential abnormal brain activation in BD patients could distinguish BD from patients with schizophrenia (SZ). During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 17 BD patients, 17 SZ patients and 21 healthy controls (HCs) performed a self-reflection task. The task consisted of sentences divided into three conditions: self-reflection, other-reflection and semantic control. BD patients showed less activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) extending to the precuneus during other-reflection compared to HCs (p = 0.028 FWE corrected on cluster-level within the regions of interest). In SZ patients, the level of activation in this area was in between BD patients and HCs, with no significant differences between patients with SZ and BD. There were no group differences in brain activation during self-reflection. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the PCC/precuneus activation during other-reflection and cognitive insight in SZ patients, but not in BD patients. BD patients showed less activation in the PCC/precuneus during other-reflection. This may support an account of impaired integration of emotion and memory (evaluation of past and current other-related information) in BD patients. Correlation differences of the PCC/precuneus activation with the cognitive insight in patients with BD and SZ might reflect an important difference between these disorders, which may help to further explore potentially distinguishing markers.

  14. Behavioral activation and inhibition system's role in predicting addictive behaviors of patients with bipolar disorder of Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. Materials and Methods: The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. Results: The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusions: It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary. PMID:28194203

  15. Parametric modulation of neural activity by emotion in youth with bipolar disorder, youth with severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; Brotman, Melissa A; Muhrer, Eli J; Rosen, Brooke H; Bones, Brian L; Reynolds, Richard C; Deveney, Christen M; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, nonepisodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation [SMD]) exhibit amygdala dysfunction during facial emotion processing. However, studies have not compared such patients with each other and with comparison individuals in neural responsiveness to subtle changes in facial emotion; the ability to process such changes is important for social cognition. To evaluate this, we used a novel, parametrically designed faces paradigm. OBJECTIVE To compare activation in the amygdala and across the brain in BD patients, SMD patients, and healthy volunteers (HVs). DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Government research institute. PARTICIPANTS Fifty-seven youths (19 BD, 15 SMD, and 23 HVs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Blood oxygenation level-dependent data. Neutral faces were morphed with angry and happy faces in 25% intervals; static facial stimuli appeared for 3000 milliseconds. Participants performed hostility or nonemotional facial feature (ie, nose width) ratings. The slope of blood oxygenation level-dependent activity was calculated across neutral-to-angry and neutral-to-happy facial stimuli. RESULTS In HVs, but not BD or SMD participants, there was a positive association between left amygdala activity and anger on the face. In the neutral-to-happy whole-brain analysis, BD and SMD participants modulated parietal, temporal, and medial-frontal areas differently from each other and from that in HVs; with increasing facial happiness, SMD patients demonstrated increased, and BD patients decreased, activity in the parietal, temporal, and frontal regions. CONCLUSIONS Youth with BD or SMD differ from HVs in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. In contrast, individuals with BD or SMD show distinct perturbations in regions mediating attention and face processing in association with changes in the emotional intensity of facial happiness displays. These findings demonstrate

  16. Brain activation during self- and other-reflection in bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis: Comparison to schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liwen; Opmeer, Esther M.; Ruhe, Henricus G.; Aleman, Andre; van der Meer, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Reflecting on the self and on others activates specific brain areas and contributes to metacognition and social cognition. The aim of the current study is to investigate brain activation during self-and other-reflection in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). In addition, we examined whether potential abnormal brain activation in BD patients could distinguish BD from patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Methods: During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 17 BD patients, 17 ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  18. Effect of clinical response to active drugs and placebo on antipsychotics and mood stabilizers relative efficacy for bipolar depression and mania: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Clerici, Massimo; Di Brita, Carmen; Riboldi, Ilaria; Crocamo, Cristina; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Randomised placebo-controlled trials investigating treatments for bipolar disorder have been hampered by wide variations of active drugs and placebo clinical response rates. It is important to estimate whether the active drug or placebo response has a greater influence in determining the relative efficacy of drugs for psychosis (antipsychotics) and relapse prevention (mood stabilisers) for bipolar depression and mania. We identified 53 randomised, placebo-controlled trials assessing antipsychotic or mood stabiliser monotherapy ('active drugs') for bipolar depression or mania. We carried out random-effects meta-regressions, estimating the influence of active drugs and placebo response rates on treatment relative efficacy. Meta-regressions showed that treatment relative efficacy for bipolar mania was influenced by the magnitude of clinical response to active drugs ( p=0.002), but not to placebo ( p=0.60). On the other hand, treatment relative efficacy for bipolar depression was influenced by response to placebo ( p=0.047), but not to active drugs ( p=0.98). Despite several limitations, our unexpected findings showed that antipsychotics / mood stabilisers relative efficacy for bipolar depression seems unrelated to active drugs response rates, depending only on clinical response to placebo. Future research should explore strategies to reduce placebo-related issues in randomised, placebo-controlled trials for bipolar depression.

  19. A bipolar clamp mechanism for activation of Jak-family protein tyrosine kinases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipak Barua

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Most cell surface receptors for growth factors and cytokines dimerize in order to mediate signal transduction. For many such receptors, the Janus kinase (Jak family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases are recruited in pairs and juxtaposed by dimerized receptor complexes in order to activate one another by trans-phosphorylation. An alternative mechanism for Jak trans-phosphorylation has been proposed in which the phosphorylated kinase interacts with the Src homology 2 (SH2 domain of SH2-B, a unique adaptor protein with the capacity to homo-dimerize. Building on a rule-based kinetic modeling approach that considers the concerted nature and combinatorial complexity of modular protein domain interactions, we examine these mechanisms in detail, focusing on the growth hormone (GH receptor/Jak2/SH2-Bbeta system. The modeling results suggest that, whereas Jak2-(SH2-Bbeta(2-Jak2 heterotetramers are scarcely expected to affect Jak2 phosphorylation, SH2-Bbeta and dimerized receptors synergistically promote Jak2 trans-activation in the context of intracellular signaling. Analysis of the results revealed a unique mechanism whereby SH2-B and receptor dimers constitute a bipolar 'clamp' that stabilizes the active configuration of two Jak2 molecules in the same macro-complex.

  20. Quantifying over-activity in bipolar and schizophrenia patients in a human open field paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Minassian, Arpi; Henry, Brook; Kincaid, Meegin; Young, Jared W; Geyer, Mark A

    2010-06-30

    It has been suggested that a cardinal symptom of mania is over-activity and exaggerated goal-directed behavior. Nevertheless, few attempts have been made to quantify this behavior objectively in a laboratory environment. Having a methodology to assess over-activity reliably might be useful in distinguishing manic bipolar disorder (BD) from schizophrenia (SCZ) during highly activated states. In the current study, quantifiable measures of object interaction were assessed using a multivariate approach. Additionally, symptom correlates of over-activity were assessed. Patients admitted to an acute care psychiatric hospital for either BD with mania or SCZ (paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes) as well as non-patient comparison (NC) participants were assessed in an open field setting referred to as the human Behavioral Pattern Monitor (hBPM). Activity and interactions with novel and engaging objects were recorded for 15min via a concealed video camera and rated for exploratory behavior. Both BD and SCZ patients spent more time near the objects and exhibited more overall walking compared to NC. In contrast, BD patients exhibited greater physical contact with objects (number of object interactions and time spent with objects) relative to SCZ patients or NC participants, as well as more perseverative and socially disinhibited behaviors, indicating a unique pattern of over-activity and goal-directed behavior. Further analyses revealed a distinction between SCZ patients according to their subtype. The current study extends our methodology for quantifying exploration and over-activity in a controlled laboratory setting and aids in assessing the overlap and distinguishing characteristics of BD and SCZ.

  1. Local Helioseismology of Emerging Active Regions: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosovichev, Alexander G.; Zhao, Junwei; Ilonidis, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    Local helioseismology provides a unique opportunity to investigate the subsurface structure and dynamics of active regions and their effect on the large-scale flows and global circulation of the Sun. We use measurements of plasma flows in the upper convection zone, provided by the Time-Distance Helioseismology Pipeline developed for analysis of solar oscillation data obtained by Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), to investigate the subsurface dynamics of emerging active region NOAA 11726. The active region emergence was detected in deep layers of the convection zone about 12 hours before the first bipolar magnetic structure appeared on the surface, and 2 days before the emergence of most of the magnetic flux. The speed of emergence determined by tracking the flow divergence with depth is about 1.4 km/s, very close to the emergence speed in the deep layers. As the emerging magnetic flux becomes concentrated in sunspots local converging flows are observed beneath the forming sunspots. These flows are most prominent in the depth range 1-3 Mm, and remain converging after the formation process is completed. On the larger scale converging flows around active region appear as a diversion of the zonal shearing flows towards the active region, accompanied by formation of a large-scale vortex structure. This process occurs when a substantial amount of the magnetic flux emerged on the surface, and the converging flow pattern remains stable during the following evolution of the active region. The Carrington synoptic flow maps show that the large-scale subsurface inflows are typical for active regions. In the deeper layers (10-13 Mm) the flows become diverging, and surprisingly strong beneath some active regions. In addition, the synoptic maps reveal a complex evolving pattern of large-scale flows on the scale much larger than supergranulation

  2. Observations of Blue Discharges Associated With Negative Narrow Bipolar Events in Active Deep Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feifan; Zhu, Baoyou; Lu, Gaopeng; Qin, Zilong; Lei, Jiuhou; Peng, Kang-Ming; Chen, Alfred B.; Huang, Anjing; Cummer, Steven A.; Chen, Mingli; Ma, Ming; Lyu, Fanchao; Zhou, Helin

    2018-03-01

    On 19 August 2012, the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning on board the FORMOSAT-2 satellite captured a sequence of seven blue discharges within 1 min that emanated from a parent thunderstorm over Lake Taihu in East China. The analysis of lightning activity produced in the thunderstorm indicates that at least six of these events occurred in association with negative narrow bipolar events (NBEs) that were concurrent with the blue discharge by less than 1 ms, and negative cloud-to-ground occurred within 6 s before each blue discharge, which is in agreement with the modeling presented by Krehbiel et al. (2008). Therefore, the frequent occurrence of negative cloud-to-ground could provide the favorable condition for the production of blue discharges, and negative NBEs are probably the initial event of blue discharges. The detection of negative NBEs might provide a convenient approach to detect the occurrence of blue discharges as lightning bolt shooting upward from the top of energetic thunderstorms.

  3. Bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieta, Eduard; Berk, Michael; Schulze, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorders are chronic and recurrent disorders that affect >1% of the global population. Bipolar disorders are leading causes of disability in young people as they can lead to cognitive and functional impairment and increased mortality, particularly from suicide and cardiovascular disease...... and accurate diagnosis is difficult in clinical practice as the onset of bipolar disorder is commonly characterized by nonspecific symptoms, mood lability or a depressive episode, which can be similar in presentation to unipolar depression. Moreover, patients and their families do not always understand...... a bipolar disorder from other conditions. Optimal early treatment of patients with evidence-based medication (typically mood stabilizers and antipsychotics) and psychosocial strategies is necessary....

  4. Systematic screening for mutations in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the human dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichon, S.; Noethen, M.M.; Stoeber, G. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    A possible dysregulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases. In the present study we systematically searched for the presence of mutations in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the dopamine D{sub 1} receptor (DRD1) gene. This region has previously been shown to contain a functional promoter. We investigated 119 unrelated individuals (including 36 schizophrenic patients, 38 bipolar affective patients, and 45 healthy controls) using single-strand conformation analysis (SSCA). Eleven overlapping PCR fragments covered 2,189 bp of DNA sequence. We identified six single base substitutions: -2218T/C, -2102C/A, -2030T/C, -1992G/A, -1251G/C, and -800T/C. None of the mutations was found to be located in regions which have important influence on the level of transcriptional activity. Allele frequencies were similar in patients and controls, indicating that genetic variation in the 5{prime}-regulatory region of the DRD1 gene is unlikely to play a frequent, major role in the genetic predisposition to either schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder. 31 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Active region structures in the transition region and corona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.F.

    1981-01-01

    Observational aspects of the transition region and coronal structures of the solar active region are reviewed with an emphasis on imaging of the plasma loops which act as tracers of the magnetic flux loops. The study of the basic structure of an active region is discussed in terms of the morphological and thermal classifications of active region loops, including umbral structures, and observational knowledge of the thermal structure of loops is considered in relation to scaling laws, emission measures and the structures of individual loops. The temporal evolution of active region loop structures is reviewed with emphasis on ephemeral regions and the emergence of active regions. Planned future spaceborne observations of active region loop structures in the EUV and soft X-ray regions are also indicated

  6. Bipolar Plates for PEM Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lædre, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Summary of thesis: The Bipolar Plate (BPP) is an important component in both Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) and Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzers (PEMWEs). Bipolar plate material and processing constitutes for a large fraction of the cost and weight of a PEM cell stack. The main tasks for the bipolar plates in both systems are to separate single cell in a stack, conduct current between single cells and remove heat from active areas. In addition, the BPPs distribu...

  7. Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  8. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  9. Prefrontal cortical and striatal activity to happy and fear faces in bipolar disorder is associated with comorbid substance abuse and eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Stefanie; Almeida, Jorge R; Frank, Ellen; Versace, Amelia; Nau, Sharon A; Klein, Crystal R; Kupfer, David J; Phillips, Mary L

    2009-11-01

    The spectrum approach was used to examine contributions of comorbid symptom dimensions of substance abuse and eating disorder to abnormal prefrontal-cortical and subcortical-striatal activity to happy and fear faces previously demonstrated in bipolar disorder (BD). Fourteen remitted BD-type I and sixteen healthy individuals viewed neutral, mild and intense happy and fear faces in two event-related fMRI experiments. All individuals completed Substance-Use and Eating-Disorder Spectrum measures. Region-of-Interest analyses for bilateral prefrontal and subcortical-striatal regions were performed. BD individuals scored significantly higher on these spectrum measures than healthy individuals (pright PFC activity to intense happy faces (pright caudate nucleus activity to neutral faces (pright ventral putamen activity to intense happy (pabuse and eating disorder and prefrontal-cortical and subcortical-striatal activity to facial expressions in BD. Our findings suggest that these comorbid features may contribute to observed patterns of functional abnormalities in neural systems underlying mood regulation in BD.

  10. Differences in psychomotor activity in patients suffering from unipolar and bipolar affective disorder in the remitted or mild/moderate depressive state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in psychomotor activity are a central and essential feature of affective disorder. Studies measuring differences in psychomotor activity between unipolar and bipolar disorder show divergent results and none have used a combined heart rate and movement monitor for measuring activity...

  11. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  12. The Effect of "Rogue" Active Regions on the Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Melinda; Lemerle, Alexandre; Labonville, François; Petrovay, Kristóf; Charbonneau, Paul

    2017-11-01

    The origin of cycle-to-cycle variations in solar activity is currently the focus of much interest. It has recently been pointed out that large individual active regions with atypical properties can have a significant impact on the long-term behavior of solar activity. We investigate this possibility in more detail using a recently developed 2×2D dynamo model of the solar magnetic cycle. We find that even a single "rogue" bipolar magnetic region (BMR) in the simulations can have a major effect on the further development of solar activity cycles, boosting or suppressing the amplitude of subsequent cycles. In extreme cases, an individual BMR can completely halt the dynamo, triggering a grand minimum. Rogue BMRs also have the potential to induce significant hemispheric asymmetries in the solar cycle. To study the effect of rogue BMRs in a more systematic manner, a series of dynamo simulations were conducted, in which a large test BMR was manually introduced in the model at various phases of cycles of different amplitudes. BMRs emerging in the rising phase of a cycle can modify the amplitude of the ongoing cycle, while BMRs emerging in later phases will only affect subsequent cycles. In this model, the strongest effect on the subsequent cycle occurs when the rogue BMR emerges around cycle maximum at low latitudes, but the BMR does not need to be strictly cross-equatorial. Active regions emerging as far as 20° from the equator can still have a significant effect. We demonstrate that the combined effect of the magnetic flux, tilt angle, and polarity separation of the BMR on the dynamo is via their contribution to the dipole moment, δ D_{BMR}. Our results indicate that prediction of the amplitude, starting epoch, and duration of a cycle requires an accurate accounting of a broad range of active regions emerging in the previous cycle.

  13. Block-induced Complex Structures Building the Flare-productive Solar Active Region 12673

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhu, Xiaoshuai [Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Song, Qiao, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Center for Space Weather, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2017-11-10

    Solar active region (AR) 12673 produced 4 X-class, 27 M-class, and numerous lower-class flares during its passage across the visible solar disk in 2017 September. Our study is to answer the questions why this AR was so flare-productive and how the X9.3 flare, the largest one of the past decade, took place. We find that there was a sunspot in the initial several days, and then two bipolar regions emerged nearby it successively. Due to the standing of the pre-existing sunspot, the movement of the bipoles was blocked, while the pre-existing sunspot maintained its quasi-circular shaped umbra only with the disappearance of a part of penumbra. Thus, the bipolar patches were significantly distorted, and the opposite polarities formed two semi-circular shaped structures. After that, two sequences of new bipolar regions emerged within the narrow semi-circular zone, and the bipolar patches separated along the curved channel. The new bipoles sheared and interacted with the previous ones, forming a complex topological system, during which numerous flares occurred. At the highly sheared region, a great deal of free energy was accumulated. On September 6, one negative patch near the polarity inversion line began to rapidly rotate and shear with the surrounding positive fields, and consequently the X9.3 flare erupted. Our results reveal that the block-induced complex structures built the flare-productive AR and the X9.3 flare was triggered by an erupting filament due to the kink instability. To better illustrate this process, a block-induced eruption model is proposed for the first time.

  14. Monocyte activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100B in bipolar offspring: a follow-up study from adolescence into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon Hj; Ambree, Oliver; Arolt, Volker; Nolen, Willem A; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that both immune and neurochemical alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder; however, their precise role remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate neuro-immune changes in a prospective study on children of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar offspring, from the prospective Dutch bipolar offspring study (n = 140), were evaluated cross-sectionally within a longitudinal context at adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood. We examined the expression of 44 inflammation-related genes in monocytes, the cytokines pentraxin 3 (PTX3), chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) in the serum of bipolar offspring and healthy controls. During adolescence, bipolar offspring showed increased inflammatory gene expression in monocytes, high serum PTX3 levels, but normal CCL2 levels. BDNF levels were decreased, while S100B levels were normal. During young adulthood, monocyte activation remained, although to a lesser degree. Serum PTX3 levels remained high, and signs of monocyte migration became apparent through increased CCL2 levels. BDNF and S100B levels were not measured. At adulthood, circulating monocytes had lost their activation state, but CCL2 levels remained increased. Both BDNF and S100B were now increased. Abnormalities were independent of psychopathology state at all stages. This study suggests an aberrant neuro-immune state in bipolar offspring, which followed a dynamic course from adolescence into adulthood and was present irrespective of lifetime or future mood disorders. We therefore assumed that the aberrant neuro-immune state reflects a general state of vulnerability for mood disorders rather than being of direct predictive value. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Neurofunctional changes in adolescent cannabis users with and without bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitter, Samantha M; Adler, Caleb M; Eliassen, James C; Weber, Wade A; Welge, Jeffrey A; Burciaga, Joaquin; Shear, Paula K; Strakowski, Stephen M; DelBello, Melissa P

    2014-11-01

    To compare regional brain activation among adolescents with bipolar disorder and co-occurring cannabis use disorder. Cross-sectional study. Cincinnati, OH, USA. Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BP, n = 14), adolescents with cannabis use disorder (MJ, n = 13), adolescents with co-occurring cannabis use and bipolar disorders (BPMJ, n = 25) and healthy adolescents (HC, n = 15). Cannabis craving, substance use, Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) signal assessed by the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ), Teen-Addiction Severity Index (T-ASI) and a cannabis cue-reactivity task during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session, respectively. The BP group exhibited significantly greater brain activation than the BPMJ group in the right amygdala (F = 4.14, P = 0.046), left nucleus accumbens (F = 3.8, P = 0.02), left thalamus (F = 3.8, P adolescents with comorbid cannabis use do not exhibit the same over-activation of the regions involved in emotional processing as seen in adolescents with bipolar disorder alone. The absence of these findings in patients with comorbid bipolar and cannabis use disorders suggests that these individuals may have a unique endophenotype of bipolar disorder or that cannabis use may alter brain activation uniquely in bipolar disorder patients who use cannabis. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Neural activity to intense positive versus negative stimuli can help differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar major depressive disorder in depressed adolescents: a pilot fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diler, Rasim Somer; de Almeida, Jorge Renner Cardoso; Ladouceur, Cecile; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Phillips, Mary

    2013-12-30

    Failure to distinguish bipolar depression (BDd) from the unipolar depression of major depressive disorder (UDd) in adolescents has significant clinical consequences. We aimed to identify differential patterns of functional neural activity in BDd versus UDd and employed two (fearful and happy) facial expression/ gender labeling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to study emotion processing in 10 BDd (8 females, mean age=15.1 ± 1.1) compared to age- and gender-matched 10 UDd and 10 healthy control (HC) adolescents who were age- and gender-matched to the BDd group. BDd adolescents, relative to UDd, showed significantly lower activity to both intense happy (e.g., insula and temporal cortex) and intense fearful faces (e.g., frontal precentral cortex). Although the neural regions recruited in each group were not the same, both BDd and UDd adolescents, relative to HC, showed significantly lower neural activity to intense happy and mild happy faces, but elevated neural activity to mild fearful faces. Our results indicated that patterns of neural activity to intense positive and negative emotional stimuli can help differentiate BDd from UDd in adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Degradation of phenol using a combination of granular activated carbon adsorption and bipolar pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufeng, TANG; Na, LI; Jinbang, QI; Deling, YUAN; Jie, LI

    2018-05-01

    A combined method of granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption and bipolar pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma regeneration was employed to degrade phenol in water. After being saturated with phenol, the GAC was filled into the DBD reactor driven by bipolar pulse power for regeneration under various operating parameters. The results showed that different peak voltages, air flow rates, and GAC content can affect phenol decomposition and its major degradation intermediates, such as catechol, hydroquinone, and benzoquinone. The higher voltage and air support were conducive to the removal of phenol, and the proper water moisture of the GAC was 20%. The amount of H2O2 on the GAC was quantitatively determined, and its laws of production were similar to phenol elimination. Under the optimized conditions, the elimination of phenol on the GAC was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and the total removal of organic carbons achieved 50.4%. Also, a possible degradation mechanism was proposed based on the HPLC analysis. Meanwhile, the regeneration efficiency of the GAC was improved with the discharge treatment time, which attained 88.5% after 100 min of DBD processing.

  18. Current density and catalyst-coated membrane resistance distribution of hydro-formed metallic bipolar plate fuel cell short stack with 250 cm2 active area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Moser, M.; Hirschfeld, J. A.; Jozwiak, K.

    2016-01-01

    An automotive fuel cell with an active area of 250 cm2 is investigated in a 4-cell short stack with a current and temperature distribution device next to the bipolar plate with 560 current and 140 temperature segments. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this current scan shunt module. The applied fuel cell consists of bipolar plates constructed of 75-μm-thick, welded stainless-steel foils and a graphitic coating. The electrical conductivities of the bipolar plate and gas diffusion layer assembly are determined ex-situ with this module with a 6% deviation in in-plane conductivity. The current density distribution is evaluated up to 2.4 A cm-2. The entire cell's investigated volumetric power density is 4.7 kW l-1, and its gravimetric power density is 4.3 kW kg-1 at an average cell voltage of 0.5 V. The current density distribution is determined without influencing the operating cell. In addition, the current density distribution in the catalyst-coated membrane and its effective resistivity distribution with a finite volume discretisation of Ohm's law are evaluated. The deviation between the current density distributions in the catalyst-coated membrane and the bipolar plate is determined.

  19. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi

    2008-01-01

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  20. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chou@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-10-15

    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  1. Scientific attitudes towards bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hossein Biglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition that is also called manic-depressive disease. It causes unusual changes in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. In the present study, 3 sets of data were considered and analyzed: first, all papers categorized under Bipolar Disorders in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-E database through 2001-2011; second, papers published by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in SCI-E during a period of 11 years; and third, all papers distributed by the international journal of Bipolar Disorders indexed in MEDLINE during the period of study. Methods: The SCI-E database was used to extract all papers indexed with the topic of Bipolar Disorders as well as all papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Extraction of data from MEDLINE was restricted to the journals name from setting menu. The Science of Science Tool was used to map the co-authorship network of papers published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders through 2009-2011. Results: Analysis of data showed that the majority of publications in the subject area of bipolar disorders indexed in SCI-E were published by The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders. Although journal articles consisted of 59% of the total publication type in SCI-E, 65% of publications distributed by The Journal of Bipolar Disorders were in the form of meetingabstracts. Journal articles consisted of only 23% of the total publications. USA was the leading country regarding sharing data in the field of bipolar disorders followed by England, Canada, and Germany. Conclusion: The editorial policy of The International Journal of Bipolar Disorders has been focused on new themes and new ways of researching in the subject area of bipolar disorder. Regarding the selection of papers for indexing, the SCI-E database selects data more comprehensively than MEDLINE. The number of papers

  2. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C. V.; Howard, R.; Levine, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray images and magnetograms of several active regions and coronal holes are examined which support the interpretation that some of the dark X-ray gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions are foot points of open field lines inside the active regions. Characteristics of the investigated dark gaps are summarized. All the active regions with dark X-ray gaps at the proper place and with the correct polarity predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields are shown to be old active regions, indicating that field opening is accomplished only in a late phase of active-region development. It is noted that some of the observed dark gaps probably have nothing in common with open fields, but are either due to the decreased temperature in low-lying portions of interconnecting loops or are the roots of higher and less dense or cooler loops.

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one or other traumatic event Drug or alcohol abuse Complications Left untreated, bipolar disorder can result in serious problems that affect every area of your life, such as: Problems related to drug and alcohol use Suicide or suicide attempts Legal or financial problems Damaged ...

  4. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  5. A Narrow and Highly Significant Linkage Signal for Severe Bipolar Disorder in the Chromosome 5q33 Region in Latin American Pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinska, A.J.; Service, S.; Jawaheer, D.; DeYoung, J.; Levinson, M.; Zhang, Z.; Kremeyer, B.; Muller, H.; Aldana, I.; Garcia, J.; Restrepo, G.; Lopez, C.; Palacio, C.; Duque, C.; Parra, M.; Vega, J.; Ortiz, D.; Bedoya, G.; Mathews, C.; Davanzo, P.; Fournier, E.; Bejarano, J.; Ramirez, M.; Ortiz, C. Araya; Araya, X.; Molina, J.; Sabatti, C.; Reus, V.; Ospina, J.; Macaya, G.; Ruiz-Linares, A.; Freimer, N.B.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported linkage of bipolar disorder to 5q33-q34 in families from two closely related population isolates, the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR) and Antioquia, Colombia (CO). Here we present follow up results from fine-scale mapping in large CVCR and CO families segregating severe bipolar disorder, BP-I, and in 343 population trios/duos from CVCR and CO. Employing densely spaced SNPs to fine map the prior linkage peak region increases linkage evidence and clarifies the position of the putative BP-I locus. We performed two-point linkage analysis with 1134 SNPs in an approximately 9 Mb region between markers D5S410 and D5S422. Combining pedigrees from CVCR and CO yields a LOD score of 4.9 at SNP rs10035961. Two other SNPs (rs7721142 and rs1422795) within the same 94 kb region also displayed LOD scores greater than 4. This linkage peak coincides with our prior microsatellite results and suggests a narrowed BP-I susceptibility regions in these families. To investigate if the locus implicated in the familial form of BP-I also contributes to disease risk in the population, we followed up the family results with association analysis in duo and trio samples, obtaining signals within 2 Mb of the peak linkage signal in the pedigrees; rs12523547 and rs267015 (P = 0.00004 and 0.00016, respectively) in the CO sample and rs244960 in the CVCR sample and the combined sample, with P = 0.00032 and 0.00016, respectively. It remains unclear whether these association results reflect the same locus contributing to BP susceptibility within the extended pedigrees. PMID:19319892

  6. Altered Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in Language-Related Brain Regions in Association with Verbal Memory Performance in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. J. Linden

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Potential abnormalities in the structure and function of the temporal lobes have been studied much less in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. This may not be justified because language-related symptoms, such as pressured speech and flight of ideas, and cognitive deficits in the domain of verbal memory are amongst the hallmark of bipolar disorder (BD, and contribution of temporal lobe dysfunction is therefore likely. In the current study, we examined resting-state functional connectivity (FC between the auditory cortex (Heschl’s gyrus [HG], planum temporale [PT] and whole brain using seed correlation analysis in n = 21 BD euthymic patients and n = 20 matched healthy controls and associated it with verbal memory performance. In comparison to controls BD patients showed decreased functional connectivity between Heschl’s gyrus and planum temporale and the left superior and middle temporal gyrus. Additionally, fronto-temporal functional connectivity with the right inferior frontal/precentral gyrus and the insula was increased in patients. Verbal episodic memory deficits in the investigated sample of BD patients and language-related symptoms might therefore be associated with a diminished FC within the auditory/temporal gyrus and a compensatory fronto-temporal pathway.

  7. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The diagnosis and management of bipolar I and bipolar II disorders: Clinical practice update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2017;92:1532. Haynes PL, et al. Social rhythm therapies for mood disorders: An update. Current Psychiatry Reports. ...

  8. Open magnetic fields in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svestka, Z.; Solodyna, C.V.; Levine, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations confirm that some of the dark gaps seen between interconnecting loops and inner cores of active regions may be loci of open fields, as it has been predicted by global potential extrapolation of photospheric magnetic fields. It seems that the field lines may open only in a later state of the active region development. (Auth.)

  9. Transtorno bipolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alda Martin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os resultados de estudos de famílias sugerem que o transtorno bipolar tenha uma base genética. Essa hipótese foi reforçada em estudos de adoção e de gêmeos. A herança do transtorno bipolar é complexa, envolve vários genes, além de apresentar heterogeneidade e interação entre fatores genéticos e não-genéticos. Achados, que já foram replicados, já implicaram os cromossomos 4, 12, 18 e 21, entre outros, na busca por genes de suscetibilidade. Os resultados mais promissores foram obtidos através de estudos de ligação. Por outro lado, os estudos de associação geraram dados interessantes, mas ainda vagos. Os estudos de populações de pacientes homogêneos e a melhor definição do fenótipo deverão contribuir para avanços futuros. A identificação dos genes relacionados ao transtorno bipolar irá permitir o melhor entendimento e tratamento dessa doença.

  10. Piezo Is Essential for Amiloride-Sensitive Stretch-Activated Mechanotransduction in Larval Drosophila Dorsal Bipolar Dendritic Sensory Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslak, Thomas J; Watson, Sonia; Thompson, Karen J; Shenton, Fiona C; Bewick, Guy S; Armstrong, J Douglas; Jarman, Andrew P

    2015-01-01

    Stretch-activated afferent neurons, such as those of mammalian muscle spindles, are essential for proprioception and motor co-ordination, but the underlying mechanisms of mechanotransduction are poorly understood. The dorsal bipolar dendritic (dbd) sensory neurons are putative stretch receptors in the Drosophila larval body wall. We have developed an in vivo protocol to obtain receptor potential recordings from intact dbd neurons in response to stretch. Receptor potential changes in dbd neurons in response to stretch showed a complex, dynamic profile with similar characteristics to those previously observed for mammalian muscle spindles. These profiles were reproduced by a general in silico model of stretch-activated neurons. This in silico model predicts an essential role for a mechanosensory cation channel (MSC) in all aspects of receptor potential generation. Using pharmacological and genetic techniques, we identified the mechanosensory channel, DmPiezo, in this functional role in dbd neurons, with TRPA1 playing a subsidiary role. We also show that rat muscle spindles exhibit a ruthenium red-sensitive current, but found no expression evidence to suggest that this corresponds to Piezo activity. In summary, we show that the dbd neuron is a stretch receptor and demonstrate that this neuron is a tractable model for investigating mechanisms of mechanotransduction.

  11. Activation of different cerebral functional regions following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To explore the brain function regions characteristics of the acupoint combination, this study observed activity changes in the brain regions of healthy volunteers after acupuncture at both Taixi (KI3) and Taichong (LR3) (KI3 + LR3) and KI3 alone using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI).

  12. Can variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA-axis activity explain the relationship between depression and cognition in bipolar patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke J van der Werf-Eldering

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is thought to be associated with more mood symptoms and worse cognitive functioning. This study examined whether variation in HPA axis activity underlies the association between mood symptoms and cognitive functioning.In 65 bipolar patients cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating version. Saliva cortisol measurements were performed to calculate HPA axis indicators: cortisol awakening response, diurnal slope, the evening cortisol level and the cortisol suppression on the dexamethasone suppression test. Regression analyses of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning on each HPA axis indicator were performed. In addition we calculated percentages explanation of the association between depressive symptoms and cognition by HPA axis indicators. Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed, attentional switching and the mean score, as well as with attenuation in diurnal slope value. No association was found between HPA axis activity and cognitive functioning and HPA axis activity did not explain the associations between depressive symptoms and cognition.As our study is the first one in this field specific for bipolar patients and changes in HPA-axis activity did not seem to explain the association between severity of depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in bipolar patients, future studies are needed to evaluate other factors that might explain this relationship.

  13. The 17 GHz active region number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A. [IP and D-Universidade do Vale do Paraíba-UNIVAP, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Costa, J. E. R. [CEA, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, São José dos Campos (Brazil); Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A. [CRAAM, Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, São Paulo (Brazil); Shibasaki, K., E-mail: caius@univap.br [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory/NAOJ, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  14. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  15. REGIONALIZATION OF MANAGEMENT PROCESS BY INNOVATIVE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In current market conditions, the economy and Russia's accession to international trade scholars and experts from various fields of knowledge paying special attention to a huge set of regional problems. The growing role of regional research determines the level of establishing effective mechanisms for the implementation of the economic interests of actors as well as economic development and improving the quality of human life is the priority objectives of federal, regional and local authorities. Today, the Russian economic science faces a global goal - to develop ways and means of transformation of the Russian economy and bring it to a path of sustainable, innovative development, providing new quality of life. Achieving this goal must surely be a central task of the Russian economics and politics, as in the near future and the long term In article authors opened the maintenance of determinants of innovative development of the territory, mediated by strengthening of regionalization of management by innovative activity: condition of resource and innovative potential; the developed forms and nature of interaction between public authorities of regional level, local community and business; applied forms of integration of subjects of managing for realization of their innovative potential due to expansion of opportunities of participation in the perspective directions of scientific and technical, economic and social development; system of the incentives developing favorable conditions for introduction and development of innovative technologies, and also increases in the enterprise activity, formed by the external institutional environment; regional economic policy as instrument of increase of efficiency of innovative activity.

  16. Rumination in bipolar disorder: evidence for an unquiet mind

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaznavi, Sharmin; Deckersbach, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Depression in bipolar disorder has long been thought to be a state characterized by mental inactivity. However, recent research demonstrates that patients with bipolar disorder engage in rumination, a form of self-focused repetitive cognitive activity, in depressed as well as in manic states. While rumination has long been associated with depressed states in major depressive disorder, the finding that patients with bipolar disorder ruminate in manic states is unique to bipolar disord...

  17. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low…

  18. Bipolar disorder in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Melissa; Wagner, Karen Dineen

    2013-08-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious psychiatric condition that may have onset in childhood. It is important for physicians to recognize the symptoms of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in order to accurately diagnose this illness early in its course. Evidence regarding the efficacy of various treatments is necessary to guide the management of bipolar disorder in youth. For example, several medications commonly used for adults with bipolar disorder have not shown efficacy for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. This article reviews the prevalence, diagnosis, course, and treatment of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents and provides physicians with information that will aid in diagnosis and treatment.

  19. Integrated neurobiology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir eMaletic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity—reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition—limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional unified field theory of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial-neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia—the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the HPA axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of bipolarity is one of the great

  20. [Polymorphism in the Serotonin Transporter Gene (SLC6A4) and Emotional Bipolar Disorder in Two Regional Mental Health Centers from the Eje Cafetero (Colombia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lucero Rengifo; Arias, Duverney Gaviria; Salazar, Liliana Salazar; Vélez, Juan Pablo; Pardo, Stella Lozano

    2012-03-01

    The indel polymorphisms in the promoting region and the 2(nd) intron polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) have been associated to bipolar disorder 1 (BD1) in several population studies. The objective was to analyze the genotypic and allelic frequencies in both gene regions in a study of cases and controls with individuals from Risaralda and Quindío (Colombia) so as to establish possible associations to BD1, and compare results with previous and similar studies. 133 patients and 120 controls were studied. L and S indel polymorphisms in the promoting region were analyzed by PCR, together with VNTR STin2.10 and STin 2.12 VNTRs polymorphisms in the 2(nd) intron of the SL-C6A4 gene Genotypic and allelic frequencies for the S and L polymorphisms were similar both in cases and controls. However, the LL genotype was significantly increased both in BD1 population (OR=1.89; CI95%=1.1-3.68), and when discriminated by gender. This particular genotype in general population is OR=2.22; IC95%=1.04-5.66 for women, and OR=1.62; IC 95%=0.71-4.39 for men. No significant genotypic and allelic differences were found for VNTR STin2.10 and STin 2.12. polymorphisms. No association was found between polymorphisms of 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms and the 2(nd) intron of the serotonin transporting gene in general patients with BD1, nor when compared by gender. Our results are similar to those reported for Caucasian populations and differ from those of Asian and Brazilian populations. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity and cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Jacoby, Anne Sophie

    2018-01-01

    but the relation between GSK-3 activity, cognition and lithium treatment is unknown. We therefore investigated the possible association between GSK-3 activity and cognition and whether lithium treatment moderates this association in patients with BD. In a prospective 6-12 month follow-up study, GSK- 3β activity...... in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured concurrently with cognitive performance assessed using a comprehensive test battery in 27 patients with BD-I in early and late remission following a manic or mixed episode. The GSK-3β activity, measured as serine-9 phosphorylated GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) and the GSK-3β...... ratio (serine-9-pGSK-3β /total GSK-3β), was negatively associated with sustained attention (p = 0.009 and p = 0.042, respectively), but not with other cognitive domains or global cognition. A crossover interaction between lithium treatment and the GSK activity was observed, indicating that lower pGSK-3β...

  2. Frontopolar cortical inefficiency may underpin reward and working memory dysfunction in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogia, Jigar; Dima, Danai; Kumari, Veena; Frangou, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder is thought to arise from dysfunction within prefrontal cortical regions involved in cognitive control coupled with increased or aberrant activation within regions engaged in emotional processing. The aim of this study was to determine the common and distinct patterns of functional brain abnormalities during reward and working memory processing in patients with bipolar disorder. Participants were 36 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 37 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, sex and IQ. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted during the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the n-back working memory task. During both tasks, patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a pattern of inefficient engagement within the ventral frontopolar prefrontal cortex with evidence of segregation along the medial-lateral dimension for reward and working memory processing, respectively. Moreover, patients also showed greater activation in the anterior cingulate cortex during the Iowa Gambling Task and in the insula during the n-back task. Our data implicate ventral frontopolar dysfunction as a core abnormality underpinning bipolar disorder and confirm that overactivation in regions involved in emotional arousal is present even in tasks that do not typically engage emotional systems.

  3. Prolonged hemodynamic response during incidental facial emotion processing in inter-episode bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ethan S; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Sweeney, John A; Tamminga, Carol A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Nonterah, Camilla; Stevens, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    This fMRI study examined whether hemodynamic responses to affectively-salient stimuli were abnormally prolonged in remitted bipolar disorder, possibly representing a novel illness biomarker. A group of 18 DSM-IV bipolar I-diagnosed adults in remission and a demographically-matched control group performed an event-related fMRI gender-discrimination task in which face stimuli had task-irrelevant neutral, happy or angry expressions designed to elicit incidental emotional processing. Participants' brain activation was modeled using a "fully informed" SPM5 basis set. Mixed-model ANOVA tested for diagnostic group differences in BOLD response amplitude and shape within brain regions-of-interest selected from ALE meta-analysis of previous comparable fMRI studies. Bipolar-diagnosed patients had a generally longer duration and/or later-peaking hemodynamic response in amygdala and numerous prefrontal cortex brain regions. Data are consistent with existing models of bipolar limbic hyperactivity, but the prolonged frontolimbic response more precisely details abnormalities recognized in previous studies. Prolonged hemodynamic responses were unrelated to stimulus type, task performance, or degree of residual mood symptoms, suggesting an important novel trait vulnerability brain dysfunction in bipolar disorder. Bipolar patients also failed to engage pregenual cingulate and left orbitofrontal cortex-regions important to models of automatic emotion regulation-while engaging a delayed dorsolateral prefrontal cortex response not seen in controls. These results raise questions about whether there are meaningful relationships between bipolar dysfunction of specific ventromedial prefrontal cortex regions believed to automatically regulate emotional reactions and the prolonged responses in more lateral aspects of prefrontal cortex.

