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Sample records for bipm key comparison

  1. Bilateral comparison of 1 V and 10 V standards between the NMISA (South Africa) and the BIPM April to June 2017 (part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Matlejoane, A. M.; Magagula, L.; Stock, M.

    2018-01-01

    As part of the ongoing BIPM key comparison BIPM.EM-K11.a and b, a comparison of the 1.018 V and 10 V voltage reference standards of the BIPM and the National Metrology Institute of South Africa, NMISA (South Africa), was carried out from April to June 2017. Two BIPM Zener diode-based travelling standards (Fluke 732B), BIPMA (ZA) and BIPMB (ZB), were transported by freight to NMISA and back to BIPM. In order to keep the Zeners powered during their transportation phase, a voltage stabilizer developed by BIPM was connected in parallel to the internal battery. It consists of a set of two batteries, electrically protected from surcharge-discharge, easy to recharge and is designed to power two transfer standards for ten consecutive days. At NMISA, the reference standard for DC voltage is a Josephson Voltage Standard. The output EMF (Electromotive Force) of each travelling standard was measured by direct comparison with the primary standard. At the BIPM, the travelling standards were calibrated, before and after the measurements at NMISA, with the Josephson Voltage Standard. Results of all measurements were corrected for the dependence of the output voltages of the Zener standards on internal temperature and atmospheric pressure. The final result of the comparison is presented as the difference between the values assigned to DC voltage standards by NMISA, at the level of 1.018 V and 10 V, at NMISA, UNMISA, and those assigned by the BIPM, at the BIPM, UBIPM, at the reference dates of the 19th and 18th of May 2017, respectively. UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.07 μV uc = 0.02 μV, at 1.018 V UNMISA - UBIPM = + 0.001 μV uc = 0.34 μV, at 10 V where uc is the combined standard uncertainty associated with the measured difference, including the uncertainty of the representation of the volt at the BIPM and at NMISA, based on KJ-90, and the uncertainty related to the comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which

  2. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K1 of the air-kerma standards of the IST-LPSR, Portugal and the BIPM in 60Co gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, C.; Burns, D.; Cardoso, J.

    2018-01-01

    A comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Instituto Superior Técnico, Laboratório de Proteção e Segurança Radiológica (IST-LPSR), Portugal and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the 60Co radiation beam of the BIPM in December 2015. The comparison result, evaluated as a ratio of the IST-LPSR and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 1.0026 with a combined standard uncertainty of 1.7 × 10‑3. The results for an indirect comparison made at the same time are consistent with the direct results at the level of 1.1 parts in 103. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Final report, ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Sanchez, Carmen; Morillo Gomez, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. KEY COMPARISON: Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez Blaya, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    As part of the on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone mole fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  5. Final report on the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Final report on the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1: Ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII (December 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Idrees, Faraz; Wielgosz, Robert; Morillo Gomez, Pilar; Sánchez, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Final report, on-going key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, ozone at ambient level, comparison with ISCIII, March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert; Sanchez, Carmen; Morillo Gomez, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ongoing key comparison BIPM.QM-K1, a comparison has been performed between the ozone national standard of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) and the common reference standard of the key comparison, maintained by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The instruments have been compared over a nominal ozone amount-of-substance fraction range of 0 nmol/mol to 500 nmol/mol. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on the key comparison EUROMET.BIPM.EM-K10.a: Comparison of Josephson array voltage standards by using a portable Josephson transfer standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Ralf; Katkov, Alexander S.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this comparison was to compare Josephson voltage standards by using the new VNIIM portable Josephson standard voltage (PJVS) as travelling standard. The comparison was carried out under the auspices of EUROMET (Project 723) from September 2003 to May 2004. It was aimed to link more laboratories organized in EUROMET. In addition, the comparison provides a link between EUROMET, COOMET and the BIPM. Twelve national metrology institutes and the BIPM participated, with the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Braunschweig, Germany) acting as pilot laboratory. The PJVS was accompanied and operated by a VNIIM specialist. The technical protocol requested to measure a 1 V fixed output voltage at an output resistance of 4 Ω, while measurements at 1.2 kΩ output resistance were optional. The comparisons were performed in a similar way to the new so-called 'option B' bilateral comparisons carried out by the BIPM; the NMIs had to use their own null detector, polarity switch and measurement procedure to measure the output voltage of the PJVS. This method of comparison is more closely related to standard electronic voltage reference (e.g. Zener) measurements but without the limitation to their noise. During all comparisons the PJVS was connected to the same time base as that used by the laboratory Josephson voltage standard. The results demonstrate that the idea of using a portable quantum standard based on a programmable Josephson array as a travelling standard is a powerful tool to achieve equivalence between institutes quickly and at a very good level of uncertainty. Several institutes achieved a relative uncertainty clearly better than one part in 109 at a 95% level of confidence. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the

  9. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K2 of the air-kerma standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in low-energy x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, D.T.; Roger, P. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Denoziere, M.; Leroy, E. [CEA Saclay, LIST Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2011-08-15

    A key comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the LNE-LNHB, France and the BIPM in the low-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement at the level of the standard uncertainty of the comparison of 1.6 parts in 10{sup 3}, with no evidence of a trend in the results at different radiation qualities. The results are analysed and presented in terms of degrees of equivalence, suitable for entry in the BIPM key comparison database. (authors)

  10. Comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K8 of high dose-rate Ir-192 brachytherapy standards for reference air kerma rate of the VSL and the BIPM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, J.T.; De Pooter, J.A.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2014-01-01

    An indirect comparison of the standards for reference air kerma rate for 192Ir high dose rate brachytherapy sources of the Dutch Metrology Institute (VSL), The Netherlands, and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out at the VSL in November 2009. The comparison resu...

  11. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 60Co to include the 2011 result of the CNEA (Argentina), the 2012 results of the BARC (India) and the NRC (Canada), and the 2014 result of the NIM (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Arenillas, P.; Balpardo, C.; Joseph, L.; Anuradha, R.; Kulkarni, D. B.; Galea, R.; Moore, K.; Stroak, A.; Zhang, Ming; Liang, Juncheng; Liu, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    Since 2010, four national metrology institutes (NMI) have each submitted a sample of known activity of 60Co to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60. The values of the activity submitted were between about 175 kBq and 1600 kBq. The primary standardization results for the CNEA, Argentina and the BARC, India replace their earlier result of 2003 and 2001, respectively. There are now seventeen results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-60 comparison. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been updated using the power-moderated weighted mean. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Am-241 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 241Am to include the 2009 results of the POLATOM (Poland), MKEH (Hungary) and the 2011 results of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dzeil, T.; Listkowska, A.; Csete, I.; Rózsa, K.; Szücs, L.; Zsinka, A.; Fréchou, C.; Bobin, C.; Pierre, S.