  4. Exercising control over bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Byrow, Yulisha

    2016-11-01

    Following extensive research exercise has emerged as an effective treatment for major depressive disorder, and it is now a recognised therapy alongside other interventions. In contrast, there is a paucity of research examining the therapeutic effects of exercise for those with bipolar disorder. Given that dysfunctional reward processing is central to bipolar disorder, research suggests that exercise can perhaps be framed as a reward-related event that may have the potential to precipitate a manic episode. The behavioural activation system (BAS) is a neurobehavioural system that is associated with responding to reward and provides an appropriate framework to theoretically examine and better understand the effects of exercise treatment on bipolar disorder. This article discusses recent research findings and provides an overview of the extant literature related to the neurobiological underpinnings of BAS and exercise as they relate to bipolar disorder. This is important clinically because depending on mood state in bipolar disorder, we postulate that exercise could be either beneficial or deleterious with positive or negative effects on the illness. Clearly, this complicates the evaluation of exercise as a potential treatment in terms of identifying its optimal characteristics in this population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Peripheral inflammation during abnormal mood states in bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Prossin, Alan R; Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2015-11-15

    Bipolar disorder carries a substantive morbidity and mortality burden, particularly related to cardiovascular disease. Abnormalities in peripheral inflammatory markers, which have been commonly reported in case-control studies, potentially link these co-morbidities. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory markers change episodically in response to mood states or are indicative of chronic pro-inflammatory activity, regardless of mood, in bipolar disorder. Investigations focused on comparing concentrations of specific inflammatory cytokines associated with immune activation status (primary outcome=tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)) in 37 participants with bipolar disorder across 3 mood states (mania N=15, depression N=9, normal mood N=13) and 29 controls without a psychiatric disorder (total N=66). Cytokine levels were also compared to T1ρ, a potential neuroimaging marker for inflammation, in select brain regions in a subsample (N=39). Participants with bipolar disorder and healthy controls did not differ significantly in inflammatory cytokine concentrations. However, compared to cases with normal mood, cases with abnormal mood states (mania and depression) had significantly elevated levels of TNF-α, its soluble receptors (sTNFR1/sTNFR2), other macrophage-derived cytokines (interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) in addition to IL-4, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, fibroblast growth factor β, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Cytokine levels were not correlated with signals from T1ρ imaging in selected structures (amygdalae, hippocampi, hypothalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus). Participants were not followed prospectively across mood states. Activation of inflammatory markers was found in abnormal mood states of bipolar disorder. Longitudinal study of individuals with mood disorders is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate the time course of any such changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  6. Physical Activity Modulates Common Neuroplasticity Substrates in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristy Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mood disorders (MDs are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to neuroplasticity deficits in MDs and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Of those therapeutics being investigated, physical activity (PA has shown clear and consistent promise. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1 explicate key modulators, processes, and interactions that impinge upon multiple susceptibility points to effectuate neuroplasticity deficits in MDs; (2 explore the putative mechanisms by which PA mitigates these features; (3 review protocols used to induce the positive effects of PA in MDs; and (4 highlight implications for clinicians and researchers.

  7. Physical Activity Modulates Common Neuroplasticity Substrates in Major Depressive and Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Mood disorders (MDs) are chronic, recurrent mental diseases that affect millions of individuals worldwide. Although the biogenic amine model has provided some clinical utility, a need remains to better understand the interrelated mechanisms that contribute to neuroplasticity deficits in MDs and the means by which various therapeutics mitigate them. Of those therapeutics being investigated, physical activity (PA) has shown clear and consistent promise. Accordingly, the aims of this review are to (1) explicate key modulators, processes, and interactions that impinge upon multiple susceptibility points to effectuate neuroplasticity deficits in MDs; (2) explore the putative mechanisms by which PA mitigates these features; (3) review protocols used to induce the positive effects of PA in MDs; and (4) highlight implications for clinicians and researchers. PMID:28529805

  8. Synthesis and Electrochemical Study of a TCAA Derivative – A potential bipolar redox-active material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, Tino; Winsberg, Jan; Wild, Andreas; Schubert, Ulrich S.

    2017-01-01

    The 2,3,7,8-tetracyano-1,4,5,6,9,10-hexazaanthracene (TCAA) derivatives represent an interesting substance class for future research on organic electronic devices, such as solar cells, organic batteries or redox-flow batteries (RFBs). Because of their multivalent redox behavior they are potentially “bipolar”, usable both as cathode and anode activ charge-storage materials. Furthermore, they show a strong absorption and fluorescence behavior both in solution and solid state, rendering them a promising emitter for electroluminescence devices, like lamps or displays. In order to evaluate a TCAA for electrochemical applications the derivative 2,3,7,8-tetracyano-5,10-diphenyl-5,10-dihydrodipyrazino[2,3-b:2′,3′-e] pyrazine (2) was synthesized in two straightforward synthesis steps. The electrochemical behavior of 2 was initially determined by density functional theory (DFT) calculation and afterwards investigated via rotating disc electrode (RDE), UV–vis–NIR spectroelectrochemical as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. It features a quasi-reversible oxidation and re-reduction at E ½ = 1.42 V vs. Fc + /Fc with a peak split of 96 mV and a quasi-reversible reduction and re-oxidation at E ½ = −1.49 V vs. Fc + /Fc with a peak split of 174 mV, which lead to a theoretical potential difference of 2.91 V.

  9. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Imunologia do transtorno bipolar Immunology of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Guimarães Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    -related genes; five, auto-antibodies; four, leukocyte population; 13, cytokines and/or immune-related molecules; six, leukocytes in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is evidence in the literature correlating affective disorders with immune parameters, the results are still inconclusive. Bipolar disorder seems to be associated with increased levels of auto-antibodies as well as with a trend for increased immune activation with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduction of the anti-inflammatory parameters.

  11. Exoplanet Transits of Stellar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampapa, Mark S.; Andretta, Vincenzo; Covino, Elvira; Reiners, Ansgar; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-01-01

    We report preliminary results of a program to obtain high spectral- and temporal-resolution observations of the neutral helium triplet line at 1083.0 nm in transiting exoplanet systems. The principal objective of our program is to gain insight on the properties of active regions, analogous to solar plages, on late-type dwarfs by essentially using exoplanet transits as high spatial resolution probes of the stellar surface within the transit chord. The 1083 nm helium line is a particularly appropriate diagnostic of magnetized areas since it is weak in the quiet photosphere of solar-type stars but appears strongly in absorption in active regions. Therefore, during an exoplanet transit over the stellar surface, variations in its absorption equivalent width can arise that are functions of the intrinsic strength of the feature in the active region and the known relative size of the exoplanet. We utilized the Galileo Telescope and the GIANO-B near-IR echelle spectrograph to obtain 1083 nm spectra during transits in bright, well-known systems that include HD 189733, HD 209458, and HD 147506 (HAT-P-2). We also obtained simultaneous auxiliary data on the same telescope with the HARPS-N UV-Visible echelle spectrograph. We will present preliminary results from our analysis of the observed variability of the strength of the He I 1083 nm line during transits.Acknowledgements: Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. The NSO is operated by AURA under a cooperative agreement with the NSF.

  12. Abundance variations in solar active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, K. T.; Lemen, J. R.; Linford, G. A.

    1991-01-01

    The diversity in the published values of coronal abundances is unsettling, especially as the range of results seems to be beyond the quoted uncertainties. Measurements of the relative abundance of iron and neon derived from soft X-ray spectra of active regions are presented. From a data base of over 200 spectra taken by the Solar Maximum Mission Flat Crystal Spectrometer, it is found that the relative abundance can vary by as much as a factor of about 7 and can change on timescales of less than 1 h.

  13. Evolution of active region loop plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, K.R.; Antiochos, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate numerically the adjustment of coronal active-region loops to changes in their heating rate. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved subject to boundary conditions in which heat flux-induced mass exchange between coronal and chromospheric components is allowed. The calculated evolution of physical parameters suggests that (1) mass supplied during chromospheric evaporation is much more effective in moderating coronal temperature excursions than when downward heat flux if dissipated by a static chromosphere, and (2) the method by which rhe chromosphere responds to changing coronal conditions can significantly influence coronal readjustment time scales. Observations are cited which illustrate the range of possible fluctuations in the heating rates

  14. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Major reasons for the insufficient effects of current treatment options in bipolar disorder include delayed intervention for prodromal depressive and manic symptoms and decreased adherence to psychopharmacological treatment. The reliance on subjective information and clinical evaluations when diagnosing and assessing the severity of depressive and manic symptoms calls for less biased and more objective markers. By using electronic devices, fine-grained data on complex psychopathological aspects of bipolar disorder can be evaluated unobtrusively over the long term. Moreover, electronic data could possibly represent candidate markers of diagnosis and illness activity in bipolar disorder and allow for early and individualized intervention for prodromal symptoms outside clinical settings. 
The present dissertation concerns the use of electronic monitoring as a marker and treatment intervention in bipolar disorder and investigated the scientific literature and body of evidence within the area, which includes ten original study reports and two systematic reviews, one of which included a meta-analysis, conducted by the author of the dissertation. 
Taken together, the literature presented in this dissertation illustrates that 1) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring of mood seems to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms and enables the long-term characterization of mood

instability in bipolar disorder; 2) preliminary results suggest that smartphone-based automatically generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had no effects on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder, according to a randomized controlled trial; and 4) electronic monitoring of psychomotor

  15. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  16. Distinctions of bipolar disorder symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiene, Devika; Leskauskas, Darius; Markeviciūte, Aurelija; Klimavicius, Dalius; Adomaitiene, Virginija

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder in adolescents is a serious mental illness with problematic diagnosis that adversely affects social, academic, emotional, and family functioning. The objective of this study was to analyze features of premorbid and clinical symptoms, comorbidity, and course of bipolar disorder in adolescence. Data for analysis were collected from all case histories (N=6) of 14-18-year-old patients, hospitalized with diagnosis of bipolar disorder in the Unit of Children's and Adolescents' Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine, during the period from 2000 to 2005. Analysis of bipolar disorder course showed that five patients previously had been diagnosed with an episode of depression. The most frequent symptoms typical to bipolar disorder were disobedience and impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood. The most common premorbid features were frequent changes of mood, being active in communication, hyperactive behavior. Adolescence-onset bipolar disorder was frequently comorbid with emotionally instable personality disorder, borderline type. Findings of the study confirm the notion that oppositional or impulsive behavior, rapid changes of mood without any reason, dysphoric mood and euphoric mood episodes with increased energy were cardinal symptoms of bipolar disorder with mania in adolescents. Most frequent premorbid features of these patients were quite similar to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder making differential diagnosis problematic.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Bipolar disorder is a mental health condition that causes extreme ...

  18. BIPOLAR DISORDER: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Pathan Dilnawaz N; Ziyaurrahaman A.R; Bhise K.S.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric disorder that results in poor global functioning, reduced quality of life and high relapse rates. Research finds that many adults with bipolar disorder identify the onset of symptoms in childhood and adolescence, indicating the importance of early accurate diagnosis and treatment. Accurate diagnosis of mood disorders is critical for treatment to be effective. Distinguishing between major depression and bipolar disorders, especially the depressed p...

  19. Bipolar Disorder in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.

  20. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Quemoy University, 1 Daxue Road, Jinning Township, Kinmen 89250, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zhao, Yu-Xiang [Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi [Department of Applied English, National Quemoy University, Taiwan, ROC (China); Han, Sheng, E-mail: shenghan@nutc.edu.tw [Center for General Education, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, 129 San-min Road, Section 3, Taichung 40401, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiWO{sub x} films were fabricated by a bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering apparatus. • Titanium oxide being sputtered tungsten enhanced the highly oriented of TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. • The mechanism WO{sub 3}(h{sup +}, e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}, e{sup −}) → WO{sub 3}(e{sup −})/TiO{sub 2}(h{sup +}) shows the higher hydrophilicity and lower contact angle. - Abstract: Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWO{sub x} films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO{sub 2} (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole–electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  1. Integrated Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletic, Vladimir; Raison, Charles

    2014-01-01

    From a neurobiological perspective there is no such thing as bipolar disorder. Rather, it is almost certainly the case that many somewhat similar, but subtly different, pathological conditions produce a disease state that we currently diagnose as bipolarity. This heterogeneity – reflected in the lack of synergy between our current diagnostic schema and our rapidly advancing scientific understanding of the condition – limits attempts to articulate an integrated perspective on bipolar disorder. However, despite these challenges, scientific findings in recent years are beginning to offer a provisional “unified field theory” of the disease. This theory sees bipolar disorder as a suite of related neurodevelopmental conditions with interconnected functional abnormalities that often appear early in life and worsen over time. In addition to accelerated loss of volume in brain areas known to be essential for mood regulation and cognitive function, consistent findings have emerged at a cellular level, providing evidence that bipolar disorder is reliably associated with dysregulation of glial–neuronal interactions. Among these glial elements are microglia – the brain’s primary immune elements, which appear to be overactive in the context of bipolarity. Multiple studies now indicate that inflammation is also increased in the periphery of the body in both the depressive and manic phases of the illness, with at least some return to normality in the euthymic state. These findings are consistent with changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which are known to drive inflammatory activation. In summary, the very fact that no single gene, pathway, or brain abnormality is likely to ever account for the condition is itself an extremely important first step in better articulating an integrated perspective on both its ontological status and pathogenesis. Whether this perspective will translate into the discovery of innumerable more homogeneous forms of

  2. [Establishment of regional active neonatal transport network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiang-yong; Gao, Xin; Yin, Xiao-juan; Hong, Xiao-yang; Fang, Huan-sheng; Wang, Zi-zhen; Li, Ai-hua; Luo, Fen-ping; Feng, Zhi-chun

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical function and significance of establishing a regional active neonatal transport network (ANTN) in Beijing. The authors retrospectively studied intensive care and the role of ANTN system in management of critically ill neonates and compared the outcome of newborn infants transported to our NICU before and after we established standardized NICU and ANTN system (phase 1: July 2004 to June 2006 vs phase 2: July 2006 to May 2008). The number of neonatal transport significantly increased from 587 during phase 1 to 2797 during phase 2. Success rate of transport and the total cure rate in phase 2 were 97.85% and 91.99% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in phase 1 (94.36% and 88.69%, respectively, P capacity of our NICU was enlarged following the development of ANTN. There are 200 beds for level 3 infants in phase 2, but there were only 20 beds in phase 1. Significantly less patients in the phase 2 had hypothermia, acidosis and the blood glucose instability than those in phase 1 (P transported to our NICU were higher in phase 2 compared with that in phase 1, especially infants whose gestational age was below 32 weeks. The proportions of asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome were lower in phase 2 than that in phase 1, but the total cure rates of these two diseases had no significant changes between the two phases. The most important finding was that the improvement of outcome of premature infants and those with asphyxia and aspiration syndrome was noted following the development of ANTN. Establishing regional ANTN for a tertiary hospital is very important to elevate the total level in management of critically ill newborn infants. It plays a very important role in reducing mortality and improving total outcomes of newborn infants. There are still some problems remained to solve after four years practice in order to optimize the ANTN to meet needs of the development of neonatology.

  3. Phosalone-Induced Changes in Regional Cholinesterase Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in Regional Cholinesterase Activities in Rat Brain during Behavioral Tolerance. ... lead to the gradual disappearance of the initial signs of toxicity over time, termed ... regions, striatum recorded a greater decrease in cholinesterase activity.

  4. Reduced mu suppression and altered motor resonance in euthymic bipolar disorder: Evidence for a dysfunctional mirror system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sophie C; Enticott, Peter G; Hoy, Kate E; Thomson, Richard H; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    Social cognitive difficulties are common in the acute phase of bipolar disorder and, to a lesser extent, during the euthymic stage, and imaging studies of social cognition in euthymic bipolar disorder have implicated mirror system brain regions. This study aimed to use a novel multimodal approach (i.e., including both transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalogram (EEG)) to investigate mirror systems in bipolar disorder. Fifteen individuals with euthymic bipolar disorder and 16 healthy controls participated in this study. Single-pulse TMS was applied to the optimal site in the primary motor cortex (M1), which stimulates the muscle of interest during the observation of hand movements (goal-directed or interacting) designed to elicit mirror system activity. Single EEG electrodes (C3, CZ, C4) recorded mu rhythm modulation concurrently. Results revealed that the patient group showed significantly less mu suppression compared to healthy controls. Surprisingly, motor resonance was not significantly different overall between groups; however, bipolar disorder participants showed a pattern of reduced reactivity on some conditions. Although preliminary, this study indicates a potential mirror system deficit in euthymic bipolar disorder, which may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disorder.

  5. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  6. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions Hongqi Zhang ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in active regions also shows the butterfly pattern through the solar cycle. And, less than 30% of the active regions do not follow the general trend (Zhang & Bao 1998). The longitudinal distribution of current helicity parameter h|| of active regions in both the hemispheres in the last decade was presented by Zhang & Bao ...

  7. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheidemantel T

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Scheidemantel,1 Irina Korobkova,2 Soham Rej,3,4 Martha Sajatovic1,2 1University Hospitals Case Medical Center, 2Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, 4Geri PARTy Research Group, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Asenapine (Saphris® is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD. Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be

  8. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Hallgren, Mats; Probst, Michel; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; De Hert, Marc; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) die up to 15 years prematurely due to chronic somatic comorbidities. Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are independent yet modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in these people. A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring these risk factors is lacking in this vulnerable population. We conducted a meta-analysis investigating sedentary behavior and physical activity levels and their correlates in people with severe mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to April 2017 for articles measuring sedentary behavior and/or physical activity with a self-report questionnaire or an objective measure (e.g., accelerometer). Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-nine studies were included (N=35,682; 39.5% male; mean age 43.0 years). People with severe mental illness spent on average 476.0 min per day (95% CI: 407.3-545.4) being sedentary during waking hours, and were significantly more sedentary than age- and gender-matched healthy controls (p=0.003). Their mean amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity was 38.4 min per day (95% CI: 32.0-44.8), being significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p=0.002 for moderate activity, pphysical activity guidelines (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, pphysical activity levels and non-compliance with physical activity guidelines were associated with male gender, being single, unemployment, fewer years of education, higher body mass index, longer illness duration, antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use, lower cardiorespiratory fitness and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. People with bipolar disorder were the most physically active, yet spent most time being sedentary. Geographical differences were detected, and inpatients were more active than outpatients and those living in the community. Given the

  9. Comparative familial aggregation of bipolar disorder in patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon B; Romano, Mia; Graham, Rebecca K; Ricciardi, Tahlia

    2018-05-01

    We sought to quantify the prevalence and differential prevalence of a bipolar disorder among family members of patients with a bipolar I or II disorder. The sample comprised 1165 bipolar and 1041 unipolar patients, with the former then sub-typed as having either a bipolar I or II condition. Family history data was obtained via an online self-report tool. Prevalence of a family member having a bipolar disorder (of either sub-type) was distinctive (36.8%). Patients with a bipolar I disorder reported a slightly higher family history (41.2%) compared to patients with a bipolar II disorder (36.3%), and with both significantly higher than the rate of bipolar disorder in family members of unipolar depressed patients (18.5%). Findings support the view that bipolar disorder is heritable. The comparable rates in the two bipolar sub-types support the positioning of bipolar II disorder as a valid condition with strong genetic underpinnings.

  10. Intensity attenuation for active crustal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Trevor I.; Wald, David J.; Worden, C. Bruce

    2012-07-01

    We develop globally applicable macroseismic intensity prediction equations (IPEs) for earthquakes of moment magnitude M W 5.0-7.9 and intensities of degree II and greater for distances less than 300 km for active crustal regions. The IPEs are developed for two distance metrics: closest distance to rupture ( R rup) and hypocentral distance ( R hyp). The key objective for developing the model based on hypocentral distance—in addition to more rigorous and standard measure R rup—is to provide an IPE which can be used in near real-time earthquake response systems for earthquakes anywhere in the world, where information regarding the rupture dimensions of a fault may not be known in the immediate aftermath of the event. We observe that our models, particularly the model for the R rup distance metric, generally have low median residuals with magnitude and distance. In particular, we address whether the direct use of IPEs leads to a reduction in overall uncertainties when compared with methods which use a combination of ground-motion prediction equations and ground motion to intensity conversion equations. Finally, using topographic gradient as a proxy and median model predictions, we derive intensity-based site amplification factors. These factors lead to a small reduction of residuals at shallow gradients at strong shaking levels. However, the overall effect on total median residuals is relatively small. This is in part due to the observation that the median site condition for intensity observations used to develop these IPEs is approximately near the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program CD site-class boundary.

  11. Recurrent flares in active region NOAA 11283

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Berrilli, F.; Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; de Lauretis, M.; Del Moro, D.; Elmhamdi, A.; Ermolli, I.; Fineschi, S.; Francia, P.; Kordi, A. S.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Laurenza, M.; Lepreti, F.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romoli, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vellante, M.; Villante, U.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar phenomena that are not yet fully understood. Several investigations have been performed to single out their related physical parameters that can be used as indices of the magnetic complexity leading to their occurrence. Aims: In order to shed light on the occurrence of recurrent flares and subsequent associated CMEs, we studied the active region NOAA 11283 where recurrent M and X GOES-class flares and CMEs occurred. Methods: We use vector magnetograms taken by HMI/SDO to calculate the horizontal velocity fields of the photospheric magnetic structures, the shear and the dip angles of the magnetic field, the magnetic helicity flux distribution, and the Poynting fluxes across the photosphere due to the emergence and the shearing of the magnetic field. Results: Although we do not observe consistent emerging magnetic flux through the photosphere during the observation time interval, we detected a monotonic increase of the magnetic helicity accumulated in the corona. We found that both the shear and the dip angles have high values along the main polarity inversion line (PIL) before and after all the events. We also note that before the main flare of X2.1 GOES class, the shearing motions seem to inject a more significant energy than the energy injected by the emergence of the magnetic field. Conclusions: We conclude that the very long duration (about 4 days) of the horizontal displacement of the main photospheric magnetic structures along the PIL has a primary role in the energy release during the recurrent flares. This peculiar horizontal velocity field also contributes to the monotonic injection of magnetic helicity into the corona. This process, coupled with the high shear and dip angles along the main PIL, appears to be responsible for the consecutive events of loss of equilibrium leading to the recurrent flares and CMEs. A movie associated to Fig. 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Functional connectivity and neuronal variability of resting state activity in bipolar disorder--reduction and decoupling in anterior cortical midline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magioncalda, Paola; Martino, Matteo; Conio, Benedetta; Escelsior, Andrea; Piaggio, Niccolò; Presta, Andrea; Marozzi, Valentina; Rocchi, Giulio; Anastasio, Loris; Vassallo, Linda; Ferri, Francesca; Huang, Zirui; Roccatagliata, Luca; Pardini, Matteo; Northoff, Georg; Amore, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The cortical midline structures seem to be involved in the modulation of different resting state networks, such as the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). Alterations in these systems, in particular in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (PACC), seem to play a central role in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the exact role of the PACC, and its functional connections to other midline regions (within and outside DMN) still remains unclear in BD. We investigated functional connectivity (FC), standard deviation (SD, as a measure of neuronal variability) and their correlation in bipolar patients (n = 40) versus healthy controls (n = 40), in the PACC and in its connections in different frequency bands (standard: 0.01-0.10 Hz; Slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; Slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz). Finally, we studied the correlations between FC alterations and clinical-neuropsychological parameters and we explored whether subgroups of patients in different phases of the illness present different patterns of FC abnormalities. We found in BD decreased FC (especially in Slow-5) from the PACC to other regions located predominantly in the posterior DMN (such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior temporal gyrus) and in the SN (such as the supragenual anterior cingulate cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). Second, we found in BD a decoupling between PACC-based FC and variability in the various target regions (without alteration in variability itself). Finally, in our subgroups explorative analysis, we found a decrease in FC between the PACC and supragenual ACC (in depressive phase) and between the PACC and PCC (in manic phase). These findings suggest that in BD the communication, that is, information transfer, between the different cortical midline regions within the cingulate gyrus does not seem to work properly. This may result in dysbalance between different resting state networks like the DMN and SN. A deficit in the anterior DMN-SN connectivity

  13. Pivotal roles of Fezf2 in differentiation of cone OFF bipolar cells and functional maturation of cone ON bipolar cells in retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Kerr, Haruna; Iwagawa, Toshiro; Sagara, Hiroshi; Mizota, Atsushi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Sumiko

    2018-06-01

    During development of the retina, common retinal progenitor cells give rise to six classes of neurons that subsequently further diversify into more than 55 subtypes of neuronal subtypes. Here, we have investigated the expression and function of Fezf2, Fez zinc finger family of protein, in the developing mouse retina. Expression of Fezf2 transcripts was strongly observed in the embryonic retinal progenitors at E14.5 and declined quickly in subsequent development of retina. Then, in postnatal stage at around day 8, Fezf2 was transiently expressed then declined again. Loss-of-function analysis using retinas from mice in which Fezf2 coding region was substituted with β-galactosidase showed that Fezf2 is expressed in a subset of cone OFF bipolar cells and required for their differentiation. Using electroretinogram, we found that Fezf2 knockout retina exhibited significantly reduced photopic b-wave, suggesting functional abnormality of cone ON bipolar cells. Furthermore, reduced expression of synaptic protein Trpm1 and structural alteration of ON bipolar cell invagination, both of which affected cone photoreceptor terminal synaptic activity, was identified by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Taken together, our results show that Fezf2 is indispensable in differentiation of bipolar precursors into cone OFF bipolar cells and in functional maturation of cone ON bipolar cells during development of mouse retina. These results contribute to our understanding of how diversity of neuronal subtypes and hence specificity of neuronal connections are established in the retina by intrinsic cues. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Life events and bipolar disorder : The influence of life events on the onset and course of bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemner, Sanne

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bipolar disorder (also known as manic-depressive illness) is diagnosed in approximately 2% of the population. The disorder is characterized by alternating periods of raised activity and (manic) mood and periods of reduced activity with lowered (depressed) mood. Bipolar disorder

  15. Properties of Bipolar Fuzzy Hypergraphs

    OpenAIRE

    Akram, M.; Dudek, W. A.; Sarwar, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to hypergraphs and investigate some properties of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs. We introduce the notion of $A-$ tempered bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs and present some of their properties. We also present application examples of bipolar fuzzy hypergraphs.

  16. Regional characteristics, opportunity perception and entrepreneurial activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Brixy, Udo

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to better understand the link between regional characteristics and individual entrepreneurship. We combine individual-level Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for Western Germany with regional-level data, using multilevel analysis to test our hypotheses. We find no direct link...

  17. Daily electronic monitoring of subjective and objective measures of illness activity in bipolar disorder using smartphones- the MONARCA II trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Frost, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder often show decreased adherence with mood stabilizers and frequently interventions on prodromal depressive and manic symptoms are delayed. METHODS: The MONARCA II trial uses a randomized controlled single-blind parallel-group design. Patients with bipolar...

  18. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  19. Biological dysrhythm in remitted bipolar I disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Palaniappan, Pradeep

    2017-12-01

    Recent treatment guidelines support treatment of biological rhythm abnormalities as a part of treatment of bipolar disorder, but still, literature examining various domains (Sleep, Activity, Social, and Eating) of biological rhythm and its clinical predictors are less. The main aim of our study is to compare various domains of biological rhythm among remitted bipolar I subjects and healthy controls. We also explored for any association between clinical variables and biological rhythm among bipolar subjects. 40 subjects with Bipolar I disorder and 40 healthy controls who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Diagnoses were ascertained by a qualified psychiatrist using MINI 5.0. Sociodemographic details, biological rhythm (BRIAN-Biological Rhythm Interview of assessment in Neuropsychiatry) and Sleep functioning (PSQI- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) were assessed in all subjects. Mean age of the Bipolar subjects and controls were 41.25±11.84years and 38.25±11.25 years respectively. Bipolar subjects experienced more biological rhythm disturbance when compared to healthy controls (total BRIAN score being 34.25±9.36 vs 28.2±6.53) (p=0.002). Subsyndromal depressive symptoms (HDRS) had significant positive correlation with BRIAN global scores(r=0.368, p=0.02). Linear regression analysis showed that number of episodes which required hospitalization (β=0.601, t=3.106, P=0.004), PSQI (β=0.394, t=2.609, p=0.014), HDRS (β=0.376, t=2.34, t=0.036) explained 31% of variance in BRIAN scores in remitted bipolar subjects. Biological rhythm disturbances seem to persist even after clinical remission of bipolar illness. More studies to look into the impact of subsyndromal depressive symptoms on biological rhythm are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Bipolar disorders in DSM-5].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severus, E; Bauer, M

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2013 the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) edited by the American Psychiatric Association was published. The DSM-5 has also brought some important changes regarding bipolar disorders. The goal of this manuscript is to review the novelties in DSM-5 and to evaluate the implications of these changes. The diagnostic criteria as well as the additional remarks provided in the running text of DSM-5 were carefully appraised. For the first time diagnostic criteria are provided for disorders which up to now have been considered as subthreshold bipolar disorders. Furthermore, mixed episodes were eliminated and instead a mixed specifier was introduced. An increase in goal-directed activity/energy is now one of the obligatory symptoms for a (hypo)manic episode. Diagnostic guidance is provided as to when a (hypo)manic episode that has developed during treatment with an antidepressant has to be judged to be causally related to antidepressants and when this episode has only occurred coincidentally with antidepressant use. While some of the novelties are clearly useful, e.g. addition of increased goal-directed activity/energy as obligatory symptom for (hypo)manic episodes, this remains to be demonstrated for others, such as the definition of various subthreshold bipolar disorders.

  1. Bipolar Disorder in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202

  2. The Photospheric Flow near the Flare Locations of Active Regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    in the active regions along with few locations of upflows. The localised upflows are observed in the light bridges and emerging flux regions with different speeds (Beckers & Schroter 1969). The flow patterns of flare locations in the active regions are observed by using the tower vector magnetograph (TVM) of Marshall.

  3. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF ACOUSTIC WAVE PARAMETERS NEAR SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  4. The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with bipolar disorder: a controlled functional MRI investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives-Deliperi, Victoria L; Howells, Fleur; Stein, Dan J; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Horn, Neil

    2013-09-25

    Preliminary research findings have shown that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy improves anxiety and depressive symptoms in bipolar disorder. In this study, we further investigated the effects of MBCT in bipolar disorder, in a controlled fMRI study. Twenty three patients with bipolar disorder underwent neuropsychological testing and functional MRI. Sixteen of these patients were tested before and after an eight-week MBCT intervention, and seven were wait listed for training and tested at the same intervals. The results were compared with 10 healthy controls. Prior to MBCT, bipolar patients reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and symptoms of stress, scored significantly lower on a test of working memory, and showed significant BOLD signal decrease in the medial PFC during a mindfulness task, compared to healthy controls. Following MBCT, there were significant improvements in the bipolar treatment group, in measures of mindfulness, anxiety and emotion regulation, and in tests of working memory, spatial memory and verbal fluency compared to the bipolar wait list group. BOLD signal increases were noted in the medial PFC and posterior parietal lobe, in a repeat mindfulness task. A region of interest analysis revealed strong correlation between signal changes in medial PFC and increases in mindfulness. The small control group is a limitation in the study. These data suggest that MBCT improves mindfulness and emotion regulation and reduces anxiety in bipolar disorder, corresponding to increased activations in the medial PFC, a region associated with cognitive flexibility and previously proposed as a key area of pathophysiology in the disorder. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Circadian markers and genes in bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeim, S; Boudebesse, C; Etain, B; Belliviera, F

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe and complex multifactorial disease, characterized by alternance of acute episodes of depression and mania/hypomania, interspaced by euthymic periods. The etiological determinants of bipolar disorder yet, are still poorly understood. For the last 30 years, chronobiology is an important field of investigation to better understand the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. We conducted a review using Medline, ISI Database, EMBase, PsyInfo up to January 2015, using the following keywords combinations: "mood disorder", "bipolar disorder", "depression", "unipolar disorder", "major depressive disorder", "affective disorder", for psychiatric conditions; and "circadian rhythms", "circadian markers", "circadian gene", "clock gene", "melatonin" for circadian rhythms. The search critera was presence of word in any field of the article. Quantitative and qualitative circadian abnormalities are associated with bipolar disorders both during acute episodes and euthymic periods, suggesting that these altered circadian rhythms may represent biological trait markers of the disorder. These circadian dysfunctions were assessed by various validated tools including polysomnography, actigraphy, sleep diaries, chronotype assessments and blood melatonin/cortisol measures. Other altered endogenous circadian activities have also been reported in bipolar patients, such as hormones secretion, core body temperature or fibroblasts activity. Moreover, these markers were also altered in healthy relatives of bipolar patients, suggesting a degree of heritability. Several genetic association studies have also showed associations between multiple circadian genes and bipolar disorder, such as CLOCK, ARTNL1, GSK3β, PER3, NPAS2, NR1D1, TIMELESS, RORA, RORB, and CSNK1ε. Thus, these circadian gene variants may contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the disease. Furthermore, the study of the clock system may help to better understand some phenotypic aspects like the

  6. Coping and personality in older patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouws, Sigfried N T M; Paans, Nadine P G; Comijs, Hannie C; Dols, Annemiek; Stek, Max L

    2015-09-15

    Little is known about coping styles and personality traits in older bipolar patients. Adult bipolar patients show a passive coping style and higher neuroticism scores compared to the general population. Our aim is to investigate personality traits and coping in older bipolar patients and the relationship between coping and personality. 75 Older patients (age > 60) with bipolar I or II disorder in a euthymic mood completed the Utrecht Coping List and the NEO Personality Inventory FFI and were compared to normative data. Older bipolar patients show more passive coping styles compared to healthy elderly. Their personality traits are predominated by openness, in contrast conscientiousness and altruism are relatively sparse. Neuroticism was related to passive coping styles, whereas conscientiousness was related to an active coping style. Older bipolar patients have more passive coping styles. Their personality is characterized by openness and relatively low conscientiousness and altruism. Our sample represents a survival cohort; this may explain the differences in personality traits between older patients in this study and in adult bipolar patients in other studies. The association between coping styles and personality traits is comparable to reports of younger adult patients with bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies are warranted to explore if coping and personality change with ageing in bipolar patients and to determine which coping style is most effective in preventing mood episodes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Tiagabine in treatment refractory bipolar disorder : a clinical case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppes, T; Chisholm, KA; Dhavale, D; Frye, MA; Atshuler, LL; McElroy, SL; Keck, PE; Nolen, WA; Kupka, R; Denicoff, KD; Leverich, GS; Rush, AJ; Post, RM

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Anticonvulsants have provided major treatment advances for patients with bipolar disorder. Many of these drugs, including several with proven efficacy in bipolar mania or depression, enhance the activity of the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter system. A new

  8. Image patch analysis of sunspots and active regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Separating active regions that are quiet from potentially eruptive ones is a key issue in Space Weather applications. Traditional classification schemes such as Mount Wilson and McIntosh have been effective in relating an active region large scale magnetic configuration to its ability to produce eruptive events. However, their qualitative nature prevents systematic studies of an active region’s evolution for example. Aims. We introduce a new clustering of active regions that is based on the local geometry observed in Line of Sight magnetogram and continuum images. Methods. We use a reduced-dimension representation of an active region that is obtained by factoring the corresponding data matrix comprised of local image patches. Two factorizations can be compared via the definition of appropriate metrics on the resulting factors. The distances obtained from these metrics are then used to cluster the active regions. Results. We find that these metrics result in natural clusterings of active regions. The clusterings are related to large scale descriptors of an active region such as its size, its local magnetic field distribution, and its complexity as measured by the Mount Wilson classification scheme. We also find that including data focused on the neutral line of an active region can result in an increased correspondence between our clustering results and other active region descriptors such as the Mount Wilson classifications and the R-value. Conclusions. Matrix factorization of image patches is a promising new way of characterizing active regions. We provide some recommendations for which metrics, matrix factorization techniques, and regions of interest to use to study active regions.

  9. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... down” Have trouble sleeping Think about death or suicide Can someone have bipolar disorder along with other problems? Yes. Sometimes people having very strong mood episodes may have psychotic symptoms. Psychosis affects thoughts ...

  10. Pharmacological analysis of the activation and receptor properties of the tonic GABA(CR current in retinal bipolar cell terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Jones

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS can occur via rapid, transient postsynaptic currents and via a tonic increase in membrane conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs respectively. Retinal bipolar cells (BCs exhibit a tonic current mediated by GABA(CRs in their axon terminal, in addition to synaptic GABA(AR and GABA(CR currents, which strongly regulate BC output. The tonic GABA(CR current in BC terminals (BCTs is not dependent on vesicular GABA release, but properties such as the alternative source of GABA and the identity of the GABA(CRs remain unknown. Following a recent report that tonic GABA release from cerebellar glial cells is mediated by Bestrophin 1 anion channels, we have investigated their role in non-vesicular GABA release in the retina. Using patch-clamp recordings from BCTs in goldfish retinal slices, we find that the tonic GABA(CR current is not reduced by the anion channel inhibitors NPPB or flufenamic acid but is reduced by DIDS, which decreases the tonic current without directly affecting GABA(CRs. All three drugs also exhibit non-specific effects including inhibition of GABA transporters. GABA(CR ρ subunits can form homomeric and heteromeric receptors that differ in their properties, but BC GABA(CRs are thought to be ρ1-ρ2 heteromers. To investigate whether GABA(CRs mediating tonic and synaptic currents may differ in their subunit composition, as is the case for GABA(ARs, we have examined the effects of two antagonists that show partial ρ subunit selectivity: picrotoxin and cyclothiazide. Tonic and synaptic GABA(CR currents were differentially affected by both drugs, suggesting that a population of homomeric ρ1 receptors contributes to the tonic current. These results extend our understanding of the multiple forms of GABAergic inhibition that exist in the CNS and contribute to visual signal processing in the retina.

  11. Ion transport Modeling in a Bipolar Membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Soo; Park, Kwang Heon; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2010-01-01

    The COL(Carbonate-based Oxidative Leaching) process is an environmentally-friendly technique for collecting only uranium from spent fuel with oxidation leaching/ precipitation of carbonate solution. The bipolar membrane used for the electrolyte circulation of the salt used in the COL process is a special form of ion exchange membrane which combines CEM(cation exchange membrane) and AEM(anion exchange membrane). After arranging positive ion exchange layer toward negative terminal and positive ion exchange layer toward positive terminal, then supply electricity, water molecules are decomposed into protons and hydroxyl ions by a strong electric field in the transition region inside bipolar membrane.1) In this study, a theoretical approach to increase the efficiency of Na + and NO3 - ion collecting device using bipolar membrane was taken and simulating using the COMSOL program was tried. The details of results are also discussed

  12. Attentional Bias Predicts Increased Reward Salience and Risk Taking in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Liam; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J; Bentall, Richard P; El-Deredy, Wael

    2016-02-15

    There is amassing evidence that risky decision-making in bipolar disorder is related to reward-based differences in frontostriatal regions. However, the roles of early attentional and later cognitive processes remain unclear, limiting theoretical understanding and development of targeted interventions. Twenty euthymic bipolar disorder and 19 matched control participants played a Roulette task in which they won and lost money. Event-related potentials and source analysis were used to quantify predominantly sensory-attentional (N1), motivational salience (feedback-related negativities [FRN]), and cognitive appraisal (P300) stages of processing. We predicted that the bipolar disorder group would show increased N1, consistent with increased attentional orienting, and reduced FRN, consistent with a bias to perceive outcomes more favorably. As predicted, the bipolar disorder group showed increased N1 and reduced FRN but no differences in P300. N1 amplitude was additionally associated with real-life risk taking, and N1 source activity was reduced in visual cortex but increased activity in precuneus, frontopolar, and premotor cortex, compared to those of controls. These findings demonstrate an early attentional bias to reward that potentially drives risk taking by priming approach behavior and elevating reward salience in the frontostriatal pathway. Although later cognitive appraisals of these inputs may be relatively intact in remission, interventions targeting attention orienting may also be effective in long-term reduction of relapse. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bipolar Affective Disorder and Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birk Engmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of a case history and an overview of the relationship, aetiology, and treatment of comorbid bipolar disorder migraine patients. A MEDLINE literature search was used. Terms for the search were bipolar disorder bipolar depression, mania, migraine, mood stabilizer. Bipolar disorder and migraine cooccur at a relatively high rate. Bipolar II patients seem to have a higher risk of comorbid migraine than bipolar I patients have. The literature on the common roots of migraine and bipolar disorder, including both genetic and neuropathological approaches, is broadly discussed. Moreover, bipolar disorder and migraine are often combined with a variety of other affective disorders, and, furthermore, behavioural factors also play a role in the origin and course of the diseases. Approach to treatment options is also difficult. Several papers point out possible remedies, for example, valproate, topiramate, which acts on both diseases, but no first-choice treatments have been agreed upon yet.

  14. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  15. Bipolar Mass Spectrometry of Labile Coordination Complexes, Redox Active Inorganic Compounds, and Proteins Using a Glass Nebulizer for Sonic-Spray Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakis, Manolis M.; Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Kanaki, Katerina; Milios, Constantinos J.; Pergantis, Spiros A.

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we report on the development of a novel nebulizer configuration for sonic-spray ionization (SSI) mass spectrometry (MS), more specifically for a version of SSI that is referred to as Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) MS. The developed nebulizer configuration is based on a commercially available pneumatic glass nebulizer that has been used extensively for aerosol formation in atomic spectrometry. In the present study, the nebulizer was modified in order to achieve efficient V-EASI-MS operation. Upon evaluating this system, it has been demonstrated that V-EASI-MS offers some distinct advantages for the analysis of coordination compounds and redox active inorganic compounds over the predominantly used electrospray ionization (ESI) technique. Such advantages, for this type of compounds, are demonstrated here for the first time. More specifically, a series of labile heptanuclear heterometallic [CuII 6LnIII] clusters held together with artificial amino acid ligands, in addition to easily oxidized inorganic oxyanions of selenium and arsenic, were analyzed. The observed advantages pertain to V-EASI appearing to be a "milder" ionization source than ESI, not requiring electrical potentials for gas phase ion formation, thus eliminating the possibility of unwanted redox transformations, allowing for the "simultaneous" detection of negative and positive ions (bipolar analysis) without the need to change source ionization conditions, and also not requiring the use of syringes and delivery pumps. Because of such features, especially because of the absence of ionization potentials, EASI can be operated with minimal requirements for source parameter optimization. We observed that source temperature and accelerating voltage do not seem to affect labile compounds to the extent they do in ESI-MS. In addition, bipolar analysis of proteins was demonstrated here by acquiring both positive and negative ion mass spectra from the same protein solutions

  16. Bipolar Disorder and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence studies and studies on causation relations have shown that the relation between psychiatric disorders and chronic physical diseases is neglected. For heterogeneous diseases an increasing number of susceptibility variants are being defined. Alzheimer disease, bipolar disorder, breast and prostate cancer, coronary artery disease, Chron's disease, systemic lupus eritematosus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are mentioned together with epigenetic concept. In acrocentric zone of chromosome 13, breast cancer, retinoblastoma, chronic Iymphocytic leukemia genes with B cells, dopamin loci of bipolar disorder are found together. Among bipolar and healthy individuals, an increase risk of breast cancer in female cases has been resported. On the other hand, psychosocial factors that affect stress and response to stress itself may be important variables in prognosis and progression of different cancer types. During the course of many cancer types –especially brain tumors- and during treatment of chemotherapeutic agents, bipolar symptomatology may appear. In this article, it is reviewed with relevant literature that whether an etiological relation between bipolar disorder and cancer exist and how both diseases affect each other's course and treatment.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HUMAN RESOURCES FOR REGIONAL INNOVATION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Lukyanova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues of human resource development regarding an innovation activity. Concepts of labor and human resources have been surveyed. An integral index for assessment of human resources for regional innovation activity has been developed and assessment of the Russian regions has been made on the basis of it. Development tendencies of modern human resources for innovation activity in Russia have been revealed.

  18. Sports participation, physical activity, and health in the European regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera-López, Fernando; Marco, Rocio

    2018-08-01

    In a context of stagnation of the level of health-enhancing physical activity in Europe, this study examines the geographical stratification of sports participation and physical activity (PA) at the regional level in 28 European countries. While previous research has focused on the national approach, this study considers the regional level across 208 European regions. Individual survey data from the Eurobarometer 80.2 is combined with a regional-level approach to the 208 regions to quantify sports participation and PA at the regional level. The results show important differences and a geographical stratification of sports participation and PA among the European regions, albeit following different patterns. In particular, a north-south gap is identified in terms of PA rates and an east-west gap is detected in terms of sports participation levels. Applying the cluster technique, a taxonomy of four different European regions is developed considering both types of indicators. Finally, the existence of sports spatial spillovers among regions is verified, obtaining a positive autocorrelation among neighbouring regions for being involved in PA and sporting activities. The results may have significant implications in terms of policy measures to improve health through PA and sports participation at the regional level in Europe.

  19. [Differences in Subjective Experience Between Unipolar and Bipolar Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco; Bustos, Andrés; Molina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    It is important to make distinction between bipolar and unipolar depression because treatment and prognosis are different. Since the diagnosis of the two conditions is purely clinical, find symptomatic differences is useful. Find differences in subjective experience (first person) between unipolar and bipolar depression. Phenomenological-oriented qualitative exploratory study of 12 patients (7 with bipolar depression and 5 with unipolar depression, 3 men and 9 women). We used a semi-structured interview based on Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience (EASE). The predominant mood in bipolar depression is emotional dampening, in unipolar is sadness. The bodily experience in bipolar is of a heavy, tired body; an element that inserts between the desires of acting and performing actions and becomes an obstacle to the movement. In unipolar is of a body that feels more comfortable with the stillness than activity, like laziness of everyday life. Cognition and the stream of consciousness: in bipolar depression, compared with unipolar, thinking is slower, as if to overcome obstacles in their course. There are more difficult to understand what is heard or read. Future perspective: in bipolar depression, hopelessness is stronger and broader than in unipolar, as if the very possibility of hope was lost. Qualitative differences in predominant mood, bodily experience, cognition and future perspective were found between bipolar and unipolar depression. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity in bipolar disorders: A consensus statement from the International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-05-01

    Research has only recently started to consider the importance and applicability of physical activity (PA) for people with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study is to highlight 10 pertinent PA research questions in people with BD. The International Organization of Physical Therapy in Mental Health executed a consultation with all National organizations (n=13) to identify the most salient questions to guide future research on PA in BD. We identified the following 10 questions: (1) What are the benefits of PA for people with BD? (2) What are the most prominent safety issues for PA prescription in BD? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with BD? (4) What are the key barriers to PA among people with BD? (5) What are the most effective motivational strategies for ensuring PA adoption and maintenance in BD? (6) How do we translate PA research into community practice? (7) If one treatment goal is increased physical activity, what type of professionals are needed as part of a multidisciplinary team? (8) How do we incorporate PA as a vital sign in clinical practice? (9) How can we prevent sedentary behavior in BD? (10) What is the most appropriate PA assessment method? We did not consult people with BD. Addressing these questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in BD. Ultimately, achieving this will reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and improve the quality of life of this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Smartphone based treatment in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M; Frost, M.; Bardram, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    During this symposium, results from a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of smartphone based electronic self-monitoring on the severity of depressive and manic symptoms will be presented and discussed.Further, we will present and discuss the use of automatically generated...... objective smartphone data on behavioral activities (eg social activities, mobility and physical activity) as electronic biomarkers of illness activity in bipolar disorder....

  2. Recurrent forbush decreases and the relationship between active regions and M regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.N.; Kaul, C.L.; Razdan, H.; Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    Recurrent Forbush decreases and recurrent geomagnetic disturbances have been attributed to the solar M regions, which are sources of high-velocity solar plasma streams. A study of recurrent Forbush decreases for the period 1966--1975 has been made to examine any possible relationship of M regions with solar active regions. It is shown that at the onset of the recurrent Forbush decrease at the earth there is a high probability of encountering a class of active regions at the central meridian of the sun which give rise to flares of importance > or =2B/3N. These active regions are found to be long lasting and to have large areas as well as high Hα intensities. Other active regions, producing flares of lower importance, are distributed randomly on the sun with respect to the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease. By using the quasi-radial hypervelocity approximation the base of the leading edge of the high-velocity stream at the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease at the earth is traced to the solar longitude about 40 0 west of the central meridan. From these results it is deduced that M regions are located preferentially to the west of long-lasting magnetically complex active regions. Earlier studies of the identification of the M regions on the sun have been reexamined and shown to conform to this positional relationship. A possible mechanism of the development of an M region to the west of the long-lasting magnetically complex active region is also discussed

  3. Recurrent Forbush decreases and relationship between active regions and M-regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, G.N.; Kaul, C.L.; Razdan, H.; Bemalkhedkar, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recurrent Forbush decreases and recurrent geomagnetic disturbances have been attributed to the solar M-regions, which are sources of high velocity solar plasma streams. A study of recurrent Forbush decreases for the period 1966-75 has been made to examine any possible relationship of M-regions with solar active regions. It is shown that at the onset of the recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, there is a high probability of encountering a class of active regions at central meridian of the sun which give rise to flares of importance >= 28/3N. These active regions are found to be long-lasting and to have large areas as well as high Hsub(α)-intensities. Other active regions, producing flares of only lower importance, are distributed randomly on the sun with respect to the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease. Using the quasiradial hypervelocity approximation, the base of the leading edge of the high velocity stream, at the onset of a recurrent Forbush decrease at earth, is traced to the solar longitude about 40 deg West of the central meridian. From these results, it is deduced that M-regions are located preferentially to the West of long-lasting, magnetically complex active regions. Earlier studies of the identification of the M-regions on the sun have been re-examined and shown to conform to this positional relationship. A possible mechanism of the development of an M-region to the West of the long-lasting magnetically complex active region is also discussed. (author)

  4. Abnormal functional connectivity of the medial cortex in euthymic bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, William R; Lee, James N; Johnson, Susanna; Gale, Phillip; Thatcher, John

    2014-06-03

    This project utilized functional MRI (fMRI) and a motor activation paradigm to investigate neural circuitry in euthymic bipolar II disorder. We hypothesized that circuitry involving the cortical midline structures (CMS) would demonstrate abnormal functional connectivity. Nineteen subjects with recurrent bipolar disorder and 18 controls were studied using fMRI and a motor activation paradigm. We used functional connectivity analyses to identify circuits with aberrant connectivity. We found increased functional connectivity among bipolar subjects compared to healthy controls in two CMS circuits. One circuit included the medial aspect of the left superior frontal gyrus and the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus. The other included the medial aspect of the right superior frontal gyrus, the dorsolateral region of the left superior frontal gyrus and the right medial frontal gyrus and surrounding region. Our results indicate that CMS circuit dysfunction persists in the euthymic state and thus may represent trait pathology. Future studies should address whether these circuits contribute to relapse of illness. Our results also suggest the possibility that aberrations of superior frontal circuitry may impact default mode network and cognitive processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Alterations of the cerebellum and basal ganglia in bipolar disorder mood states detected by quantitative T1ρ mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Casey P; Christensen, Gary E; Fiedorowicz, Jess G; Mani, Merry; Shaffer, Joseph J; Magnotta, Vincent A; Wemmie, John A

    2018-01-07

    Quantitative mapping of T1 relaxation in the rotating frame (T1ρ) is a magnetic resonance imaging technique sensitive to pH and other cellular and microstructural factors, and is a potentially valuable tool for identifying brain alterations in bipolar disorder. Recently, this technique identified differences in the cerebellum and cerebral white matter of euthymic patients vs healthy controls that were consistent with reduced pH in these regions, suggesting an underlying metabolic abnormality. The current study built upon this prior work to investigate brain T1ρ differences across euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states of bipolar disorder. Forty participants with bipolar I disorder and 29 healthy control participants matched for age and gender were enrolled. Participants with bipolar disorder were imaged in one or more mood states, yielding 27, 12, and 13 imaging sessions in euthymic, depressed, and manic mood states, respectively. Three-dimensional, whole-brain anatomical images and T1ρ maps were acquired for all participants, enabling voxel-wise evaluation of T1ρ differences between bipolar mood state and healthy control groups. All three mood state groups had increased T1ρ relaxation times in the cerebellum compared to the healthy control group. Additionally, the depressed and manic groups had reduced T1ρ relaxation times in and around the basal ganglia compared to the control and euthymic groups. The study implicated the cerebellum and basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and its mood states, the roles of which are relatively unexplored. These findings motivate further investigation of the underlying cause of the abnormalities, and the potential role of altered metabolic activity in these regions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Active Pesticide Production Points, Region 9, 2013, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Active Pesticide Producing Establishments in USEPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI and NV) that reported production for the year 2013. Pesticide...

  7. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  8. Extreme Trust Region Policy Optimization for Active Object Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei; Sun, Fuchun; Huaping Liu; Yupei Wu; Fuchun Sun; Sun, Fuchun; Liu, Huaping; Wu, Yupei

    2018-06-01

    In this brief, we develop a deep reinforcement learning method to actively recognize objects by choosing a sequence of actions for an active camera that helps to discriminate between the objects. The method is realized using trust region policy optimization, in which the policy is realized by an extreme learning machine and, therefore, leads to efficient optimization algorithm. The experimental results on the publicly available data set show the advantages of the developed extreme trust region optimization method.

  9. Nicotinic receptors and functional regulation of GABA cell microcircuitry in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Francine M

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the hippocampus in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have provided evidence for a defect of GABAergic interneurons. Significant decreases in the expression of GAD67, a marker for GABA cell function, have been found repeatedly in several different brain regions that include the hippocampus. In this region, nicotinic receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons by influences of excitatory cholinergic afferents on their activity. In bipolar disorder, this influence appears to be particularly prominent in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1, two sites where these cells constitute the exclusive neuronal cell type. In sector CA3/2, this layer receives a robust excitatory projection from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and this is thought to play a central role in regulating GABA cells at this locus. Using laser microdissection, recent studies have focused selectively on these two layers and their associated GABA cells using microarray technology. The results have provided support for the idea that nicotinic cholinergic receptors play a particularly important role in regulating the activity of GABA neurons at these loci by regulating the progression of cell cycle and the repair of damaged DNA. In bipolar disorder, there is a prominent reduction in the expression of mRNAs for several different nicotinic subunit isoforms. These decreases could reflect a diminished influence of this receptor system on these GABA cells, particularly in sector CA3/2 where a preponderance of abnormalities have been observed in postmortem studies. In patients with bipolar disorder, excitatory nicotinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum may converge with glutamatergic fibers from the BLA on GABAergic interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA3/2 and result in disturbances of their genomic and functional integrity, ones that may induce disruptions of the integration of

  10. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Home Science News Meetings and Events Multimedia Social Media Press Resources Newsletters NIMH News Feeds About Us ... has a lot of money, or has special powers. Someone having psychotic symptoms ... Substance Abuse: People with bipolar disorder may also misuse alcohol ...

  11. Discrete bipolar universal integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Greco, S.; Mesiar, Radko; Rindone, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 1 (2014), s. 55-65 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : bipolar integral * universal integral * Choquet integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/mesiar-0432224.pdf

  12. El trastorno bipolar

    OpenAIRE

    Freaza Rodríguez, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Se exponen los aspectos más relevantes del trastorno bipolar, entender qué significa este concepto, conocer los tipos que existen, qué otros trastornos suelen aparecer al mismo tiempo y qué tratamientos son los que dan mejores resultados

  13. RCA activities in the Asian and Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.

    1984-01-01

    So-called ''RCA'' activities - practical work undertaken within the framework of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology for the Asian and Pacific region - are widely regarded as an example of successful co-operative effort in the application of nuclear techniques at a regional level. Activities undertaken to promote the transfer of nuclear technology within the framework of the RCA cover a large spectrum of nuclear applications in agriculture and food production, medicine, study of the environment, industry, and physics. Fourteen projects are operational this year (1984)

  14. Brain activation during self- and other-reflection in bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis: Comparison to schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwen Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: BD patients showed less activation in the PCC/precuneus during other-reflection. This may support an account of impaired integration of emotion and memory (evaluation of past and current other-related information in BD patients. Correlation differences of the PCC/precuneus activation with the cognitive insight in patients with BD and SZ might reflect an important difference between these disorders, which may help to further explore potentially distinguishing markers.

  15. Thoughts on the development of active regional public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Ademar Arthur Chioro Dos; Sóter, Ana Paula Menezes; Furtado, Lumena Almeida Castro; Pereira, Silvana Souza da Silva

    2017-04-01

    Decentralization and regionalization are strategic themes for reforms in the health system. This paper analyzes the complex process of health regionalization being developed in Brazil. This paper identifies that the normative framework from the Brazilian National Health System, SUS has made advances with respect to its institutionalization and overcoming the initial centrality involved in municipalization. This has strengthened the development of regionalization and the intergovernmental agreement on health but the evidence points to the need to promote a revision. Based on document analysis, literature review and the views given by the authors involved in management in SUS as well as generating radically different views, the challenges for the construction of a regionalization that is active, is debated. We also discuss: its relations with planning and the dimensioning of service networks, the production of active care networks and shared management spaces, the inter-federative agreements and regional regulations, the capacity to coordinate regional systems and financing and the impact of the political dimension and electoral cycles. Regionalization (and SUS itself) is an open book, therefore ways and possibilities on how to maintain an active form of regionalization can be recommended.

  16. ON BIPOLAR SINGLE VALUED NEUTROSOPHIC GRAPHS

    OpenAIRE

    Said Broumi; Mohamed Talea; Assia Bakali; Florentin Smarandache

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we combine the concept of bipolar neutrosophic set and graph theory. We introduce the notions of bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, strong bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, complete bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs, regular bipolar single valued neutrosophic graphs and investigate some of their related properties.

  17. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  18. Determinants of Foreign Technological Activity in German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dettmann, Eva; Lacasa, Iciar Dominguez; Günther, Jutta

    This paper analyses the determinants of spatial distribution of foreign technological activity across 96 German regions (1996-2009). We identify foreign inventive activity by applying the ‘cross-border-ownership concept’ to transnational patent applications. The descriptive analysis shows...

  19. Emergence of Magnetic Flux Generated in a Solar Convective Dynamo. I. The Formation of Sunspots and Active Regions, and The Origin of Their Asymmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Feng; Rempel, Matthias; Fan, Yuhong, E-mail: chenfeng@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO, 80307 (United States)

    2017-09-10

    We present a realistic numerical model of sunspot and active region formation based on the emergence of flux bundles generated in a solar convective dynamo. To this end, we use the magnetic and velocity fields in a horizontal layer near the top boundary of the solar convective dynamo simulation to drive realistic radiative-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the uppermost layers of the convection zone. The main results are as follows. (1) The emerging flux bundles rise with the mean speed of convective upflows and fragment into small-scale magnetic elements that further rise to the photosphere, where bipolar sunspot pairs are formed through the coalescence of the small-scale magnetic elements. (2) Filamentary penumbral structures form when the sunspot is still growing through ongoing flux emergence. In contrast to the classical Evershed effect, the inflow seems to prevail over the outflow in a large part of the penumbra. (3) A well-formed sunspot is a mostly monolithic magnetic structure that is anchored in a persistent deep-seated downdraft lane. The flow field outside the spot shows a giant vortex ring that comprises an inflow below 15 Mm depth and an outflow above 15 Mm depth. (4) The sunspots successfully reproduce the fundamental properties of the observed solar active regions, including the more coherent leading spots with a stronger field strength, and the correct tilts of bipolar sunspot pairs. These asymmetries can be linked to the intrinsic asymmetries in the magnetic and flow fields adapted from the convective dynamo simulation.

  20. Relation between Amygdala Structure and Function in Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jessica H.; Wang, Fei; Chepenik, Lara G.; Womer, Fay Y.; Jones, Monique M.; Pittman, Brian; Shah, Maulik P.; Martin, Andres; Constable, R. Todd; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with bipolar disorder showed decreased amygdala volume and increased amygdala response to emotional faces. Amygdala volume is inversely related to activation during emotional face processing.

  1. An all-organic rechargeable battery using bipolar polyparaphenylene as a redox-active cathode and anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L M; Lei, A W; Cao, Y L; Ai, X P; Yang, H X

    2013-01-21

    An all-organic rechargeable battery is realized by use of polyparaphenylene as both cathode- and anode-active material. This new battery can operate at a high voltage of 3.0 V with fairly high capacity, offering a renewable and cheaper alternative to conventional batteries.

  2. How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R; Ward, Nick S; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C; Lemon, Roger N; Frackowiak, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (+/-1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function.

  3. Monocyte activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100B in bipolar offspring : a follow-up study from adolescence into adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon H. J.; Ambree, Oliver; Arolt, Volker; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    ObjectivesThere is increasing evidence that both immune and neurochemical alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder; however, their precise role remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate neuro-immune changes in a prospective study on children of patients with

  4. Monocyte activation, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and S100B in bipolar offspring : A follow-up study from adolescence into adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesman, Esther; Hillegers, Manon H J; Ambree, Oliver; Arolt, Volker; Nolen, Willem A.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.

    Objectives: There is increasing evidence that both immune and neurochemical alterations are involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder; however, their precise role remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate neuro-immune changes in a prospective study on children of patients with

  5. Life expectancy in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Life expectancy in patients with bipolar disorder has been reported to be decreased by 11 to 20 years. These calculations are based on data for individuals at the age of 15 years. However, this may be misleading for patients with bipolar disorder in general as most patients have a later...... onset of illness. The aim of the present study was to calculate the remaining life expectancy for patients of different ages with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using nationwide registers of all inpatient and outpatient contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark from 1970 to 2012 we...... remaining life expectancy in bipolar disorder and that of the general population decreased with age, indicating that patients with bipolar disorder start losing life-years during early and mid-adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: Life expectancy in bipolar disorder is decreased substantially, but less so than previously...

  6. The THMIS-MTR observation of a active region filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.

    We present some THMIS-MTR observations of a active region filament on September 4, 2002. The full stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα, CaII 8542 and FeI 6302. By use of the data with high spatial resolution(0.44" per pixel), we probed the fine structure of the filament and gave out the parameters at the barbs' endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Comparing the quiescent filament which we have discussed before, we find that: 1)The velocities of the barbs' endpoints are much bigger in the active region filament, the values are more than one thousand meters per second. 2)The barbs' endpoints terminate at the low logitudinal magnetic field in the active region filament, too.

  7. [Bipolar disorder in adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelle, Julie; Milhet, Vanessa; Consoli, Angèle; Cohen, David

    2014-04-01

    Juvenile mania is a concept widely developed but also highly debated since the 1990s. In the heart of this debate, Severe Mood Dysregulation (SMD) and "Temper Dysregulation disorder with Dysphoria" (recently integrated in DSM-5) showed their interest. Actually, the objective is to distinguish two clinical phenotypes in order to avoid confusion between (1) what would raise more of mood dysregulation with chronic manic like symptoms, and (2) bipolar disorder type I with episodic and acute manic episodes. Therapeutic stakes are major. In adolescents, even if DSM adult diagnostic criteria can be used and bipolar disorder type I clearly established, differential diagnostic at onset between acute manic episode and schizophrenia onset remain sometimes difficult to assess. Furthermore, it is crucial to better assess outcome of these adolescents, in terms of morbidity and potential prognosis factors, knowing that a younger age at onset is associated with a poorer outcome according to several adult studies. Therapeutic implications could then be drawn.

  8. Depressive and bipolar disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2005-01-01

    of the patients (40-80%) had erroneous views as to the effect of antidepressants. Older patients (over 40 years of age) consistently had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship, more erroneous ideas concerning the effect of antidepressants and a more negative view of antidepressants in general....... Moreover, their partners agreed on these negative views. Women had a more negative view of the doctor-patient relationship than men, and patients with a depressive disorder had a more negative view of antidepressants than patients with bipolar disorder. The number of psychiatric hospitalizations......BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that attitudes and beliefs are important in predicting adherence to treatment and medication in depressive and bipolar disorders. However, these attitudes have received little study in patients whose disorders were sufficiently severe to require...

  9. Cooling Active Region Loops Observed With SXT and TRACE

    OpenAIRE

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2005-01-01

    An Impulsive Heating Multiple Strand (IHMS) Model is able to reproduce the observational characteristics of EUV (~ 1 MK) active region loops. This model implies that some of the loops must reach temperatures where X-ray filters are sensitive (> 2.5 MK) before they cool to EUV temperatures. Hence, some bright EUV loops must be preceded by bright X-ray loops. Previous analysis of X-ray and EUV active region observations, however, have concluded that EUV loops are not preceded by X-ray loops. In...

  10. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  11. Reviewing metallic PEMFC bipolar plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Turner, J.A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A bipolar plate is one of the most important components in a polymer exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and has multiple functions. Metallic bipolar plate candidates have advantages over composite rivals in excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, good mechanical strength, high chemical stability, very wide alloy choices, low cost and, most importantly, existing pathways for high-volume, high-speed mass production. The challenges with metallic bipolar plates are the higher contact resistance and possible corrosion products, which may contaminate the membrane electrode assembly. This review evaluates the candidate metallic and coating materials for bipolar plates and gives the perspective of the research trends. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Bipolar disorder type I and II show distinct relationships between cortical thickness and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, C; Rolstad, S; Petrovic, P; Ekman, C-J; Sparding, T; Ingvar, M; Landén, M

    2018-06-15

    Frontal cortical abnormalities and executive function impairment co-occur in bipolar disorder. Recent studies have shown that bipolar subtypes differ in the degree of structural and functional impairments. The relationships between cognitive performance and cortical integrity have not been clarified and might differ across patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and healthy subjects. Using a vertex-wise whole-brain analysis, we investigated how cortical integrity, as measured by cortical thickness, correlates with executive performance in patients with bipolar disorder type I, II, and controls (N = 160). We found focal associations between executive function and cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex in bipolar II patients and controls, but not in bipolar I disorder. In bipolar II patients, we observed additional correlations in lateral prefrontal and occipital regions. Our findings suggest that bipolar disorder patients show altered structure-function relationships, and importantly that those relationships may differ between bipolar subtypes. The findings are line with studies suggesting subtype-specific neurobiological and cognitive profiles. This study contributes to a better understanding of brain structure-function relationships in bipolar disorder and gives important insights into the neuropathophysiology of diagnostic subtypes. © 2018 The Authors Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Revisiting the wandering womb: Oxytocin in endometriosis and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Natalie L; Crespi, Bernard J

    2017-11-01

    Hippocrates attributed women's high emotionality - hysteria - to a 'wandering womb'. Although hysteria diagnoses were abandoned along with the notion that displaced wombs cause emotional disturbance, recent research suggests that elevated levels of oxytocin occur in both bipolar disorder and endometriosis, a gynecological condition involving migration of endometrial tissue beyond the uterus. We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that elevated oxytocinergic system activity jointly contributes to bipolar disorder and endometriosis. First, we provide relevant background on endometriosis and bipolar disorder, and then we examine evidence for comorbidity between these conditions. We next: (1) review oxytocin's associations with personality traits, especially extraversion and openness, and how they overlap with bipolar spectrum traits; (2) describe evidence for higher oxytocinergic activity in both endometriosis and bipolar disorder; (3) examine altered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis functioning in both conditions; (4) describe data showing that medications that treat one condition can improve symptoms of the other; (5) discuss fitness-related impacts of endometriosis and bipolar disorder; and (6) review a pair of conditions, polycystic ovary syndrome and autism, that show evidence of involving reduced oxytocinergic activity, in direct contrast to endometriosis and bipolar disorder. Considered together, the bipolar spectrum and endometriosis appear to involve dysregulated high extremes of normally adaptive pleiotropy in the female oxytocin system, whereby elevated levels of oxytocinergic activity coordinate outgoing sociality with heightened fertility, apparently characterizing, overall, a faster life history. These findings should prompt a re-examination of how mind-body interactions, and the pleiotropic endocrine systems that underlie them, contribute to health and disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  15. LOCAL DEVELOPMENT IN NORTHEST REGION THROUGH ACTIVITIES IN ITC DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela\tENACHESCU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Economic areas with high technology are key drivers in sustainable regional development, including unemployment and consequently decreasing population migration in the region. Northeast Region is the largest development region of Romania in terms of number of inhabitants and the owned area. On 01/01/2014, according to balance employment, labor resources of the region were numbered 2,428,700, which represent 49.6% of employed population. The registered unemployment rate at 31 August 2014 was 6.5%, with 82 thousand unemployed registered. In terms of participation in the main economic activities, civilian employment in agriculture, forestry and fishing is predominant (40.1% while in service, civilian employment is 37.1%, while industry and construction is 22.8%. The paper aims to analyze the situation that the potential employment and development opportunities for the Northeast region through activities in the field of ITC domain. Unfortunately, this area was the worst in most indicators, the use of computers and the internet to the turnover of companies and investments in the IT & C and unfortunately in terms of employment population that is under 50%

  16. Normal Metabolic Levels in Prefrontal Cortex in Euthymic Bipolar I Patients with and without Suicide Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Vasconcelos Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. Evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD, but few neurochemical studies have evaluated this region in bipolar patients and there is no information from BD suicide attempters using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H+MRS. The objective was to evaluate the metabolic function of the medial orbital frontal cortex in euthymic BD type I suicide and nonsuicide attempters compared to healthy subjects by H+MRS. Methods. 40 euthymic bipolar I outpatients, 19 without and 21 with history of suicide attempt, and 22 healthy subjects were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview with the DSM-IV axis I, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and underwent H+MRS. Results. We did not find any metabolic abnormality in medial orbital frontal regions of suicide and nonsuicide BD patients and BD patients as a group compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions. The combined chronic use of psychotropic drugs with neuroprotective or neurotrophic effects leading to a euthymic state for longer periods of time may improve neurometabolic function, at least measured by H+MRS, even in suicide attempters. Besides, these results may implicate mood dependent alterations in brain metabolic activity. However, more studies with larger sample sizes of this heterogeneous disorder are warranted to clarify these data.

  17. Dynamic Precursors of Flares in Active Region NOAA 10486

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsós, M. B.; Gyenge, N.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2015-03-01

    Four different methods are applied here to study the precursors of flare activity in the Active Region NOAA 10486. Two approaches track the temporal behaviour of suitably chosen features (one, the weighted hori- zontal gradient W G M , is the generalized form of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G M ; the other is the sum of the horizontal gradient of the magnetic field, G S , for all sunspot pairs). W G M is a photospheric indicator, that is a proxy measure of magnetic non-potentiality of a specific area of the active region, i.e., it captures the temporal variation of the weighted horizontal gradient of magnetic flux summed up for the region where opposite magnetic polarities are highly mixed. The third one, referred to as the separateness parameter, S l- f , considers the overall morphology. Further, G S and S l- f are photospheric, newly defined quick-look indicators of the polarity mix of the entire active region. The fourth method is tracking the temporal variation of small X-ray flares, their times of succession and their energies observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager instrument. All approaches yield specific pre-cursory signatures for the imminence of flares.

  18. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  19. The transcriptionally active regions in the genome of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Simon; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Jarmer, Hanne Østergaard

    2009-01-01

    The majority of all genes have so far been identified and annotated systematically through in silico gene finding. Here we report the finding of 3662 strand-specific transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the genome of Bacillus subtilis by the use of tiling arrays. We have measured the genome...

  20. Magnetic and Velocity Field Variations in the Active Regions NOAA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We study the magnetic and velocity field evolution in the two magnetically complex active regions NOAA 10486 and NOAA 10488 observed during October–November 2003. We have used the available data to examine net flux and Doppler velocity time profiles to identify changes associated with evolutionary and ...

  1. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000

  2. Activation of kynurenine pathway in ex vivo fibroblasts from patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia: cytokine challenge increases production of 3-hydroxykynurenine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Anne-Sofie; Owe-Larsson, Björn; Asp, Linnéa; Kocki, Tomasz; Adler, Mats; Hetta, Jerker; Gardner, Renee; Lundkvist, Gabriella B S; Urbanska, Ewa M; Karlsson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Accumulating data suggest a causative link between immune stimulation, disturbed metabolism of tryptophan, and pathogenesis of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The goal of this study was to examine the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and the expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes involved in their synthesis and metabolism in cultured skin fibroblasts obtained from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or from healthy control individuals. The assessment was performed under basal conditions or following treatment with interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, or their combinations, in cells exposed to exogenous kynurenine. In both groups of patients, the baseline production of KYNA and 3-HK was increased, as compared to control subjects. Case-treatment analyses revealed significant interactions between bipolar case status and IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ + TNF-α, or IFN-γ + IL-1β, as well as between schizophrenia case status and IL-1β, IFN-γ + TNF-α, or IFN-γ + IL-1β, in terms of higher 3-HK. Noteworthy, no case-treatment interactions in terms of KYNA production were found. Observed changes did not appear to correlate with the expression of genes encoding kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs), kynureninase (KYNU) or kynurenine-3-monooxygenase (KMO). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1053230 and rs2275163, in KMO influenced KYNA levels yet did not explain the case-treatment discrepancies. In conclusion, our present findings indicate the utility of skin-derived fibroblasts for kynurenines research and support the concept of kynurenine pathway alterations in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The increase in ratio between neurotoxic 3-HK and neuroinhibitory/neuroprotective KYNA following exposure to cytokines may account for altered neurogenesis and structural abnormalities characteristic for both diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) chromosomal breakpoint regions and genetic association reveals novel candidate genes for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Christensen, Jane H; Mattheisen, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ,856) data. Genetic associations between these disorders and single nucleotide polymorphisms within these breakpoint regions were analysed by BioQ, FORGE, and RegulomeDB programmes. RESULTS: Four protein-coding genes [coding for (endonuclease V (ENDOV), neuronal pentraxin I (NPTX1), ring finger protein 213...

  4. Voice analysis as an objective state marker in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, M.; Busk, Jonas; Frost, M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in speech have been suggested as sensitive and valid measures of depression and mania in bipolar disorder. The present study aimed at investigating (1) voice features collected during phone calls as objective markers of affective states in bipolar disorder and (2) if combining voice...... features, automatically generated objective smartphone data on behavioral activities and electronic self-monitored data were collected from 28 outpatients with bipolar disorder in naturalistic settings on a daily basis during a period of 12 weeks. Depressive and manic symptoms were assessed using...... and electronic self-monitored data increased the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of classification of affective states slightly. Voice features collected in naturalistic settings using smartphones may be used as objective state markers in patients with bipolar disorder....

  5. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Berk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Munkholm K, Vinberg M, Berk M, Kessing LV. State-related alterations of gene expression in bipolar disorder: a systematic review. Bipolar Disord 2012: 14: 684-696. © 2012 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Objective:  Alterations in gene expression in bipolar disorder...... have been found in numerous studies. It is unclear whether such alterations are related to specific mood states. As a biphasic disorder, mood state-related alterations in gene expression have the potential to point to markers of disease activity, and trait-related alterations might indicate...... vulnerability pathways. This review therefore evaluated the evidence for whether gene expression in bipolar disorder is state or trait related. Methods:  A systematic review, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline for reporting systematic reviews, based...

  6. Regional and national radiation protection activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation protection activities in Egypt go back to 1957 where the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (EAEC) Law was issued. Radiation protection and civil defense department was one of EAEC eighth departments. Ionizing radiation law was issued in 1960 and its executive regulation in 1962. The main aim of the present work is to through some light on the current radiation protection activities in Egypt. This includes not only the role of governmental organizations but also to the non governmental organizations. Currently a new Nuclear Safety law is understudy. Regional activities such as holding the second all African IRPA regional radiation protection congress which was held in April 2007 and national training and workshops are held regularly through EAEA, AAEA and MERRCAC. (author)

  7. The functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder: a consensus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M; Almeida, Jorge; Altshuler, Lori L; Blumberg, Hilary P; Chang, Kiki D; DelBello, Melissa P; Frangou, Sophia; McIntosh, Andrew; Phillips, Mary L; Sussman, Jessika E; Townsend, Jennifer D

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Functional neuroimaging methods have proliferated in recent years, such that functional magnetic resonance imaging, in particular, is now widely used to study bipolar disorder. However, discrepant findings are common. A workgroup was organized by the Department of Psychiatry, University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati, OH, USA) to develop a consensus functional neuroanatomic model of bipolar I disorder based upon the participants’ work as well as that of others. Methods Representatives from several leading bipolar disorder neuroimaging groups were organized to present an overview of their areas of expertise as well as focused reviews of existing data. The workgroup then developed a consensus model of the functional neuroanatomy of bipolar disorder based upon these data. Results Among the participants, a general consensus emerged that bipolar I disorder arises from abnormalities in the structure and function of key emotional control networks in the human brain. Namely, disruption in early development (e.g., white matter connectivity, prefrontal pruning) within brain networks that modulate emotional behavior leads to decreased connectivity among ventral prefrontal networks and limbic brain regions, especially amygdala. This developmental failure to establish healthy ventral prefrontal–limbic modulation underlies the onset of mania and ultimately, with progressive changes throughout these networks over time and with affective episodes, a bipolar course of illness. Conclusions This model provides a potential substrate to guide future investigations and areas needing additional focus are identified. PMID:22631617

  8. The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chenhui; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming; Yang, Shanchao; Qi, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of four types of lateral PNP bipolar transistors (LPNPs) with different neutral base widths, emitter widths and the doping concentrations of the epitaxial base region are studied. The physical mechanisms of the effects are explored by defect analysis using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques and numerical simulations of recombination process in the base region of the lateral PNP bipolar transistors, and are verified by the experiments on gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar transistors (GCLPNPs) manufactured in the identical commercial bipolar process with different gate bias voltage. The results indicate that gamma irradiation increases neutron displacement damage sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors and the mechanism of this phenomenon is that positive charge induced by gamma irradiation enhances the recombination process in the defects induced by neutrons in the base region, leading to larger recombination component of base current and greater gain degradation.

  9. The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chenhui, E-mail: wangchenhui@nint.ac.cn; Chen, Wei; Liu, Yan; Jin, Xiaoming; Yang, Shanchao; Qi, Chao

    2016-09-21

    The effects of gamma irradiation on neutron displacement sensitivity of four types of lateral PNP bipolar transistors (LPNPs) with different neutral base widths, emitter widths and the doping concentrations of the epitaxial base region are studied. The physical mechanisms of the effects are explored by defect analysis using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques and numerical simulations of recombination process in the base region of the lateral PNP bipolar transistors, and are verified by the experiments on gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar transistors (GCLPNPs) manufactured in the identical commercial bipolar process with different gate bias voltage. The results indicate that gamma irradiation increases neutron displacement damage sensitivity of lateral PNP bipolar transistors and the mechanism of this phenomenon is that positive charge induced by gamma irradiation enhances the recombination process in the defects induced by neutrons in the base region, leading to larger recombination component of base current and greater gain degradation.

  10. DIVERGENT HORIZONTAL SUB-SURFACE FLOWS WITHIN ACTIVE REGION 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F., E-mail: kjain@nso.edu, E-mail: stripathy@nso.edu, E-mail: fhill@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2015-07-20

    We measure the horizontal subsurface flow in a fast emerging active region (AR; NOAA 11158) using the ring-diagram technique and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager high spatial resolution Dopplergrams. This AR had a complex magnetic structure and displayed significant changes in morphology during its disk passage. Over a period of six days from 2011 February 11 to 16, the temporal variation in the magnitude of the total velocity is found to follow the trend of magnetic field strength. We further analyze regions of individual magnetic polarity within AR 11158 and find that the horizontal velocity components in these sub-regions have significant variation with time and depth. The leading and trailing polarity regions move faster than the mixed-polarity region. Furthermore, both zonal and meridional components have opposite signs for trailing and leading polarity regions at all depths showing divergent flows within the AR. We also find a sharp decrease in the magnitude of total horizontal velocity in deeper layers around major flares. It is suggested that the re-organization of magnetic fields during flares, combined with the sunspot rotation, decreases the magnitude of horizontal flows or that the flow kinetic energy has been converted into the energy released by flares. After the decline in flare activity and sunspot rotation, the flows tend to follow the pattern of magnetic activity. We also observe less variation in the velocity components near the surface but these tend to increase with depth, further demonstrating that the deeper layers are more affected by the topology of ARs.

  11. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengseng [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Zhang, Kailiang, E-mail: kailiang_zhang@163.com [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Yang, Ruixia, E-mail: yangrx@hebut.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Electronic Materials and Devices, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic & Communication Devices, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  12. Electronic bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/VOx/Al device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Mengseng; Zhang, Kailiang; Yang, Ruixia; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Zhichao; Wu, Shijian

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The resistive random access memory of Ni/VOx/Al was fabricated. • The device has the electronic bipolar resistive switching characteristic. • The activity energy (Ea) of HRS has been calculated. • The reasons of the degradation of the resistance ratio of HRS/LRS were analyzed. - Abstract: In this paper, the Ni/VOx/Al resistive random access memory (RRAM) device is constructed and it shows bipolar resistive switching behavior, low resistive state (LRS) nonlinearity, and good retention. The set and reset processes are likely induced by the electron trapping and detrapping of trapping centers in the VOx films, respectively. The conduction mechanism in negative/positive region are controlled by space charge limited current mechanism (SCLC)/Schottky emission. The temperature dependence of I–V curves for HRS is measured to confirm the defects trapping and detrapping electrons model. activation energy was calculated to analyze the endurance performance of the device. The detailed analysis of the switching behavior with SCLC mechanism and Schottky emission mechanism could provide useful information for electronic bipolar resistive switching (eBRS) characteristics.

  13. Recent activity of the regional geologic structures in western Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Bavec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Several important geological structures in the western Slovenia were identifiedas active and their activity was quantified. Geologic interpretation is based on the analysis of repeated leveling line campaigns data along the Sečovlje–Bled polygon. Taking intoaccount the limitations of the method – only the vertical component of displacement is measured – the following structures were identified as active:a juvenile syncline between Strunjan and Koper, the Kras Imbricate Structure, the Diva~a fault, the Ra{a fault, the Southalpine Front and the Julian Alps thrust. Vertical movement rate is relative, calculated with respect to the benchmark in Sečovlje. The largest uplift rate difference between Sečovlje and Bled is 7 mm/a.Vertical Geodynamic Activity (VGA is introduced as a link between geologic interpretation of geodetic measurements on one side and possible applications on the other as well as a mean of comparison between tectonically active regions.

  14. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Hall, A. M.; Russell, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the bipolar Ni-H2 battery with other energy systems to be used in future high-power space systems is presented. The initial design for the battery under the NASA-sponsored program is described and the candidate stack components are evaluated, including electrodes, separator, electrolyte reservoir plate, and recombination sites. The compressibility of the cell elements, electrolyte activation, and thermal design are discussed. Manufacturing and prototype test results are summarized.

  15. Epidemiology in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Mutlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder diagnosis has been increasing recently. Since studies evaluating attempted suicide rates in children and adolescents have shown bipolarity to be a significant risk factor, diagnosis and treatment of bipolarity has become a very important issue. Since there is a lack of specific diagnostic criteria for especially preadolescent samples and evaluations are made mostly symptomatically, suspicions about false true diagnosis and increased prevalence rates have emerged. This situation leads to controversial data about the prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents. The aim of this article is to review the prevalence of childhood and adolescent bipolar disorder in community, inpatient and outpatient based samples in literature.

  16. Genetics of bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerner B

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Berit Kerner Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a common, complex genetic disorder, but the mode of transmission remains to be discovered. Many researchers assume that common genomic variants carry some risk for manifesting the disease. The research community has celebrated the first genome-wide significant associations between common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and bipolar disorder. Currently, attempts are under way to translate these findings into clinical practice, genetic counseling, and predictive testing. However, some experts remain cautious. After all, common variants explain only a very small percentage of the genetic risk, and functional consequences of the discovered SNPs are inconclusive. Furthermore, the associated SNPs are not disease specific, and the majority of individuals with a “risk” allele are healthy. On the other hand, population-based genome-wide studies in psychiatric disorders have rediscovered rare structural variants and mutations in genes, which were previously known to cause genetic syndromes and monogenic Mendelian disorders. In many Mendelian syndromes, psychiatric symptoms are prevalent. Although these conditions do not fit the classic description of any specific psychiatric disorder, they often show nonspecific psychiatric symptoms that cross diagnostic boundaries, including intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit, impulse control deficit, and psychosis. Although testing for chromosomal disorders and monogenic Mendelian disorders is well established, testing for common variants is still controversial. The standard concept of genetic testing includes at least three broad criteria that need to be fulfilled before new genetic tests should be introduced: analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility. These criteria are

  17. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  18. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  19. Novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Akram; Musavarah, Sarwar

    2016-01-01

    In this research study, we introduce the concept of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We present the dominating and independent sets of bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We describe novel multiple criteria decision making methods based on bipolar neutrosophic sets and bipolar neutrosophic graphs. We also develop an algorithm for computing domination in bipolar neutrosophic graphs.