    2017-01-01

    Since 2009, three national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted three samples of known activity of 241Am to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Am-241. The values of the activity submitted were between about 3 MBq and 38 MBq. These three results replace their earlier results obtained in the linked CCRI(II)-K2.Am-241 in 2003. There are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Am-241 comparison, 16 results remaining from the CCRI(II)-K2.Am-241 comparison and two results in the COOMET.RI(II)-K2.Am-241 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV dating 2007 have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222 comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 222}Rn to include the LNE-LNHB, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Cassette, P. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2012-02-15

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 222}Rn to the International Reference System (SIR) for comparison. The value of the activity submitted was about 90 kBq. This key comparison result joins that of Switzerland and Germany in the key comparison database that now contains three results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Rn-222. Consequently, the KCRV has been updated and the degrees of equivalence with the KCRV have been evaluated. (authors)

  14. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 111}In for the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, 92 - Sevres (France); Verdeau, E.; Amiot, M.N. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2010-10-15

    In 2006, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais - Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 111}In to the International Reference System (SIR). The value of the activity submitted was about 14 MBq. This provides a new result for France in the matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that enables them to maintain their degrees of equivalence for this radionuclide. The key comparison reference value has been re-evaluated and the comparison, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.In-111, now contains five valid results. (authors)

  15. Comparison of131I activity measurements at the NCBJ RC POLATOM and the ENEA-INMRI linked to the BIPM SIR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemek, T; Capogni, M; Ratel, G; Broda, R; Dziel, T; Fazio, A; Listkowska, A

    2018-04-01

    A bilateral comparison between ENEA-INMRI (Italy) and NCBJ RC POLATOM (Poland) of 131 I-solution activity measurements was organized in the year 2015 and piloted by POLATOM, which provided the sources for the comparison. The 131 I master solution was standardized independently at both institutes by using Liquid Scintillation Counting and ionization chamber techniques. The 131 I master solution was then sent by POLATOM to the BIPM International Reference System (SIR). The comparison was registered as an EURAMET.RI(II)-K2.I-131 key comparison allowing the ENEA-INMRI result to enter in the SIR database. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the ARPANSA and the BIPM for 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Burns, D.T.; Boas, J.F.; Huntley, R.B.; Wise, K.N.

    2000-10-01

    A comparison of the standards for absorbed dose to water of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been carried out in 60 Co gamma radiation. The Australian standard is based on a graphite calorimeter and the subsequent conversion from absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water using the photon fluence scaling theorem. The BIPM standard is ionometric using a graphite-walled cavity ionization chamber. The comparison result is 1.0024 (standard uncertainty 0.0029). (authors)

  17. Comparison of the standards of air kerma of the OMH and the BIPM for 60Co gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Kessler, C.; Burns, D.T.; Roger, P.; Machula, G.; Csete, I.; Rabus, H.

    2006-09-01

    A direct comparison between the standards for air kerma of the Orszagos Meresugyi Hivatal (OMH) and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) has been carried out in the 60 Co radiation beams of the BIPM. The result, expressed as a ratio of the OMH and the BIPM standards for air kerma, indicates a relative difference of 10.9 x 10 -3 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.2 x 10 -3 . This new result agrees at the level of 0.4 x 10 -3 with the earlier direct comparisons performed in 1986 and 1994, as modified in 2001 by the application of wall and axial non-uniformity correction factors, calculated for the OMH standards using the Monte Carlo method. (authors)

  18. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(2)-K1.Cr-51 to include new activity measurements for the LNE-LNHB (France) and the pilot study result of the LNMRI (Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kryeziu, D. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In 2006, two national metrology institutes (NMI) submitted samples of known activity of {sup 51}Cr solution to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Consequently, 28 samples have been submitted since 1977, from nine NMI and three other laboratories. The activities ranged from about 3 MBq to 90 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been updated and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the KCRV have been calculated. The results are given in the form of a matrix for eight laboratories to which the APMP.RI(II)-K2.Cr-51 results have been added. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  19. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 124}Sb by the LNE-LNHB, France for the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres Cedex, (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex, (France)

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France submitted a sample of known activity of {sup 124}Sb to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). The activity was about 5.3 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include this new value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity for the three participants measured in the SIR and the KCRV are presented in a table and graphically. (authors)

  20. Comparison of the standards for air kerma of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM for {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Kessler, C.; Burns, D.T. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Delaunay, F.; Donois, M. [CEA Saclay, LNE-LNHB, Lab. National Henri Becquerel 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-10-15

    A direct comparison of the standards for air kerma of the Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d'Essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) was carried out in the {sup 137}Cs radiation beam of the BIPM in November 2008. The result, expressed as a ratio of the LNE-LNHB and the BIPM standards for air kerma, is 0.9984 with a combined standard uncertainty of 2.6 * 10{sup -3}. The result of the earlier direct comparison in {sup 137}Cs {gamma} rays, made in 1995, was 1.0019(30); taking into account the changes made to the BIPM standard and using the present correction factors for the LNE-LNHB standard, the 1995 result becomes 0.9989(26), which is in agreement with the present comparison result. (authors)

  1. Final report on RMO key comparison EURAMET.L-K6: CMM 2-D artifact: ball plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jusko, O.; Banreti, E.; Bergmans, R.

    2013-01-01

    and the final report, the optimization was already completed in most cases. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved...

  2. Update of the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Se-75 to include recent activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 75}Se by the LNE-LNHB (France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), Pavillon de Breteuil, F-92312 Sevres cedex (France); Moune, M.; Bobin, C. [Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2011-06-15

    In 2006, to update their previous result of 1992, the LNE-LNHB submitted a new sample of {sup 75}Se with an activity of about 2.2 MBq to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). This comparison has the identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Se-75. The degree of equivalence between the equivalent activity measured in the SIR for the new LNE-LNHB sample and the updated key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been calculated, as have the degrees of equivalence with each of the other participants. The results are given in the form of a matrix and a graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  3. Comparison of the air-kerma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.T.; Bueermann, L.; Kramer, H.M.; Lange, B.

    2002-06-01

    An indirect comparison has been made between the air erma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement at the level of the stated standard uncertainty, although the result for the 100 kV radiation quality differs significantly from that for the other qualities. (authors)

  4. Activity measurements of the radionuclide {sup 57}Co for the NMIJ, Japan and the LNE-LNHB, France in the ongoing comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Hino, Y.; Yunoki, A. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Bobin, C.; Moune, M. [CEA Saclay, Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2009-04-15

    In 2006 and 2007, the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais-Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) submitted samples of known activity of {sup 57}Co to the International Reference System (SIR). The values of the activity submitted were about 1.7 MBq and 3.7 MBq respectively. The new key comparison results have replaced the previous results for Japan and France. These new results have enabled a re-evaluation of the key comparison reference value. The matrix of degrees of equivalence in the key comparison database that now contains twelve results, identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-57, has been updated with the new results. (authors)

  5. Update of the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison of activity measurements for the radionuclide {sup 99m}Tc to include new results for the LNE-LNHB and the NPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G. [Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire national de metrologie et d' essais-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, Gif sur Yvette (France); Johansson, L.; Keightley, J. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    In 2007 and 2008 respectively, the Laboratoire national de metrologie et d'essais -Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB), France and the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), UK, submitted ampoules with between 10 MBq and 130 MBq activity of {sup 99m}Tc to the International Reference System (SIR), to update their results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparison. Together with the four other national metrology institutes (NMI) that are participants, thirteen samples have been submitted since 1983. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest primary results of the PTB and the LNE-LNB as this makes the evaluation more robust. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR are given in the form of a matrix for all six NMIs. A graphical presentation is also given. (authors)

  6. KEY COMPARISON: International Comparison CCQM-K15: Emission level of CF4 and SF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Seog; Moon, Dong Min; Kato, Kenji; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yury A.; Guenther, Franklin R.; Rhodrick, George

    2006-01-01

    CF4 and SF6 are the global warming chemicals that are used in semiconductor companies. In the Kyoto protocol on climate change in 1997, those chemicals were included in the items for which quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments were required. Accordingly for the measurement of these gases, it is necessary that measurement results are accurate and traceable, in particular because of the fact that CF4 and SF6 are global warming source gases. This part of the project focuses on a comparison of measurement capability for measuring CF4 and SF6 at emission level. This key comparison will cover the comparability of the gas CRMs at the emission level (10 × 10-6 mol/mol 100 mmol/mol in nitrogen or air) of the following chemicals: CF4, C2F6, CHF3, SF6 and NF3. There is good agreement between the results of the key comparison participants in this comparison for both CF4 and SF6. The results for CF4 agree within 0.5% relative, and for SF6 they agree within 0.1% relative. Even though the concentration is as low as 100 µmol/mol, the comparability between participants on gravimetric preparation plus comparison analysis is excellent for the laboratories that are participating in this key comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM.