  20. Transient electro-thermal modeling of bipolar power semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Gachovska, Tanya Kirilova; Du, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This book presents physics-based electro-thermal models of bipolar power semiconductor devices including their packages, and describes their implementation in MATLAB and Simulink. It is a continuation of our first book Modeling of Bipolar Power Semiconductor Devices. The device electrical models are developed by subdividing the devices into different regions and the operations in each region, along with the interactions at the interfaces, are analyzed using the basic semiconductor physics equations that govern device behavior. The Fourier series solution is used to solve the ambipolar diffusio

  1. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  2. Solar activity effects in the ionospheric D region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Danilov

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the D-region electron concentration within the solar activity cycle are considered. It is demonstrated that conclusions of various authors, who have analyzed various sets of experimental data on [e], differ significantly. The most reliable seem to be the conclusions based on analysis of the [e] measurements carried out by the Faraday rotation method and on the theoretical concepts on the D-region photochemistry. Possible QBO effects in the relation of [e] to solar activity are considered and an assumption is made that such effects may be the reason for the aforementioned disagreement in conclusions on the [e] relation to solar indices.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Ion chemistry of the atmosphere · Middle atmosphere

  3. Active sales promotion in urban regions; Aktive Verkaufsfoerderung in Verdichtungsgebieten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, H.D. [Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit, Maingas AG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    1995-03-01

    The first step in any worthwhile marketing strategy for urban regions is to make a survey of all real estates without a gas supply. The data stock thus obtained serves as a short, medium, and long-term basis for all further activity. It cal be used to set up yearly personnel and activity plans. The activities are rounded off by incentives in the form of conversion aids or financing offers and additional measures presented within a Full Service Package Defining clear aims makes it easier to evaluate the success of the activities. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der erste Schritt zu einer erfolgreichen Marktbearbeitung in Verdichtungsgebieten ist die Erhebung aller Liegenschaften ohne Gasversorgung. Der gewonnene Datenbestand dient kurz-, mittel- und langfristig als Grundlage aller Aktivitaeten. Eine Personal- und Aktivitaetenplanung kann jaehrlich daraus abgeleitet werden. Kaufanreize in Form von Umstellhilfen, Finanzierungsangeboten und zusaetzlichen Dienstleistungen im Rahmen eines Full-Service-Angebotes runden die Aktivitaeten ab. Die klare Vorgabe von Zielen erleichert die Erfolgskontrolle. (orig.)

  4. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subd...

  5. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  6. Neurocognition and psychosocial functioning in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Bowie, Christopher R; Naiberg, Melanie R; Newton, Dwight F; Goldstein, Benjamin I

    2017-01-01

    Adults with bipolar disorder demonstrate significantly poorer psychosocial functioning and neurocognition compared to controls. In adult bipolar disorder neurocognition predicts a substantial portion of variance in functioning. Adolescents with bipolar disorder have reducedpsychosocial functioning, but less is known about neurocognitive impairments, and no studies have examined the relationship between neurocognition and functioning in an adolescent sample. 38 adolescents with bipolar disorder and 49 healthy controls under 20 years of age completed assessments of psychosocial functioning, neurocognitive ability, and psychiatric symptoms. Adolescents with bipolar disorder had significantly poorer psychosocial functioning in domains of daily activities, social functioning, and satisfaction with functioning, psadolescent sample with bipolar disorder experiences significantly poorer neurocognitive and psychosocial functioning compared to controls; however, psychosocial functioning appears to be more strongly related to mood symptoms than to neurocognition. Future work is needed to delineate the time course of neurocognitive functioning and its relation to psychosocial functioning across the course of illness. Adolescence may provide an ideal time for cognitive enhancement and intensive psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Actigraphy in Bipolar Disorder and First Degree Relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Carrillo, Rommel; Gómez Cano, Sujey; Palacio Ortiz, Juan David; García Valencia, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a disabling disease that involves a significant economic costs to the health system, making it is essential to investigate possible early predictors such as changes in sleep-wake cycle in high-risk populations. To review the available literature on alterations in the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm in patients with bipolar disorder and their first degree relatives. A literature search was performed in the data bases, Access Medicine, ClinicalKey, EMBASE, JAMA, Lilacs, OVID, Oxford Journals, ScienceDirect, SciELO, APA y PsycNET. Articles in both English and Spanish were reviewed, without limits by study type. Actigraphy is a non-invasive, useful method for assessing sleep-wake cycle disturbances in the active phases of bipolar disorder, and during euthymia periods. Actigraphy showed good sensitivity to predict true sleep, but low specificity, compared with polysomnography. Although studies in bipolar offspring and relatives are scarce, they show sleep changes similar to bipolar patients. Actigraphy may be a good screening tool of sleep/wake cycle in patients with bipolar disorders, because it is economic, non-invasive and sensitive. Longitudinal studies are required to evaluate its potential use as a risk marker. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  9. Tactile interactions activate mirror system regions in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKyton, Ayelet

    2011-12-07

    Communicating with others is essential for the development of a society. Although types of communications, such as language and visual gestures, were thoroughly investigated in the past, little research has been done to investigate interactions through touch. To study this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging. Twelve participants were scanned with their eyes covered while stroking four kinds of items, representing different somatosensory stimuli: a human hand, a realistic rubber hand, an object, and a simple texture. Although the human and the rubber hands had the same overall shape, in three regions there was significantly more blood oxygen level dependent activation when touching the real hand: the anterior medial prefrontal cortex, the ventral premotor cortex, and the posterior superior temporal cortex. The last two regions are part of the mirror network and are known to be activated through visual interactions such as gestures. Interestingly, in this study, these areas were activated through a somatosensory interaction. A control experiment was performed to eliminate confounds of temperature, texture, and imagery, suggesting that the activation in these areas was correlated with the touch of a human hand. These results reveal the neuronal network working behind human tactile interactions, and highlight the participation of the mirror system in such functions.

  10. Bipolar disorder: a neural network perspective on a disorder of emotion and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessa, Michèle; Kanske, Philipp; Linke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, chronic disease with a heritability of 60-80%. BD is frequently misdiagnosed due to phenomenological overlap with other psychopathologies, an important issue that calls for the identification of biological and psychological vulnerability and disease markers. Altered structural and functional connectivity, mainly between limbic and prefrontal brain areas, have been proposed to underlie emotional and motivational dysregulation in BD and might represent relevant vulnerability and disease markers. In the present laboratory review we discuss functional and structural neuroimaging findings on emotional and motivational dysregulation from our research group in BD patients and healthy individuals at risk to develop BD. As a main result of our studies, we observed altered orbitofrontal and limbic activity and reduced connectivity between dorsal prefrontal and limbic brain regions, as well as reduced integrity of fiber tracts connecting prefrontal and subcortical brain structures in BD patients and high-risk individuals. Our results provide novel insights into pathophysiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder. The current laboratory review provides a specific view of our group on altered brain connectivity and underlying psychological processes in bipolar disorder based on our own work, integrating relevant findings from others. Thereby we attempt to advance neuropsychobiological models of BD.

  11. SYMPATHETIC FILAMENT ERUPTIONS FROM A BIPOLAR HELMET STREAMER IN THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiayan; Jiang Yunchun; Zheng Ruisheng; Bi Yi; Hong Junchao; Yang Bo

    2012-01-01

    On 2005 August 5, two solar filaments erupted successively from different confined arcades underlying a common overarching multiple-arcade bipolar helmet streamer. We present detailed observations of these two events and identify them as sympathetic filament eruptions. The first (F1) is a small active-region filament located near the outskirts of the streamer arcade. It underwent a nonradial eruption, initially moving in the interior of the streamer arcade and resulting in an over-and-out coronal mass ejection. The second filament (F2), a larger quiescent one far away from F1, was clearly disturbed during the F1 eruption. It then underwent a very slow eruption and finally disappeared completely and permanently. Because two belt-shaped diffuse dimmings formed along the footprints of the streamer arcade in the first eruption and persisted throughout the complete disappearance of F2, the eruption series are interpreted as sympathetic: the simple expansion of the common streamer arcade forced by the F1 eruption weakened magnetic flux overlying F2 and thus led to its slow eruption, with the dimming formation indicating their physical connection. Our observations suggest that multiple-arcade bipolar helmet-streamer configurations are appropriate to producing sympathetic eruptions. Combined with the recent observations of unipolar-streamer sympathetic events, it appears that a multiple-arcade unipolar or bipolar helmet streamer can serve as a common magnetic configuration for sympathetic eruptions.

  12. Brain function in carriers of a genome-wide supported bipolar disorder variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Susanne; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Schnell, Knut; Opitz von Boberfeld, Carola; Esslinger, Christine; Kirsch, Peter; Grimm, Oliver; Arnold, Claudia; Haddad, Leila; Witt, Stephanie H; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M; Rietschel, Marcella; Walter, Henrik

    2010-08-01

    The neural abnormalities underlying genetic risk for bipolar disorder, a severe, common, and highly heritable psychiatric condition, are largely unknown. An opportunity to define these mechanisms is provided by the recent discovery, through genome-wide association, of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs1006737) strongly associated with bipolar disorder within the CACNA1C gene, encoding the alpha subunit of the L-type voltage-dependent calcium channel Ca(v)1.2. To determine whether the genetic risk associated with rs1006737 is mediated through hippocampal function. Functional magnetic resonance imaging study. University hospital. A total of 110 healthy volunteers of both sexes and of German descent in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for rs1006737. Blood oxygen level-dependent signal during an episodic memory task and behavioral and psychopathological measures. Using an intermediate phenotype approach, we show that healthy carriers of the CACNA1C risk variant exhibit a pronounced reduction of bilateral hippocampal activation during episodic memory recall and diminished functional coupling between left and right hippocampal regions. Furthermore, risk allele carriers exhibit activation deficits of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, a region repeatedly associated with affective disorders and the mediation of adaptive stress-related responses. The relevance of these findings for affective disorders is supported by significantly higher psychopathology scores for depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive thoughts, interpersonal sensitivity, and neuroticism in risk allele carriers, correlating negatively with the observed regional brain activation. Our data demonstrate that rs1006737 or genetic variants in linkage disequilibrium with it are functional in the human brain and provide a neurogenetic risk mechanism for bipolar disorder backed by genome-wide evidence.

  13. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  14. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  15. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  16. Determinants of anti-corruption activities at the regional level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the concept of corruption, defined as an obstacle to economic and social development, created by representatives of the power structures of the country, region, enterprise, weakening the efficiency of management and the institutional foundation of society. Anticorruption activity is presented in the article as conditions created by the state and ensuring that the country's economy is not irreparably damaged by internal and external economic threats. The estimated characteristics of the anti-corruption activities of the regions and the country as a whole, as a rule, are studied in the domestic sources and among foreign authors. Statistical evaluation of the relationship between the level of corruption and indicators: the dynamics of GRP growth, the index of real incomes of the population, the costs of training, health care is made on the basis of the coefficient Pearson correlation. Based on the correlation analysis, stable links were established between the level of corruption and the socio-economic indicators of the region's development: an increase in the level of corruption associated with an increase in the population's spending on education and medicine; a reduction in the level of corruption, as a result of increased incomes of the population and higher wages. The consequences of corruption are presented: legal (the undeveloped legislative base, which involves bribery of powerful people, the growth of corruption in the society, the increase in corruption crimes, the inefficiency of the regulatory framework, social (moral violation, low public evaluation of the activities of power structures, low level of culture and upbringing , economic (bias financial, investment decisions, illegal distribution of property and non-property benefits, the impossibility of competitors Vat with developed countries and others.

  17. Seismo-active faults in the Banat region, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oros, E.

    2002-01-01

    The knowledge of the seismo-active faults represents a very important element in every seismic hazard analysis. The main purpose of our paper is to best define the seismo-active faults of the Banat Region. The region is characterized by high seismicity, with important focus of strong earthquakes (I>VII MSK degrees). The quality of the historical data is many times too weak for being used in seismotectonic studies. Thus a correlation between historical and recent seismicity must be done. In our study, several seismic sequences that occurred in the Banat Region, are analysed in detail. The distribution of the epicenters and the correlation tectonics-fault plane solutions reveal important seismotectonic features. The obtained results complete the image of the historical seismicity and offer important information for the future studies of seismic hazard. These results are also very important for the development and configuration of the Banat Seismic Network. The recent seismic activity was analysed for 1995-2002 period, when over 2500 local earthquakes were recorded (M min = 0.5 and M max = 4.8). 26 fault plane solutions were determined (first wave polarities method with additional amplitude constraints). For the earthquakes that occurred at the national border with Yugoslavia and Hungary we used the data from international bulletins. The main seismic sequences were concentrated in seven important zones: Moldova Noua, Herculane Spa - Orsova, Petrosani - Western Jiu Valey, Banloc, Voiteg, Timisoara East and Timisoara North. We also located a small seismic sequence in the Baia de Arama - Tirgu Jiu area. The results were correlated with the faults and major structures, with macroseismic field of the strongest local earthquakes, too. The seismic hazard sources and faults from outside the country (Hungary an Yugoslavia) are pointed out. (authors)

  18. Observations of vector magnetic fields in flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jimin; Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1994-01-01

    We present vector magnetograph data of 6 active regions, all of which produced major flares. Of the 20 M-class (or above) flares, 7 satisfy the flare conditions prescribed by Hagyard (high shear and strong transverse fields). Strong photospheric shear, however, is not necessarily a condition for a flare. We find an increase in the shear for two flares, a 6-deg shear increase along the neutral line after a X-2 flare and a 13-deg increase after a M-1.9 flare. For other flares, we did not detect substantial shear changes.

  19. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  20. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA of antibodies (Fc-peptides exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents.

  1. Modeling suicide in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Gin S; Outhred, Tim; Das, Pritha; Morris, Grace; Hamilton, Amber; Mannie, Zola

    2018-02-19

    Suicide is a multicausal human behavior, with devastating and immensely distressing consequences. Its prevalence is estimated to be 20-30 times greater in patients with bipolar disorders than in the general population. The burden of suicide and its high prevalence in bipolar disorders make it imperative that our current understanding be improved to facilitate prediction of suicide and its prevention. In this review, we provide a new perspective on the process of suicide in bipolar disorder, in the form of a novel integrated model that is derived from extant knowledge and recent evidence. A literature search of articles on suicide in bipolar disorder was conducted in recognized databases such as Scopus, PubMed, and PsycINFO using the keywords "suicide", "suicide in bipolar disorders", "suicide process", "suicide risk", "neurobiology of suicide" and "suicide models". Bibliographies of identified articles were further scrutinized for papers and book chapters of relevance. Risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorders are well described, and provide a basis for a framework of epigenetic mechanisms, moderated by neurobiological substrates, neurocognitive functioning, and social inferences within the environment. Relevant models and theories include the diathesis-stress model, the bipolar model of suicide and the ideation-to-action models, the interpersonal theory of suicide, the integrated motivational-volitional model, and the three-step theory. Together, these models provide a basis for the generation of an integrated model that illuminates the suicidal process, from ideation to action. Suicide is complex, and it is evident that a multidimensional and integrated approach is required to reduce its prevalence. The proposed model exposes and provides access to components of the suicide process that are potentially measurable and may serve as novel and specific therapeutic targets for interventions in the context of bipolar disorder. Thus, this model is useful not only

  2. Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2003-01-01

    Bipolar explosion models for hypernovae (very energetic supernovae) are presented. These models provide a favorable situation to explain some unexpected features in observations of hypernovae, e.g., high velocity matter dominated by Fe and low velocity matter dominated by O. The overall abundance of these models gives a good fit, at least qualitatively, to abundances in extremely metal-poor stars. We suggest hypernovae be driven by bipolar jets and contribute significantly to the early Galactic chemical evolution

  3. Functional remediation for bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Arán, Anabel, 1971-; Torrent, C.; Solé, B.; Bonnín, C.M.; Rosa, A.R.; Sánchez-Moreno, J.; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-

    2014-01-01

    Neurocognitive impairment constitutes a core feature of bipolar illness. The main domains affected are verbal memory, attention, and executive functions. Deficits in these areas as well as difficulties to get functional remission seem to be increased associated with illness progression. Several studies have found a strong relationship between neurocognitive impairment and low functioning in bipolar disorder, as previously reported in other illnesses such as schizophrenia. Cognitive remediatio...

  4. Abnormal early gamma responses to emotional faces differentiate unipolar from bipolar disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T Y; Chen, Y S; Su, T P; Hsieh, J C; Chen, L F

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the cortical abnormalities of early emotion perception in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) using gamma oscillations. Twenty-three MDD patients, twenty-five BD patients, and twenty-four normal controls were enrolled and their event-related magnetoencephalographic responses were recorded during implicit emotional tasks. Our results demonstrated abnormal gamma activity within 100 ms in the emotion-related regions (amygdala, orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex, anterior insula (AI), and superior temporal pole) in the MDD patients, suggesting that these patients may have dysfunctions or negativity biases in perceptual binding of emotional features at very early stage. Decreased left superior medial frontal cortex (smFC) responses to happy faces in the MDD patients were correlated with their serious level of depression symptoms, indicating that decreased smFC activity perhaps underlies irregular positive emotion processing in depressed patients. In the BD patients, we showed abnormal activation in visual regions (inferior/middle occipital and middle temporal cortices) which responded to emotional faces within 100 ms, supporting that the BD patients may hyperactively respond to emotional features in perceptual binding. The discriminant function of gamma activation in the left smFC, right medial OFC, right AI/inferior OFC, and the right precentral cortex accurately classified 89.6% of patients as unipolar/bipolar disorders.

  5. A DOUBLE-RING ALGORITHM FOR MODELING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: UNIFYING KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODELS AND SURFACE FLUX-TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Jaramillo, Andres; Martens, Petrus C. H.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Yeates, Anthony R.

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed α-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.

  6. The Location of ICT activities in EU regions. Implications for regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barrios

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The location of ICT producing industries does matter for global competitivenessand long-run growth potential. For instance, the differing contribution ofICT to economic growth between the US and the EU is often mentioned as one of themain cause explaining the diverging growth performance of these two areas since themid-1990s. In turn, since the mid-1990s, countries with especially dynamic economicgrowth have tended to be highly specialized in ICT-producing and ICT-using industries,see van Ark and Inkaar (2005. More generally, ICT producing sectors, tendto promote technological change and innovative capability which are seen to be at thecore of economic growth and competitiveness. When considering the EU economy,ICT industries appear to be concentrated in a limited number of regions, see Koski etal. (2002 for empirical evidence. Afirst objective of the present paper is to documentthe location of ICT producing industries in European regions in order to map existingEU clusters as well as to analyze recent changes in these industries using recent dataon employment and firm location, especially in relation to the EU enlargement thathas taken place in May 2004. The location of the ICT-producing sectors is not the endof the story however. A crucial aspect concerns the nature of activities that are beingundertaken in different regions. Importantly, ICT industries do have different characteristicsin terms of human capital, skill requirement, and knowledge content. In particular,because of the positive association between human capital, knowledge andlong-run growth, it is important to analyze to what extent EU regional ICT clustersdiffer in according to these characteristics. The second question addressed in the paperconcerns the nature of ICT activities undertaken in EU regions. Finally, the paperprovides econometric estimates of the location of firms in ICT industries across EUregions. The paper considers more specifically the case of multinationals

  7. MATERIAL SUPPLY AND MAGNETIC CONFIGURATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K.; Hao, Q. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda, E-mail: fangc@nju.edu.cn [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    It is important to study the fine structures of solar filaments with high-resolution observations, since it can help us understand the magnetic and thermal structures of the filaments and their dynamics. In this paper, we study a newly formed filament located inside the active region NOAA 11762, which was observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope at Big Bear Solar Observatory from 16:40:19 UT to 17:07:58 UT on 2013 June 5. As revealed by the H α filtergrams, cool material is seen to be injected into the filament spine with a speed of 5–10 km s{sup -1}. At the source of the injection, brightenings are identified in the chromosphere, which are accompanied by magnetic cancellation in the photosphere, implying the importance of magnetic reconnection in replenishing the filament with plasmas from the lower atmosphere. Counter-streamings are detected near one endpoint of the filament, with the plane-of-the-sky speed being 7–9 km s{sup -1} in the H α red-wing filtergrams and 9–25 km s{sup -1} in the blue-wing filtergrams. The observations are indicative that this active region filament is supported by a sheared arcade without magnetic dips, and the counter-streamings are due to unidirectional flows with alternative directions, rather than due to the longitudinal oscillations of filament threads as in many other filaments.

  8. Perisylvian GABA levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagün, Murat İlhan; Şıkoğlu, Elif Muazzez; Soykan, Çağlar; Serdar Süleyman, Can; Ulusoy-Kaymak, Semra; Çayköylü, Ali; Algın, Oktay; Phillips, Mary Louise; Öngür, Dost; Moore, Constance Mary

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study is to measure GABA levels of perisylvian cortices in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Patients with schizophrenia (n=25), bipolar I disorder (BD-I; n=28) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II; n=20) were compared with healthy controls (n=30). 1 H-MRS data was acquired using a Siemens 3T whole body scanner to quantify right and left perisylvian structures' (including superior temporal lobes) GABA levels. Right perisylvian GABA values differed significantly between groups [χ 2 =9.62, df: 3, p=0.022]. GABA levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (p=0.002). Furthermore, Chlorpromazine equivalent doses of antipsychotics correlated with right hemisphere GABA levels (r 2 =0.68, p=0.006, n=33). GABA levels are elevated in the right hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder and healthy controls. The balance between excitatory and inhibitory controls over the cortical circuits may have direct relationship with GABAergic functions in auditory cortices. In addition, GABA levels may be altered by brain regions of interest, psychotropic medications, and clinical stage in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cortical complexity in bipolar disorder applying a spherical harmonics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadic, Igor; Yotter, Rachel A; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian

    2017-05-30

    Recent studies using surface-based morphometry of structural magnetic resonance imaging data have suggested that some changes in bipolar disorder (BP) might be neurodevelopmental in origin. We applied a novel analysis of cortical complexity based on fractal dimensions in high-resolution structural MRI scans of 18 bipolar disorder patients and 26 healthy controls. Our region-of-interest based analysis revealed increases in fractal dimensions (in patients relative to controls) in left lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right precuneus, and decreases in right caudal middle frontal, entorhinal cortex, and right pars orbitalis, and left fusiform and posterior cingulate cortices. While our analysis is preliminary, it suggests that early neurodevelopmental pathologies might contribute to bipolar disorder, possibly through genetic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physics of the Solar Active Regions from Radio Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.

    1999-12-01

    Localized increase of the magnetic field observed by routine methods on the photosphere result in the growth of a number of active processes in the solar atmosphere and the heliosphere. These localized regions of increased magnetic field are called active regions (AR). The main processes of transfer, accumulation and release of energy in an AR is, however, out of scope of photospheric observations being essentially a 3D-process and happening either under photosphere or up in the corona. So, to investigate these plasma structures and processes we are bound to use either extrapolation of optical observational methods or observations in EUV, X-rays and radio. In this review, we stress and illustrate the input to the problem gained from radio astronomical methods and discuss possible future development of their applicatications. Historically speaking each new step in developing radio technique of observations resulted in detecting some new physics of ARs. The most significant progress in the last few years in radio diagnostics of the plasma structures of magnetospheres of the solar ARs is connected with the developing of the 2D full disk analysis on regular basis made at Nobeyama and detailed multichannel spectral-polarization (but one-dimensional and one per day) solar observations at the RATAN-600. In this report the bulk of attention is paid to the new approach to the study of solar activity gained with the Nobeyama radioheliograph and analyzing the ways for future progress. The most important new features of the multicomponent radio sources of the ARs studied using Nobeyama radioheliograph are as follow: 1. The analysis of magnetic field structures in solar corona above sunspot with 2000 G. Their temporal evolution and fluctuations with the periods around 3 and 5 minutes, due to MHD-waves in sunspot magnetic tubes and surrounding plasma. These investigations are certainly based on an analysis of thermal cyclotron emission of lower corona and CCTR above sunspot

  11. [Psychoeducation and interpersonal and social rhythm therapy for bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    In treating bipolar disorder, specific psychotherapies in adjunct to pharmacotherapy have been shown to be effective in preventing new episodes and treating depressive episodes. Among those, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) developed by Frank, amalgamation of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) with behavioral therapy focused on social rhythm has been shown to be an efficacious adjunct to mediation in preventing new episodes in bipolar I patients and in treating depression in bipolar I arid II disorder. IPSRT has also been shown to enhance total functioning, relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression were covaried. IPSRT was designed to directly address the major pathways to recurrence in bipolar disorder, namely medication nonadherence, stressful life events, and disruptions in social rhythms. IPT, originated by Klerman et al., is a strategic time-limited psychotherapy focused on one or two of four current interpersonal problem areas (ie, grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal dificits). In IPSRT, the fifth problem area "grief for the lost healthy self" has been added in order to promote acceptance of the diagnosis and the need for life-long treatment. Social rhythm therapy is a behavioral approach aiming at increasing regularity of social rhythms using the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM), a chart to record daily social activities including how stimulating they were, developed from observation that disruptions in social rhythms often trigger affective episodes in patients with bipolar disorder. IPSRT also appears to be a promising intervention for a subset of individuals with bipolar II depression as monotherapy for the acute treatment.

  12. Quetiapine monotherapy for bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E Thase

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael E ThaseDepartments of Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; the Philadelphia Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA; and the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Bipolar depression is more common, disabling, and difficult-to-treat than the manic and hypomanic phases that define bipolar disorder. Unlike the treatment of so-called “unipolar” depressions, antidepressants generally are not indicated as monotherapies for bipolar depressions and recent studies suggest that - even when used in combination with traditional mood stabilizers – antidepressants may have questionable value for bipolar depression. The current practice is that mood stabilizers are initiated first as monotherapies; however, the antidepressant efficacy of lithium and valproate is modest at best. Within this context the role of atypical antipsychotics is being evaluated. The combination of olanzapine and the antidepressant fluoxetine was the first treatment to receive regulatory approval in the US specifically for bipolar I depression. Quetiapine was the second medication to be approved for this indication, largely as the result of two pivotal trials known by the acronyms of BOLDER (BipOLar DEpRession I and II. Both studies demonstrated that two doses of quetiapine (300 mg and 600 mg given once daily at bedtime were significantly more effective than placebo, with no increased risk of patients switching into mania. Pooling the two studies, quetiapine was effective for both bipolar I and bipolar II depressions and for patients with (and without a history of rapid cycling. The two doses were comparably effective in both studies. Although the efficacy of quetiapine monotherapy has been established, much additional research is necessary. Further studies are needed to more fully investigate dose-response relationships and comparing quetiapine monotherapy to other mood stabilizers

  13. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-06-27

    To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. By using data from the Health section of 2008's Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil's National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making. Apresentar estimativas nacionais sobre o deslocamento a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho no Brasil e em 10 de suas regiões metropolitanas. Utilizando dados do Suplemento sobre Saúde da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios de 2008, estimamos a frequência de pessoas empregadas que se deslocam a pé ou de bicicleta no trajeto casa-trabalho estratificada por sexo, e segundo faixa etária, escolaridade, renda domiciliar per capita, residência em área urbana ou rural, regiões metropolitanas e macrorregiões do país. Adicionalmente, estimamos a distribuição da mesma frequ

  14. SIGN SINGULARITY AND FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorriso-Valvo, L.; De Vita, G. [IMIP-CNR, U.O.S. LICRYL di Cosenza, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Kazachenko, M. D.; Krucker, S.; Welsch, B. T.; Fisher, G. H. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley 94720, California (United States); Primavera, L.; Servidio, S.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Vecchio, A., E-mail: sorriso@fis.unical.it [INGV, Sede di Cosenza, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 30C, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares and the presence of correlation with Extreme-Ultra-Violet and X-ray flux suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small-scale properties of the current structures.

  15. Recent earthquake activity in Trichonis region and its tectonic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. DELIBASIS

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. - The aftershock activity associated with the central Greece
    (Trichonis Lake earthquake of |une-Dec. 1975, has been studied, with emphasis
    on the time and magnitude distribution. It has been found that the value of b,
    in Gutenberg - R i c h t e r ' s relationship was near the same for the primary as
    well as the secondary or second order aftershocks of the sequences, but depends
    upon the focal depth.
    A correlation between the calculated focal mechanisms and the associated
    stress components to the distribution pattern of meizoseismic effects as well
    as to the geological structure of the seismic region was found.
    The seismic region lies at the top of an anticline which was found moving
    downwards, apparently due to compressional stresses.
    Within the series of three earthquakes the progress of the destruction of
    the buildings was observed and reported. The interest is concentrated to modern
    buildings out of reinforced concrete and infill brick walls. The relatively unexpected
    rather bad performance of the later case of buildings was compared to that
    of the traditional small houses out of brick or stone masonry, the behaviour of
    which may be considered as better from what it was expected.

  16. Evaluación de ligamiento de marcadores STR al trastorno afectivo bipolar en las regiones cromosómicas 18p12, 18q22-23, 21q22 y 12q23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz Linares

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available El Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB se caracteriza por episodios
    fluctuantes y cíclicos de oscilación del estado de ánimo o tono energético vital, de días, semanas o meses de duración, que pueden ir desde el apagamiento vital global o depresión hasta la exaltación vital global o manía.

  17. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...

  18. Institutional Capacity of Innovation Activity Development in theRegion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the study under the theme of development of institutions of innovation sphere, transfer of scientific results to the real sector of the economy. The purpose of the study is to reveal institutional capacities of strengthening the implementation of research findings, drawing on the functional properties of institutions with regard to innovation activities. The methodology is to apply well-known methodological principles to the solution of emerging challenges (software-based method for fundamental scientific result implementation, sectoral research organizations in the new management environment and statistical records of process innovations by analogy with product innovations. The article puts forward and justifies the proposal for strategic innovation as the institution of communicating the results of fundamental research to social practice by integrating into a single process the results of oriented fundamental research, applied research, engineering development, development and other works, which are realized in the form of a material object or service of a high technology level. The distinguishing feature of strategic innovation is a future-oriented outlook and the solution of long-term objectives. Russian scientific achievements can become the basis for strategic innovation development. The article gives examples of possible research field where strategic innovation can be developed and demonstrates an innovative implementation mechanism in the format of specialized research-and-production program which combines government and business participation. The paper gives arguments and development ways of the institution of sectoral research organizations as providers of state technological policy in sectors and regions; coordination of import substitution; centers of communication establishment with engineering companies; analytical and predictive research. The study justifies the expediency of developing an

  19. Bipolar outflow in B335

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, N.; Kameya, O.; Nakayama, M.; Takakubo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The high-velocity (C-12)O (J = 1-0) emission in B335 with a high angular resolution of 16 arcsec has been mapped. The high-velocity emission shows distinct bipolar pattern centered at IRAS 19345+0727, toward which a strong high-velocity (C-12)O emission has been detected. The bipolar lobes delineate remarkable collimation toward the IRAS source, indicating that the flow is focused within 0.02 pc of the driving source. Each lobe is accompanied by significant wing emission with the opposite velocity shift, which clearly shows the association with IRAS 19345+0727. This feature is well explained as a bipolar flow the axis of which is nearly perpendicular to the line of sight. There is no evidence of another evolved bipolar flow which does not associate with any dense core as previously suggested. This suggests that B335 is a site of very recent star formation, containing a single bipolar flow with an age of about 30,000 yr. 15 references

  20. Tritium volume activity in natural waters of NPP Temelin region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Wilhelmova, L [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Rep., Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of tritium measurement in selected rivers of NPP Temelin before its operation obtained during the period 1991-1994. Particular attention is paid to Vltava river into which liquid effluents will be discharged and which is also utilized as a drinking water supply for the capital Prague. Samples from the Vltava river were collected near the mouth of NPP waste canal (point Hladna)and in front of the intake into Prague water works (point Podoli). Tritium content was analysed also in surface waters of Paleckuv, Temelinsky and Strouha streams which can be affected by gaseous effluents due to atmospheric removal processes. Tritium activity was measured with Tric-Carb 1050 TR/LL liquid scintillation counter. The mean annual tritium activities of investigated river waters varied within 1.9-3.0 Bq/l during the period 1991-1994 and that their trend has been slowly decreasing. This fact, as well as seasonal variability, suggests, that tritium level in the surface waters of studied region is largely governed by this radionuclide global atmospheric fallout. The results of this work indicate the trend of background tritium in examined natural waters and make possible the evaluation of their potential future contamination. (J.K.) 1 tab., 2 figs., 4 refs.

  1. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Filipa Araújo; Adriana Horta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1%) in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old) with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad different...

  2. Cognitive and functional deficits in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia as a function of the presence and history of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Christopher R; Best, Michael W; Depp, Colin; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Pulver, Ann E; Harvey, Philip D

    2018-05-18

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder overlap considerably. Schizophrenia is a primary psychotic disorder, whereas approximately half of people with bipolar disorder will experience psychosis. In this study, we examined the extent to which cognitive and functional impairments are related to the presence and history of psychosis across the two disorders. A total of 633 participants with bipolar disorder I, schizophrenia, and schizoaffective disorder were recruited for a study on the genetics of cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Participants were classified into five groups: bipolar disorder with current psychosis (N = 30), bipolar disorder with a history of psychosis (N = 162), bipolar disorder with no history of psychosis (N = 92), schizophrenia with current psychosis (N = 245), and schizophrenia with past psychosis (N = 104). Cognitive profiles of all groups were similar in pattern; however, both current psychosis (P bipolar disorder and schizophrenia experienced similar impairments in real-world functioning if they were experiencing current psychosis (P = .32). The presence of active psychosis is an important cross-diagnostic factor in cognition and functioning in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Characterization and treatment of cognition and functional deficits in bipolar disorder should consider the effects of both current and history of psychosis. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, A.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sahin, S.; Sarp, V.; Obridko, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2018-06-01

    According to the modified Zurich classification, sunspot groups are classified into seven different classes (A, B, C, D, E, F and H) based on their morphology and evolution. In this classification, classes A and B, which are small groups, describe the beginning of sunspot evolution, while classes D, E and F describe the large and evolved groups. Class C describes the middle phase of sunspot evolution and the class H describes the end of sunspot evolution. Here, we compare the lifetime and temporal evolution of flaring and non-flaring active regions (ARs), and the flaring effect on ARs in these groups in detail for the last two solar cycles (1996 through 2016). Our main findings are as follows: (i) Flaring sunspot groups have longer lifetimes than non-flaring ones. (ii) Most of the class A, B and C flaring ARs rapidly evolve to higher classes, while this is not applicable for non-flaring ARs. More than 50 per cent of the flaring A, B and C groups changed morphologically, while the remaining D, E, F and H groups did not change remarkably after the flare activity. (iii) 75 per cent of all flaring sunspot groups are large and complex. (iv) There is a significant increase in the sunspot group area in classes A, B, C, D and H after flaring activity. In contrast, the sunspot group area of classes E and F decreased. The sunspot counts of classes D, E and F decreased as well, while classes A, B, C and H showed an increase.

  4. Educational activity on nuclear energy in Aomori region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsunori

    2008-01-01

    There are many nuclear industries and research facilities in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. Fuel cycle facilities and a LWR power station are now in operation. Another fuel cycle facilities and power stations will soon be under construction. Fusion research activity, ITER-BA, has started last year. We have launched nuclear-related education and research programs to teach nuclear engineering knowledge and skills to the local students. Hachinohe Institute of Technology is located on Pacific ocean side of Aomori Prefecture close to Rokkasho area, and has six undergraduate departments and three graduate courses. Hitherto, many alumni have engaged in nuclear-related companies in the area. In addition to previous subject on nuclear engineering, a new activity 'Challenge Nuclear-site Experience Program' started in 2007, as one of nuclear educational promotion programs in Japan. The students from various engineering departments learned the status and role of nuclear industries and researches. A curriculum course for nuclear engineering will be ready in 2009 for undergraduate students through various departments. In the summer of 2007, the introductory lesson on nuclear power generation and the technical tour to the power station were carried out for two days. In the autumn, the introductory lesson on nuclear fuel cycle and the tour to fuel cycle facilities were performed for three days, including one day tour to research facilities in the area. Its aim was to let the students recognize the role of regional nuclear activities and the attractiveness of nuclear-related industries. The program was supported by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and was performed in cooperation with Tohoku Electric Power Company, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  5. Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, K; Vinberg, M; Kessing, L V

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been proposed as a potential biomarker related to disease activity and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder, speculated to mirror alterations in brain expression of BDNF. The research area is rapidly evolving; however, recent...... investigations have yielded conflicting results with substantial variation in outcomes, highlighting the need to critically assess the state of current evidence. The aims of the study were to investigate differences in peripheral blood BDNF concentrations between bipolar disorder patients and healthy control...... subjects and between affective states in bipolar disorder patients, including assessment of the effect of treatment of acute episodes on BDNF levels. A systematic review of English language studies without considering publication status was conducted in PubMed (January 1950-November 2014), Embase (1974...

  6. The management of catatonia in bipolar disorder with stimulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Waheed K; Rastegarpour, Ali; Bajwa, Omar A; Babbitt, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports.

  7. The Management of Catatonia in Bipolar Disorder with Stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed K. Bajwa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catatonia, while not a rare occurrence in bipolar disorder, has not been widely discussed in the literature. We present a case of a married Caucasian male with a history of bipolar disorder, exhibiting catatonia and experiencing difficulty in day-to-day functioning. He demonstrated impairment in cognition and an inability to organize simple activities of daily life. After exhausting a number of options for medical management, including benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and amantadine, he only displayed significant clinical improvement with the addition of a stimulant, methylphenidate. In time, the patient saw a complete return to normal functioning. The use of stimulants for catatonia in bipolar disorder may be an interesting and effective option for treatment. While this is not the first time this treatment has been suggested, there is very little data in support of it; our case confirms the discoveries of previous case reports.

  8. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntosh, Scott W. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Leamon, Robert J., E-mail: mscott@hao.ucar.edu [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  9. Observations of the Growth of an Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    We present observations of the growth of an active region filament caused by magnetic interactions among the filament and its adjacent superpenumbral filament (SF) and dark thread-like structures (T). Multistep reconnections are identified during the whole growing process. Magnetic flux convergence and cancellation occurring at the positive footpoint region of the filament is the first step reconnection, which resulted in the filament bifurcating into two sets of intertwined threads. One set anchored in situ, while the other set moved toward and interacted with the SF and part of T. This indicates the second step reconnection, which gave rise to the disappearance of the SF and the formation of a long thread-like structure that connects the far ends of the filament and T. The long thread-like structure further interacted with the T and then separated into two parts, representing the third step reconnection. Finally, another similar long thread-like structure, which intertwined with the fixed filament threads, appeared. Hαobservations show that this twisted structure is a longer sinistral filament. Based on the observed photospheric vector magnetograms, we performed a non-linear force-free field extrapolation to reconstruct the magnetic fields above the photosphere and found that the coronal magnetic field lines associated with the filament consists of two twisted flux ropes winding around each other. These results suggest that magnetic interactions among filaments and their adjacent SFs and T could lead to the growth of the filaments, and the filament is probably supported in a flux rope.

  10. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  11. Is bipolar always bipolar? Understanding the controversy on bipolar disorder in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, Yvonne; Hohmann, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Dramatically increasing prevalence rates of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents in the United States have provoked controversy regarding the boundaries of manic symptoms in child and adolescent psychiatry. The serious impact of this ongoing debate on the treatment of affected children is reflected in the concomitant increase in prescription rates for antipsychotic medication. A key question in the debate is whether this increase in bipolar disorder in children and adolescents is based on a better detection of early-onset bipolar disorder—which can present differently in children and adolescents—or whether it is caused by an incorrect assignment of symptoms which overlap with other widely known disorders. So far, most findings suggest that the suspected symptoms, in particular chronic, non-episodic irritability (a mood symptom presenting with easy annoyance, temper tantrums and anger) do not constitute a developmental presentation of childhood bipolar disorder. Additional research based on prospective, longitudinal studies is needed to further clarify the developmental trajectories of bipolar disorder and the diagnostic status of chronic, non-episodic irritability. PMID:25580265

  12. The clinical trajectory of emerging bipolar disorder among the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents: current understanding and future considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, A; Vandeleur, C; Heffer, N; Preisig, M

    2017-11-22

    Relatively little is known about the onset of bipolar disorder, yet the early illness course is already associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, characterizing the bipolar illness trajectory is key to risk prediction and early intervention advancement. In this narrative review, we discuss key findings from prospective longitudinal studies of the high-risk offspring of bipolar parents and related meta-analyses that inform us about the clinical trajectory of emerging bipolar disorder. Challenges such as phenotypic and etiologic heterogeneity and the non-specificity of early symptoms and syndromes are highlighted. Implications of the findings for both research and clinical practice are discussed. Bipolar disorder in young people at familial risk does not typically onset with a hypomanic or manic episode. Rather the first activated episode is often preceded by years of impairing psychopathological states that vary over development and across emerging bipolar subtype. Taking heterogeneity into account and adopting a more comprehensive approach to diagnosis seems necessary to advance earlier identification and our understanding of the onset of bipolar disorder.

  13. Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar dislocation of the clavicle at acromioclavicular and sternoclavicular joint is an uncommon traumatic injury. The conservative treatments adopted in the past is associated with redislocation dysfunction and deformity. A 41 years old lady with bipolar dislocation of right shoulder is treated surgically by open reduction and internal fixation by oblique T-plate at sternoclavicular joint and Kirschner wire stabilization at acromioclavicular joint. The patient showed satisfactory recovery with full range of motion of the right shoulder and normal muscular strength. The case reported in view of rarity and at 2 years followup.

  14. Transcultural aspects of bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches, Marsal; Jorge, Miguel Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Considerando-se que existem diferenças importantes na maneira como as emoções são vivenciadas e expressas em diferentes culturas, a apresentação e o manejo do transtorno afetivo bipolar sofrem influência de fatores culturais. O presente artigo realiza uma breve revisão da evidência referente aos aspectos transculturais do transtorno bipolar.Cultural variations in the expression of emotions have been described. Consequently, there are cross-cultural influences on the diagnosis and management o...