  7. Director's Report on the Activity and Management of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) - (1 January 2013 - 31 December 2013) - Supplement: Ionizing Radiation Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, M.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Burns, D.T.; Kessler, C.; Picard, S.; Roger, P.; Courte, S.; Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Ratel, G.

    2014-03-01

    This BIPM Director's Report describes the activity of the BIPM. In order to carry out its mission of ensuring and promoting the global comparability of measurements, the BIPM operates laboratories in the fields of mass, time, electricity, ionizing radiation and chemistry. All of the laboratory work addresses one or more of the agreed objectives for the BIPM, which are: - To establish and maintain appropriate reference standards for use as the basis of a limited number of key international comparisons at the highest level. - To coordinate international comparisons of national measurement standards through the Consultative Committees of the CIPM; taking the role of coordinating laboratory for selected comparisons of the highest priority and undertaking the scientific work necessary to enable this to be done. - To provide selected calibrations for Member States. In this document some highlights of the work carried out during 2013 are presented. Extended reports of the work of each department are available at http://www.bipm.org/en/publications/directors_report/. This document comprises the Director's report with its supplement describing the work of the Ionizing Radiation Department (X- and γ-rays, Radionuclides, Thermometry)

  8. KEY COMPARISONS: Final report: SIM regional comparison of ac-dc voltage transfer difference (SIM.EM.K6a, SIM.EM-K9 and SIM.EM-K11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sara; Filipski, Piotr; Izquierdo, Daniel; Afonso, Edson; Landim, Régis P.; Di Lillo, Lucas; Lipe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Three comparisons of ac-dc voltage transfer difference held from January to December 2004 are reported. Six NMIs in the SIM region took part: NRC (Canada), NIST (United States of America), CENAM (Mexico), INTI (Argentina), UTE (Uruguay) and INMETRO (Brazil). The comparisons were proposed to assess the measurement capabilities in ac-dc voltage transfer difference of the NMIs in the SIM region. The test points were selected to link the results with the equivalent CCEM Key Comparisons, through three NMIs participating in both SIM and CCEM key comparisons. Additionally, a SIM.EM-Supplementary comparison was proposed, in support of the SIM NMIs' power/energy meter calibration capabilities. One technical protocol and one travelling standard were used, to economize on time and resources. The report shows the degree of equivalence in the SIM region and also the degree of equivalence with the corresponding CCEM reference value. The results of all participants support the values and uncertainties of the applicable CMC entries for ac-dc voltage transfer difference in the Key Comparison Database held at the BIPM. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  10. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K100: Analysis of copper in ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Kakoulides, Elias; Zhu, Yanbei; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Rienitz, Olaf; Saxby, David; Phukphatthanachai, Pranee; Yafa, Charun; Labarraque, Guillaume; Cankur, Oktay; Can, Süleyman Z.; Konopelko, Leonid A.; Kustikov, Yu A.; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Marques Rodrigues, Janaina; Fonseca Sarmanho, Gabriel; Fortunato de Carvalho Rocha, Werickson; dos Reis, Lindomar Augusto

    2014-01-01

    The increase in renewable sources in the energy matrix of the countries is an effort to reduce dependency on crude oil and the environmental impacts associated with its use. In order to help overcome the lack of widely accepted quality standards for fuel ethanol and to guarantee its competitiveness in the international trade market, the NMIs have been working to develop certified reference materials for bio-fuels and measurement methods. Inorganic impurities such as Cu, Na and Fe may be present in the fuel ethanol and their presence is associated with corrosion and the formation of oxide deposits in some engine parts. The key comparison CCQM-K100 was carried out under the auspices of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) and the coordination of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The objective of this key comparison was to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for the determination of Cu in fuel ethanol. Ten NMIs participated in this exercise and most of them used the isotopic dilution method for determining the amount of Cu. The median was chosen as key comparison reference value (KCRV). The assigned KCRV for the Cu content was 0.3589 µg/g with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.0014 µg/g. In general, there is a good agreement among the participants' results. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Final report of key comparison SIM.QM-K92 'Electrolytic conductivity at 0.05 S m-1'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, F. B.; Fraga, I. C. S.; Lopes, J. C.; Costa, A. O.; Cordeiro, L. R.; Leal, L. H.; Rocha, W. F. C.; Reyes, A.; Rodriguez, A.; Canaza, G. T.; Rodríguez, J.; Chavarro, L. A.; Cristancho, R.

    2015-01-01

    At the SIM meeting in Buenos Aires, from 30 May 2012 to 1 June 2012, it was decided to perform a RMO Key Comparison and a Pilot Study to evaluate the performance of SIM national metrology institutes for measuring electrolytic conductivity. The Brazilian Institute of Metrology, INMETRO, agreed to act as coordinating laboratory. The proposed RMO Key Comparison aims to investigate the equivalence of electrolytic conductivity measurement results around 0.05 S m-1 at 25 °C. Four institutes took part in the comparison. There was a good agreement of the reported results with the average value, considering the measurement uncertainties. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. APMP key comparison for the measurement of air kerma for 60Co (APMP.RI(I)-K1.1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, D. V.; Lee, J.-H.; Budiantari, C. T.; Laban, J.; Saito, N.; Srimanoroth, S.; Khaled, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    The results are reported for an APMP.R(I)-K1.1 comparison that extends the regional comparison of standards for air kerma APMP.R(I)-K1 to several laboratories unable to participate earlier. The comparison was conducted with the goal of supporting the relevant calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) planned for publication by the participant laboratories. The comparison was conducted by the pilot laboratory, the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (ARPANSA), Australia, supported by the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), Taiwan, in a modified ring-shaped arrangement from September 2009 to November 2010, in parallel with an APMP.R(I)-K4 comparison being piloted by the INER. The laboratories that took part in the comparison were the ARPANSA, the Centre of Technology of Radiation Safety and Metrology (PTKMR-BATAN), Indonesia, the Division of Radiation and Medical Devices (DMSC), Thailand, the INER, the National Centre for Radiation Science (NCRS), New Zealand, the National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt and the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST), Japan. The two primary laboratories, ARPANSA and NMIJ, were chosen as the linking laboratories. Three ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments to be calibrated in terms of air kerma in 60Co radiotherapy beams. The comparison result is based on the ratio between the air kerma calibration coefficients (NK) determined by the participants and the mean of the results of the linking laboratories. The mean comparison ratio was found to be within 0.5 % of the key comparison reference value KCRV. The largest deviation between any two comparison ratios for the three chambers in terms of air kerma was 2.0 %. An analysis of the participant uncertainty budgets enabled the calculation of degrees of equivalence (DoE) in terms of the deviations of the results and their associated uncertainties. As a result of this APMP comparison, the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) should