  15. [HPV vaccination: active offer in an Italian region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Elisa; D'Alò, Gian Loreto; Aquilani, Silvia; Aversa, Anna Maria; Bartolomei, Giuseppina; Calenda, Maria Gabriella; Catapano, Raffaele; Compagno, Silvio; Della Rovere, Piera; Fraioli, Angelo; Ieraci, Roberto; Reggiani, Daniela; Sgricia, Stefano; Spadea, Antonietta; Zaratti, Laura; Franco, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus is responsible for 4.8% of cancers, and is the main cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer can be reduced by mean of secondary prevention (PAP-test, HPV-DNA test), while through primary prevention (anti-HPV vaccine) the incidence of other HPV-attributable cancers can also be reduced. In Italy, anti-HPV vaccination is part of the immunization schedule in girls since 2008, and in 2017 it was extended to boys. However, vaccine coverage is decreasing nationwide. This study aims to examine anti-HPV vaccination practices in Health care services of Lazio Region, Italy. Questionnaires were sent or administered directly to those in charge of vaccinations. Data, collected from 11/12 (92%) Lazio Local Health Units and from 116 vaccination centers, show a remarkable diversity in the offer: 41% of the centers open only 1-2 days/week, 42% only in the morning, and only 7% are open on Saturday. Vaccination is available by reservation only in 62% of the centers, while vaccines are not administered to ≥18 years subjects in 33%; 93% of the centers call actively the girls in the target cohort, while 70% and 94% recall the patients who had not received the first or the second dose of vaccine, respectively. Collaboration with family physicians and/or pediatricians was declared by 80% of the centers. Vaccine coverage could probably be improved by addressing the highlighted critical issues and applying best practices widely.

  16. Chirality of Intermediate Filaments and Magnetic Helicity of Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun-Kyung; Chae, J.

    2009-05-01

    Filaments that form either between or around active regions (ARs) are called intermediate filaments. Even though there have been many theoretical studies, the origin of the chirality of filaments is still unknown. We investigated how intermediate filaments are related to their associated ARs, especially from the point of view of magnetic helicity and the orientation of polarity inversion lines (PILs). The chirality of filaments has been determined based on the orientations of barbs observed in the full-disk Hα images taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the rising phase of solar cycle 23. The sign of magnetic helicity of ARs has been determined using S/inverse-S shaped sigmoids from Yohkoh SXT images. As a result, we have found a good correlation between the chirality of filaments and the magnetic helicity sign of ARs. Among 45 filaments, 42 filaments have shown the same sign as helicity sign of nearby ARs. It has been also confirmed that the role of both the orientation and the relative direction of PILs to ARs in determining the chirality of filaments is not significant, against a theoretical prediction. These results suggest that the chirality of intermediate filaments may originate from magnetic helicity of their associated ARs.

  17. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  18. Spatially resolved X-ray spectra of coronal active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catura, R.C.; Acton, L.W.; Joki, E.G.; Rapley, C.G.; Culhane, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    X-ray spectra from a number of coronal active regions were obtained during ATM support rocket flights carried out by the Lockheed group on June 11 and December 19, 1973. Multi-grid collimators were used to provide fields of view of 40ins. diameter and 90ins. diameter for a number of scanning crystal spectrometers and a bent crystal spectrometer which employed a position sensitive proportional counter to register the diffracted spectrum. A solar image was produced on film and on a TV camera on board the rocket with the aid of a 1 A Hα filter. A small part of the X-ray collimator was used to generate a multiple spot diffraction pattern which was superimposed on the Hα image and the composite picture was transmitted to the ground. Pre-launch calibrations allowed the spot corresponding to the X-ray collimator axis to be identified and so the collimator pointing direction on the solar disc was controlled from the ground by means of commands sent to the rocket. (Auth.)

  19. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  20. Magnetic Separatrix as the Source Region of the Plasma Supply for an Active-region Filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, P.; Fang, C.; Chen, P. F.; Yang, K. [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Cao, Wenda [Big Bear Solar Observatory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, 40386 North Shore Lane, Big Bear City, CA 92314 (United States)

    2017-02-10

    Solar filaments can be formed via chromospheric evaporation followed by condensation in the corona or by the direct injection of cool plasma from the chromosphere to the corona. We here confirm with high-resolution H α data observed by the 1.6 m New Solar Telescope of the Big Bear Solar Observatory on 2015 August 21 that an active-region filament is maintained by the continuous injection of cold chromospheric plasma. We find that the filament is rooted along a bright ridge in H α , which corresponds to the intersection of a magnetic quasi-separatrix layer with the solar surface. This bright ridge consists of many small patches whose sizes are comparable to the width of the filament threads. It is found that upflows originate from the brighter patches of the ridge, whereas the downflows move toward the weaker patches of the ridge. The whole filament is composed of two opposite-direction streams, implying that longitudinal oscillations are not the only cause of the counterstreamings, and unidirectional siphon flows with alternative directions are another possibility.

  1. Abnormal deactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus during implicit emotion processing in youth with bipolar disorder: attenuated by medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeman, Danella M; Bebko, Genna; Bertocci, Michele A; Fournier, Jay C; Bonar, Lisa; Perlman, Susan B; Travis, Michael; Gill, Mary Kay; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Holland, Scott K; Kowatch, Robert A; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David; Horwitz, Sarah M; Arnold, L Eugene; Fristad, Mary A; Frazier, Thomas W; Youngstrom, Eric A; Findling, Robert L; Drevets, Wayne; Phillips, Mary L

    2014-11-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies of youth with bipolar disorder (BD) have identified abnormalities in emotion regulation circuitry. Using data from the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Cohort (a clinical sample recruited for behavioral and emotional dysregulation), we examined the impact of BD and medication on activation in these regions. Functional neuroimaging data were obtained from 15 youth with BD who currently were unmedicated with a mood stabilizer or antipsychotic (U-BD), 19 youth with medicated BD (M-BD), a non-bipolar clinical sample with high rates of disruptive behavioral disorders (non-BD, n = 59), and 29 healthy controls (HC) while they were shown task-irrelevant morphing emotional faces and shapes. Whole brain analysis was used to identify clusters that showed differential activation to emotion vs. shapes across group. To assess pair-wise comparisons and potential confounders, mean activation data were extracted only from clusters within regions previously implicated in emotion regulation (including amygdala and ventral prefrontal regions). A cluster in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) showed group differences to emotion vs. shapes (159 voxels, corrected p abnormally decreased right IFG activation to negative emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neural Markers in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Wambach, Caroline G; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Neuroimaging studies comparing unaffected youth at high familial risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree relative with the disorder; termed "high-risk" [HR]) to "low-risk" (LR) youth (i.e., those without a first-degree relative with BD) and to patients with BD may help identify potential brain-based markers associated with risk (i.e., regions where HR+BD≠LR), resilience (HR≠BD+LR), or illness (BD≠HR+LR). During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 99 youths (i.e., adolescents and young adults) aged 9.8 to 24.8 years (36 BD, 22 HR, 41 LR) performed a task probing face emotion labeling, previously shown to be impaired behaviorally in youth with BD and HR youth. We found three patterns of results. Candidate risk endophenotypes (i.e., where BD and HR shared deficits) included dysfunction in higher-order face processing regions (e.g., middle temporal gyrus, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Candidate resilience markers and disorder sequelae (where HR and BD, respectively, show unique alterations relative to the other two groups) included different patterns of neural responses across other regions mediating face processing (e.g., fusiform), executive function (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus), and social cognition (e.g., default network, superior temporal sulcus, temporo-parietal junction). If replicated in longitudinal studies and with additional populations, neural patterns suggesting risk endophenotypes could be used to identify individuals at risk for BD who may benefit from prevention measures. Moreover, information about risk and resilience markers could be used to develop novel treatments that recruit neural markers of resilience and attenuate neural patterns associated with risk. Clinical trial registration information-Studies of Brain Function and Course of Illness in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder and Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Brain Imaging and Treatment Study; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT

  3. The bipolar silicon microstrip detector: A proposal for a novel precision tracking device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horisberger, R.

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to combine the technology of fully depleted microstrip detectors fabricated on n doped high resistivity silicon with the concept of the bipolar transistor. This is done by adding a n ++ doped region inside the normal p + implanted region of the reverse biased p + n diode. The resulting structure has amplifying properties and is referred to as bipaolar pixel transistor. The simplest readout scheme of a bipolar pixel array by an aluminium strip bus leads to the bipolar microstrip detector. The bipolar pixel structure is expected to give a better signal-to-noise performance for the detection of minimum ionizing charged particle tracks than the normal silicon diode strip detector and therefore should allow in future the fabrication of thinner silicon detectors for precision tracking. (orig.)

  4. High-performance silicon nanowire bipolar phototransistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siew Li; Zhao, Xingyan; Chen, Kaixiang; Crozier, Kenneth B.; Dan, Yaping

    2016-07-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have emerged as sensitive absorbing materials for photodetection at wavelengths ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to the near infrared. Most of the reports on SiNW photodetectors are based on photoconductor, photodiode, or field-effect transistor device structures. These SiNW devices each have their own advantages and trade-offs in optical gain, response time, operating voltage, and dark current noise. Here, we report on the experimental realization of single SiNW bipolar phototransistors on silicon-on-insulator substrates. Our SiNW devices are based on bipolar transistor structures with an optically injected base region and are fabricated using CMOS-compatible processes. The experimentally measured optoelectronic characteristics of the SiNW phototransistors are in good agreement with simulation results. The SiNW phototransistors exhibit significantly enhanced response to UV and visible light, compared with typical Si p-i-n photodiodes. The near infrared responsivities of the SiNW phototransistors are comparable to those of Si avalanche photodiodes but are achieved at much lower operating voltages. Compared with other reported SiNW photodetectors as well as conventional bulk Si photodiodes and phototransistors, the SiNW phototransistors in this work demonstrate the combined advantages of high gain, high photoresponse, low dark current, and low operating voltage.

  5. The politics of inter-regionalism: relations between international regional organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleuten, J.M. van der; Ribeiro Hoffman, A.; Reinalda, B.

    2013-01-01

    As the development of relations between international regional organizations, inter-regionalism denotes a relatively recent phenomenon. Largely due to systemic bipolarity, inter-regional relations remained limited to 'dialogue partnerships' between the European Community (EC) and other regional

  6. Evaluación de ligamiento del Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar con marcadores STR en las regiones cromosómicas 18p12, 18q22-23, 21q22 Y 12q23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Montoya

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available

    El Trastorno Afectivo Bipolar (TAB se caracteriza por episodios fluctuantes y cíclicos de oscilación del estado de ánimo o tono energético vital, de días, semanas o meses de duración, que pueden ir desde el apagamiento vital global o depresión hasta la exaltación vital global o manía. Estos ciclos están separados usualmente por períodos de remisión completa de la sintomatología. Su curso es generalmente crónico y recurrente (Kaplan y Sadock 1995, DSM IV.

    La prevalencia del TAB en la población general varía del 0.4 al 1.6%. En el Segundo Estudio de Salud Mental realizado en Colombia en el año de 1997 se encontró que la prevalencia en la vida de TAB I es de 1.2%, siendo un poco más alta en hombres (1.3% que en mujeres (1.1% (Torres y Montoya 1997.

    Desde hace varias décadas, numerosos estudios del TAB incluyendo estudios de agregación familiar y de gemelos han indicado la existencia de un componente genético importante en la etiología de esta enfermedad (Craddock y Owen 1996, Craddock 1996, DePaulo y McMahoon 1996, Freimer 1997, Plomin et al. 1997.

    Hasta ahora han sido varios los genes candidatos en la susceptibilidad a desarrollar TAB, sin embargo, la identificación de genes que juegan un papel importante en la etiología del TAB es muy probablemente el reflejo de la complejidad clínica y genética de esta entidad, la cual no sigue un patrón de herencia mendeliano simple (Reus y Freimer 1997. Hasta el momento se han publicado estudios que reportan ligamiento genético a múltiples regiones del genoma, sin embargo, los diversos reportes positivos de ligamiento son difíciles de comparar debido, entre otros, a la variabilidad de

  7. Social support and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Mendonça Studart

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Bipolar disorder is a chronic condition that affects the functioning of its carriers in many different ways, even when treated properly. Therefore, it’s also important to identify the psychosocial aspects that could contribute to an improvement of this population’s quality of life.Objective Carry out a literature review on the role of social support in cases of bipolar disorder.Method A research on the following online databases PubMed, Lilacs and SciELO was conducted by using the keywords “social support” or “social networks” and “mood disorders” or “bipolar disorder” or “affective disorder,” with no defined timeline.Results Only 13 studies concerning the topic of social support and BD were found in the search for related articles. Generally speaking, the results show low rates of social support for BD patients.Discussion Despite the growing interest in the overall functioning of patients with bipolar disorder, studies on social support are still rare. Besides, the existing studies on the subject use different methodologies, making it difficult to establish data comparisons.

  8. Electronic monitoring in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria

    2018-01-01

    generated data (e.g. the number of text messages sent/day; the number of incoming and outgoing calls/day; the number of changes in cell tower IDs/day; and voice features) seem to reflect clinically assessed depressive and manic symptoms in bipolar disorder; 3) smartphone-based electronic self-monitoring had...

  9. The SMM UV observations of Active Region 5395

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Gurman, Joseph B.

    1989-01-01

    The Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft was used extensively to study the spatial morphology and time variability of solar active regions in the far UV (at approx. wavelength of 1370 A) since July 1985. The normal spatial resolution of UVSP observations in this 2nd-order mode is 10 sec., and the highest temporal resolution is 64 milliseconds. To make a full-field, 4 min. by 4 min. image this wavelength using 5 sec. raster steps takes about 3 minutes. UVSP can also make observations of the Sun at approx. wavelength of 2790 with 3 sec. spatial resolution when operated in its 1st-order mode; a full-field image at this wavelength (a so-called SNEW image) takes about 8 minutes. UVSP made thousands of observations (mostly in 2nd-order) of AR 5395 during its transit across the visible solar hemisphere (from 7 to 19 March, inclusive). During this period, UVSP's duty cycle for observing AR 5395 was roughly 40 percent, with the remaining 60 percent of the time being fairly evenly divided between aeronomy studies of the Earth's atmosphere and dead time due to Earth occultation of the Sun. UVSP observed many of the flares tagged to AR 5395, including 26 GOES M-level flares and 3 X-level flares, one of which produced so much UV emission that the safety software of UVSP turned off the detector to avoid damage due to saturation. Images and light curves of some of the more spectacular of the AR 5395 events are presented.

  10. CONTRACTING AND ERUPTING COMPONENTS OF SIGMOIDAL ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Wang Yuming; Liu Chang; Wang Haimin; Török, Tibor

    2012-01-01

    It has recently been noted that solar eruptions can be associated with the contraction of coronal loops that are not involved in magnetic reconnection processes. In this paper, we investigate five coronal eruptions originating from four sigmoidal active regions, using high-cadence, high-resolution narrowband EUV images obtained by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). The magnitudes of the flares associated with the eruptions range from GOES class B to class X. Owing to the high-sensitivity and broad temperature coverage of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board SDO, we are able to identify both the contracting and erupting components of the eruptions: the former is observed in cold AIA channels as the contracting coronal loops overlying the elbows of the sigmoid, and the latter is preferentially observed in warm/hot AIA channels as an expanding bubble originating from the center of the sigmoid. The initiation of eruption always precedes the contraction, and in the energetically mild events (B- and C-flares), it also precedes the increase in GOES soft X-ray fluxes. In the more energetic events, the eruption is simultaneous with the impulsive phase of the nonthermal hard X-ray emission. These observations confirm that loop contraction is an integrated process in eruptions with partially opened arcades. The consequence of contraction is a new equilibrium with reduced magnetic energy, as the contracting loops never regain their original positions. The contracting process is a direct consequence of flare energy release, as evidenced by the strong correlation of the maximal contracting speed, and strong anti-correlation of the time delay of contraction relative to expansion, with the peak soft X-ray flux. This is also implied by the relationship between contraction and expansion, i.e., their timing and speed.

  11. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65 0 of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of ∼10 G to as high as ∼450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65 0 of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  12. Structural and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in euthymic females with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Syan, Sabrina K; Smith, Mara; Hall, Alexander; Hall, Geoffrey Bc; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-12-01

    Current evidence from neuroimaging data suggests possible dysfunction of the fronto-striatal-limbic circuits in individuals with bipolar disorder. Somatosensory cortical function has been implicated in emotional recognition, risk-taking and affective responses through sensory modalities. This study investigates anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in euthymic bipolar women. In total, 68 right-handed euthymic women (bipolar disorder = 32 and healthy controls = 36) between 16 and 45 years of age underwent high-resolution anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging during the mid-follicular menstrual phase. The somatosensory cortex was used as a seed region for resting-state functional connectivity analysis. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate somatosensory cortical gray matter volume between groups. We found increased resting-state functional connectivity between the somatosensory cortex and insular cortex, inferior prefrontal gyrus and frontal orbital cortex in euthymic bipolar disorder subjects compared to healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry analysis showed decreased gray matter in the left somatosensory cortex in the bipolar disorder group. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analysis controlled by age did not reveal any additional significant difference between groups. This study is the first to date to evaluate anatomy and function of the somatosensory cortex in a well-characterized sample of euthymic bipolar disorder females. Anatomical and functional changes in the somatosensory cortex in this population might contribute to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder.

  13. Exome sequencing of a large family identifies potential candidate genes contributing risk to bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxiao; Hou, Liping; Chen, David T; McMahon, Francis J; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Rice, John P

    2018-03-01

    Bipolar disorder is a mental illness with lifetime prevalence of about 1%. Previous genetic studies have identified multiple chromosomal linkage regions and candidate genes that might be associated with bipolar disorder. The present study aimed to identify potential susceptibility variants for bipolar disorder using 6 related case samples from a four-generation family. A combination of exome sequencing and linkage analysis was performed to identify potential susceptibility variants for bipolar disorder. Our study identified a list of five potential candidate genes for bipolar disorder. Among these five genes, GRID1(Glutamate Receptor Delta-1 Subunit), which was previously reported to be associated with several psychiatric disorders and brain related traits, is particularly interesting. Variants with functional significance in this gene were identified from two cousins in our bipolar disorder pedigree. Our findings suggest a potential role for these genes and the related rare variants in the onset and development of bipolar disorder in this one family. Additional research is needed to replicate these findings and evaluate their patho-biological significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between suicidality and impulsivity in bipolar I disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E; Wu, Jinghui; Ardekani, Babak A; Szeszko, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is characteristic of individuals with bipolar disorder and may be a contributing factor to the high rate of suicide in patients with this disorder. Although white matter abnormalities have been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, their relationship to impulsivity and suicidality in this disorder has not been well-investigated. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging scans were acquired in 14 bipolar disorder patients with a prior suicide attempt, 15 bipolar disorder patients with no prior suicide attempt, and 15 healthy volunteers. Bipolar disorder patients received clinical assessments including measures of impulsivity, depression, mania, and anxiety. Images were processed using the Tract-Based Spatial Statistics method in the FSL software package. Results Bipolar disorder patients with a prior suicide attempt had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) within the left orbital frontal white matter (p impulsivity compared to patients without a previous suicide attempt. Among patients with a prior suicide attempt, FA in the orbital frontal white matter region correlated inversely with motor impulsivity. Conclusions Abnormal orbital frontal white matter may play a role in impulsive and suicidal behavior among patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:22329475

  15. Mechanisms regulating regional cerebral activation during dynamic handgrip in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, James; Friedman, D B; Mitchell, J H

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic hand movement increases regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the contralateral motor sensory cortex (MS1). This increase is eliminated by regional anesthesia of the working arm, indicating the importance of afferent neural input. The purpose of this study was to determine the specific...

  16. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  17. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  18. A voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging study of white matter in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Katie; Wu, Jinghui; Malhotra, Anil K; Burdick, Katherine E; DeRosse, Pamela; Ardekani, Babak A; Szeszko, Philip R

    2009-05-01

    There is evidence from post-mortem and magnetic resonance imaging studies that hyperintensities, oligodendroglial abnormalities, and gross white matter volumetric alterations are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. There is also functional imaging evidence for a defect in frontal cortico-subcortical pathways in bipolar disorder, but the white matter comprising these pathways has not been well investigated. Few studies have investigated white matter integrity in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy volunteers and the majority of studies have used manual region-of-interest approaches. In this study, we compared fractional anisotropy (FA) values between 30 patients with bipolar disorder and 38 healthy volunteers in the brain white matter using a voxelwise analysis following intersubject registration to Talairach space. Compared to healthy volunteers, patients demonstrated significantly (p or =50) higher FA within the right and left frontal white matter and lower FA within the left cerebellar white matter. Examination of individual eigenvalues indicated that group differences in both axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity contributed to abnormal FA within these regions. Tractography was performed in template space on averaged diffusion tensor imaging data from all individuals. Extraction of bundles passing through the clusters that differed significantly between groups suggested that white matter abnormalities along the pontine crossing tract, corticospinal/corticopontine tracts, and thalamic radiation fibers may be involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder. Our findings are consistent with models of bipolar disorder that implicate dysregulation of cortico-subcortical and cerebellar regions in the disorder and may have relevance for phenomenology.

  19. Magnetic field configurations associated with polarity intrusion in a solar active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, B.C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of exact solutions describing the non-linear force-free-field above a spatially localized photospheric bipolar magnetic region. An essential feature is the variation in all three Cartesian directions and this could not be modelled adequately with previously known symmetric force-free fields. Sequences of force-free fields are constructed and analyzed to simulate the slow growth of a pair of spots on the photosphere. The acis connecting the spots executes roational motion, distorting the photospheric neutral line separating fluxes of opposite signs. We show directly from the analytic solutions that the resulting reversal of the positions of the spots relative to the background field is associated with (i) the creation of magnetic free energy, (ii) the severe shearing of localized low-lying loops in the vicinity where the photospheric transverse field aligns with the photospheric neutral line, and (iii) the emergence and disappearance of flux from the photosphere at these highly stressed regions. The model relates theoretically for the first time these different magnetic field features that have been suggested by observation and theoretical considerations to be flare precursors. A general formula, based on the virial theorem, is also given for the free energy of a force-free field, strictly in terms of the field value at the photosphere. This formula has obvious practical application. (orig.)

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in patients with bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacoby, Anne S; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is involved in the mechanisms of action of lithium and may play a role in relation to affective states in bipolar disorder. The objectives of the present study were to compare the activity of GSK-3β (measured as levels of phosphorylated GSK......-3β [p-GSK-3β]) between patients with bipolar disorder in the euthymic state and healthy control subjects, and to investigate whether GSK-3β activity varies with affective states in patients with bipolar I disorder. METHODS: In a prospective 6-12-month follow-up study, we investigated state......-specific, intraindividual alterations in the activity of GSK-3β in 60 patients with bipolar I disorder with an acute severe manic index episode and in subsequent euthymic, depressive and manic states and compared this with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Data were analyzed using linear mixed...

  1. The effect of psychoeducation on the functioning level of patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdal, Ebru; Tanriverdi, Derya; Savas, Haluk Asuman

    2014-03-01

    Bipolar disorder has adverse effects on the lives of the individuals and the people around them and causes disability due to impaired social and occupational functioning, risk of suicide, and frequent relapses. This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychoeducation on the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 80 patients were assigned to either the experimental (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). The data were collected using a questionnaire form, and the Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire. The experimental group scored significantly higher on the functioning levels (emotional functioning, intellectual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relations, relations with friends, participating in social activities, daily activities and recreational activities, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation) (p < .05) compared with the control group after psychoeducation. Psychoeducation has become considerably effective in increasing the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder.

  2. Lateral n-p-n bipolar transistors by ion implantation into semi-insulating GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, P.; Forbes, L.

    1988-01-01

    GaAs bipolar transistors have not seen the major development effort that GaAs MESFETs have due primarily to the short minority carrier lifetimes in GaAs. The short minority carrier lifetimes require that the base region be very thin which, if done by implantation, requires that the doping be high to obtain a well defined base profile. These requirements are very difficult to achieve in GaAs and typically, if high current gain and high speed are desired for a bipolar technology, then heterostructure bipolars are the appropriate technology, although the cost of heterostructure devices will be prohibitive for some time to come. For applications requiring low current gain, more modest fabrication rules can be followed. Lateral bipolars are particularly attractive since they would be easier to fabricate than a planar bipolar or a heterojunction bipolar. Lateral bipolars do not require steps or deep contacts to make contact with the subcollector or highly doped very thin epilayers for the base region and they can draw upon the semi-insulating properties of the GaAs substrates for device isolation. Bipolar transistors are described and shown to work successfully. (author)

  3. The influence of genes and environment on the development of bipolar disorder: A twin study

    OpenAIRE

    Vonk, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (or manic-depressive disorder) is a severe mood disorder in which episodes of (hypo) mania (e.g. elevated mood en hyperactivity) and depression (e.g. decreased mood and reduced activity) alternate with periods of normal mood and functioning. Genetic factors as well as environmental factors play a role in the development of bipolar disorder. A serious problem for bipolar disorder is a delay of several years between the first mood episode(s) and the diagnosis. Afterwards it can...

  4. Creating Collaborative Advantages Through Coordination of Regional Development Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpor, Marijana

    2006-01-01

    Through the increasing importance of networking and use of participatory strategic planning approaches in the regional development practice, it seems that local and regional development theory moves from the concept of competitive advantages towards collaborative advantages. This conceptual move implies a redefinition of inter- and intra-institutional relations of the public and private sector, and therefore, calls for defining new forms of governance. The exploration of the concept of collab...

  5. Pattern of neural responses to verbal fluency shows diagnostic specificity for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walshe Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Impairments in executive function and language processing are characteristic of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Their functional neuroanatomy demonstrate features that are shared as well as specific to each disorder. Determining the distinct pattern of neural responses in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may provide biomarkers for their diagnoses. Methods 104 participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scans while performing a phonological verbal fluency task. Subjects were 32 patients with schizophrenia in remission, 32 patients with bipolar disorder in an euthymic state, and 40 healthy volunteers. Neural responses to verbal fluency were examined in each group, and the diagnostic potential of the pattern of the neural responses was assessed with machine learning analysis. Results During the verbal fluency task, both patient groups showed increased activation in the anterior cingulate, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and right putamen as compared to healthy controls, as well as reduced deactivation of precuneus and posterior cingulate. The magnitude of activation was greatest in patients with schizophrenia, followed by patients with bipolar disorder and then healthy individuals. Additional recruitment in the right inferior frontal and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was observed in schizophrenia relative to both bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. The pattern of neural responses correctly identified individual patients with schizophrenia with an accuracy of 92%, and those with bipolar disorder with an accuracy of 79% in which mis-classification was typically of bipolar subjects as healthy controls. Conclusions In summary, both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are associated with altered function in prefrontal, striatal and default mode networks, but the magnitude of this dysfunction is particularly marked in schizophrenia. The pattern of response to verbal fluency is highly

  6. Bipolar polygenic loading and bipolar spectrum features in major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiste, Anna; Robinson, Elise B.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Meier, Sandra; Ripke, Stephan; Clements, Caitlin C.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Rietschel, Marcella; Penninx, Brenda W.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Perlis, Roy H.

    Objectives Family and genetic studies indicate overlapping liability for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this shared genetic liability influences clinical presentation. Methods A polygenic risk score for bipolar disorder,

  7. [The facets of creativity in the light of bipolar mood alterations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakács, Réka

    2018-01-30

    The link between creativity, as the highest expression form of human achievement, and bipolar disorder came into focus of scientific investigations and research. Accomplished writers, composers and visual artists show a substantially higher rate of affective disorders, prodominantly bipolar mood disorders, comparing to the general population. Then again, patients afflicted with bipolar II subtype (hypomania and depression), as well as persons presenting the mildest form of bipolar mood swings (cyclothymia) possess higher creative skills. It evokes therefore that certain forms and mood states of bipolar disorder, notably hypomania might convey cognitive, emotional/affective, and motivational benefits to creativity. The aim of this paper is to display expression forms of creativity (writing, visual art, scientific work) as well as productivity (literary and scientific work output, number of artworks and exhibitions, awards) in the light of clinically diagnosed mood states at an eminent creative individual, treated for bipolar II disorder. Analysing the affective states, we found a striking relation between hypomanic episodes and visual artistic creativity and achievement, as well as scientific performance, whereas mild-moderate depressed mood promoted literary work. Severe depression and mixed states were not associated with creative activities, and intriguingly, long-term stabilised euthymic mood, exempted from marked affective lability, is disadvantageous regarding creativity. It seems, thereby, that mood functions as a sluice of creativity. Nevertheless, it is likely that there is a complex interaction between bipolar mood disorder spectrum and psychological factors promoting creativity, influenced also by individual variability due to medication, comorbid conditions, and course of disorder.

  8. Electric-current Neutralization, Magnetic Shear, and Eruptive Activity in Solar Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Török, Tibor; Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Leake, James E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The physical conditions that determine whether or not solar active regions (ARs) produce strong flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are not yet well understood. Here, we investigate the association between electric-current neutralization, magnetic shear along polarity inversion lines (PILs), and eruptive activity in four ARs: two emerging and two well-developed ones. We find that the CME-producing ARs are characterized by a strongly non-neutralized total current, while the total current in the ARs that did not produce CMEs is almost perfectly neutralized. The difference in the PIL shear between these two groups is much less pronounced, which suggests that the degree of current neutralization may serve as a better proxy for assessing the ability of ARs to produce CMEs.

  9. The Role of Intrinsic Brain Functional Connectivity in Vulnerability and Resilience to Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Gaelle E; Bassett, Danielle S; Yao, Nailin; Glahn, David C; Frangou, Sophia

    2017-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a heritable disorder characterized by mood dysregulation associated with brain functional dysconnectivity. Previous research has focused on the detection of risk- and disease-associated dysconnectivity in individuals with bipolar disorder and their first-degree relatives. The present study seeks to identify adaptive brain connectivity features associated with resilience, defined here as avoidance of illness or delayed illness onset in unaffected siblings of patients with bipolar disorder. Graph theoretical methods were used to examine global and regional brain network topology in head-motion-corrected resting-state functional MRI data acquired from 78 patients with bipolar disorder, 64 unaffected siblings, and 41 healthy volunteers. Global network properties were preserved in patients and their siblings while both groups showed reductions in the cohesiveness of the sensorimotor network. In the patient group, these sensorimotor network abnormalities were coupled with reduced integration of core default mode network regions in the ventromedial cortex and hippocampus. Conversely, integration of the default mode network was increased in the sibling group compared with both the patient group and the healthy volunteer group. The authors found that trait-related vulnerability to bipolar disorder was associated with reduced resting-state cohesiveness of the sensorimotor network in patients with bipolar disorder. However, integration of the default mode network emerged as a key feature differentiating disease expression and resilience between the patients and their siblings. This is indicative of the presence of neural mechanisms that may promote resilience, or at least delay illness onset.

  10. Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: insights sobre o papel do córtex pré-frontal em pacientes com transtorno de humor bipolar tipo I Proyecto Maudsley para Trastorno Bipolar: insights sobre el rol del córtex prefrontal en casos de disturbio bipolar I The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project: insights into the role of the prefrontal cortex in bipolar disorder I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Haldane

    2005-12-01

    extensa revisión clínica, con evaluación cognitiva y examen de resonancia magnética (RM para la obtención de datos estructurales y funcionales del cerebro. RESULTADOS: Cuando comparados a los controles, los pacientes demostraron un sutil y difuso comprometimiento del cerebro con reducción más expresiva en el nivel de las funciones ejecutivas. Los pacientes presentaron decrementos volumétricos en el córtex prefrontal ventral (CPFV bilateralmente y córtex prefrontal dorsal (CPFD izquierdo. El volumen de la amígdala también demostró un aumento bilateral. El examen de resonancia magnética funcional (RMf mostró anormalidades sutiles en el CPFD, con decremento de actividad tanto en el CPFD como en el CPFV durante tareas que dependían de la integración funcional de esas regiones. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados sugieren que, en casos de TBI, ocurren déficits en funciones ejecutivas, así como la alteración de estructuras y funcionamiento del CPF.PURPOSE: The Maudsley Bipolar Disorder Project was set up in order to investigate the cognitive and structural/functional brain characteristics of Bipolar Disorder I (BDI. METHODS: Participating patients with BDI (n = 43 were recruited from a secondary care setting, while in remission. They were matched to healthy controls for age, gender, race and years of education. Each participant underwent extensive clinical review, cognitive assessment, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI in order to obtain brain structural and functional data. RESULTS: When compared to controls, patients demonstrated subtle widespread impairment with executive function being more markedly reduced. Patients also displayed volume decrements in the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC bilaterally and in the dorsal PFC (DPFC on the left. The volume of the amygdala was bilaterally enlarged. Functional MRI of patients showed subtle abnormalities in their DPFC, with marked decrements in activity in both the DPFC and VPFC during tasks that rely on these regions

  11. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Mark A [Pleasanton, CA

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  12. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  14. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  15. The Geography of Entrepreneurial Activity and Regional Economic Development : Multilevel Analyses for Dutch and European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182375102

    2009-01-01

    Countries and regions are committed to stimulating entrepreneurship by opening doors to (potential) entrepreneurs. The commonly held belief is that a variety of entrepreneurs would lead to an enriched dynamic environment and as such lies at the root of economic prosperity. Over the past 25 years,

  16. Brain structure–function associations in multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K.; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C.; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M.; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B.; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A.; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I.; Glahn, David C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I.; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain–behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain–behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18–87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain–behaviour associations and test whether brain–behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain–behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar

  17. Bipolar (spectrum) disorder and mood stabilization: standing at the crossroads?

    OpenAIRE

    De Fruyt, Jurgen; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened,...

  18. Antibody constant region peptides can display immunomodulatory activity through activation of the Dectin-1 signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabrielli

    Full Text Available We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc of human IgG(1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules.

  19. Diffusion Entropy: A Potential Neuroimaging Biomarker of Bipolar Disorder in the Temporal Pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spuhler, Karl; Bartlett, Elizabeth; Ding, Jie; DeLorenzo, Christine; Parsey, Ramin; Huang, Chuan

    2018-02-01

    Despite much research, bipolar depression remains poorly understood, with no clinically useful biomarkers for its diagnosis. The paralimbic system has become a target for biomarker research, with paralimbic structural connectivity commonly reported to distinguish bipolar patients from controls in tractography-based diffusion MRI studies, despite inconsistent findings in voxel-based studies. The purpose of this analysis was to validate existing findings with traditional diffusion MRI metrics and investigate the utility of a novel diffusion MRI metric, entropy of diffusion, in the search for bipolar depression biomarkers. We performed group-level analysis on 9 un-medicated (6 medication-naïve; 3 medication-free for at least 33 days) bipolar patients in a major depressive episode and 9 matched healthy controls to compare: (1) average mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and; (2) MD and FA histogram entropy-a statistical measure of distribution homogeneity-in the amygdala, hippocampus, orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole. We also conducted classification analyses with leave-one-out and separate testing dataset (N = 11) approaches. We did not observe statistically significant differences in average MD or FA between the groups in any region. However, in the temporal pole, we observed significantly lower MD entropy in bipolar patients; this finding suggests a regional difference in MD distributions in the absence of an average difference. This metric allowed us to accurately characterize bipolar patients from controls in leave-one-out (accuracy = 83%) and prediction (accuracy = 73%) analyses. This novel application of diffusion MRI yielded not only an interesting separation between bipolar patients and healthy controls, but also accurately classified bipolar patients from controls. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Progressive neurostructural changes in adolescent and adult patients with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Megan E; Jarvis, Kelly B; DelBello, Melissa P; Mills, Neil P; Weber, Wade A; Fleck, David; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M

    2011-06-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that bipolar disorder is associated with progressive changes in gray matter volume (GMV), particularly in brain structures involved in emotional regulation and expression. The majority of these studies however, have been cross-sectional in nature. In this study we compared baseline and follow-up scans in groups of bipolar disorder and healthy subjects. We hypothesized bipolar disorder subjects would demonstrate significant GMV changes over time. A total of 58 bipolar disorder and 48 healthy subjects participated in structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Subjects were rescanned 3-34 months after their baseline MRI. MRI images were segmented, normalized to standard stereotactic space, and compared voxel-by-voxel using statistical parametrical mapping software (SPM2). A model was developed to investigate differences in GMV at baseline, and associated with time and episodes, as well as in comparison to healthy subjects. We observed increases in GMV in bipolar disorder subjects across several brain regions at baseline and over time, including portions of the prefrontal cortex as well as limbic and subcortical structures. Time-related changes differed to some degree between adolescent and adult bipolar disorder subjects. The interval between scans positively correlated with GMV increases in bipolar disorder subjects in portions of the prefrontal cortex, and both illness duration and number of depressive episodes were associated with increased GMV in subcortical and limbic structures. Our findings support suggestions that widely observed progressive neurofunctional changes in bipolar disorder patients may be related to structural brain abnormalities in anterior limbic structures. Abnormalities largely involve regions previously noted to be integral to emotional expression and regulation, and appear to vary by age. © 2011 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

  1. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  2. Relation of flare activity to the approach and separation of sunspots in an active region and to its magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markova, E.

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the flare activity of active regions within the scope of a large complex and the magnetic gradients of these active regions and their daily variations is investigated in the interval of the exceptionally high flare activity occurring in June 1970. New indices, characterizing the active region, were defined, e.g., the instantaneous sunspot-area density and the instantaneous sunspot-number density. These indices were determined on the basis of measurements of the surface containing all sunspots of the complex of active regions enclosed by an envelope. An attempt was made to substitute the surface in the relation for the individual indices by distance. The daily variations of these indices were again compared with the flare activity and some mutual relations were derived. (author)

  3. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder: a report from the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano A. Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Bipolar disorder (BD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality due to comorbid general medical conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. This study is the first report of the Brazilian Research Network in Bipolar Disorder (BRN-BD that aims to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of cardiovascular risk factors among Brazilian patients with BD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 159 patients with DSM-IV BD, 18 years or older, consecutively recruited from the Bipolar Research Program (PROMAN in São Paulo and the Bipolar Disorder Program (PROTAHBI in Porto Alegre. Clinical, demographic, anthropometric, and metabolic variables were systematically assessed. Results: High rates of smoking (27%, physical inactivity (64.9%, alcohol use disorders (20.8%, elevated fasting glucose (26.4%, diabetes (13.2%, hypertension (38.4%, hypertriglyceridemia (25.8%, low HDL-cholesterol (27.7%, general (38.4% and abdominal obesity (59.1% were found in the sample. Male patients were more likely to have alcohol use disorders, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas female patients showed higher prevalence of abdominal obesity. Variables such as medication use pattern, alcohol use disorder, and physical activity were associated with selected cardiovascular risk factors in the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: This report of the BRN-BD provides new data regarding prevalence rates and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilian outpatients with BD. There is a need for increasing both awareness and recognition about metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in this patient population.

  4. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela V. Boeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf’s biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necla Keskin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The comorbidity of bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders is a well known concept. Obsessive-compulsive disorder is the most commonly seen comorbid anxiety disorder in bipolar patients. Some genetic variants, neurotransmitters especially serotonergic systems and second-messenger systems are thought to be responsible for its etiology. Bipolar disorder alters the clinical aspects of obsessive compulsive disorder and is associated with poorer outcome. The determination of comorbidity between bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder is quite important for appropriate clinical management and treatment. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(4.000: 429-437

  6. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  7. Late Onset Bipolar Disorder: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bipolar disorder affects approximately 1% of the population, with diagnosis often being made during late adolescence and early adulthood, and only rarely (0.1% in the elderly. Late onset bipolar disorder in the elderly has a impact on the nature and course of bipolar disorder. Aims: The authors report a case of bipolar disorder emerging in late life  (76years old with no cleary identified organic cause. Conclusion: This case highlights the importance of a broad differential diagnosis and pharmacologic management when approaching new-onset manic/depressive symptoms among geriatric patients.

  8. Dysfunctional gaze processing in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Berchio

    2017-01-01

    The present study provides neurophysiological evidence for abnormal gaze processing in BP and suggests dysfunctional processing of direct eye contact as a prominent characteristic of bipolar disorder.

  9. Magnetic structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, C.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: While the magnetic field in quiescent prominences has been widely investigated, less is known about the field in activated prominences. We report observational results on the magnetic field structure of an activated filament in a flaring active region. In particular, we studied its magnetic structure and line-of-sight flows during its early activated phase, shortly before it displayed signs of rotation. Methods: We inverted the Stokes profiles of the chromospheric He i 10 830 Å triplet and the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å line observed in this filament by the Vacuum Tower Telescope on Tenerife. Using these inversion results, we present and interpret the first maps of the velocity and magnetic field obtained in an activated filament, both in the photosphere and the chromosphere. Results: Up to five different magnetic components are found in the chromospheric layers of the filament, while outside the filament a single component is sufficient to reproduce the observations. Magnetic components displaying an upflow are preferentially located towards the centre of the filament, while the downflows are concentrated along its periphery. Moreover, the upflowing gas is associated with an opposite-polarity magnetic configuration with respect to the photosphere, while the downflowing gas is associated with a same-polarity configuration. Conclusions: The activated filament has a very complex structure. Nonetheless, it is compatible with a flux rope, albeit a distorted one, in the normal configuration. The observations are best explained by a rising flux rope in which part of the filament material is still stably stored (upflowing material, rising with the field), while the rest is no longer stably stored and flows down along the field lines. The movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Adams, Mitzi [Space Science Office, VP62, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Gary, G. Allen [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)], E-mail: David.falconer@msfc.nasa.gov

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  11. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-01-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R Sun . The two quantities are L WL SG , a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and L Φ, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log L WL SG , log L Φ) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  12. Political Marketing Activity In Simultaneous Regional Elections 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMA Suyanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional head election system was change in 2015. It has impact on political marketing strategy to all stake holders, such as political party and candidatures.The purposes of this research is to analyzeashifting ofpolitical marketing issueson regional election 2015. The research approach uses the mix method with the type of sequential explanatory. The subjects of this research are the candidates, election successful teams or supporting team, and young voters. Location of research based on cluster system district and sub district in Bandung, Cianjur, Magelang, Sleman, and Medan. The data are collected through techniques of questionnaires to young voters; interview to candidates, election successful teams and young voters, as well as the documentation of media and data on Regional General Elections Commission (KPUD. There are also triangular data techniqueinterviews with the General Elections Commission (KPU, the community and supporting team, and documentation and questionnaire form. The result shows that the system of political marketing has already started shifting from product, promotion, price, place, and people known as the 5Ps from mostly dominated by Political Partyinto the role of PEOPLE as candidature in influensing the voters. The Result also tells that shifting from using convetional media into almost using digital media was powerfull.