  13. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K55.a (estradiol): An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Steven; Josephs, Ralf; Daireaux, Adeline; Wielgosz, Robert; Davies, Stephen; Wang, Hongjie; Rodrigues, Jainana; Wollinger, Wagner; Windust, Anthony; Kang, Ma; Fuhai, Su; Philipp, Rosemarie; Kuhlich, Paul; Wong, Siu-kay; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Pérez, Melina; Avila, Marco; Fernandes-Whaley, Maria; Prevoo, D.; de Vos, J.; Visser, R.; Archer, M.; LeGoff, Thierry; Wood, Steve; Bearden, Dan; Bedner, Mary; Boroujerdi, Arezue; Duewer, David; Hancock, Diane; Lang, Brian; Porter, Barbara; Schantz, Michele; Sieber, John; White, Edward; Wise, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM K55.a, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2009/2010. Eleven national measurement institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of estradiol present as the main component in the comparison sample (CCQM-K55.a) which consisted of a bulk estradiol hemihydrate material obtained from a commercial supplier that had been extensively but not exhaustively dried prior to sub-division into the units supplied for the comparison. Estradiol was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of organic compounds of medium structural complexity [molar mass range 300-500 Da] and low polarity (pKOW process. The results displaying a positive bias relative to the KCRV (overestimation of estradiol content) were due to underestimation of the water content of the material, while those with a negative bias (underestimation of estradiol) overestimated the total related substance impurities through a failure to detect and control for artefact formation arising from in situ oxidative dimerization of estradiol in neutral solution prior to analysis. There was however good agreement between all participants in the identification and the quantification of the individual related structure impurities actually present in the sample. The comparison also demonstrated the utility of high-field 1H NMR for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of high purity compounds. It is noted that all the participants who used qNMR as a major or contributing technique and included it as part of, combined it or confirmed it with a conventional 'mass balance' data estimate, obtained results consistent with the KCRV. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is

  14. Final report of the key comparison APMP.QM-K91: APMP comparison on pH measurement of phthalate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Asakai, Toshiaki; Maksimov, Igor; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Miura, Tsutomu; Ketrin, Rosi; Nuryatini; Thanh, Ngo Huy; Truong Chinh, Nguyen; Vospelova, Alena; Bastkowski, Frank; Sander, Beatrice; Matzke, Jessica; Prokunin, Sergey; Frolov, Dmitry; Aprelev, Alexey; Dobrovolskiy, Vladimir; Uysal, Emrah; Liv, Lokman; Velina Lara-Manzano, Judith; Montero-Ruiz, Jazmin; Ortiz-Aparicio, JosÉ Luis; Ticona Canaza, Galia; Anuar Mohd Amin, Khirul; Abd Kadir, Haslina; Bakovets, Nickolay; Wong, Siu-Kay; Lam, Wai-Hing

    2017-01-01

    The APMP.QM-K91 was organised by TCQM of APMP to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes in the APMP region to measure a pH value of a phthalate buffer. This APMP comparison on pH measurement was proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan at the APMP-TCQM meeting held September 22-23, 2014. After approval by TCQM, the comparison has been conducted by NMIJ. The comparison is a key comparison following CCQM-K91. The comparison material was a phthalate buffer of pH around 4.0 and the measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. This is the third APMP key comparison on pH measurement and the fifth APMP comparison on pH measurement following APMP.QM-P06 (two phosphate buffers) in 2004, APMP.QM-P09 (a phthalate buffer) in 2006, APMP.QM-K9/APMP.QM-P16 (a phosphate buffer) in 2010-2011 and APMP.QM-K19/APMP.QM-P25 (a borate buffer) in 2013-2014. The results can be used further by any participant to support its CMC claim at least for a phthalate buffer. That claim will concern the pH method employed by the participant during this comparison and will cover the used temperature(s) or the full temperature range between 15°C and 37 °C for the participant which measured pH values at the three temperatures. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Final report of the key comparison APMP.QM-K9: APMP comparison on pH measurement of phosphate buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Ohata, Masaki; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Tangpaisarnkul, Nongluck

    2011-01-01

    The APMP.QM-K9 was organised by TCQM of APMP to test the abilities of the national metrology institutes in the APMP region to measure a pH value of a phosphate buffer. This APMP comparison on pH measurement was proposed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, NMIJ, and the National Institute of Metrology of Thailand, NIMT, in August 2009. After approval by TCQM, the comparison has been conducted by NMIJ and NIMT. The comparison is a key comparison following CCQM-K9, CCQM-K9.1 and CCQM-K9.2. The comparison material was a phosphate buffer of pH around 6.86 and the measurement temperatures were 15 °C, 25 °C and 37 °C. This is the first APMP key comparison on pH measurement and the third APMP comparison on pH measurement following APMP.QM-P06 (two phosphate buffers) in 2004 and APMP.QM-P09 (a phthalate buffer) in 2006. The results can be used further by any participant to support its CMC claim for a phosphate buffer. That claim will concern the pH method employed by the participant during this comparison and will cover the temperature(s) used or the full temperature range between 15 °C and 37 °C for the participant which measured pH values at the three temperatures. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  16. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on APMP.M.P-K6.1 pneumatic key comparison from 20 kPa to 105 kPa in gauge mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chen-Chuan; Jian, Wu; Changpan, Tawat

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the key comparison APMP.M.P-K6.1 among the three national metrology institutes, Center for Measurement Standards-ITRI (CMS-ITRI, Taiwan), SPRING Singapore and National Institute of Metrology (NIMT), in the pressure range from 20 kPa to 105 kPa in gas media and gauge mode executed during the period April 2003 to April 2004. This comparison was conducted by CMS-ITRI and was based on the calibration procedure of APMP pneumatic pressure comparison APMP.M.P-K6. We intended to link to the CCM.P-K6 key comparison through the APMP.M.P-K6 key comparison by using the proposed linkage method in the APMP.M.P-K6 key comparison to determine a linking factor that can transform the quantities measured in the APMP.M.P-K6.1 key comparison. All three participating institutes used pneumatic piston gauges as their pressure standards. The Ruska 2465 gas-operated piston-cylinder assembly TL-1409 used as transfer standard offered by CMS-ITRI was calibrated three times by the pilot institute during the comparison period and showed that it was very stable after evaluation. The comparison was conducted on the basis of cross-float experiments to determine the effective area of transfer standards from the national standards of three institutes. The comparison results (as shown in Table 6) were equivalent to the CCM.P-K6 comparison and the relative bilateral degrees of equivalence between two laboratories were smaller than 39.7 × 10-6 from 20 kPa to 105 kPa. These results showed all participating institutes measuring the same quantity in the whole pressure range lay within their expanded uncertainty with confidence level 95%. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  17. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K61: Quantitation of a linearised plasmid DNA, based on a matched standard in a matrix of non-target DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, Alison; Holden, Marcia; Salit, Marc; Burns, Malcolm; Ellison, Stephen L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Key comparison CCQM-K61 was performed to demonstrate and document the capability of interested national metrology institutes in the determination of the quantity of specific DNA target in an aqueous solution. The study provides support for the following measurement claim: "Quantitation of a linearised plasmid DNA, based on a matched standard in a matrix of non-target DNA". The comparison was an activity of the Bioanalysis Working Group (BAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière and was coordinated by NIST (Gaithersburg, USA) and LGC (Teddington, UK). The following laboratories (in alphabetical order) participated in this key comparison. DMSC (Thailand); IRMM (European Union); KRISS (Republic of Korea); LGC (UK); NIM (China); NIST (USA); NMIA (Australia); NMIJ (Japan); VNIIM (Russian Federation) Good agreement was observed between the reported results of all nine of the participants. Uncertainty estimates did not account fully for the dispersion of results even after allowance for possible inhomogeneity in calibration materials. Preliminary studies suggest that the effects of fluorescence threshold setting might contribute to the excess dispersion, and further study of this topic is suggested Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. Final report on APMP.M.M-K1.1: Bilateral key comparison of 1 kg stainless steel mass standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fen, Kitty; Shih Mean, Lee

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the bilateral key comparison APMP.M.M-K1.1 between the National Measurement Institute of Australia (NMIA) and the National Metrology Centre, Agency for Science Technology & Research (NMC, A*STAR) using a 1 kg stainless steel mass standard. The objective of the comparison is to demonstrate the metrological equivalence between the two laboratories. The results of the comparison will be used to support improved Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) declaration of NMC, A*STAR to fulfil the requirements of the CIPM MRA. The NMIA has taken part in both CCM.M-K1 and APMP.M.M-K1.1, and is the pilot and linking laboratory for this bilateral comparison. The comparison commenced on 29 September 2008 and was concluded on 15 December 2008. A stainless steel 1 kg OIML Class E1 standard mass was used as the travelling artefact and was transported between the laboratories by courier and by hand-carrying. The APMP.M.M.K2 technical protocol was adopted as the protocol for this comparison. The comparison results together with their assigned uncertainties show good agreement between NMIA and NMC, A*STAR and with the key comparison reference value (KCRV) of the CCM.M-K1. It also shows that NMC, A*STAR has the measurement capability at the OIML E1 level. The deviation from the KCRV of the CCM.M-K1 for NMC, A*STAR through this comparison is +0.033 mg with an uncertainty of 0.049 mg. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  19. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Buermann, L.; Burns, D.T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kadni, T.B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  20. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie (Australia); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Burns, D.T. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, 92 - Sevres (France); Takeyeddin, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shaha, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srimanoroth, S. [Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Meghzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yusong (Korea, Republic of); Kadni, T.B. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang (Malaysia); Takata, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Msimang, Z. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-10-15

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  1. Key comparison study on peptide purity—synthetic human C-peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, R. D.; Li, M.; Song, D.; Westwood, S.; Stoppacher, N.; Daireaux, A.; Choteau, T.; Wielgosz, R.; Xiao, P.; Liu, Y.; Gao, X.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, T.; Mi, W.; Quan, C.; Huang, T.; Li, H.; Flatschart, R.; Borges Oliveira, R.; Melanson, J. E.; Ohlendorf, R.; Henrion, A.; Kinumi, T.; Wong, L.; Liu, Q.; Oztug Senal, M.; Vatansever, B.; Ün, I.; Gören, A. C.; Akgöz, M.; Quaglia, M.; Warren, J.

    2017-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Protein Analysis Working Group (PAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a key comparison, CCQM-K115, was coordinated by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and the Chinese National Institute of Metrology (NIM). Eight Metrology Institutes or Designated Institutes and the BIPM participated. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of human C-peptide (hCP) present as the main component in the comparison sample for CCQM-K115. The comparison samples were prepared from synthetic human hCP purchased from a commercial supplier and used as provided without further treatment or purification. hCP was selected to be representative of the performance of a laboratory's measurement capability for the purity assignment of short (up to 5 kDa), non-cross-linked synthetic peptides/proteins. It was anticipated to provide an analytical measurement challenge representative for the value-assignment of compounds of broadly similar structural characteristics. The majority of participants used a peptide impurity corrected amino acid analysis (PICAA) approach as the amount of material that has been provided to each participant (25 mg) is insufficient to perform a full mass balance based characterization of the material by a participating laboratory. The coordinators, both the BIPM and the NIM, were the laboratories to use the mass balance approach as they had more material available. It was decided to propose KCRVs for both the hCP mass fraction and the mass fraction of the peptide related impurities as indispensable contributor regardless of the use of PICAA, mass balance or any other approach to determine the hCP purity. This allowed participants to demonstrate the efficacy of their implementation of the approaches used to determine the hCP mass fraction. In particular it allows participants to demonstrate the efficacy of their implementation of peptide related impurity identification and quantification

  2. BIPM Comparison of Time Transfer Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arias, F; Jiang, Z; Lewandowski, W; Petit, G

    2005-01-01

    .... The improvement of GPS satellite ephemerides and clock values produced by the International GNSS Service "IGS" might lead to the utilization of the all-inview "AV" method for the computation of GPS...

  3. Final report on key comparison CCQM-K81: Chloramphenicol in pig muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzer, Joachim; Henrion, Andre; Gowik, Petra

    2013-01-01

    analyte content in reconstituted muscle material). Although very different sample preparation techniques (different pre-treatments, defattening steps, cartridges, solvents) as well as different analytical techniques (LC-MSMS, GC-MS, different instruments, columns, eluents) were applied to detect chloramphenicol at a very low concentration level, a KCRV of 0.267 ng/g with a satisfying expanded uncertainty of 17.4% was ascertained. Two of the reported results were not eligible to be used in establishing the KCRV; anyhow the KCRV as estimated from just the eligible results agrees very well with the additional results. With respect to legal requirements for quantitative methods for residue control in food the key comparison results prove the capabilities of the laboratories to fulfil these settings with highest precision and to provide calibration and measurement services to residue control laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Recent progress on the BIPM watt balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the recent progress on the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures watt balance. The existing apparatus was transferred to the dedicated new laboratory with better thermal and vibrational conditions. The apparatus is fully operational in air. An improvement by a factor of three was achieved on the S/N ratio of both the voltage-to-velocity and force-to-current ratios. The fabrication of the parts of the new magnet is completed and its assembly is finished.

  5. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  6. International key comparison of measurements of neutron source emission rate (1999-2005): CCRI(III)-K9.AmBe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Jones, L. N.; Wang, Z.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Q.; Chen, X.; Luo, H.; Rong, C.; Králik, M.; Park, H.; Choi, K. O.; Pereira, W. W.; da Fonseca, E. S.; Cassette, P.; Dewey, M. S.; Moiseev, N. N.; Kharitonov, I. A.

    2011-01-01

    Section III (neutron measurements) of the Comité Consultatif des Rayonnements Ionisants, CCRI, conducted a key comparison of primary measurements of the neutron emission rate of an 241Am-Be(α,n) radionuclide source. A single 241Am-Be(α,n) source was circulated to all the participants between 1999 and 2005. Eight laboratories participated—the CIAE (China), CMI (Czech Republic), KRISS (Republic of Korea), LNMRI (Brazil), LNE-LNHB (France), NIST (USA), NPL (UK) and the VNIIM (Russian Federation)—with the NPL making their measurements at the start and repeating them near the end of the exercise to verify the stability of the source. Each laboratory reported the emission rate into 4π sr together with a detailed uncertainty budget. All participants used the manganese bath technique, with the VNIIM also making measurements using an associated particle technique. The CMI, KRISS, VNIIM, and later the NPL, also measured the anisotropy of the source although this was not a formal part of the comparison. The first draft report was released in May 2006 and having been discussed and modified by the participants and subsequently reviewed by the CCRI(III), the present paper is now the final report of the comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section III, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. EURAMET.M.M-S8: comparison of 500 kg and 1000 kg weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfelt, B.; Koponen, P.; Riski, K.; Vabson, V.