  13. Disturbed cortico-amygdalar functional connectivity as pathophysiological correlate of working memory deficits in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Usher, Juliana; Trost, Sarah; Henseler, Ilona; Tost, Heike; Rietschel, Marcella; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder show deficits in working memory functions. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed an abnormal hyperactivity of the amygdala in bipolar patients during articulatory rehearsal in verbal working memory. In the present study, we investigated the dynamic neurofunctional interactions between the right amygdala and the brain systems that underlie verbal working memory in both bipolar patients and healthy controls. In total, 18 euthymic bipolar patients and 18 healthy controls performed a modified version of the Sternberg item-recognition (working memory) task. We used the psychophysiological interaction approach in order to assess functional connectivity between the right amygdala and the brain regions involved in verbal working memory. In healthy subjects, we found significant negative functional interactions between the right amygdala and multiple cortical brain areas involved in verbal working memory. In comparison with the healthy control subjects, bipolar patients exhibited significantly reduced functional interactions of the right amygdala particularly with the right-hemispheric, i.e., ipsilateral, cortical regions supporting verbal working memory. Together with our previous finding of amygdala hyperactivity in bipolar patients during verbal rehearsal, the present results suggest that a disturbed right-hemispheric "cognitive-emotional" interaction between the amygdala and cortical brain regions underlying working memory may be responsible for amygdala hyperactivation and affects verbal working memory (deficits) in bipolar patients.

  14. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  15. Bipolar mixed features - Results from the comparative effectiveness for bipolar disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohen, Mauricio; Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G; Montana, Rebecca E; McElroy, Susan L; Thase, Michael E; Rabideau, Dustin J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Friedman, Edward S; Shelton, Richard C; Bowden, Charles L; Singh, Vivek; Deckersbach, Thilo; Ketter, Terence A; Calabrese, Joseph R; Bobo, William V; McInnis, Melvin G

    2017-08-01

    DSM-5 changed the criteria from DSM-IV for mixed features in mood disorder episodes to include non-overlapping symptoms of depression and hypomania/mania. It is unknown if, by changing these criteria, the same group would qualify for mixed features. We assessed how those meeting DSM-5 criteria for mixed features compare to those meeting DSM-IV criteria. We analyzed data from 482 adult bipolar patients in Bipolar CHOICE, a randomized comparative effectiveness trial. Bipolar diagnoses were confirmed through the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Presence and severity of mood symptoms were collected with the Bipolar Inventory of Symptoms Scale (BISS) and linked to DSM-5 and DSM-IV mixed features criteria. Baseline demographics and clinical variables were compared between mood episode groups using ANOVA for continuous variables and chi-square tests for categorical variables. At baseline, the frequency of DSM-IV mixed episodes diagnoses obtained with the MINI was 17% and with the BISS was 20%. Using DSM-5 criteria, 9% of participants met criteria for hypomania/mania with mixed features and 12% met criteria for a depressive episode with mixed features. Symptom severity was also associated with increased mixed features with a high rate of mixed features in patients with mania/hypomania (63.8%) relative to those with depression (8.0%). Data on mixed features were collected at baseline only and thus do not reflect potential patterns in mixed features within this sample across the study duration. The DSM-5 narrower, non-overlapping definition of mixed episodes resulted in fewer patients who met mixed criteria compared to DSM-IV. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Bipolar nickel-hydrogen battery design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, C. W.; Applewhite, A. Z.; Kuo, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The initial design for the NASA-Lewis advanced nickel-hydrogen battery is discussed. Fabrication of two 10-cell boilerplate battery stacks will soon begin. The test batteries will undergo characterization testing and low Earth orbit life cycling. The design effectively deals with waste heat generated in the cell stack. Stack temperatures and temperature gradients are maintained to acceptable limits by utilizing the bipolar conduction plate as a heat path to the active cooling fluid panel external to the edge of the cell stack. The thermal design and mechanical design of the battery stack together maintain a materials balance within the cell. An electrolyte seal on each cell frame prohibits electrolyte bridging. An oxygen recombination site and electrolyte reservoir/separator design does not allow oxygen to leave the cell in which it was generated.

  17. [Everyday stress, routines and bipolar spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindre, C; Swendsen, J

    2010-06-01

    alpha levels within each category of activity, social interaction or environmental context. A total of 2777 valid ESM assessments were provided by the final sample concerning their behaviour and activities across diverse daily life contexts. Individuals having a lifetime history of mania or hypomania were significantly less likely than normal controls to have daily life routines relative to being at work, in class, having social contact with work colleagues or students, and to be performing personal hygiene activities. However, such individuals were more likely to be in the company of a romantic partner at the same moment each day. Time-lagged analyses demonstrated that, following conditions perceived as stressful, individuals with a history of mania or hypomania were less likely to repeat the same activities or behaviour of previous days concerning being at parents' or family's house, being at friends, and travelling or commuting, but more likely to be in a work environment, and in a bar or restaurant. The findings provide support for the notion of differences in daily life rhythms and routines among individuals with bipolar spectrum conditions, as well as the possibility of increased stress vulnerability in this population. Although a conservative analytic strategy was employed to minimize chance associations, the present findings can be considered only as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution in light of the moderate sample size, young age and non treatment-seeking nature of the sample. Future controlled investigations using ambulatory monitoring techniques are needed to pursue the investigation of these questions in treated samples. Copyright (c) 2009 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Approach to analysis of inter-regional similarity of investment activity support measures in legislation of regions (on the example of Krasnoyarsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina F. Lapo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most part of stimulation methods in Russia are concentrated in legal documents of the regions of the Russian Federation. They directed on intensification of investment activity in regions. How similar are these investment stimulation conceptions? There is no mention in the literature of the methodical questions of quantitative analysis and inter-regional comparisons. In addition, there are no results of statistical research of inter-regional correlations of stimulation methods and analysis of dynamics of this process. There are no special measuring instruments. The presented work is aimed at completion of these blanks. The approach for the spatial correlation analysis of legislative norms is offered in research. Classification of investments’ stimulation methods is developed. The way of preparing and coding data for research is offered. The approach and system of coefficients for the analysis of inter-regional interrelations of legislative systems of investments’ stimulation is offered. A proximity coefficient of regional legislation, a factor of structure similarity and a dynamic coincidence index are proposed. The space-time base of investment stimulation methods on Russian Federation regions for 12 years is collected and statistically processed for research. There are only 758 documents. A source of texts is a site of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation.Research of documents has allowed revealing a number of laws in formation of regional investment stimulation systems. The regions that are the most similar in terms of structure of stimulation methods are identified. We have found the group of regions for which it is observed the increase in similarity of the legislation and the group with the reduction of similarity. Therefore, it is obvious that the general trend to reduction of similarity in the legislation takes place between Krasnoyarsk territory and the other regions of the Russian Federation. Calculations have

  19. Interhemispheric functional disconnection because of abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuno, Fumihiko; Kudo, Takashi; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Yamamoto, Akihide; Takahashi, Masato; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Iida, Hidehiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2016-11-01

    A significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) value has been shown in anterior parts of the corpus callosum in patients with bipolar disorder. We investigated the association between abnormal corpus callosum integrity and interhemispheric functional connectivity (IFC) in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined the association between FA values in the corpus callosum (CC-FA) and the IFC between homotopic regions in the anterior cortical structures of bipolar disorder ( n =16) and major depressive disorder ( n =22) patients with depressed or euthymic states. We found a positive correlation between the CC-FA and IFC values between homotopic regions of the ventral prefrontal cortex and insula cortex, and significantly lower IFC between these regions in bipolar disorder patients. The abnormal corpus callosum integrity in bipolar disorder patients is relevant to the IFC between homotopic regions, possibly disturbing the exchange of emotional information between the cerebral hemispheres resulting in emotional dysregulation. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

  20. The Location of ICT activities in EU regions. Implications for regional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Barrios

    2008-01-01

    estimaciones econométricas sobre la localización de las empresas en la industria de las TIC a través de las regiones de la UE. El trabajo considera específicamente el caso de la localización de las multinacionales. Los resultados de los determinantes de la localización de las empresas parece diferir ampliamente dependiendo del sector de las TIC considerado, como del tipo de empresa considerada. A partir de estos resultados se deriva un número de implicaciones de política.

  1. Extended emission-line regions in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, J.B.; Hickson, P.

    1988-01-01

    Long-slit spectra of four active galaxies in the redshift range 0.06-0.10 are presented. Two have interacting companions. Spectra of the galaxies show extended narrow emission lines in all cases. Continuum color changes, emision-line ratio changes, and velocity changes with 1 arcsec resolution can be detected. Relative velocities between AGN and companion galaxies are also given. These objects appear to lie in galaxies in which there is considerable star-formation activity, and very extended line emision. 20 references

  2. Development of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises: regional accent

    OpenAIRE

    VINITCHENKO I.I.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical principles, modern state and prospects of innovative activity of agrarian enterprises, are considered. Going is certain near a management innovative development of agrarian sphere, that can be applied in the process of forming of corresponding soil of forming of the conceptual going near state administration an innovative process in an agrarian sphere.

  3. Bipolar Disorder after Stroke in an Elderly Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Calvão de Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The onset of bipolar disorder (BD secondary to a stroke event is a rare clinical entity. Although it may be related to specific regions of the brain, several other factors have been linked to its expression such as subcortical atrophy or chronic vascular burden. While precise locations and cerebral circuits involved in the bipolarity expression after stroke still need to be determined, their investigation represents an opportunity to study brain function and BD etiopathogenesis. We present a BD secondary to multiple subcortical biparietal lacunar infarctions, a lacunar infarction in left putamen and an ischemic lesion at the cerebral trunk evolving the right median portion, in a 65-year-old male patient who experienced manic, hypomanic, and depressive episodes, after 6, 10, and 16 months, respectively, of the cerebrovascular events.

  4. A study of lightning activity over land and oceanic regions of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    important point and above results have strongly motivated us to take up the study of land–land and land–ocean contrast in lightning activity over. India. The geographic regions of India chosen for the present study include: • Eastern region (ER) and western region (WR) of India,. • East coast of India and a strip of six oceanic.

  5. [Rhabdomyolysis in a Bipolar Adolescent. Analysis of Associated Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Diana; Montoya, Pablo; Giraldo, Laura; Gaviria, Génesis; Mejía, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case of rhabdomyolysis associated with the use of quetiapine and lamotrigine in an adolescent treated for bipolar disorder. Description of the clinical case, analysis of the associated factors and a non-systematic review of the relevant literature. An 18 year old male, with bipolar disorder and treated pharmacologically with quetiapine and lamotrigine, after two weeks of physical activity presents with rhabdomyolysis. Quetiapine and exercise have been associated with rhabdomyolysis. The mediator mechanism of this association has not been found, although it has been established that there is neuromuscular dysfunction and an increase in sarcomere permeability. This clinical case allowed the complex interaction between antipsychotic agents and increased physical activity to be observed in a psychiatric adolescent patient, as well as the appearance of a potentially lethal medical complication. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Study on ionizing radiation effects of bipolar transistor with BPSG films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Man; Zhang Xiaoling; Xie Xuesong; Sun Jiangchao; Wang Pengpeng; Lu Changzhi; Zhang Yanxiu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Because of the damage induced by ionizing radiation, bipolar transistors in integrated voltage regulator could induce the current gain degradation and increase leakage current. This will bring serious problems to electronic system. Purpose: In order to ensure the reliability of the device work in the radiation environments, the device irradiation reinforcement technology is used. Methods: The characteristics of 60 Co γ irradiation and annealing at different temperatures in bipolar transistors and voltage regulators (JW117) with different passive films for SiO 2 +BPSG+SiO 2 and SiO 2 +SiN have been investigated. Results: The devices with BPSG film enhanced radiation tolerance significantly. Because BPSG films have better absorption for Na + in SiO 2 layer, the surface recombination rate of base region in a bipolar transistor and the excess base current have been reduced. It may be the main reason for BJT with BPSG film having a good radiation hardness. And annealing experiments at different temperatures after irradiation ensure the reliability of the devices with BPSG films. Conclusions: A method of improving the ionizing irradiation hardness of bipolar transistors is proposed. As well as the linear integrated circuits which containing bipolar transistors, an experimental basis for the anti-ionizing radiation effects of bipolar transistors is provided. (authors)

  7. Geometry of Hα active region loops observed on the solar disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuan-le, C.; Loughhead, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Plasma loops are the dominant structures in the higher levels of the Sun's atmosphere above active regions. A geometrical technique has been used to reconstruct the true shapes of two large dark loops of the type ordinarily found in active regions in the absence of flares

  8. Transcriptional activation by the E1A regions of adenovirus types 40 and 41

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.E. van; Gilardi, P.; Perricaudet, M.; Rozijn, Th. H.; Sussenbach, J.S.

    In order to establish whether the poor growth of the two fastidious adenoviruses types 40 and 41 (Ad40 and Ad41) in HeLa cells is due to a reduced trans-activation by the early region to (E1A), we have determined the trans-activating effect of this region on the expression of the chloramphenicol

  9. Propagating wave in active region-loops, located over the solar disk observed by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Hou, Y. J.; Zhang, J.

    2018-03-01

    Aims: We aim to ascertain the physical parameters of a propagating wave over the solar disk detected by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). Methods: Using imaging data from the IRIS and the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO), we tracked bright spots to determine the parameters of a propagating transverse wave in active region (AR) loops triggered by activation of a filament. Deriving the Doppler velocity of Si IV line from spectral observations of IRIS, we have determined the rotating directions of active region loops which are relevant to the wave. Results: On 2015 December 19, a filament was located on the polarity inversion line of the NOAA AR 12470. The filament was activated and then caused a C1.1 two-ribbon flare. Between the flare ribbons, two rotation motions of a set of bright loops were observed to appear in turn with opposite directions. Following the end of the second rotation, a propagating wave and an associated transverse oscillation were detected in these bright loops. In 1400 Å channel, there was bright material flowing along the loops in a wave-like manner, with a period of 128 s and a mean amplitude of 880 km. For the transverse oscillation, we tracked a given loop and determine the transverse positions of the tracking loop in a limited longitudinal range. In both of 1400 Å and 171 Å channels, approximately four periods are distinguished during the transverse oscillation. The mean period of the oscillation is estimated as 143 s and the displacement amplitude as between 1370 km and 690 km. We interpret these oscillations as a propagating kink wave and obtain its speed of 1400 km s-1. Conclusions: Our observations reveal that a flare associated with filament activation could trigger a kink propagating wave in active region loops over the solar disk. Movies associated to Figs. 1-4 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  10. Unsupervised segmentation of task activated regions in fmRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, Rasmus; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2015-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging has become a central measuring modality to quantify functional activiation of the brain in both task and rest. Most analysis used to quantify functional activation requires supervised approaches as employed in statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to extract...... framework for the analysis of task fMRI and resting-state data in general where strong knowledge of how the task induces a BOLD response is missing....

  11. Transient Stuttering in Catatonic Bipolar Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony B. Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of transient stuttering occurring in association with catatonia and bipolar disorder are described. Affective decompensation has been associated with lateralized cerebral dysfunction, and it is hypothesized that in some bipolar catatonic patients a concomitant disorder of the lateralization of language function may lead to a variety of clinical presentations including aphasia, mutism, and stuttering.

  12. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  13. Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Mary L; Kupfer, David J

    2018-01-01

    Bipolar disorder refers to a group of affective disorders, which together are characterised by depressive and manic or hypomanic episodes. These disorders include: bipolar disorder type I (depressive and manic episodes: this disorder can be diagnosed on the basis of one manic episode); bipolar disorder type II (depressive and hypomanic episodes); cyclothymic disorder (hypomanic and depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for depressive episodes); and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (depressive and hypomanic-like symptoms that do not meet the diagnostic criteria for any of the aforementioned disorders). Bipolar disorder type II is especially difficult to diagnose accurately because of the difficulty in differentiation of this disorder from recurrent unipolar depression (recurrent depressive episodes) in depressed patients. The identification of objective biomarkers that represent pathophysiologic processes that differ between bipolar disorder and unipolar depression can both inform bipolar disorder diagnosis and provide biological targets for the development of new and personalised treatments. Neuroimaging studies could help the identification of biomarkers that differentiate bipolar disorder from unipolar depression, but the problem in detection of a clear boundary between these disorders suggests that they might be better represented as a continuum of affective disorders. Innovative combinations of neuroimaging and pattern recognition approaches can identify individual patterns of neural structure and function that accurately ascertain where a patient might lie on a behavioural scale. Ultimately, an integrative approach, with several biological measurements using different scales, could yield patterns of biomarkers (biosignatures) to help identify biological targets for personalised and new treatments for all affective disorders. PMID:23663952

  14. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  15. Perceived parental rearing of bipolar offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichart, C. G.; van der Ende, J.; Hillegers, M. H. J.; Wals, M.; Bongers, I. L.; Nolen, W. A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F. C.

    Objective: To explore the impact of growing up with a parent with a bipolar disorder. First, we compared parental rearing behavior perceived by young adult offspring of bipolar parents with parental rearing behavior perceived by same aged young adults from the general population. Secondly, we

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy for bipolar disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lotufo Neto, Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Descrição dos objetivos e principais técnicas da terapia comportamental cognitiva usadas para a psicoterapia das pessoas com transtorno bipolar.Objectives and main techniques of cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder patients are described.

  17. Physical activities of students in special primary schools in the central Bohemian region

    OpenAIRE

    Beznosova, Irina

    2011-01-01

    1 Abstract Title of the thesis: Physical activities of students in special primary schools in the central Bohemian region Aim of the study: The aim of the thesis is a comprehensive survey of physical activities provided by special primary schools in the Central Bohemian region. Method: We used a method of an empirical research. We studied a representative sample of special primary schools located in the Central Bohemia region in order to ascertain characteristics of the objects of observation...

  18. Smartphone data as objective measures of bipolar disorder symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Frost, Mads; Vinberg, Maj

    2014-01-01

    The daily electronic self-monitoring Smartphone software "MONARCA" was used by 17 patients with bipolar disorder for 3 consecutive months. Patients were rated fortnightly using Hamilton Depression rating Scale 17 items (HDRS-17) and Young Mania rating Scale (YMRS) (102 ratings) with blinding...... for Smartphone data. Objective Smartphone measures such as physical and social activity correlated with clinically rated depressive symptoms. Self-monitored depressive symptoms correlated significantly with HDRS-17 items score....

  19. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares - relatorio de atividades - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000.

  20. Kabachenko A. Restoration of entrepreneurial activity rate in the context of Donetsk region labor market stabilization

    OpenAIRE

    Кабаченко, Г. С.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the state of entrepreneurship inDonetskregion, which is characterized by: disproportion specialization of small enterprises by economic activity; uneven deployment of small businesses in the region; the tendency to reduce business in the region; uneven distribution of human capital size enterprises. The analysis shows that small and medium businesses in the region and slowed develops unevenly. Its potential is not realized sufficiently due to several problems at both the region...

  1. 2017 Bipolar Plate Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopasz, John P. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Benjamin, Thomas G. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Schenck, Deanna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-17

    The Bipolar Plate (BP) Workshop was held at USCAR1 in Southfield, Michigan on February 14, 2017 and included 63 participants from industry, government agencies, universities, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the workshop was to identify research and development (R&D) needs, in particular early-stage R&D, for bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells for transportation applications. The focus of the workshop was on materials, manufacturing, and design aspects of bipolar plates with the goal of meeting DOE’s 2020 bipolar plate targets. Of special interest was the cost target of ≤$3/kW for the bipolar plate.

  2. Kinematic model of some types of motion of matter in active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platov, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    The kinematics of matter motion in variable magnetic fields of active regions on the Sun in the MHD approximation of a strong field and cold plasma is investigated. It is shown that the variation of sunspot magnetic moments lead to the development of different active phenomena in the solar atmosphere. The development of such phenomena at first can occur at the phase of active region growth, when new sunspots together with developed sunspots emerge in an active region or relative motions take place in a sunspot group

  3. ON THE NON-KOLMOGOROV NATURE OF FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandage, Revati S. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rice University, 6100 Main MS-61, Houston, TX 77005-1827 (United States); McAteer, R. T. James, E-mail: mcateer@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88001 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    A magnetic power spectral analysis is performed on 53 solar active regions, observed from 2011 August to 2012 July. Magnetic field data obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, inverted as Active Region Patches, are used to study the evolution of the magnetic power index as each region rotates across the solar disk. Active regions are classified based on the numbers and sizes of solar flares they produce in order to study the relationship between flare productivity and the magnetic power index. The choice of window size and inertial range plays a key role in determining the correct magnetic power index. The overall distribution of magnetic power indices has a range of 1.0–2.5. Flare-quiet regions peak at a value of 1.6. However, flare-productive regions peak at a value of 2.2. Overall, the histogram of the distribution of power indices of flare-productive active regions is well separated from flare-quiet active regions. Only 12% of flare-quiet regions exhibit an index greater than 2, whereas 90% of flare-productive regions exhibit an index greater than 2. Flare-quiet regions exhibit a high temporal variance (i.e., the index fluctuates between high and low values), whereas flare-productive regions maintain an index greater than 2 for several days. This shows the importance of including the temporal evolution of active regions in flare prediction studies, and highlights the potential of a 2–3 day prediction window for space weather applications.

  4. Regions important for the adhesin activity of Moraxella catarrhalis Hag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafontaine Eric R

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Moraxella catarrhalis Hag protein, an Oca autotransporter adhesin, has previously been shown to be important for adherence of this respiratory tract pathogen to human middle ear and A549 lung cells. Results The present study demonstrates that adherence of M. catarrhalis isogenic hag mutant strains to the human epithelial cell lines Chang (conjunctival and NCIH292 (lung is reduced by 50–93%. Furthermore, expressing Hag in a heterologous Escherichia coli background substantially increased the adherence of recombinant bacteria to NCIH292 cells and murine type IV collagen. Hag did not, however, increase the attachment of E. coli to Chang cells. These results indicate that Hag directly mediates adherence to NCIH292 lung cells and collagen, but is not sufficient to confer binding to conjunctival monolayers. Several in-frame deletions were engineered within the hag gene of M. catarrhalis strain O35E and the resulting proteins were tested for their ability to mediate binding to NCIH292 monolayers, middle ear cells, and type IV collagen. These experiments revealed that epithelial cell and collagen binding properties are separable, and that residues 385–705 of this ~2,000 amino acid protein are important for adherence to middle ear and NCIH292 cells. The region of O35E-Hag encompassing aa 706 to 1194 was also found to be required for adherence to collagen. In contrast, β-roll repeats present in Hag, which are structural features conserved in several Oca adhesins and responsible for the adhesive properties of Yersinia enterocolitica YadA, are not important for Hag-mediated adherence. Conclusion Hag is a major adherence factor for human cells derived from various anatomical sites relevant to pathogenesis by M. catarrhalis and its structure-function relationships differ from those of other, closely-related autotransporter proteins.

  5. Taxation of the economical activities developed in the sea regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcio Branco de

    2000-01-01

    Usually, the power of taxation is straightly connected to the idea of territory. It is important to establish the limits of tax jurisdiction not only for taxes in view of which territoriality is part of the taxable event as defined in legislation - import tax (I.I.) and excise tax (IPI) -, but also for those the location of a possession - property tax (IPTU) - or the place in which services are rendered - service occupation tax (ISS) and sales tax (ICMS) - appear as the main component of the taxable event. According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982, and the Brazilian internal legislation as well, Federal Government has full sovereignty over its territorial sea -12 mile zone. In other areas (contiguous zone, exclusive economic zone and brazilian continental shelf), sovereignty is restricted to the supervision of some activities, not involving power of taxation. (author)

  6. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  7. DeepBipolar: Identifying genomic mutations for bipolar disorder via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive TOPSIS method to bipolar disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Lu, Zhenyu; Du, Zhenguang; Luo, Qi; Chen, Sheng

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is often mis-diagnosed as unipolar depression in the clinical diagnosis. The main reason is that, different from other diseases, bipolarity is the norm rather than exception in bipolar disorder diagnosis. YinYang bipolar fuzzy set captures bipolarity and has been successfully used to construct a unified inference mathematical modeling method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis. Nevertheless, symptoms and their interrelationships are not considered in the existing method, circumventing its ability to describe complexity of bipolar disorder. Thus, in this paper, a YinYang bipolar fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making method to bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis is developed. Comparing with the existing method, the new one is more comprehensive. The merits of the new method are listed as follows: First of all, multi-criteria group decision making method is introduced into bipolar disorder diagnosis for considering different symptoms and multiple doctors' opinions. Secondly, the discreet diagnosis principle is adopted by the revised TOPSIS method. Last but not the least, YinYang bipolar fuzzy cognitive map is provided for the understanding of interrelations among symptoms. The illustrated case demonstrates the feasibility, validity, and necessity of the theoretical results obtained. Moreover, the comparison analysis demonstrates that the diagnosis result is more accurate, when interrelations about symptoms are considered in the proposed method. In a conclusion, the main contribution of this paper is to provide a comprehensive mathematical approach to improve the accuracy of bipolar disorder clinical diagnosis, in which both bipolarity and complexity are considered. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders: Implications for emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabela M M; Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L

    2018-02-01

    forms of the disorder and their family members (Coryell et al., 1989; Jamison, 1993; Murray & Johnson, 2010). Some individuals appear to achieve more than the general population, suggesting the importance of understanding the variables that predict differential outcome within bipolar disorder. Within this paper, we focus on two key predictors of outcomes within bipolar disorder: cognition and emotionality. We review evidence that problems in cognition and emotionality are prominent among those diagnosed with the disorder, are not artifacts of symptom state, and relate substantively to poorer outcomes. Although traditionally studied separately, new work points toward the idea that cognition and emotionality are intricately linked within bipolar disorder. Drawing from research within bipolar disorder as well as outside of bipolar disorder, we build a model of how cognition and emotionality might be tied within bipolar disorder. We then provide suggestions for future research. Before considering findings, it is worth noting that there are several forms of the disorder, defined by varying degrees and duration of manic symptoms (APA, 2013; WHO, 1993). Manic episodes are defined by abnormally elevated or irritable mood, accompanied by increased activity and at least three symptoms (four if mood is only irritable) such as decreased need for sleep, increased self-confidence, racing thoughts or flight of ideas, rapid speech, distractibility, goal-directed activity, and engagement in pleasurable activities without regard to potential negative consequences. To meet criteria for mania, these symptoms must persist for at least one week or require hospitalization, and must lead to difficulties with functioning. If functional impairment is not more than mild and duration is between 4 and 6 days, the episode is considered a hypomanic episode. Bipolar I disorder (BD I) is diagnosed on the basis of at least one lifetime manic episode within the DSM-5 and by at least two episodes within

  10. A systematic review on the role of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinares, María; Rosa, Adriane R; Franco, Carolina; Goikolea, José Manuel; Fountoulakis, Kostas; Siamouli, Melina; Gonda, Xenia; Frangou, Sophia; Vieta, Eduard

    2013-03-01

    Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with bipolar depression, the optimal treatment for this phase is still a matter of debate. The aim of the current review was to provide updated evidence about the efficacy and tolerability of anticonvulsants in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. A comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the use of anticonvulsants for the treatment of acute bipolar depression up to June 2011 was conducted by means of the PubMed-Medline database. Eligibility criteria included active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled randomized studies involving monotherapy or combination therapy. A total of 18 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Studies supported the efficacy of divalproex as monotherapy in acute bipolar depression but small sample size was a common methodological limitation. Findings were inconclusive for lamotrigine and carbamazepine although overall lamotrigine may have a beneficial but modest effect. Negative results were found for levetiracetam and gabapentin but the evidence base on these agents is scant. All anticonvulsants were generally well tolerated. No double-blind RCTs were found for the use of other anticonvulsants such as oxcarbazepine, licarbazepine, zonisamide, retigabine, pregabalin, tiagabine, felbamate and vigabatrine in the acute treatment of bipolar depression. To sum up, taking into consideration the efficacy and tolerability profiles of anticonvulsants, current evidence supports the use of divalproex and lamotrigine in the treatment of acute bipolar depression. However, available data for most other anticonvulsants are inconclusive and further RCTs with larger sample sizes are needed before drawing firm conclusions.

  11. Insight in bipolar mania: evaluation of its heterogeneity and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2016-07-15

    Studies on insight in bipolar mania are not numerous and usually consider insight as a unitary construct. Evaluate how different facets of insight are affected in bipolar mania and investigate correlations between insight for each specific object in bipolar disorder and manic symptomatology. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed during a year, with 51 patients having manic episodes according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. The study found that insight regarding symptoms is worse than insight of having bipolar disorder, social relationships and self esteem. Moreover, poor global insight (total ISAD) correlates with more severe changes in mood, speech and thought structure, with worse insight about symptoms correlating with the same alterations and also with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy. Although a large sample of bipolar patients was followed up, the final sample composed of patients with at least one manic episode was relatively smaller. Moreover, the fact that the study was performed in a university hospital may have led to selection biases. Results suggest that patients with BD are reasonably capable of identifying that their condition implies consequences but have more impaired awareness of their energy and activity levels. A lower level of insight specifically about symptoms correlates with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy, which suggests a psychomotor nucleus able to impair insight in mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Homer1a protein expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leber, Stefan L; Llenos, Ida C; Miller, Christine L; Dulay, Jeannette R; Haybaeck, Johannes; Weis, Serge

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, there was growing interest in postsynaptic density proteins in the central nervous system. Of the most important candidates of this specialized region are proteins belonging to the Homer protein family. This family of scaffolding proteins is suspected to participate in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. The present study aims to compare Homer1a expression in the hippocampus and cingulate gyrus of patients with major psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze changes of Homer1a protein expression in the hippocampal formation and the cingulate gyrus from the respective disease groups. Glial cells of the cingulate gyrus gray matter showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. The same results were seen when comparing cingulate gyrus gray matter glial cells in bipolar disorder with major depression. Stratum oriens glial cells of the hippocampus showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls and major depression. Stratum lacunosum glial cells showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to major depression. In stratum oriens interneurons Homer1a levels were increased in all disease groups when compared to controls. Stratum lucidum axons showed decreased Homer1a levels in bipolar disorder when compared to controls. Our data demonstrate altered Homer1a levels in specific brain regions and cell types of patients suffering from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. These findings support the role of Homer proteins as interesting candidates in neuropsychiatric pathophysiology and treatment.

  13. THE FORMATION AND MAGNETIC STRUCTURES OF ACTIVE-REGION FILAMENTS OBSERVED BY NVST, SDO, AND HINODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Wang, J. C.; Xiang, Y. Y.; Kong, D. F.; Yang, L. H. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650216 (China); Pan, G. M. [College of Mathematics Physics and Information Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    To better understand the properties of solar active-region filaments, we present a detailed study on the formation and magnetic structures of two active-region filaments in active region NOAA 11884 during a period of four days. It is found that the shearing motion of the opposite magnetic polarities and the rotation of the small sunspots with negative polarity play an important role in the formation of two active-region filaments. During the formation of these two active-region filaments, one foot of the filaments was rooted in a small sunspot with negative polarity. The small sunspot rotated not only around another small sunspot with negative polarity, but also around the center of its umbra. By analyzing the nonlinear force-free field extrapolation using the vector magnetic fields in the photosphere, twisted structures were found in the two active-region filaments prior to their eruptions. These results imply that the magnetic fields were dragged by the shearing motion between opposite magnetic polarities and became more horizontal. The sunspot rotation twisted the horizontal magnetic fields and finally formed the twisted active-region filaments.

  14. Coronal rain in magnetic bipolar weak fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.; Fang, X.

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We intend to investigate the underlying physics for the coronal rain phenomenon in a representative bipolar magnetic field, including the formation and the dynamics of coronal rain blobs. Methods: With the MPI-AMRVAC code, we performed three dimensional radiative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with strong heating localized on footpoints of magnetic loops after a relaxation to quiet solar atmosphere. Results: Progressive cooling and in-situ condensation starts at the loop top due to radiative thermal instability. The first large-scale condensation on the loop top suffers Rayleigh-Taylor instability and becomes fragmented into smaller blobs. The blobs fall vertically dragging magnetic loops until they reach low-β regions and start to fall along the loops from loop top to loop footpoints. A statistic study of the coronal rain blobs finds that small blobs with masses of less than 1010 g dominate the population. When blobs fall to lower regions along the magnetic loops, they are stretched and develop a non-uniform velocity pattern with an anti-parallel shearing pattern seen to develop along the central axis of the blobs. Synthetic images of simulated coronal rain with Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly well resemble real observations presenting dark falling clumps in hot channels and bright rain blobs in a cool channel. We also find density inhomogeneities during a coronal rain "shower", which reflects the observed multi-stranded nature of coronal rain. Movies associated to Figs. 3 and 7 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Zipper plot: visualizing transcriptional activity of genomic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila Cobos, Francisco; Anckaert, Jasper; Volders, Pieter-Jan; Everaert, Celine; Rombaut, Dries; Vandesompele, Jo; De Preter, Katleen; Mestdagh, Pieter

    2017-05-02

    Reconstructing transcript models from RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data and establishing these as independent transcriptional units can be a challenging task. Current state-of-the-art tools for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) annotation are mainly based on evolutionary constraints, which may result in false negatives due to the overall limited conservation of lncRNAs. To tackle this problem we have developed the Zipper plot, a novel visualization and analysis method that enables users to simultaneously interrogate thousands of human putative transcription start sites (TSSs) in relation to various features that are indicative for transcriptional activity. These include publicly available CAGE-sequencing, ChIP-sequencing and DNase-sequencing datasets. Our method only requires three tab-separated fields (chromosome, genomic coordinate of the TSS and strand) as input and generates a report that includes a detailed summary table, a Zipper plot and several statistics derived from this plot. Using the Zipper plot, we found evidence of transcription for a set of well-characterized lncRNAs and observed that fewer mono-exonic lncRNAs have CAGE peaks overlapping with their TSSs compared to multi-exonic lncRNAs. Using publicly available RNA-seq data, we found more than one hundred cases where junction reads connected protein-coding gene exons with a downstream mono-exonic lncRNA, revealing the need for a careful evaluation of lncRNA 5'-boundaries. Our method is implemented using the statistical programming language R and is freely available as a webtool.

  16. Association study of candidate genes for susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder on chromosome 22Q13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Jacob; Binderup, Helle; Mors, Ole

    Chromosome 22q is suspected to harbor risk genes for schizophrenia as well as bipolar affective disorder. This is evidenced through genetic mapping studies, investigations of cytogenetic abnormalities, and direct examination of candidate genes. In a recent study of distantly related patients from...... the Faroe Islands we have obtained evidence suggesting two regions on chromosome 22q13 to potentially harbor susceptibility genes for both schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder. We have selected a number of candidate genes from these two regions for further analysis, including the neuro-gene WKL1...... and unrelated controls, and in a Scottish case-control sample comprising 200 schizophrenics, 200 bipolar patients and 200 controls. None of the investigated SNPs have so far showed strong evidence of association to either bipolar disorder or schizophrenia....

  17. Recent Advances in the Study of Bipolar/Rod-Shaped Microglia and their Roles in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngan Pan Bennett Au

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS and they contribute to primary inflammatory responses following CNS injuries. The morphology of microglia is closely associated with their functional activities. Most previous research efforts have attempted to delineate the role of ramified and amoeboid microglia in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to ramified and amoeboid microglia, bipolar/rod-shaped microglia were first described by Franz Nissl in 1899 and their presence in the brain was closely associated with the pathology of infectious diseases and sleeping disorders. However, studies relating to bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are very limited, largely due to the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Recent studies have reported the formation of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia trains in in vivo models of CNS injury, including diffuse brain injury, focal transient ischemia, optic nerve transection and laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT. These bipolar/rod-shaped microglia formed end-to-end alignments in close proximity to the adjacent injured axons, but they showed no interactions with blood vessels or other types of glial cell. Recent studies have also reported on a highly reproducible in vitro culture model system to enrich bipolar/rod-shaped microglia that acts as a powerful tool with which to characterize this form of microglia. The molecular aspects of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia are of great interest in the field of CNS repair. This review article focuses on studies relating to the morphology and transformation of microglia into the bipolar/rod-shaped form, along with the differential gene expression and spatial distribution of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia in normal and pathological CNSs. The spatial arrangement of bipolar/rod-shaped microglia is crucial in the reorganization and remodeling of neuronal and synaptic circuitry following CNS injuries. Finally, we

  18. Brain Structural Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Colm

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is associated with subtle neuroanatomical deficits including lateral ventricular enlargement, grey matter deficits incorporating limbic system structures, and distributed white matter pathophysiology. Substantial heterogeneity has been identified by structural neuroimaging studies to date and differential psychotropic medication use is potentially a substantial contributor to this. This selective review of structural neuroimaging and diffusion tensor imaging studies considers evidence that lithium, mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medication and antidepressant medications are associated with neuroanatomical variation. Most studies are negative and suffer from methodological weaknesses in terms of directly assessing medication effects on neuroanatomy, since they commonly comprise posthoc assessments of medication associations with neuroimaging metrics in small heterogenous patient groups. However the studies which report positive findings tend to form a relatively consistent picture whereby lithium and antiepileptic mood stabiliser use is associated with increased regional grey matter volume, especially in limbic structures. These findings are further supported by the more methodologically robust studies which include large numbers of patients or repeated intra-individual scanning in longitudinal designs. Some similar findings of an apparently ameliorative effect of lithium on white matter microstructure are also emerging. There is less support for an effect of antipsychotic or antidepressant medication on brain structure in bipolar disorder, but these studies are further limited by methodological difficulties. In general the literature to date supports a normalising effect of lithium and mood stabilisers on brain structure in bipolar disorder, which is consistent with the neuroprotective characteristics of these medications identified by preclinical studies. PMID:26412064

  19. The effects of activation procedures on regional cerebral blood flow in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, D.; Wolfson, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) can be measured using 133XE and collimated detectors. The radionuclide can be administered either by inhalation or intracarotid injection. Comparison of blood flow determinations at rest and during performance of an activity identifies those brain regions that become active during the performance of the activity. Relatively specific patterns of r-CBF are observed during hand movements, sensory stimulation, eye movements, speech, listening, and reading. Regional CBF changes during reasoning and memorization are less specific and less well characterized. It is clear that brain lesions affect r-CBF responses to various activities, but this effect has not been well correlated with functional deficits or recovery of function. Regional CBF measurement gives information about brain activity and the functional response to experimental manipulation. This approach may well add to our understanding of normal, as well as pathologic, brain functioning

  20. A novel scale for measuring mixed states in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jonathan; Schwannauer, Matthias; Power, Mick; Goodwin, Guy M

    2009-01-01

    Conventional descriptions of bipolar disorder tend to treat the mixed state as something of an afterthought. There is no scale that specifically measures the phenomena of the mixed state. This study aimed to test a novel scale for mixed state in a clinical and community population of bipolar patients. The scale included clinically relevant symptoms of both mania and depression in a bivariate scale. Recovered respondents were asked to recall their last manic episode. The scale allowed endorsement of one or more of the manic and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency analyses were carried out using Cronbach alpha. Factor analysis was carried out using a standard Principal Components Analysis followed by Varimax Rotation. A confirmatory factor analytic method was used to validate the scale structure in a representative clinical sample. The reliability analysis gave a Cronbach alpha value of 0.950, with a range of corrected-item-total-scale correlations from 0.546 (weight change) to 0.830 (mood). The factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution for the manic and depressed items which accounted for 61.2% of the variance in the data. Factor 1 represented physical activity, verbal activity, thought processes and mood. Factor 2 represented eating habits, weight change, passage of time and pain sensitivity. This novel scale appears to capture the key features of mixed states. The two-factor solution fits well with previous models of bipolar disorder and concurs with the view that mixed states may be more than the sum of their parts.

  1. Clinical correlates of loss of insight in bipolar depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Assis da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Affective state may influence insight, especially regarding mania. Nevertheless, studies have so far suggested that depression seems not to significantly impair insight. To the best of our knowledge, this study pioneers the evaluation of how insight variations in bipolar depression correlate with clinical variables. Method A group of 165 bipolar patients, 52 of whom had depressive episodes according to DSM-5 criteria, were followed during a year. All patients underwent clinical assessment, and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders (ISAD. Repeated-measures ANOVA was calculated comparing scores on the four ISAD factors (insight into symptoms, the condition itself, self-esteem and social relationships in order to investigate differences in insight according to different objects. Correlational analysis explored which clinical symptoms were linked to reduced insight. Results Worse total insight correlated with suicide attempt/ideation and fewer subsyndromal manic symptoms such as mood elevation, increased energy and sexual interest. Worse self-esteem insight was associated with not only suicide ideation/attempt but also with activity reduction and psychomotor retardation. Worse symptom insight also correlated with psychomotor retardation. Better insight into having an affective disorder was associated with more intense hypochondria symptoms. Finally, worse insight into having an illness was associated with psychotic episodes. Conclusion Our study found that symptoms other than psychosis – suicide ideation, psychomotor retardation and reduction of activity and work – correlate with insight impairment in bipolar depression.