    2016-01-01

    Mass comparison of conventional masses of 500 kg and 1000 kg weights between three laboratories (AS Metrosert, MIKES, and SP) was carried out in 2012. MIKES was the pilot laboratory. For both 500 kg and 1000 kg, the results show an agreement between the laboratories. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Final report on CCQM-K62: Nutrients in infant/adult formula—Vitamins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E.; Rimmer, Catherine A.; Phinney, Karen W.; Nelson, Bryant C.; Duewer, David L.; Wise, Stephen A.; Kim, Byungjoo; Liu, Jun; Huang, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    and vitamin A and one of the three results for folic acid was withdrawn, no strong conclusions as to the expected comparability of higher-order vitamin measurements can be established. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. COOMET.EM-S8 (469/RU-a/09). International supplementary comparison of inductance standards at frequencies up to 10 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of supplementary comparison COOMET.EM-S8 (also known as regional comparison COOMET 469/RU-a/09) of inductance standards of nominal values 0.1 μH to 100 μH, up to frequencies of 10 MHz. Six participants of the COOMET region were involved in the measurements carried out from July 2008 to October 2011. All results, but one, agreed well with the comparison reference value. This fully confirms the uncertainties declared by the participants in the CMC database on the BIPM website. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. Final report of the key comparison CCQM-K106: Pb, As and Hg measurements in cosmetic (cream)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Qian; Yamani, Randa Nasr Ahmed; Shehata, Adel B.; Jacimovic, Radojko; Pavlin, Majda; Horvat, Milena; Tsoi, Y. P.; Tsang, C. K.; Shin, Richard; Chailap, Benjamat; Yafa, Charun; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; de Almeida, Marcelo; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Heun Kim, Sook; Konopelko, Leonid; Ari, Betül; Tokman, Nilgün; Rienitz, Olaf; Jaehrling, Reinhard; Pape, Carola

    2015-01-01

    which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Final report on EURAMET.QM-K12: EURAMET key comparison on the determination of the mass fraction of creatinine in serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Hopley, Chris; Ellison, Stephen L. R.; O'Connor, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    equivalence of participants in CCQM-K12. The range of participants' results in EURAMET.QM-K12 for both levels (2% and 3% respectively for materials A and B) was greater than the 1% achieved in CCQM-K12. However, it was concluded that this study was suitable to support CMCs for creatinine in serum for 1 µg/g to 100 µg/g with uncertainties at the 1% to 1.5% level. This was found to be fit for purpose and consistent with the majority of CMCs currently approved. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  13. New Timing Products from the IGS: IGS/BIPM Time Transfer Pilot Project and UT1-like Estimates from GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Jim R.

    2000-05-01

    The International GPS Service (IGS) and its Analysis Centers are engaged in developing new products related to timekeeping, some of which are relevant to the IVS community. Global comparisons and techniques for dissemination of atomic time are being developed in a Pilot Project with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Full project information is available at http://maia.usno.navy.mil/gpst.html. In addition, high-quality estimates of Universal Time are now being made based on the observed motions of the GPS orbit planes. While these cannot replace the need for VLBI determinations of UT1, they are nonetheless very valuable for densifying the VLBI-based time series and for providing extremely rapid turnaround results necessary for real-time applications.

  14. Comparison of a 50 mL pycnometer and a 500 mL flask, EURAMET.M.FF.S8 (EURAMET 1297)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mićić, Ljiljana; Batista, Elsa

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this comparison was to compare the results of the participating laboratories in the calibration of 50 mL pycnometer and 500 mL volumetric flask using the gravimetric method. Laboratories were asked to determined the 'contained' volume of the 50 mL pycnometer and of the 500 mL flask at a reference temperature of 20 °C. The gravimetric method was used for both instruments by all laboratories. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Angle comparison using an autocollimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geckeler, Ralf D.; Just, Andreas; Vasilev, Valentin; Prieto, Emilio; Dvorácek, František; Zelenika, Slobodan; Przybylska, Joanna; Duta, Alexandru; Victorov, Ilya; Pisani, Marco; Saraiva, Fernanda; Salgado, Jose-Antonio; Gao, Sitian; Anusorn, Tonmueanwai; Leng Tan, Siew; Cox, Peter; Watanabe, Tsukasa; Lewis, Andrew; Chaudhary, K. P.; Thalmann, Ruedi; Banreti, Edit; Nurul, Alfiyati; Fira, Roman; Yandayan, Tanfer; Chekirda, Konstantin; Bergmans, Rob; Lassila, Antti

    2018-01-01

    Autocollimators are versatile optical devices for the contactless measurement of the tilt angles of reflecting surfaces. An international key comparison (KC) on autocollimator calibration, EURAMET.L-K3.2009, was initiated by the European Association of National Metrology Institutes (EURAMET) to provide information on the capabilities in this field. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) acted as the pilot laboratory, with a total of 25 international participants from EURAMET and from the Asia Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) providing measurements. This KC was the first one to utilise a high-resolution electronic autocollimator as a standard. In contrast to KCs in angle metrology which usually involve the full plane angle, it focused on relatively small angular ranges (+/-10 arcsec and +/-1000 arcsec) and step sizes (10 arcsec and 0.1 arcsec, respectively). This document represents the approved final report on the results of the KC. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCL, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  16. Final report of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6: supplementary comparison of 100 mg, 100 g 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg stainless steel mass standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautjana, R. T.; Molefe, P. T.; Mayindu, N. F.; Armah, M. N.; Ramasawmy, V.; Albasini, G. L.; Matali, S.; Richmond, H.; Rusimbi, V.; Kiwanuka, J.; Mutale, D. M.; Mutsimba, F.

    2018-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of AFRIMETS.M.M-S6 mass standards comparison conducted between eleven participating laboratories/countries. Two sets of five weights with nominal values 100 mg, 100 g, 500 g, 1 kg and 5 kg were used as the traveling standards. These nominal values were decided from the needs of participating laboratories submitted to the pilot laboratory through a questionnaire and agreed upon by all participants. The traveling standards were hand carried between laboratories starting from February 2014 and were received from the last participants in October 2014. The programme was coordinated by National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA), who provided the travelling standards and reference values for the comparison. The corrections to the BIPM as-maintained mass unit [5] have insignificant influence on the results of this comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  17. Final report on international comparison CCQM-K68: Nitrous oxide in synthetic air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinbok; Lee, Jeongsoon; Moon, Dongmin; Seog Kim, Jin; Wessel, Rob; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Kato, Kenji; Guenther, Frank; Rhoderick, George; Konopelko, L. A.; Han, Qiao; Hall, Brad

    2011-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is one of six greenhouse gases that are regulated by the Kyoto Protocol and has a Global Warming Potential (GWP) that is 296 times that of carbon dioxide. Global levels of nitrous oxide have increased at a rate of 0.25%/yr (0.8 ppb/yr) during the last ten years. In order to monitor levels of nitrous oxide in the atmosphere, it is necessary to use measurement standards with demonstrated equivalence at the highest level of accuracy. This report describes the results of a key comparison of standard gas mixtures of nitrous oxide in synthetic air at an amount fraction of 320 nmol/mol. This key comparison is part of the programme of the Gas Analysis Working Group (GAWG) of the CCQM to demonstrate the equivalence of the standards and measurement capabilities of the NMIs for greenhouse gases. It will support the development of measurement capability at the NMIs for nitrous oxide with uncertainties within the target set by the Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) programme of the WMO for its global monitoring networks. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  18. Final report on RMO comparison SIM.EM-S10: High value resistance comparison with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierzychudek, Marcos E.; Elmquist, Randolph; Hernández, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a supplementary comparison of high value resistance standards performed during 2012 and January 2013, following the guidelines presented in a document about measurement comparisons in the CIPM MRA. The purpose of this task was to compare the high resistance cryogenic current comparator scaling of the participating institutes: National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA (NIST), Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico (CENAM) and Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial, Argentina (INTI), all of which are members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrología (SIM) Regional Metrology Organization. All the measurements of this comparison were performed with two-terminal cryogenic current comparators (CCC). Degrees of equivalence of the participating institutes relative to the comparison reference values are given in the report for the measured resistance values. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Final report of the SIM.QM-S8 supplementary comparison, trace metals in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Nadeau, Kenny; Gedara Pihillagawa, Indu; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan; Napoli, Romina; Pérez Zambra, Ramiro; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Alejandro Ahumada Forigua, Diego; Abella Gamba, Johanna Paola

    2018-01-01

    After completing a supplementary comparison SIM.QM-S7, the National Metrology Institute of Colombia (NMIC) requested to National Research Council of Canada (NRC) a subsequent bilateral comparison, because INMC considered that its results in SIM.QM-S7 unrepresentative of its standards. In this context, NRC agreed to coordinate this bilateral comparison with the aim of demonstrating the measurement capabilities of trace elements in fresh water. Participants included NMIC and LATU. No measurement method was prescribed by the coordinating laboratory. Therefore, NMIs used measurement methods of their choice. However, the majority of NMIs/DIs used ICP-MS. This SIM.QM-S8 Supplementary Comparison provides NMIs with the needed evidence for CMC claims for trace elements in fresh waters and similar matrices. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. THE CCAUV.A-K3 KEY COMPARISON OF PRESSURE RECIPROCITY CALIBRATION OF LS2P MICROPHONES: RESULTS AND ANALYSIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henríquez, Vicente; Rasmussen, Knud; Nielsen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The CCAUV.A-K3 Key Comparison has involved 15 countries organized in two loops with two common laboratories, CENAM and DPLA. The measurements took place in 2003. This is the first CCAUV key comparison organized with more than one loop, and therefore the analysis of the results required a more ela...

  1. International comparison CCQM-K119 liquefied petroleum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. J.; Downey, M. L.; Atkins, E.; Brown, R. J. C.; Brown, A. S.; Zalewska, E. T.; van der Veen, A. M. H.; Smeulders, D. E.; McCallum, J. B.; Satumba, R. T.; Kim, Y. D.; Kang, N.; Bae, H. K.; Woo, J. C.; Konopelko, L. A.; Popova, T. A.; Meshkov, A. V.; Efremova, O. V.; Kustikov, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Liquefied hydrocarbon mixtures with traceable composition are required in order to underpin measurements of the composition and other physical properties of LPG (liquefied petroleum gas), thus meeting the needs of an increasingly large industrial market. This comparison aims to assess the analytical capabilities of laboratories for measuring the composition of a Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) mixture when sampled in the liquid phase from a Constant Pressure Cylinder. Mixtures contained ethane, propane, propene, i-butane, n-butane, but-1-ene and i-pentane with nominal amount fractions of 2, 71, 9, 4, 10, 3 and 1 cmol mol-1 respectively. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. A Theoretical and Experimental Comparison of One Time Pad Cryptography using Key and Plaintext Insertion and Transposition (KPIT and Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryo Utomo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One Time Pad (OTP is a cryptographic algorithm that is quite easy to be implemented. This algorithm works by converting plaintext and key into decimal then converting into binary number and calculating Exclusive-OR logic. In this paper, the authors try to make the comparison of OTP cryptography using KPI and KCT so that the ciphertext will be generated more difficult to be known. In the Key and Plaintext Insertion (KPI Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by adding the key insertion in the plaintext that has been splitted. Meanwhile in the Key Coloumnar Transposition (KCT Method, we modify the OTP algorithm by dividing the key into some parts in matrix of rows and coloumns. Implementation of the algorithms using PHP programming language.

  3. Results of the supplementary comparison SIM.M.FF-S12 for volume of liquids at 20 L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, M.; Castillo, E.; Rodríguez, L. D.

    2018-01-01

    A supplementary comparison was performed in order to compare national measurement systems to determine volume of liquids, particularly at fixed volume of 20 L. The participants were CENAM (Mexico), LACOMET (Costa Rica) and RECOPE (Costa Rica). The measurements were carried out from October 2016 to June 2017. The chosen value of volume (20 L) is representative of the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs) declared by the three participants. The transfer standard (TS) was a stainless steel pipette for volume at 20 L. Prior to the beginning of the comparison, the TS was tested by CENAM. The results of the test phase showed excellent values for both repeatability and reproducibility. During the SIM.M.FF-S12, the results of the laboratories showed good agreement with the reference values. The best estimation of the measurands, as reported by the participants, showed a +/- 0.0022 % as the largest difference among the laboratories. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Final report on SIM.T-S2: Comparison of the calibration of 100 Ω platinum resistance thermometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Campo, D.; Chimenti Ruiz, V.; Méndez-Lango, E.; Córdova, L.; von Borries, E.; Sánchez, C. A.; Arévalo, A.; Aguilera, B.; Guillén, E.; Cabrera, C.; Quintana, L.

    2013-01-01

    An International Comparison on industrial platinum resistance thermometers (PRTs) among the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Spain, Mexico and the Andean Countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela) began in 2004 and was successfully completed in 2005. Two PRTs were circulated (hand-carried) and compared from -40 °C up to 250 °C. The Centro Español de Metrología (Spanish NMI), CEM, was the pilot laboratory and the Centro Nacional de Metrología (Mexican NMI), CENAM, was the co-pilot laboratory. This report presents the results of this comparison and provides detailed information of the measurements performed by the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Consensus building for interlaboratory studies, key comparisons, and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepke, Amanda; Lafarge, Thomas; Possolo, Antonio; Toman, Blaza

    2017-06-01

    Interlaboratory studies in measurement science, including key comparisons, and meta-analyses in several fields, including medicine, serve to intercompare measurement results obtained independently, and typically produce a consensus value for the common measurand that blends the values measured by the participants. Since interlaboratory studies and meta-analyses reveal and quantify differences between measured values, regardless of the underlying causes for such differences, they also provide so-called ‘top-down’ evaluations of measurement uncertainty. Measured values are often substantially over-dispersed by comparison with their individual, stated uncertainties, thus suggesting the existence of yet unrecognized sources of uncertainty (dark uncertainty). We contrast two different approaches to take dark uncertainty into account both in the computation of consensus values and in the evaluation of the associated uncertainty, which have traditionally been preferred by different scientific communities. One inflates the stated uncertainties by a multiplicative factor. The other adds laboratory-specific ‘effects’ to the value of the measurand. After distinguishing what we call recipe-based and model-based approaches to data reductions in interlaboratory studies, we state six guiding principles that should inform such reductions. These principles favor model-based approaches that expose and facilitate the critical assessment of validating assumptions, and give preeminence to substantive criteria to determine which measurement results to include, and which to exclude, as opposed to purely statistical considerations, and also how to weigh them. Following an overview of maximum likelihood methods, three general purpose procedures for data reduction are described in detail, including explanations of how the consensus value and degrees of equivalence are computed, and the associated uncertainty evaluated: the DerSimonian-Laird procedure; a hierarchical Bayesian

  6. Final report of the SIM.QM-S7 supplementary comparison, trace metals in drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Nadeau, Kenny; Gedara Pihillagawa, Indu; Meija, Juris; Grinberg, Patricia; Mester, Zoltan; Valle Moya, Edith; Solís González, Faviola Alejandra; del Rocio Arvizu Torres, María; Yañez Muñoz, Oscar; Velina Lara-Manzano, Judith; Mazzitello, Gisela; Prina, Pedro; Acosta, Osvaldo; Napoli, Romina; Pérez Zambra, Ramiro; Ferreira, Elizabeth; Dobrovolskiy, Vladimir; Aprelev, Aleksei; Stakheev, Aleksei; Frolov, Dmitriy; Gusev, Leonid; Ivanova, Veronika; Näykki, Teemu; Sara-Aho, Timo; Venegas Padilla, Jimmy; Acuña Cubillo, Carlos; Bremmer, Dwyte; Freemantle, Ruel; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Tangpaisarnkul, Nongluck; Rodruangthum, Patumporn; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Thiengmanee, Usana; Tangjit, Tararat; Buzoianu, Mirella; Alejandro Ahumada Forigua, Diego; Abella Gamba, Johanna Paola; Alfredo Chavarro Medina, Luis; Sobina, Egor; Tabatchikova, Tatyana; Alexopoulos, Charalambos; Kakoulides, Elias; Delgado, Mabel; Flores, Liliana; Knox, Saira; Siewlal, Kester; Maharaj, Avinash