  2. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  3. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  4. Staging in bipolar disorder: from theoretical framework to clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Michael; Post, Robert; Ratheesh, Aswin; Gliddon, Emma; Singh, Ajeet; Vieta, Eduard; Carvalho, Andre F; Ashton, Melanie M; Berk, Lesley; Cotton, Susan M; McGorry, Patrick D; Fernandes, Brisa S; Yatham, Lakshmi N; Dodd, Seetal

    2017-10-01

    Illness staging is widely utilized in several medical disciplines to help predict course or prognosis, and optimize treatment. Staging models in psychiatry in general, and bipolar disorder in particular, depend on the premise that psychopathology moves along a predictable path: an at-risk or latency stage, a prodrome progressing to a first clinical threshold episode, and one or more recurrences with the potential to revert or progress to late or end-stage manifestations. The utility and validity of a staging model for bipolar disorder depend on its linking to clinical outcome, treatment response and neurobiological measures. These include progressive biochemical, neuroimaging and cognitive changes, and potentially stage-specific differences in response to pharmacological and psychosocial treatments. Mechanistically, staging models imply the presence of an active disease process that, if not remediated, can lead to neuroprogression, a more malignant disease course and functional deterioration. Biological elements thought to be operative in bipolar disorder include a genetic diathesis, physical and psychic trauma, epigenetic changes, altered neurogenesis and apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Many available agents, such as lithium, have effects on these targets. Staging models also suggest the utility of stage-specific treatment approaches that may not only target symptom reduction, but also impede illness neuroprogression. These treatment approaches range from prevention for at-risk individuals, to early intervention strategies for prodromal and newly diagnosed individuals, complex combination therapy for rapidly recurrent illness, and palliative-type approaches for those at chronic, late stages of illness. There is hope that prompt initiation of potentially disease modifying therapies may preclude or attenuate the cognitive and structural changes seen in the later stages of bipolar disorder. The aims of this paper are to: a

  5. VALPROATE, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Milana; Zivanović, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction with the principal features of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. A large number of studies conducted on this topic have suggested a possible role of anticonvulsants, particularly valproate, in the pathogenesis or risk factors associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Bipolar treatment guidelines from Canada and the United States of America recommend valproate as the first line strategy in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder. Most persons with bipolar disorder require maintenance treatment. Long-term administration of valproate in women with bipolar disorder or epilepsy is believed to result in the increased risk of hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovaries. Valproate may also increase the risk of infertility and other associated symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Therefore, particular caution is indicated in the use of valproate in women of reproductive age. The treatment of the female patients with bipolar disorder presents various challenges for the clinician. Every woman of reproductive age needs to know the risk and benefits of her pharmacologic treatment options. Bipolar disorder should be considered chronic disorder, whose development is largely affected by hormonal changes and reproductive cycle in women. These issues should be researched more thoroughly in order to opt for the most appropriate treatment in women with bipolar disorder.

  6. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  7. Discharge Characteristics of Series Surface/Packed-Bed Discharge Reactor Diven by Bipolar Pulsed Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jian; Jiang Nan; Li Jie; Shang Kefeng; Lu Na; Wu Yan; Mizuno Akira

    2016-01-01

    The discharge characteristics of the series surface/packed-bed discharge (SSPBD) reactor driven by bipolar pulse power were systemically investigated in this study. In order to evaluate the advantages of the SSPBD reactor, it was compared with traditional surface discharge (SD) reactor and packed-bed discharge (PBD) reactor in terms of the discharge voltage, discharge current, and ozone formation. The SSPBD reactor exhibited a faster rising time and lower tail voltage than the SD and PBD reactors. The distribution of the active species generated in different discharge regions of the SSPBD reactor was analyzed by optical emission spectra and ozone analysis. It was found that the packed-bed discharge region (3.5 mg/L), rather than the surface discharge region (1.3 mg/L) in the SSPBD reactor played a more important role in ozone generation. The optical emission spectroscopy analysis indicated that more intense peaks of the active species (e.g. N2 and OI) in the optical emission spectra were observed in the packed-bed region. (paper)

  8. Discharge Characteristics of Series Surface/Packed-Bed Discharge Reactor Diven by Bipolar Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian; Jiang, Nan; Li, Jie; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Wu, Yan; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-03-01

    The discharge characteristics of the series surface/packed-bed discharge (SSPBD) reactor driven by bipolar pulse power were systemically investigated in this study. In order to evaluate the advantages of the SSPBD reactor, it was compared with traditional surface discharge (SD) reactor and packed-bed discharge (PBD) reactor in terms of the discharge voltage, discharge current, and ozone formation. The SSPBD reactor exhibited a faster rising time and lower tail voltage than the SD and PBD reactors. The distribution of the active species generated in different discharge regions of the SSPBD reactor was analyzed by optical emission spectra and ozone analysis. It was found that the packed-bed discharge region (3.5 mg/L), rather than the surface discharge region (1.3 mg/L) in the SSPBD reactor played a more important role in ozone generation. The optical emission spectroscopy analysis indicated that more intense peaks of the active species (e.g. N2 and OI) in the optical emission spectra were observed in the packed-bed region. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177007), the Joint Funds of National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. U1462105), and Dalian University of Technology Fundamental Research Fund of China (No. DUT15RC(3)030)

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging of cingulum bundle and corpus callosum in schizophrenia vs. bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Igor; Hoof, Anna; Dietzek, Maren; Langbein, Kerstin; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Sauer, Heinrich; Güllmar, Daniel

    2017-08-30

    Both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show abnormalities of white matter, as seen in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses of major brain fibre bundles. While studies in each of the two conditions have indicated possible overlap in anatomical location, there are few direct comparisons between the disorders. Also, it is unclear whether phenotypically similar subgroups (e.g. patients with bipolar disorder and psychotic features) might share white matter pathologies or be rather similar. Using region-of-interest (ROI) analysis of white matter with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T, we analysed fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the corpus callosum and cingulum bundle in 33 schizophrenia patients, 17 euthymic (previously psychotic) bipolar disorder patients, and 36 healthy controls. ANOVA analysis showed significant main effects of group for RD and ADC (both elevated in schizophrenia). Across the corpus callosum ROIs, there was not group effect on FA, but for RD (elevated in schizophrenia, lower in bipolar disorder) and ADC (higher in schizophrenia, intermediate in bipolar disorder). Our findings show similarities and difference (some gradual) across regions of the two major fibre tracts implicated in these disorders, which would be consistent with a neurobiological overlap of similar clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder compared to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, B L; Canales-Rodríguez, E J; Madre, M; Radua, J; Monte, G; Alonso-Lana, S; Landin-Romero, R; Moreno-Alcázar, A; Bonnin, C M; Sarró, S; Ortiz-Gil, J; Gomar, J J; Moro, N; Fernandez-Corcuera, P; Goikolea, J M; Blanch, J; Salvador, R; Vieta, E; McKenna, P J; Pomarol-Clotet, E

    2016-01-01

    Brain structural changes in schizoaffective disorder, and how far they resemble those seen in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, have only been studied to a limited extent. Forty-five patients meeting DSM-IV and RDC criteria for schizoaffective disorder, groups of patients with 45 matched schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and 45 matched healthy controls were examined using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Analyses comparing each patient group with the healthy control subjects found that the patients with schizoaffective disorder and the patients with schizophrenia showed widespread and overlapping areas of significant volume reduction, but the patients with bipolar disorder did not. A subsequent analysis compared the combined group of patients with the controls followed by extraction of clusters. In regions where the patients differed significantly from the controls, no significant differences in mean volume between patients with schizoaffective disorder and patients with schizophrenia in any of five regions of volume reduction were found, but mean volumes in the patients with bipolar disorder were significantly smaller in three of five. The findings provide evidence that, in terms of structural gray matter brain abnormality, schizoaffective disorder resembles schizophrenia more than bipolar disorder. © 2015 The Authors. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Determination of GMPE functional form for an active region with limited strong motion data: application to the Himalayan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Ketan; Anbazhagan, P.

    2018-01-01

    Advancement in the seismic networks results in formulation of different functional forms for developing any new ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) for a region. Till date, various guidelines and tools are available for selecting a suitable GMPE for any seismic study area. However, these methods are efficient in quantifying the GMPE but not for determining a proper functional form and capturing the epistemic uncertainty associated with selection of GMPE. In this study, the compatibility of the recent available functional forms for the active region is tested for distance and magnitude scaling. Analysis is carried out by determining the residuals using the recorded and the predicted spectral acceleration values at different periods. Mixed effect regressions are performed on the calculated residuals for determining the intra- and interevent residuals. Additionally, spatial correlation is used in mixed effect regression by changing its likelihood function. Distance scaling and magnitude scaling are respectively examined by studying the trends of intraevent residuals with distance and the trend of the event term with magnitude. Further, these trends are statistically studied for a respective functional form of a ground motion. Additionally, genetic algorithm and Monte Carlo method are used respectively for calculating the hinge point and standard error for magnitude and distance scaling for a newly determined functional form. The whole procedure is applied and tested for the available strong motion data for the Himalayan region. The functional form used for testing are five Himalayan GMPEs, five GMPEs developed under NGA-West 2 project, two from Pan-European, and one from Japan region. It is observed that bilinear functional form with magnitude and distance hinged at 6.5 M w and 300 km respectively is suitable for the Himalayan region. Finally, a new regression coefficient for peak ground acceleration for a suitable functional form that governs the attenuation

  12. Frontonasal dysmorphology in bipolar disorder by 3D laser surface imaging and geometric morphometrics: comparisons with schizophrenia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Robin J

    2010-09-01

    Any developmental relationship between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia engenders continuing debate. As the brain and face emerge in embryological intimacy, brain dysmorphogenesis is accompanied by facial dysmorphogenesis. 3D laser surface imaging was used to capture the facial surface of 13 male and 14 female patients with bipolar disorder in comparison with 61 male and 75 female control subjects and with 37 male and 32 female patients with schizophrenia. Surface images were analysed using geometric morphometrics and 3D visualisations to identify domains of facial shape that distinguish bipolar patients from controls and bipolar patients from those with schizophrenia. Both male and female bipolar patients evidenced significant facial dysmorphology: common to male and female patients was overall facial widening, increased width of nose, narrowing of mouth and upward displacement of the chin; dysmorphology differed between male and female patients for nose length, lip thickness and tragion height. There were few morphological differences in comparison with schizophrenia patients. That dysmorphology of the frontonasal prominences and related facial regions in bipolar disorder is more similar to than different from that found in schizophrenia indicates some common dysmorphogenesis. Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia might reflect similar insult(s) acting over slightly differing time-frames or slightly differing insult(s) acting over a similar time-frame.

  13. Paired structures and bipolar knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Bustince, Humberto; Franco, Camilo

    In this strictly positional paper we propose a general approach to bipolar knowledge representation, where the meaning of concepts can be modelled by examining their decomposition into opposite and neutral categories. In particular, it is the semantic relationship between the opposite categories...... and at the same time the type of neutrality rising in between opposites. Based on this first level of bipolar knowledge representation, paired structures in fact offer the means to characterize a specific bipolar valuation scale depending on the meaning of the concept that has to be verified. In this sense...

  14. Bipolar Disorder and Early Affective Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Codt, Aloise; Monhonval, Pauline; Bongaerts, Xavier; Belkacemi, Ikram; Tecco, Juan Martin

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high prevalence and is a major psychosocial and medical burden. The exact etiological pathways of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. Genetic factors are known to play an important role in the etiology of bipolar disorder. However, high rates of discordance among identical twins and a growing body of evidence that environmental factors such as early stress can influence the onset and course of psychiatric diseases underline the importance of additional etiological mechanisms of bipolar disorders. There has been little investigation about early trauma in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the association between early traumatic interactions like child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and the occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease. Studies investigating associations between child neglect, mistreatment, abuse or early parental separation and occurrence of bipolar disorder in adulthood or impact on the course of the disease were searched in the Pubmed database. More than 700 articles were sorted independently by two of the authors using predefined criteria. Only research articles, reviews and meta-analyses were selected for this review. 53 articles met the inclusion criteria. To date, four systematic reviews partially addressed our research question. Early trauma is more frequently found in the past of bipolar patients than in the general population. Studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a worse prognosis. Early trauma is more often found in the past of bipolar adult patients than the general population and studies support a harmful effect of childhood trauma on the course of bipolar disease, with more anxious, depressive or psychotic symptoms, an early age of onset and a

  15. Ionizing radiations simulation on bipolar components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents the ionizing radiation effects on bipolar components and more specially their behavior facing the total dose. The first part is devoted to the radiation environments with a special attention to the spatial environments and new emergent environments. The specificities of bipolar components are then presented and their behavior facing the interactions. The physical mechanisms bound to the dose rate are also discussed. The second part presents a physical analysis of degradations induced by the cumulated dosimetry on bipolar components and simulation with the ATLAS code. The third part exposes an electric empirical simulation induced by the cumulated dose in static conditions. (A.L.B.)

  16. Progression along the Bipolar Spectrum: A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Conversion from Bipolar Spectrum Conditions to Bipolar I and II Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Urošević, Snežana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Nusslock, Robin; Whitehouse, Wayne G.; Hogan, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined progression to more severe bipolar disorders in individuals with “soft” bipolar spectrum conditions. We examine rates and predictors of progression to bipolar I and II diagnoses in a non-patient sample of college-age participants (n = 201) with high General Behavior Inventory scores and childhood or adolescent onset of “soft” bipolar spectrum disorders followed longitudinally for 4.5 years from the Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum (LIBS) project. Of 57 individuals with initial cyclothymia or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BiNOS) diagnoses, 42.1% progressed to a bipolar II diagnosis and 10.5% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Of 144 individuals with initial bipolar II diagnoses, 17.4% progressed to a bipolar I diagnosis. Consistent with hypotheses derived from the clinical literature and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) model of bipolar disorder, and controlling for relevant variables (length of follow-up, initial depressive and hypomanic symptoms, treatment-seeking, and family history), high BAS sensitivity (especially BAS Fun Seeking) predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar II disorder, whereas early age of onset and high impulsivity predicted a greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I (high BAS sensitivity and Fun-Seeking also predicted progression to bipolar I when family history was not controlled). The interaction of high BAS and high Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) sensitivities also predicted greater likelihood of progression to bipolar I. We discuss implications of the findings for the bipolar spectrum concept, the BAS model of bipolar disorder, and early intervention efforts. PMID:21668080

  17. Cerebral Correlates of Abnormal Emotion Conflict Processing in Euthymic Bipolar Patients: A Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Pauline; Polosan, Mircea; Pichat, Cédric; Bougerol, Thierry; Baciu, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder experience cognitive and emotional impairment that may persist even during the euthymic state of the disease. These persistent symptoms in bipolar patients (BP) may be characterized by disturbances of emotion regulation and related fronto-limbic brain circuitry. The present study aims to investigate the modulation of fronto-limbic activity and connectivity in BP by the processing of emotional conflict. Fourteen euthymic BP and 13 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a word-face emotional Stroop task designed to dissociate the monitoring/generation of emotional conflict from its resolution. Functional connectivity was determined by means of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach. Relative to HS, BP were slower to process incongruent stimuli, reflecting higher amount of behavioral interference during emotional Stroop. Furthermore, BP showed decreased activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the monitoring and a lack of bilateral amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the emotional conflict. In addition, during conflict monitoring, BP showed abnormal positive connectivity between the right DLPFC and several regions of the default mode network. Overall, our results highlighted dysfunctional processing of the emotion conflict in euthymic BP that may be subtended by abnormal activity and connectivity of the DLPFC during the conflict monitoring, which, in turn, leads to failure of amygdala deactivation during the resolution of the conflict. Emotional dysregulation in BP may be underpinned by a lack of top-down cognitive control and a difficulty to focus on the task due to persistent self-oriented attention.

  18. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Definition of regional dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes means of the dispersive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly T. Bykov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In article application of the dispersive analysis for an estimation of dependence of activity antioxidative enzymes from region of constant residing, age, sex and the disease diagnosis is considered.

  20. Oil Exploration and Ethnic Militia activities in the Niger Delta Region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    dominant source of livelihood of the people in the region. The exploration .... ranging from freedom fighting and Nationalism to activities bordering on criminality. This paper .... a kind of private army whose members are enrolled on military lives ...

  1. Investigation of cortical thickness abnormalities in lithium-free adults with bipolar type I disorder using cortical pattern matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foland-Ross, Lara C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Sugar, Catherine A.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Shen, Jim K.; Penfold, Conor; Ahlf, Kyle; Rasser, Paul E.; Fischer, Jeffrey; Yang, Yilan; Townsend, Jennifer; Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Altshuler, Lori L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several lines of evidence implicate gray matter abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar disorder. Findings however, have been largely inconsistent across studies. Differences in patients’ medication status or mood state, or the application of traditional volumetric methods that are insensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences may have contributed to these inconsistent findings. Given this, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with cortical pattern matching methods to assess cortical thickness abnormalities in euthymic bipolar subjects who were not treated with lithium. Method Sixty-five subjects, including 34 lithium-free euthymic subjects with bipolar (type I) disorder and 31 healthy subjects were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data were processed to measure cortical gray matter thickness. Cortical pattern matching methods associated homologous brain regions across subjects. Spatially normalized thickness maps were analyzed to assess illness effects and associations with clinical variables. Results Relative to healthy subjects, euthymic bipolar I subjects had significantly thinner gray matter in bilateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Areas 11, 10, 8 and 44) and left anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann Areas 24/32). Additionally, thinning in these regions was more pronounced in patients with a history of psychosis. No areas of thicker cortex were detected in bipolar subjects versus healthy subjects. Conclusions Using a technique that is highly sensitive to subtle neuroanatomic differences, significant regional cortical thinning was found in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21285139

  2. Derivation of a regional active-optical reflectance sensor corn algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active-optical reflectance sensor (AORS) algorithms developed for in-season corn (Zea mays L.) N management have traditionally been derived using sub-regional scale information. However, studies have shown these previously developed AORS algorithms are not consistently accurate when used on a region...

  3. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  4. Organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the region: comparative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda Igorevna Antipina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article proposes the approach to evaluate the organizational-economic maintenance of innovation activity in the regions in quantitative and qualitative indicators, as well as the method to calculate the assessment of regulatory support of this activity. It justifies the author’s approach of comparative efficiency evaluation of innovation legislation and regions’ innovation development level. The article gives the qualitative estimation of regulatory support of innovation development in the regions that are innovation leaders. It singles out key directions to develop regulatory support of innovation activity, which encourage RF subjects’ innovation activity

  5. A 3-Step Algorithm Using Region-Based Active Contours for Video Objects Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Jehan-Besson

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose a 3-step algorithm for the automatic detection of moving objects in video sequences using region-based active contours. First, we introduce a very full general framework for region-based active contours with a new Eulerian method to compute the evolution equation of the active contour from a criterion including both region-based and boundary-based terms. This framework can be easily adapted to various applications, thanks to the introduction of functions named descriptors of the different regions. With this new Eulerian method based on shape optimization principles, we can easily take into account the case of descriptors depending upon features globally attached to the regions. Second, we propose a 3-step algorithm for detection of moving objects, with a static or a mobile camera, using region-based active contours. The basic idea is to hierarchically associate temporal and spatial information. The active contour evolves with successively three sets of descriptors: a temporal one, and then two spatial ones. The third spatial descriptor takes advantage of the segmentation of the image in intensity homogeneous regions. User interaction is reduced to the choice of a few parameters at the beginning of the process. Some experimental results are supplied.

  6. The thermodynamics of bipolarity: a bifurcation model of bipolar illness and bipolar character and its psychotherapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, H C; Carlson-Sabelli, L; Javaid, J I

    1990-11-01

    Two models dominate current formulations of bipolar illness: the homeostatic model implicit in Freud's psychodynamics and most neuroamine deficit/excess theories; and the oscillatory model of exaggerated biological rhythms. The homeostatic model is based on the closed systems approach of classic thermodynamics, while the oscillatory model requires the open systems approach of modern thermodynamics. Here we present a thermodynamic model of bipolarity that includes both homeostatic and oscillatory features and adds the most important feature of open systems thermodynamics: the creation of novel structures in bifurcation processes. According to the proposed model, bipolarity is the result of exaggerated biological energy that augments homeostatic, oscillatory and creative psychological processes. Only low-energy closed systems tend to rest ("point attractor") and entropic disorder. Open processes containing and exchanging energy fluctuate between opposite states ("periodic attractors"); they are characteristic of most physiological rhythms and are exaggerated in bipolar subjects. At higher energies, their strong fluctuations destroy pre-existing patterns and structures, produce turbulence ("chaotic attractors"), which sudden switches between opposite states, and create new and more complex structures. Likewise, high-energy bipolars develop high spontaneity, great fluctuations between opposite moods, internal and interpersonal chaos, and enhanced creativity (personal, artistic, professional) as well as psychopathology (personality deviations, psychotic delusions). Offered here is a theoretical explanation of the dual--creative and destructive--nature of bipolarity in terms of the new enantiodromic concept of entropy generalized by process theory. Clinically, this article offers an integrative model of bipolarity that accounts for many clinical features and contributes to a definition of the bipolar personality.

  7. Solar and Stellar Active Regions:Cosmic laboratories for the study of Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahos, Loukas

    2008-01-01

    Solar active regions are driven dissipative dynamical systems. The turbulent convection zone forces new magnetic flux tubes to rise above the photosphere and shuffles the magnetic fields which are already above the photosphere. The driven 3D active region responds to the driver with the formation of Thin Current Sheets in all scales and releases impulsively energy, when special thresholds are met, on the form of nano-, micro-, flares and large scale coronal mass ejections. It has been documen...

  8. Bipolar Electrode Sample Preparation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi (Inventor); Song, Hongjun (Inventor); Pant, Kapil (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An analyte selection device can include: a body defining a fluid channel having a channel inlet and channel outlet; a bipolar electrode (BPE) between the inlet and outlet; one of an anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel inlet side of the BPE and the other of the anode or cathode electrically coupled with the BPE on a channel outlet side of the BPE; and an electronic system operably coupled with the anode and cathode so as to polarize the BPE. The fluid channel can have any shape or dimension. The channel inlet and channel outlet can be longitudinal or lateral with respect to the longitudinal axis of the channel. The BPE can be any metallic member, such as a flat plate on a wall or mesh as a barrier BPE. The anode and cathode can be located at a position that polarizes the BPE.

  9. Functional connections between activated and deactivated brain regions mediate emotional interference during externally directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Plinio, Simone; Ferri, Francesca; Marzetti, Laura; Romani, Gian Luca; Northoff, Georg; Pizzella, Vittorio

    2018-04-24

    Recent evidence shows that task-deactivations are functionally relevant for cognitive performance. Indeed, higher cognitive engagement has been associated with higher suppression of activity in task-deactivated brain regions - usually ascribed to the Default Mode Network (DMN). Moreover, a negative correlation between these regions and areas actively engaged by the task is associated with better performance. DMN regions show positive modulation during autobiographical, social, and emotional tasks. However, it is not clear how processing of emotional stimuli affects the interplay between the DMN and executive brain regions. We studied this interplay in an fMRI experiment using emotional negative stimuli as distractors. Activity modulations induced by the emotional interference of negative stimuli were found in frontal, parietal, and visual areas, and were associated with modulations of functional connectivity between these task-activated areas and DMN regions. A worse performance was predicted both by lower activity in the superior parietal cortex and higher connectivity between visual areas and frontal DMN regions. Connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus and several DMN regions in the left hemisphere was related to the behavioral performance. This relation was weaker in the negative than in the neutral condition, likely suggesting less functional inhibitions of DMN regions during emotional processing. These results show that both executive and DMN regions are crucial for the emotional interference process and suggest that DMN connections are related to the interplay between externally-directed and internally-focused processes. Among DMN regions, superior frontal gyrus may be a key node in regulating the interference triggered by emotional stimuli. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Investigating the Impact of a Genome-Wide Supported Bipolar Risk Variant of MAD1L1 on the Human Reward System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Sarah; Diekhof, Esther K; Mohr, Holger; Vieker, Henning; Krämer, Bernd; Wolf, Claudia; Keil, Maria; Dechent, Peter; Binder, Elisabeth B; Gruber, Oliver

    2016-10-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified MAD1L1 (mitotic arrest deficient-like 1) as a susceptibility gene for bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The minor allele of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11764590 in MAD1L1 was associated with bipolar disorder. Both diseases, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, are linked to functional alterations in the reward system. We aimed at investigating possible effects of the MAD1L1 rs11764590 risk allele on reward systems functioning in healthy adults. A large homogenous sample of 224 young (aged 18-31 years) participants was genotyped and underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). All participants performed the 'Desire-Reason Dilemma' paradigm investigating the neural correlates that underlie reward processing and active reward dismissal in favor of a long-term goal. We found significant hypoactivations of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), the bilateral striatum and bilateral frontal and parietal cortices in response to conditioned reward stimuli in the risk allele carriers compared with major allele carriers. In the dilemma situation, functional connectivity between prefrontal brain regions and the ventral striatum was significantly diminished in the risk allele carriers. Healthy risk allele carriers showed a significant deficit of their bottom-up response to conditioned reward stimuli in the bilateral VTA and striatum. Furthermore, functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and prefrontal areas exerting top-down control on the mesolimbic reward system was reduced in this group. Similar alterations in reward processing and disturbances of prefrontal control mechanisms on mesolimbic brain circuits have also been reported in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Together, these findings suggest the existence of an intermediate phenotype associated with MAD1L1.

  11. Study protocol for a systematic review of evidence for lifestyle interventions targeting smoking, sleep, alcohol/other drug use, physical activity, and healthy diet in people with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Thornton, Louise; Lappin, Julia M; Hanstock, Tanya; Sylvia, Louisa; Jacka, Felice; Baker, Amanda L; Berk, Michal; Mitchell, Phillip B; Callister, Robin; Rogers, Naomi; Webster, Stephanie; Dennis, Simon; Oldmeadow, Christopher; MacKinnon, Andrew; Doran, Christopher; Turner, Alyna; Hunt, Sally

    2016-07-05

    People with bipolar disorder (BD) have a mortality gap of up to 20 years compared to the general population. Physical conditions, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, cause the majority of excess deaths in psychiatric populations and are the leading causes of mortality in people with BD. However, comparatively little attention has been paid to reducing the risk of physical conditions in psychiatric populations. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors are among the potentially modifiable risk factors for a range of commonly comorbid chronic medical conditions, including CVD, diabetes, and obesity. This systematic review will identify and evaluate the available evidence for effective interventions to reduce risk and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors in BD. We will search MEDLINE, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and CINAHL for published research studies (with at least an abstract published in English) that evaluate behavioral or psychosocial interventions to address the following lifestyle factors in people with BD: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, overweight or obesity, sleep-wake disturbance, and alcohol/other drug use. Primary outcomes for the review will be changes in tobacco use, level of physical activity, diet quality, sleep quality, alcohol use, and illicit drug use. Data on each primary outcome will be synthesized across available studies in that lifestyle area (e.g., tobacco abstinence, cigarettes smoked per day), and panel of research and clinical experts in each of the target lifestyle behaviors and those experienced with clinical and research with individuals with BD will determine how best to represent data related to that primary outcome. Seven members of the systematic review team will extract data, synthesize the evidence, and rate it for quality. Evidence will be synthesized via a narrative description of the behavioral interventions and their effectiveness in improving the healthy lifestyle behaviors

  12. Climatic factors and bipolar affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ellen Margrethe; Larsen, Jens Knud; Gjerris, Annette

    2008-01-01

    In bipolar disorder, the factors provoking a new episode are unknown. As a seasonal variation has been noticed, it has been suggested that weather conditions may play a role. The aim of the study was to elucidate whether meteorological parameters influence the development of new bipolar phases....... A group of patients with at least three previous hospitalizations for bipolar disorder was examined every 3 months for up to 3 years. At each examination an evaluation of the affective phase was made according to the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(17)), and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (MAS......). In the same period, daily recordings from the Danish Meteorological Institute were received. We found no correlations between onset of bipolar episodes [defined as MAS score of 11 or more (mania) and as HAM-D(17) score of 12 or more (depression)] and any meteorological parameters. We found a statistical...

  13. Bipolar or unipolar? : A brain teasing question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rive, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the depressed or remitted states, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are difficult to distinguish clinically. Treatments for both disorders differ, and inadequate treatment may lead to chronicity, poor psychosocial functioning, or even suicide. Although early

  14. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous...... survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information...... on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online...

  15. Are rates of pediatric bipolar disorder increasing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    Studies from the USA suggest that rates of pediatric bipolar disorder have increased since the mid-90s, but no study outside the USA has been published on the rates of pediatric bipolar disorder. Further, it is unclear whether an increase in rates reflects a true increase in the illness or more...... diagnostic attention. Using nationwide registers of all inpatients and outpatients contacts to all psychiatric hospitals in Denmark, we investigated (1) gender-specific rates of incident pediatric mania/bipolar disorder during a period from 1995 to 2012, (2) whether age and other characteristics...... for pediatric mania/bipolar disorder changed during the calendar period (1995 to 2003 versus 2004 to 2012), and (3) whether the diagnosis is more often made at first psychiatric contact in recent time compared to earlier according to gender. Totally, 346 patients got a main diagnosis of a manic episode (F30...

  16. Circuits Regulating Pleasure and Happiness in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton J. M. Loonen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, control the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (prefrontal and limbic cortices. Hyperactive motivation to display behavior that potentially results in reward induces feelings of hankering (relief leads to pleasure; while, hyperactive motivation to exhibit behavior related to avoidance of aversive states results in dysphoria (relief leads to happiness. These two systems collaborate in a reciprocal fashion. We hypothesized that the mechanism inducing the switch from bipolar depression to mania is the most essential characteristic of bipolar disorder. This switch is attributed to a dysfunction of the lateral habenula, which regulates the activity of midbrain centers, including the dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA. From an evolutionary perspective, the activity of the lateral habenula should be regulated by the human homolog of the habenula-projecting globus pallidus, which in turn might be directed by the amygdaloid complex and the phylogenetically old part of the limbic cortex. In bipolar disorder, it is possible that the system regulating the activity of this reward-driven behavior is damaged or the interaction between the medial and lateral habenula may be dysfunctional. This may lead to an adverse coupling between the activities of the misery-fleeing and reward-seeking circuits, which results in independently varying activities.

  17. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  18. Suicide in bipolar disorder: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in patients with bipolar disorder. Risk factors and prevention of suicide in this illness are the focus of considerable current research. MEDLINE data base was searched for the key words "bipolar disorder" with "suicide", "lithium" with "suicide", "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder", and "anticonvulsants" with "bipolar disorder" and with "suicide". No language or time constraints were applied. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. It is estimated that 25% to 50% of patients with bipolar disorder will attempt suicide at least once over their lifetime, and that 8% to 19% will complete suicide. Mortality rates from cardiovascular diseases are elevated in bipolar disorder. Risk factors for suicide include younger age of onset of the illness, history of past suicidal behavior, family history of suicide acts, comorbid borderline personality disorder and substance use disorders, and hopelessness. The warning signs calling for immediate action include the patients threatening to harm themselves, or looking for ways to kill themselves (seeking access to pills or weapons), or the patient talking or writing about death. Robust evidence supports the effects of lithium treatment in reducing suicidal attempts and completions in bipolar disorder. The evidence for antisuicidal effects of anticonvulsants is weaker. Nevertheless, valproate and other anticonvulsants are frequently prescribed as mood stabilizers. There have been controversial suggestions that this treatment may elevate the risk of suicide, but the data supporting this are not convincing. Psychoeducation can reduce the number of suicide attempts and completions. Suicide in bipolar disorder is a major public health problem. Recent research has expanded our knowledge of risk factors and warning signs. Nevertheless, it appears that the introduction of lithium treatment in the 1970s was the most recent important breakthrough in the prevention

  19. Perceived built environment and physical activity in U.S. women by sprawl and region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, Philip J; Tamura, Kosuke; Whitcomb, Heather A; Laden, Francine

    2011-11-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated relationships between the perceived built environment and physical activity among adults. However, little is known about whether these associations differ by U.S. region and level of urban sprawl. To examine associations between the perceived built environment and physical activity in U.S. women by region and urban sprawl. Nurses' Health Study II participants (N=68,968) completed four perceived neighborhood environment survey items in 2005. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with meeting physical activity recommendations, adjusting for demographic and weight-status variables, and stratifying by region and sprawl. Data analyses were completed in 2011. Perceived proximity to shops/stores was positively associated with physical activity across regions and levels of sprawl (ORs=1.21-1.46). Perceived access to recreation facilities was also a positive physical activity correlate in most region-sprawl strata, with strongest relationships found in the West (ORs=1.31-1.70). Perceived crime and presence of sidewalks did not show statistically significant associations with physical activity in most region-sprawl strata, although ORs for perceived crime showed a consistent pattern of negative associations (ORs=0.60-0.95). A higher number of positive environmental attributes was associated with a greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Findings indicate that perceived proximity to shops/stores and access to recreation facilities are important correlates of physical activity for women, irrespective of region or sprawl. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Carnosine: effect on aging-induced increase in brain regional monoamine oxidase-A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Soumyabrata; Poddar, Mrinal K

    2015-03-01

    Aging is a natural biological process associated with several neurological disorders along with the biochemical changes in brain. Aim of the present investigation is to study the effect of carnosine (0.5-2.5μg/kg/day, i.t. for 21 consecutive days) on aging-induced changes in brain regional (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus and pons-medulla) mitochondrial monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity with its kinetic parameters. The results of the present study are: (1) The brain regional mitochondrial MAO-A activity and their kinetic parameters (except in Km of pons-medulla) were significantly increased with the increase of age (4-24 months), (2) Aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity including its Vmax were attenuated with higher dosages of carnosine (1.0-2.5μg/kg/day) and restored toward the activity that observed in young, though its lower dosage (0.5μg/kg/day) were ineffective in these brain regional MAO-A activity, (3) Carnosine at higher dosage in young rats, unlike aged rats significantly inhibited all the brain regional MAO-A activity by reducing their only Vmax excepting cerebral cortex, where Km was also significantly enhanced. These results suggest that carnosine attenuated the aging-induced increase of brain regional MAO-A activity by attenuating its kinetic parameters and restored toward the results of MAO-A activity that observed in corresponding brain regions of young rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  1. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  2. FINE MAGNETIC FEATURES AND CHIRALITY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongqi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present fine magnetic features near the magnetic inversion line in the solar active region NOAA 10930. The high-resolution vector magnetograms obtained by Hinode allow detailed analyses around magnetic fibrils in the active region. The analyses are based on the fact that the electric current density can be divided into two components: the shear component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity and the twist component caused by the magnetic field twist. The relationships between magnetic field, electric current density, and its two components are examined. It is found that the individual magnetic fibrils are dominated by the current density component caused by the magnetic inhomogeneity, while the large-scale magnetic region is generally dominated by the electric current component associated with the magnetic twist. The microstructure of the magnetic field in the solar atmosphere is far from the force-free field. The current mainly flows around the magnetic flux fibrils in the active regions.

  3. Determination of 137Cs activities in soil samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Oe.; Belivermis, M.; Cotuk, Y.; Coskun, M.; Cayir, A.; Kuecer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 1 37Cs, 4 0K and physico-chemical parameters of soil samples collected from 99 sampling stations in the east and south of Marmara Region of Turkey were determined. The study region was divided into 20 x 20 km grids and soil samples collected randomly in each square from 0-5 cm surface layer. Activities were measured by means of multichannel gamma analyser provided with high purity germanium detector. Relations among 1 37Cs concentrations and physico-chemical parameters of soils and climatic factors of the region were evaluated. Arc View GIS version 3.1 was used mapping of study area. Distribution of radionuclide concentrations in the region illustrated with contour maps using Surfer 8.0 for Windows. The range of activity concentrations of 1 37Cs and 4 0K were measured to be 0.92-153.72 and 69.24-1085.57 Bq/kg respectively

  4. The relative influence of individual risk factors for attempted suicide in patients with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobo, William V; Na, Peter J; Geske, Jennifer R; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Biernacka, Joanna M

    2018-01-01

    To compare the relative influence (RI) of individual predictors for lifetime attempted suicide between adults with bipolar I (BDBD-I) and bipolar II disorder (BDBD-II). We conducted an analysis of data from 1465 enrollees in the Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank. Demographic and clinical variables and history of attempted suicide were ascertained using standardized questionnaires. Height and weight were assessed to determine body mass index (BMI); obesity was defined as BMI ≥30kg/m 2 . The frequencies of these variables were compared between persons with and without self-reported lifetime suicide attempts both overall, and within BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Gradient boosting machine (GBM) models were used to quantify the RI of study variables on the risk of lifetime attempted suicide. Nearly one-third of patients reported having a lifetime suicide attempt. Attempted suicide rates were higher in patients with BD-I than BD-II, but absolute differences were small. Lifetime attempted suicide was associated with female sex, BD-I subtype, psychiatric and substance use comorbidities, binge eating behavior, lifetime history of rapid cycling, other indicators of adverse illness course, and early age of bipolar illness onset in the entire cohort. Differences in the rank-ordering of RI for predictors of attempted suicide between BD-I and BD-II patients were modest. Rapid cycling was a strong risk factor for attempted suicide, particularly in men with BD-I. Actively psychotic or suicidal patients needing psychiatric hospitalization were initially excluded, but were approached after these acute psychiatric problems resolved. The prevalence of lifetime attempted suicide was significantly higher in BD-I than BD-II in this large, cross-sectional cohort. Predictors of attempted suicide were similar in BD-I and BD-II subgroups. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-01-01

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  6. Preparation of bipolar membranes by electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jiefeng; Hou, Linxiao; Wang, Qiuyue; He, Yubin; Wu, Liang; Mondal, Abhishek N.; Xu, Tongwen, E-mail: twxu@ustc.edu.cn

    2017-01-15

    A new preparative pathway for the bipolar membranes was initiated via the electrospinning and hot-press process. The prepared bipolar membrane was consisting of sulfonated poly (phenylene oxide), polyethylene glycol, and quaternized poly (phenylene oxide). The above mentioned membrane was fabricated by the continuous electrospinning of the respective layer, followed by the solvent atmosphere treatment and hot-pressing, to obtain a transparent and dense structure. The thickness of each layer can be easily tuned by controlling the electrospinning parameters. The clear interfacial structure was observed and confirmed by the scanning electron microscope. The bipolar performance is evaluated by the current–voltage curves and production yield of acid and base. The final optimized bipolar membrane had similar yield of acid and base as the casting membrane. However, extremely lower potential drop value was observed when they are applied for the production of acid and base. The experimental results showed that, electrospinning is an effective and well controlled way to fabricate bipolar membranes, in which anion or cation exchange layer as well as interfacial layer can be easily changed or added as requested. - Highlights: • Bipolar membranes were prepared through electrospinning followed by post-treatment. • As-prepared membranes were successfully applied in electrodialysis for production of acid and base. • Electrospun membranes exhibit better performance than the casting ones.

  7. Comorbidity bipolar disorder and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Jana; Ociskova, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Outcome in bipolar patients can be affected by comorbidity of other psychiatric disorders. Comorbid personality disorders are frequent and may complicate the course of bipolar illness. We have much information about treating patients with uncomplicated bipolar disorder (BD) but much less knowledge about possibilities for patients with the comorbidity of BD and personality disorder. We conducted a series of literature searches using, as key words or as items in indexed fields, bipolar disorder and personality disorder or personality traits. Articles were obtained by searching MEDLINE from 1970 to 2012. In addition, we used other papers cited in articles from these searches, or cited in articles used in our own work. Tests of personality traits indicated that euthymic bipolar patients have higher scores on harm avoidance, reward dependence, and novelty seeking than controls. Elevation of novelty seeking in bipolar patients is associated with substance abuse comorbidity. Comorbidity with personality disorders in BD patients is associated with a more difficult course of illness (such as longer episodes, shorter time euthymic, and earlier age at onset) and an increase in comorbid substance abuse, suicidality and aggression. These problems are particularly pronounced in comorbidity with borderline personality disorder. Comorbidity with antisocial personality disorder elicits a similar spectrum of difficulties; some of the antisocial behavior exhibited by patients with this comorbidity is mediated by increased impulsivity.

  8. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gold AK

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra K Gold,1 Louisa G Sylvia,1,2 1Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. Keywords: bipolar disorder, circadian rhythms, sleep–wake homeostasis

  9. Classification of cognitive performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl M; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    To understand the etiology of cognitive impairment associated with bipolar disorder, we need to clarify potential heterogeneity in cognitive functioning. To this end, we used multivariate techniques to study if the correlation structure of cognitive abilities differs between persons with bipolar disorder and controls. Clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 86) were assessed with a wide range of cognitive tests measuring executive function, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Data were analysed with multivariate techniques. A distinct subgroup (∼30%) could be identified that performed significantly poorer on tests concerning memory function. This cognitive phenotype subgroup did not differ from the majority of bipolar disorder patients with respect to other demographic or clinical characteristics. Whereas the majority of patients performed similar to controls, a subgroup of patients with bipolar disorder differed substantially from healthy controls in the correlation pattern of low-level cognitive abilities. This suggests that cognitive impairment is not a general trait in bipolar disorder but characteristic of a cognitive subgroup. This has important clinical implications for cognitive rehabilitation and remediation.

  10. Quasi-static three-dimensional magnetic field evolution in solar active region NOAA 11166 associated with an X1.5 flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemareddy, P.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2014-01-01

    We study the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic fields constructed from the non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation aiming to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and ribbon emission during an X1.5 flare in active region (AR) NOAA 11166. The flare with a quasi-elliptical and two remote ribbons occurred on 2011 March 9 at 23:13 UT over a positive flux region surrounded by negative flux at the center of the bipolar AR. Our analysis of the coronal magnetic structure with potential and NLFFF solutions unveiled the existence of a single magnetic null point associated with a fan-spine topology and is co-spatial with the hard X-ray source. The footpoints of the fan separatrix surface agree with the inner edge of the quasi-elliptical ribbon and the outer spine is linked to one of the remote ribbons. During the evolution, the slow footpoint motions stressed the field lines along the polarity inversion line and caused electric current layers in the corona around the fan separatrix surface. These current layers trigger magnetic reconnection as a consequence of dissipating currents, which are visible as cusp-shaped structures at lower heights. The reconnection process reorganized the magnetic field topology whose signatures are observed at the separatrices/quasi-separatrix layer structure in both the photosphere and the corona during the pre-to-post flare evolution. In agreement with previous numerical studies, our results suggest that the line-tied footpoint motions perturb the fan-spine system and cause null point reconnection, which eventually causes the flare emission at the footpoints of the field lines.

  11. O transtorno bipolar na mulher Bipolar disorder in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandro de Borja Gonçalves Guerra

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Diferenças sexuais, descritas em vários transtornos psiquiátricos, também parecem estar presentes no transtorno afetivo bipolar (TAB. A prevalência do TAB tipo I se distribui igualmente entre mulheres e homens. Mulheres parecem estar sujeitas a um risco maior de ciclagem rápida e mania mista, condições que fariam do TAB um transtorno com curso mais prejudicial no sexo feminino. Uma diátese depressiva mais marcante, uso excessivo de antidepressivos e diferenças hormonais surgem como hipóteses para explicar essas diferenças fenomenológicas, apesar das quais, mulheres e homens parecem responder igualmente ao tratamento medicamentoso. A indicação de anticonvulsivantes como primeira escolha em mulheres é controversa, a não ser para o tratamento da mania mista e, talvez, da ciclagem rápida. O tratamento do TAB na gravidez deve levar em conta tanto os riscos de exposição aos medicamentos quanto à doença materna. A profilaxia do TAB no puerpério está fortemente indicada em decorrência do grande risco de recorrência da doença nesse período. Embora, de modo geral, as medicações psicotrópicas estejam contra-indicadas durante a amamentação, entre os estabilizadores do humor, a carbamazepina e o valproato são mais seguros do que o lítio. Mais estudos são necessários para a confirmação das diferenças de curso do TAB entre mulheres e homens e a investigação de possíveis diferenças na efetividade dos tratamentos.Gender differences, described in several psychiatric disorders, seem to be also present in bipolar disorder (BD. The prevalence of bipolar I disorder is equally distributed between women and men. Women seem to be at higher risk for rapid cycling and mixed mania, conditions that could make BD a disorder with a more severe course in the female sex. A marked depressive diathesis among women, greatest use of antidepressants and hormonal differences have been mentioned as hypotheses to explain these

  12. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-06

    Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, Psmartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall levels of clinical manic symptoms were predicted by lower physical activity on the smartphone (ie, distance travelled: beta=-.37, Psmartphone (beta=-.17, Psmartphone measurements, but not all smartphone measures predicted the occurrence of

  13. Vermistella arctica n. sp. Nominates the Genus Vermistella as a Candidate for Taxon with Bipolar Distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tyml, Tomáš; Kostka, Martin; Ditrich, O.; Dyková, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2016), s. 210-219 ISSN 1066-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : actin * biogeography * bipolar distribution * free-living amoebae * phylogeny * polar regions * SSU Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.692, year: 2016

  14. Electric field with bipolar structure during magnetic reconnection without a guide field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun

    2014-05-01

    We present a study on the polarized electric field during the collisionless magnetic reconnection of antiparallel fields using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations demonstrate clearly that electron holes and electric field with bipolar structure are produced during magnetic reconnection without a guide field. The electric field with bipolar structure can be found near the X-line and on the separatrix and the plasma sheet boundary layer, which is consistent with the observations. These structures will elongate electron's time staying in the diffusion region. In addition, the electric fields with tripolar structures are also found in our simulation.

  15. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  16. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Acoustic Waves Near Active Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsue, Teresa; Pesnell, Dean; Hill, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Active region areas on the Sun are abundant with a variety of waves that are both acoustically helioseismic and magnetohydrodynamic in nature. The occurrence of a solar flare can disrupt these waves, through MHD mode-mixing or scattering by the excitation of these waves. We take a multi-wavelength observational approach to understand the source of theses waves by studying active regions where flaring activity occurs. Our approach is to search for signals within a time series of images using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm, by producing multi-frequency power map movies. We study active regions both spatially and temporally and correlate this method over multiple wavelengths using data from NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory. By surveying the active regions on multiple wavelengths we are able to observe the behavior of these waves within the Solar atmosphere, from the photosphere up through the corona. We are able to detect enhancements of power around active regions, which could be acoustic power halos and of an MHD-wave propagating outward by the flaring event. We are in the initial stages of this study understanding the behaviors of these waves and could one day contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for their formation; that has not yet been explained.

  17. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  18. Mapping vulnerability to bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Howes, Oliver; Bechdolf, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although early interventions in individuals with bipolar disorder may reduce the associated personal and economic burden, the neurobiologic markers of enhanced risk are unknown. Methods Neuroimaging studies involving individuals at enhanced genetic risk for bipolar disorder (HR) were included in a systematic review. We then performed a region of interest (ROI) analysis and a whole-brain meta-analysis combined with a formal effect-sizes meta-analysis in a subset of studies. Results There were 37 studies included in our systematic review. The overall sample for the systematic review included 1258 controls and 996 HR individuals. No significant differences were detected between HR individuals and controls in the selected ROIs: striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, pituitary and frontal lobe. The HR group showed increased grey matter volume compared with patients with established bipolar disorder. The HR individuals showed increased neural response in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus and left insula compared with controls, independent from the functional magnetic resonance imaging task used. There were no publication biases. Sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of these results. Limitations As the included studies were cross-sectional, it remains to be determined whether the observed neurofunctional and structural alterations represent risk factors that can be clinically used in preventive interventions for prodromal bipolar disorder. Conclusion Accumulating structural and functional imaging evidence supports the existence of neurobiologic trait abnormalities in individuals at genetic risk for bipolar disorder at various scales of investigation. PMID:22297067

  19. Abnormal white matter integrity as a structural endophenotype for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıçiçek, A; Zorlu, N; Yalın, N; Hıdıroğlu, C; Çavuşoğlu, B; Ceylan, D; Ada, E; Tunca, Z; Özerdem, A

    2016-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with white matter (WM) pathology. Investigation of unaffected first-degree relatives of BD patients may help to distinguish structural biomarkers of genetic risk without the confounding effects of burden of illness, medication or clinical state. In the present study, we applied tract-based spatial statistics to study WM changes in patients with BD, unaffected siblings and controls. A total of 27 euthymic patients with BD type I, 20 unaffected siblings of bipolar patients and 29 healthy controls who did not have any current or past diagnosis of Axis I psychiatric disorders were enrolled in the study. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly lower in BD patients than in the control group in the corpus callosum, fornix, bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, superior corona radiata, anterior corona radiata and left external capsule. In region-of-interest (ROI) analyses, we found that both unaffected siblings and bipolar patients had significantly reduced FA in the left posterior thalamic radiation, the left sagittal stratum, and the fornix compared with healthy controls. Average FA for unaffected siblings was intermediate between the healthy controls and bipolar patients within these ROIs. Decreased FA in the fornix, left posterior thalamic radiation and left sagittal stratum in both bipolar patients and unaffected siblings may represent a potential structural endophenotype or a trait-based marker for BD.

  20. Neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder : A [C-11]-(R)-PK11195 positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haarman, Bartholomeus C.M.; Riemersma -van der Lek, Rixt; de Groot, Jan Cees; Ruhe, Eric; Klein, Hans C; Zandstra, Tjitske E; Burger, Huibert; Schoevers, Robert A.; de Vries, Erik F.J.; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Nolen, Willem A.; Doorduin, Janine

    Background: The "monocyte-T-cell theory of mood disorders" regards neuroinflammation, i.e. marked activation of microglia, as a driving force in bipolar disorder. Microglia activation can be visualized in vivo using [C-11]-(R)-PK11195 PET. Indirect evidence suggests the hippocampus as a potential

  1. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self...

  2. Daily electronic self-monitoring of subjective and objective symptoms in bipolar disorder—the MONARCA trial protocol (MONitoring, treAtment and pRediCtion of bipolAr disorder episodes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Vinberg, Maj; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of affective symptoms using cell phones is suggested as a practical and inexpensive way to monitor illness activity and identify early signs of affective symptoms. It has never been tested in a randomised clinical trial whether electronic self-monitoring improves outcomes...... in bipolar disorder. We are conducting a trial testing the effect of using a Smartphone for self-monitoring in bipolar disorder....

  3. A genome-wide linkage study of bipolar disorder and co-morbid migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oedegaard, K. J.; Greenwood, T. A.; Lunde, Asger

    2010-01-01

    Migraine and Bipolar Disorder (BPAD) are clinically heterogeneous disorders of the brain with a significant, but complex, genetic component. Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated a high degree of co-morbidity between migraine and BPAD. Several genomewide linkage studies in BPAD...... that using migraine comorbidity to look at subsets of BPAD families in a genetic linkage analysis would prove useful in identifying genetic susceptibility regions in both of these disorders. We used BPAD with comorbid migraine as an alternative phenotype definition in a re-analysis of the NIMH Bipolar...... osome 4 (not co-segregating with BPAD) in a sample of BPAD families with comorbid migraine, and suggest a susceptibility locus on chromosome 20, harboring a gene for the migraine/BPAD phenotype. Together these data suggest that some genes may predispose to both bipolar disorder and migraine....

  4. Evaluation of the functional activity of activated sludge from local waste water treatment plant in the Arctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers characteristics of the activated sludge in the local wastewater treatment plant (LWTP and its ability to purify fully domestic sewage water in the Far North. Biochemical process of destruction of organic pollutants is influenced by a microbial complex functioning in aeration tanks. Taking into account climatic conditions of the region where the organic matter degradation processes are slowed, and lack of control over the operation, efficiency and occupational safety of LWTPs, it seems to be important to study the physiological characteristics of the bacteria used in bioremediation, and their ability to maximize the purifying domestic sewage in the Arctic region. Undue intervention in the biosphere systems leads to disruption of the balance of internal and external ecosystems communications. The goal of research is studying structural determination and functioning of activated sludge bacteriocenosis of LWTP TOPAS-5 (GK "Topol-ECO" in certain physical and chemical conditions of the habitat, and establishing completeness of cleaning process in this treatment plant. The paper considers the structure (quantitative and qualitative composition and function of LWTP activated sludge bacteriocenosis functioning in the Arctic region. The estimation of the activated sludge of full waste water treatment process of the LWTP has been given. The research's results have allowed to identify and determine the bacterial count of physiological groups of microorganisms purified domestic sewage; to isolate from activated sludge the bioflocculant-producing microorganisms' on the experimental medium; to evaluate efficiency of LWTP work in the Arctic region

  5. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  6. Positron-emission tomography of brain regions activated by recognition of familiar music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, M; Takeda, K; Nagata, K; Shimosegawa, E; Kuzuhara, S

    2006-05-01

    We can easily recognize familiar music by listening to only one or 2 of its opening bars, but the brain regions that participate in this cognitive processing remain undetermined. We used positron-emission tomography (PET) to study changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) that occur during listening to familiar music. We used a PET subtraction technique to elucidate the brain regions associated with the recognition of familiar melodies such as well-known nursery tunes. Nonmusicians performed 2 kinds of musical tasks: judging the familiarity of musical pieces (familiarity task) and detecting deliberately altered notes in the pieces (alteration-detecting task). During the familiarity task, bilateral anterior portions of bilateral temporal lobes, superior temporal regions, and parahippocampal gyri were activated. The alteration-detecting task bilaterally activated regions in the precunei, superior/inferior parietal lobules, and lateral surface of frontal lobes, which seemed to show a correlation with the analysis of music. We hypothesize that during the familiarity task, activated brain regions participate in retrieval from long-term memory and verbal and emotional processing of familiar melodies. Our results reinforced the hypothesis reported in the literature as a result of group and case studies, that temporal lobe regions participate in the recognition of familiar melodies.

  7. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...

  8. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  9. Seroreactive marker for inflammatory bowel disease and associations with antibodies to dietary proteins in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Emily G; Gressitt, Kristin L; Yang, Shuojia; Stallings, Cassie R; Origoni, Andrea E; Vaughan, Crystal; Khushalani, Sunil; Alaedini, Armin; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H

    2014-05-01

    Immune sensitivity to wheat glutens and bovine milk caseins may affect a subset of individuals with bipolar disorder. Digested byproducts of these foods are exorphins that have the potential to impact brain physiology through action at opioid receptors. Inflammation in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract might accelerate exposure of food antigens to systemic circulation and help explain elevated gluten and casein antibody levels in individuals with bipolar disorder. We measured a marker of GI inflammation, anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA), in non-psychiatric controls (n = 207), in patients with bipolar disorder without a recent onset of psychosis (n = 226), and in patients with bipolar disorder with a recent onset of psychosis (n = 38). We compared ASCA levels to antibodies against gluten, casein, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), influenza A, influenza B, measles, and Toxoplasma gondii. Elevated ASCA conferred a 3.5-4.4-fold increased odds ratio of disease association (age-, race-, and gender-corrected multinomial logistic regressions, p ≤ 0.00001) that was independent of type of medication received. ASCA correlated with food antibodies in both bipolar disorder groups (R(2)  = 0.29-0.59, p ≤ 0.0005), and with measles and T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the recent onset psychosis bipolar disorder group (R(2)  = 0.31-0.36, p ≤ 0.004-0.01). Elevated seropositivity of a GI-related marker and its association with antibodies to food-derived proteins and self-reported GI symptoms suggest a GI comorbidity in at least a subgroup of individuals with bipolar disorder. Marker seroreactivity may also represent part of an overall heightened activated immune state inherent to this mood disorder. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Improvement of Measurement and Evaluation of Regional Authorities Activity: Model and Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Elena Аleksandrovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of strategy of long-term social and economic development is a basis for effective functioning of executive authorities and the assessment of its efficiency in general. Modern theories of assessment of public administration productivity are guided by the process approach when it is expedient to carry out the formation of business processes of regional executive authorities according to strategic indicators of territorial development. In this regard, there is a problem of modeling of interrelation of indicators of social and economic development of the region and quantitative indices of results of business processes of executive authorities. At the first stage of modeling, two main directions of strategic development, namely innovative and investment activity of regional economic systems are considered. In this regard, the work presents the results of modeling the interrelation between the indicators of regional social and economic development and innovative and investment activity. Therefore, for carrying out the analysis, the social and economic system of the region is presented in space of the main indicators of social and economic development of the territory and indicators of innovative and investment activity. The analysis is made on values of the indicators calculated for regions of the Russian Federation during 2000, 2005, 2008, 2010 and 2011. It was revealed that strategic indicators of innovative and investment activity have the most significant impact on key signs of social and economic development.

  11. Decision making in euthymic bipolar I and bipolar II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, D J; Strejilevich, S A; Torralva, T; Manes, F

    2011-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare a large population of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) types I and II strictly defined as euthymic with healthy controls on measures of decision making. An additional aim was to compare performance on a decision-making task between patients with and without a history of suicide attempt. Eighty-five euthymic patients with BD-I or BD-II and 34 healthy controls were included. All subjects completed tests to assess verbal memory, attention and executive functions, and a decision-making paradigm (the Iowa Gambling Task, IGT). Both groups of patients had worse performance than healthy controls on measures of verbal memory, attention and executive function. No significant differences were found between BD-I, BD-II and healthy controls on measures of decision making. By contrast, patients with a history of suicide attempt had lower performance in the IGT than patients without a history of suicide attempt. Patients with euthymic BD-I and BD-II had intact decision-making abilities, suggesting that this does not represent a reliable trait marker of the disorder. In addition, our results provide further evidence of an association between impairments in decision making and vulnerability to suicidal behavior.

  12. Photospheric Velocity Structures during the Emergence of Small Active Regions on the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlystova, Anna; Toriumi, Shin

    2017-01-01

    We study the plasma flows in the solar photosphere during the emergence of two small active regions, NOAA 9021 and 10768. Using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /Michelson Doppler Imager data, we find that the strong plasma upflows appear at the initial stage of active region formation, with maximum upflow velocities of −1650 and −1320 m s −1 . The structures with enhanced upflows have size ∼8 Mm in diameter, and they exist for 1–2 hr. The parameters of the enhanced upflows are consistent with those of the large active region NOAA 10488, which may suggest the possibility that the elementary emerging magnetic loops that appear at the earliest phase of active region formation have similar properties, irrespective of scales of active regions. Comparison between the observations and a numerical simulation of magnetic flux emergence shows a striking consistency. We find that the driving force of the plasma upflow is at first the gas pressure gradient and later the magnetic pressure gradient.

  13. Photospheric Velocity Structures during the Emergence of Small Active Regions on the Sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlystova, Anna [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics SB RAS, Lermontov St., 126a, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation); Toriumi, Shin, E-mail: hlystova@iszf.irk.ru, E-mail: shin.toriumi@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2017-04-10

    We study the plasma flows in the solar photosphere during the emergence of two small active regions, NOAA 9021 and 10768. Using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory /Michelson Doppler Imager data, we find that the strong plasma upflows appear at the initial stage of active region formation, with maximum upflow velocities of −1650 and −1320 m s{sup −1}. The structures with enhanced upflows have size ∼8 Mm in diameter, and they exist for 1–2 hr. The parameters of the enhanced upflows are consistent with those of the large active region NOAA 10488, which may suggest the possibility that the elementary emerging magnetic loops that appear at the earliest phase of active region formation have similar properties, irrespective of scales of active regions. Comparison between the observations and a numerical simulation of magnetic flux emergence shows a striking consistency. We find that the driving force of the plasma upflow is at first the gas pressure gradient and later the magnetic pressure gradient.

  14. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. - Highlights: • We use an econometric model as a tool for assessing the effects of regional policies on the development of economic activities related to the use of the sea and on the impact on the marine environment. • Through scenario simulation we provide strategic guidelines for policy makers and economic planners • The model features feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas.

  15. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  16. Body Composition, Physical Activity and Active Transportation in Adolescents of Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Ulbrict

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity is a part of a healthy lifestyle, however sed entary habits are currently prevalent among adolescents which impacts rates of overweight and obesity in this group. This study aims to describe the relationship of physical activity with the use of active transportation to school (ATS and its relationshi p with body composition in adolescents. Materials and Methods: Information about physical activity, sedentary behavior and active transportation were collected through two survey instruments, one completed by a responsible parent/guardian and other by the adolescent. Body composition was assessed by dual - energy x - ray absorptiometry (DXA. Excess body fat was defined as ≥ 25% in male and ≥ 30% among female adolescents. Less than 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous daily physical activity defined one as sede ntary and greater than 2 hours of screen time per day was defined as excessive. Results: The prevalence of excess body fat was 46.5%. Only 24.7% of the sample performed recommended amounts of physical activity and 92.3% engaged in excess screen time. Appro ximately one - fifth of our sample (19.2% used ATS. The main barriers to active transport were traffic, distance and safety. Those that used ATS had lower body fat and fewer hours of sedentary behavior.

  17. Regional differences in commuting activities of inhabitants in the Tokyo metropolitan suburb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kawase

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to elucidate gender differences and regional differences of co-mmuting activities by inhabitants in Japanese metropolitan suburbs. I found the different parts by districts in the metropolitan suburb. Regional factors cause gender differences in commuting activities and result in regional differences: In residential areas, inhabitants who work in metropolitan centers occupy much of the population. In older built-up areas, there are many “local” persons. In rural areas, motorization is progressing because access to rail-roads has been inconvenient. These regional factors influence the behavioral characteristics of commuting by married men, married women, never married men and never married women.

  18. The Bipolar Illness Onset study: research protocol for the BIO cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Munkholm, Klaus; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Ekstrøm, Claus; Winther, Ole; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; McIntyre, Roger S; Kapczinski, Flavio; Gattaz, Wagner F; Bardram, Jakob; Frost, Mads; Mayora, Oscar; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Phillips, Mary; Vinberg, Maj

    2017-06-23

    Ethical Committee (H-7-2014-007) and the data agency, Capital Region of Copenhagen (RHP-2015-023), and the findings will be widely disseminated at international conferences and meetings including conferences for the International Society for Bipolar Disorders and the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry and in scientific peer-reviewed papers. NCT02888262. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The Bipolar Illness Onset study: research protocol for the BIO cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Ekstrøm, Claus; Winther, Ole; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen; McIntyre, Roger S; Kapczinski, Flavio; Gattaz, Wagner F; Bardram, Jakob; Frost, Mads; Mayora, Oscar; Knudsen, Gitte Moos; Phillips, Mary; Vinberg, Maj

    2017-01-01

    and dissemination The study has been approved by the Local Ethical Committee (H-7-2014-007) and the data agency, Capital Region of Copenhagen (RHP-2015-023), and the findings will be widely disseminated at international conferences and meetings including conferences for the International Society for Bipolar Disorders and the World Federation of Societies for Biological Psychiatry and in scientific peer-reviewed papers. Trial registration number NCT02888262. PMID:28645967

  20. Bipolar postpartum depression: An update and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Verinder; Doobay, Minakshi; Baczynski, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Over the past few years there has been a surge of interest in the study of bipolar postpartum depression (PPD); however, questions remain about its prevalence, screening, clinical features, and treatment. Three electronic databases, MEDLINE/PubMed (1966-2016), PsycINFO (1806-2016), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, were searched using a combination of the keywords bipolar, depression, postpartum, peripartum, prevalence, screening, diagnosis, treatment, drugs, and psychotherapy. The reference lists of articles identified were also searched. All relevant articles published in English were included. Depending on the population studied, 21.4-54% of women with PPD have a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (BD). Characteristic clinical features include younger age at illness onset, first onset of depression after childbirth, onset immediately after delivery, atypical depressive symptoms, psychotic features, mixed features, and history of BD in first-degree family members. Treatment should be guided by symptom acuity, safety concerns, the patient's response to past treatments, drug tolerability, and breastfeeding preference. In the absence of controlled treatment data, preference should be given to drugs normally indicated for bipolar depression including lithium, quetiapine and lamotrigine. Although antidepressants have been studied in combination with mood stabilizers in bipolar depression, these drugs should be avoided due to likelihood of elevated risk of induction of manic symptoms in the postpartum period. In the postpartum period, bipolar PPD is common, can be differentiated from unipolar PPD, and needs to be identified promptly in order to expedite appropriate treatment. Future studies on pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy should focus on the acute and preventative treatment of bipolar PPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Anxiety, stress and perfectionism in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Justine; Green, Melissa; Roberts, Gloria; Frankland, Andrew; Wright, Adam; Lau, Phoebe; Loo, Colleen; Breakspear, Michael; Mitchell, Philip B

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports have highlighted perfectionism and related cognitive styles as a psychological risk factor for stress and anxiety symptoms as well as for the development of bipolar disorder symptoms. The anxiety disorders are highly comorbid with bipolar disorder but the mechanisms that underpin this comorbidity are yet to be determined. Measures of depressive, (hypo)manic, anxiety and stress symptoms and perfectionistic cognitive style were completed by a sample of 142 patients with bipolar disorder. Mediation models were used to explore the hypotheses that anxiety and stress symptoms would mediate relationships between perfectionistic cognitive styles, and bipolar disorder symptoms. Stress and anxiety both significantly mediated the relationship between both self-critical perfectionism and goal attainment values and bipolar depressive symptoms. Goal attainment values were not significantly related to hypomanic symptoms. Stress and anxiety symptoms did not significantly mediate the relationship between self-critical perfectionism and (hypo)manic symptoms. 1. These data are cross-sectional; hence the causality implied in the mediation models can only be inferred. 2. The clinic patients were less likely to present with (hypo)manic symptoms and therefore the reduced variability in the data may have contributed to the null findings for the mediation models with (hypo) manic symptoms. 3. Those patients who were experiencing current (hypo)manic symptoms may have answered the cognitive styles questionnaires differently than when euthymic. These findings highlight a plausible mechanism to understand the relationship between bipolar disorder and the anxiety disorders. Targeting self-critical perfectionism in the psychological treatment of bipolar disorder when there is anxiety comorbidity may result in more parsimonious treatments. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Role of regional policies in promoting networking and innovation activity of firms

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsi Mukkala; Jari Ritsilä

    2004-01-01

    The success of firms and regions is increasingly defined by their innovation and learning capabilities. It has been emphasized in several studies that a local operational environment may have a positive impact on innovation activity of firms. From policy point of view, the relationship between firms and their local environment is an important research topic. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether there is a demand for regional policy makers in promoting innovative and networking acti...

  3. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J

    2016-02-11

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world's tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world.

  4. Sensory Gating and Alpha-7 Nicotinic Receptor Gene Allelic Variants in Schizoaffective Disorder, Bipolar Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura F.; Leonard, Sherry; Hall, Mei-Hua; Tregellas, Jason R.; Freedman, Robert; Olincy, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Single nucleotide allelic variants in the promoter region of the chromosome 15 alpha-7 acetylcholine nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) are associated with both schizophrenia and the P50 auditory evoked potential sensory gating deficit. The purpose of this study was to determine if CHRNA7 promoter allelic variants are also associated with abnormal P50 ratios in persons with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Methods P50 auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a paired stimulus paradigm in 17 subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. The P50 test to conditioning ratio was used as the measure of sensory gating. Mutation screening of the CHRNA7 promoter region was performed on the subjects’ DNA samples. Comparisons to previously obtained data from persons with schizophrenia and controls were made. Results Subjects with schizophrenia, regardless of allele status, had an abnormal mean P50 ratio. Subjects with schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type and a variant allele had an abnormal mean P50 ratio, whereas those schizoaffective subjects with the common alleles had a normal mean P50 ratio. Normal control subjects had a normal mean ratio, but controls with variant alleles had higher P50 ratios. Conclusions In persons with bipolar type schizoaffective disorder, CHRNA7 promoter region allelic variants are linked to the capacity to inhibit the P50 auditory evoked potential and thus are associated with a type of illness genetically and biologically more similar to schizophrenia. PMID:17192894

  5. Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  6. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  7. On the relation of Hsub(α) plage brightness variations in solar active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogir', M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The variations of hydrogen plage brightnesses in seven spot groups belonging to five active regions are discussed. The observations were made on the Crimean observatory coronograph in 1974 and 1977. The correlation in brightness variations of plages situated in the regions of growing magnetic field was obtained. This was observed in the plages on one spot group as well as in the different groups removing on about 27x10 4 km. In developed groups correlations are mainly seen within a spot group and they are expressed better during flares. The correlations of brightnesses are changing during the active region evolution. Three days observations showed good brightness correlations of all plages in the growing magnetic field region and their decrease that can be explained by the field weakening during natural active region evolution or by the strong flare influence. The existence of the simultaneous variations of brightness in the regions with the growing magnetic field speaks in favour of the simultaneous carring-out of magnetic field or its disturbances into the chromosphere [ru

  8. The Stimulating Mechanisms Of Regional Economic Activity In Spain: Lessous For Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Seredinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is a country that traditionally suffers a lot from high level of regional disparities. From the end of XX century Spanish government has taken different measures to smooth them. For example, the state of autonomies was established, statutes were approved for every region, more powers were transferred to regional authorities. There are several institutions in Spain that increase the efficiency of cooperation between different levels of authorities and between autonomies, such as conference of the presidents, sectoral conferences, agreements on cooperation and bilateral commissions. Activity of these mechanisms is of a great interest for the author. The author tries to find the ways to modernize Russian regional policy using Spanish experience, considering its pros and cons. Undoubtedly it is impossible to copy other countries practice as Russia and Spain differ a lot, for example, in size, population, the level of socialeconomic development and the supply of mineral resources. Still there is something in common, like high level of regional disparities and amount of authorities the territories obtain. Even though Spain is a unitary state, its autonomies are quite independent. Territorial status of the country is a hybrid between unitary and federative state. Its institutional structure of regional policy is pretty diversified. So both these aspects are worth considering. Regional policy is one the most important directions of the state activity in Russia, because of its extensive territories. Today Russia has to face a number of regional challenges and regional policy cannot cope with them. The growing territorial polarization slow down the development of the whole country. It is useful to analyze foreign institutions, which solve regional problems in the other states, to adapt their practice to the Russian realities.

  9. ON THE STRENGTH OF THE HEMISPHERIC RULE AND THE ORIGIN OF ACTIVE-REGION HELICITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector magnetograph and morphological observations have shown that the solar magnetic field tends to have negative (positive) helicity in the northern (southern) hemisphere, although only ∼60%-70% of active regions appear to obey this 'hemispheric rule'. In contrast, at least ∼80% of quiescent filaments and filament channels that form during the decay of active regions follow the rule. We attribute this discrepancy to the difficulty in determining the helicity sign of newly emerged active regions, which are dominated by their current-free component; as the transverse field is canceled at the polarity inversion lines, however, the axial component becomes dominant there, allowing a more reliable determination of the original active-region chirality. We thus deduce that the hemispheric rule is far stronger than generally assumed, and cannot be explained by stochastic processes. Earlier studies have shown that the twist associated with the axial tilt of active regions is too small to account for the observed helicity; here, both tilt and twist are induced by the Coriolis force acting on the diverging flow in the emerging flux tube. However, in addition to this east-west expansion about the apex of the loop, each of its legs must expand continually in cross section during its rise through the convection zone, thereby acquiring a further twist through the Coriolis force. Since this transverse pressure effect is not limited by drag or tension forces, the final twist depends mainly on the rise time, and may be large enough to explain the observed active-region helicity

  10. Altered spontaneous brain activity in adolescent boys with pure conduct disorder revealed by regional homogeneity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xiaocui; Dong, Daifeng; Wang, Xiang; Yao, Shuqiao

    2017-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed abnormal neural activity in several brain regions of adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) performing various tasks. However, little is known about the spontaneous neural activity in people with CD in a resting state. The aims of this study were to investigate CD-associated regional activity abnormalities and to explore the relationship between behavioral impulsivity and regional activity abnormalities. Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) scans were administered to 28 adolescents with CD and 28 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (HCs). The rs-fMRI data were subjected to regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. ReHo can demonstrate the temporal synchrony of regional blood oxygen level-dependent signals and reflect the coordination of local neuronal activity facilitating similar goals or representations. Compared to HCs, the CD group showed increased ReHo bilaterally in the insula as well as decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobule, right middle temporal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus, left anterior cerebellum anterior, and right posterior cerebellum. In the CD group, mean ReHo values in the left and the right insula correlated positively with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) total scores. The results suggest that CD is associated with abnormal intrinsic brain activity, mainly in the cerebellum and temporal-parietal-limbic cortices, regions that are related to emotional and cognitive processing. BIS scores in adolescents with CD may reflect severity of abnormal neuronal synchronization in the insula.

  11. Executive function and attention span in euthymic patients with bipolar 1 disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normala, I; Abdul, Hamid A R; Azlin, B; Nik Ruzyanei, N J; Hazli, Z; Shah, S A

    2010-09-01

    This is a cross sectional comparison study to assess executive function and attention span in euthymic patients with bipolar 1 disorder. It compares the performance of these two cognitive domains in 40 patients with bipolar 1 disorder to that of 40 healthy normal subjects using Trail Making (TMT), Digit Span (Forward and Backward) and Verbal Fluency (VF) tests. The association between demographic, clinical characteristics and performance in all tests were examined. Patients with bipolar illness showed significant impairment with moderate to large effect sizes (VF = 0.67, TMT A = 0.52, TMT B = 0.81, Digit Forward = 0.97, Digit backward = 1.10) in all tasks of executive and attention functioning. These impairments are observed in the absence of active mood symptoms while duration and severity of illness are not found to have an effect on both cognitive domains. Medications received by patients with bipolar disorder have significant association with performance on executive tasks. The results of this study add on to the existing global evidence of cognitive impairment in bipolar illness despite its cross cultural differences. Its presence in the absence of mania, depression or mixed episode indicates that cognitive impairment is stable even after symptoms recovery.

  12. Enhanced prefrontal function with pharmacotherapy on a response inhibition task in adolescent bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Passarotti, Alessandra M; Harral, Erin M; Sweeney, John A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study is to determine whether pharmacotherapy normalizes cognitive circuitry function supporting voluntary behavioral inhibition in adolescent bipolar disorder. Healthy controls and unmedicated patients with DSM-IV adolescent bipolar disorder in manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes were matched on demographics and IQ (n = 13 per group; mean age = 14.4 ± 2.4 years). Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies were performed at baseline and after 14 weeks, during which time patients with adolescent bipolar disorder were treated initially with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) followed by lamotrigine monotherapy. The primary outcome measure was a Response Inhibition Task, which involved a planned motor response, already "on the way" to execution, that had to be voluntarily inhibited by the subjects in the trials in which a stop signal was presented. There were 6 blocks, each with a predominant rate of either "go" or "stop" trials. The study was conducted from June 2006 through July 2009. All patients showed significant improvement (P adolescent bipolar disorder group than in healthy controls. Increased ventrolateral prefrontal cortex function was related to clinical treatment response. Treatment with SGAs followed by lamotrigine monotherapy enhanced prefrontal and temporal lobe activity during a Response Inhibition Task demonstrating the reversal of disorder-relevant neural circuitry dysfunction in patients with adolescent bipolar disorder. Patient performance was not slowed down with this treatment regimen. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00176228. © Copyright 2010 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  14. Application of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets in Graph Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A graph structure is a useful tool in solving the combinatorial problems in different areas of computer science and computational intelligence systems. In this paper, we apply the concept of bipolar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain notions, including bipolar fuzzy graph structure (BFGS, strong bipolar fuzzy graph structure, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cycle, bipolar fuzzy Ni-tree, bipolar fuzzy Ni-cut vertex, and bipolar fuzzy Ni-bridge, and illustrate these notions by several examples. We study ϕ-complement, self-complement, strong self-complement, and totally strong self-complement in bipolar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their interesting properties.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumpers, U.M.H.; Boom, K.; Janssen, F.M.G.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Loonen, Anton J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in bipolar patients is much higher than in the general population. It is unclear whether lithium treatment contributes to this cardiovascular morbidity. Methods: The cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with bipolar disorder on

  16. Cytokines in bipolar disorder vs. healthy control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Klaus; Braüner, Julie Vestergaard; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar disorder may be associated with peripheral immune system dysfunction; however, results in individual studies are conflicting. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of peripheral cytokine alterations in bipolar disorder integrating findings from various affective states....

  17. Assessment of subjective and objective cognitive function in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Kirsa M; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars V

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is prevalent in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the evidence regarding the association between subjective cognitive complaints, objective cognitive performance and psychosocial function is sparse and inconsistent. Seventy seven patients with bipolar disorder who presented...

  18. Smartphone-based objective monitoring in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Bauer, Michael; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2018-01-01

    , anxiety, substance abuse, eating disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been developed and used. The present paper presents the status and findings from studies using automatically generated objective smartphone data in the monitoring of bipolar disorder, and addresses considerations...

  19. Bipolar disorder: an update | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by alternating discrete episodes of (hypo)mania and depression, provides unique diagnostic and treatment challenges. Updated diagnostic (DSM-5) and current pharmacological treatment recommendations are briefly reviewed here. Keywords: bipolar disorder; diagnosis; evidence-based ...

  20. A study on biological activity of marine fungi from different habitats in coastal regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.

  1. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, V V; Savelyev, A V; Zhukov, A E; Omelchenko, A V; Maximov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value

  2. The analytical approach to optimization of active region structure of quantum dot laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, V. V.; Savelyev, A. V.; Zhukov, A. E.; Omelchenko, A. V.; Maximov, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    Using the analytical approach introduced in our previous papers we analyse the possibilities of optimization of size and structure of active region of semiconductor quantum dot lasers emitting via ground-state optical transitions. It is shown that there are optimal length' dispersion and number of QD layers in laser active region which allow one to obtain lasing spectrum of a given width at minimum injection current. Laser efficiency corresponding to the injection current optimized by the cavity length is practically equal to its maximum value.

  3. Neural correlates of emotional distractibility in bipolar disorder patients, unaffected relatives, and individuals with hypomanic personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Philipp; Heissler, Janine; Schönfelder, Sandra; Forneck, Johanna; Wessa, Michèle

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological deficits and emotion dysregulation are present in symptomatic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. However, there is little evidence on how cognitive functioning is influenced by emotion, what the neural correlates of emotional distraction effects are, and whether such deficits are a consequence or a precursor of the disorder. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate these questions. fMRI was used first to localize the neural network specific to a certain cognitive task (mental arithmetic) and then to test the effect of emotional distractors on this network. Euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (N=22), two populations at high risk for developing the disorder (unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with bipolar disorder [N=17]), and healthy participants with hypomanic personality traits [N=22]) were tested, along with three age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy comparison groups (N=22, N=17, N=24, respectively). There were no differences in performance or activation in the task network for mental arithmetic. However, while all participants exhibited slower responses when emotional distractors were present, this response slowing was greatly enlarged in bipolar patients. Similarly, task-related activation was generally increased under emotional distraction; however, bipolar patients exhibited a further increase in right parietal activation that correlated positively with the response slowing effect. The results suggest that emotional dysregulation leads to exacerbated neuropsychological deficits in bipolar patients, as evidenced by behavioral slowing and task-related hyperactivation. The lack of such a deficit in high-risk populations suggests that it occurs only after disease onset, rather than representing a vulnerability marker.

  4. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobelski, Adam R. [Now at National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); McKenzie, David E., E-mail: kobelski@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 173840, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  5. Nickel hydrogen bipolar battery electrode design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puglisi, V. J.; Russell, P.; Verrier, D.; Hall, A.

    1985-01-01

    The preferred approach of the NASA development effort in nickel hydrogen battery design utilizes a bipolar plate stacking arrangement to obtain the required voltage-capacity configuration. In a bipolar stack, component designs must take into account not only the typical design considerations such as voltage, capacity and gas management, but also conductivity to the bipolar (i.e., intercell) plate. The nickel and hydrogen electrode development specifically relevant to bipolar cell operation is discussed. Nickel oxide electrodes, having variable type grids and in thicknesses up to .085 inch are being fabricated and characterized to provide a data base. A selection will be made based upon a system level tradeoff. Negative (hydrpogen) electrodes are being screened to select a high performance electrode which can function as a bipolar electrode. Present nickel hydrogen negative electrodes are not capable of conducting current through their cross-section. An electrode was tested which exhibits low charge and discharge polarization voltages and at the same time is conductive. Test data is presented.

  6. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Hosang, Georgina M; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  7. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  8. [Drug Abuse Comorbidity in Bipolar Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Óscar Medina

    2012-06-01

    Drug use among patients with bipolar disorder is greater than the one observed in the general population; psychotic episodes are likely to occur after consumption. This has implications in the prevention, etiology, management, and treatment of the disease. Bipolar disorder pathology is likely to have positive response to pharmacological treatment. Therefore, identifying the strategies with better results to be applied in these patients is fundamental for psychiatrists and primary care physicians. Review literature in order to determine the prevalence and characteristics of drug abuse in patients with bipolar disorder and establish the pharmacological strategies that have produced better results. Literature review. A great variety of studies demonstrate the relationship between bipolar disorder and drug use disorder. These patients are hospitalized more frequently, have an earlier onset of the disease, and present a larger number of depressive episodes and suicide attempts which affect the course of the disease. The drug with better results in the treatment of these patients is Divalproate. Satisfactory results have been also obtained with other mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and the antipsychotic aripiprazole. Substance abuse is present in a large number of patients with bipolar disorder. The Divalproate is the drug that has shown better results in the studies. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Osman; Coşkun, Salih; Aktan Mutlu, Elif; Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Atli, Abdullah; Yilmaz, Ekrem; Keskin, Sıddık

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother's or father's side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother's side and 25 patients were from the father's side in 63 cases. The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility.

  10. Bipolar magnetic semiconductor in silicene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farghadan, Rouhollah, E-mail: rfarghadan@kashanu.ac.ir

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A new electronic phase for silicene nanoribbon in the presence of electric and magnetic fields. • Bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps in silicene. • Robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor features in a rough silicene. • Perfect and reversible spin polarization in silicene nanoribbon junctions. - Abstract: A theoretical study was presented on generation of spin polarization in silicene nanoribbons using the single-band tight-binding approximation and the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism. We focused on the effect of electric and exchange magnetic fields on the spin-filter capabilities of zigzag-edge silicene nanoribbons in the presence of the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. The results show that a robust bipolar magnetic semiconductor with controllable spin-flip and spin-conserved gaps can be obtained when exchange magnetic and electric field strengths are both larger than the intrinsic spin-orbit interaction. Therefore, zigzag silicene nanoribbons could act as bipolar and perfect spin filter devices with a large spin-polarized current and a reversible spin polarization in the vicinity of the Fermi energy. We also investigated the effect of edge roughness and found that the bipolar magnetic semiconductor features are robust against edge disorder in silicene nanoribbon junctions. These results may be useful in multifunctional spin devices based on silicene nanoribbons.

  11. The Dutch Bipolar Offspring Study: 12-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Mesman, Esther; Nolen, Willem A.; Reichart, Catrien G.; Wals, Marjolein; Hillegers, Manon N. J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Offspring of bipolar parents have a genetically increased risk of developing mood disorders. In a longitudinal study, the authors followed a bipolar offspring cohort from adolescence into adulthood to determine the onset, prevalence, and early course of mood disorders and other psychopathology. Method: The Dutch bipolar offspring cohort is a fixed cohort initiated in 1997 (N=140; age range at baseline, 12-21 years). Bipolar offspring were psychiatrically evaluated at baseline and a...

  12. Exploring the psychosis functional connectome: aberrant intrinsic networks in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince D Calhoun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic functional brain networks (INs are regions showing temporal coherence with one another. These INs are present in the context of a task (as opposed to an undirected task such as rest, albeit modulated to a degree both spatially and temporally. Prominent networks include the default mode, attentional fronto-parietal, executive control, bilateral temporal lobe and motor networks. The characterization of INs has recently gained considerable momentum, however; most previous studies evaluate only a small subset of the intrinsic networks (e.g. default mode. In this paper we use independent component analysis to study INs decomposed from fMRI data collected in a large group of schizophrenia patients, healthy controls, and individuals with bipolar disorder, while performing an auditory oddball task. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share significant overlap in clinical symptoms, brain characteristics, and risk genes which motivates our goal of identifying whether functional imaging data can differentiate the two disorders. We tested for group differences in properties of all identified intrinsic networks including spatial maps, spectra, and functional network connectivity. A small set of default mode, temporal lobe, and frontal networks with default mode regions appearing to play a key role in all comparisons. Bipolar subjects showed more prominent changes in ventromedial and prefrontal default mode regions whereas schizophrenia patients showed changes in posterior default mode regions. Anti-correlations between left parietal areas and dorsolateral prefrontal cortical areas were different in bipolar and schizophrenia patients and amplitude was significantly different from healthy controls in both patient groups. Patients exhibited similar frequency behavior across mu