    2018-01-01

    SIM.QM-S7 was performed to assess the analytical capabilities of National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) and Designated Institutes (DIs) of SIM members (or other regions) for the accurate determination of trace metals in drinking water. The study was proposed by the coordinating laboratories National Research Council Canada (NRC) and Centro Nacional de Metrologia (CENAM) as an activity of Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance - Metrology in Chemistry and Biology (CCQM). Participants included 16 NMIs/DIs from 15 countries. No measurement method was prescribed by the coordinating laboratories. Therefore, NMIs used measurement methods of their choice. However, the majority of NMIs/DIs used ICP-MS. This SIM.QM-S7 Supplementary Comparison provides NMIs/DIs with the needed evidence for CMC claims for trace elements in fresh waters and similar matrices. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  7. Comparison of key indicators of external respiration function in students of three health groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainullin RA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define key indicators of function of external breath of students of three groups of health taking into account various total sizes of a body. Material and Methods. For an assessment of breathing function, volume and highspeed characteristics the diagnosing Eton installations (Russia and Schiller (Switzerland were used. Results. Age peculiarities of respiratory ventilation disorders and differentiated assessment of circulatory and metabolic parameters according to the total body size in the special health groups (SHG are analyzed in the article. Breathing volumetric characteristics were examined among the 17-18 aged students in the different health groups. Special attention is paid to the effect of the long-term severe bronchial patency disorders which lead to the respiratory muscles overstrain and the decrease of their strength endurance. This results in the lungs capacity decrease which is typical for the special health groups' students. Conclusion. It is shown that the students of the 1st health group had lower body weight and the same body length in comparison with the 2nd and 3rd groups. This determined unequal role of respiration in providing vital processes in terms of educational activities, especially in case of disorders of musculoskeletal and cardio-respiratory systems.

  8. Final report on SIM.M.P-S6: Differential pressure comparison from 50 Pa to 500 Pa with a liquid column manometer between CENAM (Mexico) and INTI-Fisica y Metrologia (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Guzman, Jorge; Forastieri, Juan; Zúñiga, Sinuhé

    2011-01-01

    A differential pressure comparison was performed between CENAM (Mexico) and INTI (Argentina) by means of a liquid column manometer. The measuring range was 50 Pa to 500 Pa. CENAM calibrated the transfer standard at the beginning and at the end of the comparison. The transfer standard used was a Dwyer liquid column manometer model Microtector with an accuracy class of 0.013% of the reading. The compared pressure points were (50, 75, 125, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500) Pa. The uncertainty sources to be evaluated included at least the following: (a) uncertainty due to the standard used by the laboratory; (b) uncertainty due to repeatability; (c) uncertainty due to resolution; (d) uncertainty due to hysteresis; (e) uncertainty due to zero drift. The criteria used to compare the results obtained were the normalized error equation (En). The results obtained by the laboratories were compatible according to the criteria |En| <= 1. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Inter-RMO Key Comparison EUROMET.L-K5.2004: Calibration of a step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieto, Emilio; Brown, Nicholas; Lassila, Antti

    2012-01-01

    The results of the inter-RMO key comparison EUROMET.L-K5.2004 on the calibration of a step gauge are reported. Eighteen National Metrology Institutes and one Designated Institute from four different metrological regions all over the world participated in this comparison which lasted three years......, from December 2004 to December 2007. A lack of stability was observed through the shifting of some of the inserted gauges. In order to save the comparison and get valuable and useful conclusions, it was agreed to exclude four gauges from calculation and assume that only seven gauges were reasonably...... participants for measuring step gauges was demonstrated with the only exception of a participant showing very high systematic (both positive and negative) errors. Five participants communicated higher uncertainties than the corresponding approved CMCs. A set of Recommendations and Actions were agreed therefore...

  10. SIM.T-K9.1: Canada/Peru bilateral comparison of standard platinum resistance thermometers from 0.01 °C to 419.527 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K. D.; Barrientos, A.; Guillen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Thermometry has organized Key Comparison 9 (CCT-K9) as an updated replacement for CCT-K3. A comparison of the fixed-point temperature standards of Peru with those of Canada was carried out following a protocol that closely resembles CCT-K9. The comparison was limited to the fixed points of tin and zinc, with NRC the pilot laboratory and the eventual link to CCT-K9 (currently, CCT-K9 remains a work in progress). The comparison protocol required INDECOPI to select, characterize, and transport (i.e. hand carry) the SPRTs to NRC. Following the measurements at NRC, the SPRTs were returned and re-measured at INDECOPI to close the loop and assess any changes that occurred in the SPRTs over the course of the measurements. The following degrees of equivalence, D, and expanded uncertainties, U (k = 2), were obtained via this comparison. T / °C DINDECOPI / mK U / mK 419.527 1.58 4.6 231.928 -2.12 3.9 SIM.T-K9.1 has demonstrated the compatibility of the fixed points of INDECOPI with those maintained by NRC within the combined uncertainties, and therefore serves to verify the intended calibration and measurement capabilities envisioned for INDECOPI, Peru. The results can be linked to NMIs globally following CCT-K9, with NRC as the linking participant. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCT, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  11. Morphological Comparison of U3O8 Ore Concentrates from Canada Key Lake and Namibia Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Patrick Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Uranium ore concentrates from two different sources were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The ore powders are referred to as Namibia (id. no. 90036, LIMS id. no. 18775) and Canada Key Lake (id. no. 90019, LIMS id. no. 18774). Earlier work identified the ores as the U₃O₈ phase of uranium oxide using x-ray diffraction. Both sets of powders were in the form of dark brown to black powder fines. However, the Canada Key Lake concentrates contained larger chunks of material on the millimeter scale that were easily visible to the unaided eye. The powders were mounted for SEM examination by hand dispersing a small amount onto conductive sticky tape. Two types of applicators were used and compared: a fine-tipped spatula and a foam-tipped applicator. The sticky tape was on a standard SEM “tee” mount, which was tapped to remove loose contamination before being inserted into the SEM.

  12. Conceptualizing childhood health problems using survey data: a comparison of key indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Anton R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many definitions are being used to conceptualize child health problems. With survey data, commonly used indicators for identifying children with health problems have included chronic condition checklists, measures of activity limitations, elevated service use, and health utility thresholds. This study compares these different indicators in terms of the prevalence rates elicited, and in terms of how the subgroups identified differ. Methods Secondary data analyses used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Canadian children (n = 13,790. Descriptive analyses compared healthy children to those with health problems, as classified by any of the key indicators. Additional analyses examined differences between subgroups of children captured by a single indicator and those described as having health problems by multiple indicators. Results This study demonstrates that children captured by any of the indicators had poorer health than healthy children, despite the fact that over half the sample (52.2% was characterized as having a health problem by at least one indicator. Rates of child ill health differed by indicator; 5.6% had an activity limitation, 9.2% exhibited a severe health difficulty, 31.7% reported a chronic condition, and 36.6% had elevated service use. Further, the four key indicators captured different types of children. Indicator groupings differed on child and socio-demographic factors. Compared to children identified by more than one indicator, those identified only by the severe health difficulty indicator displayed more cognitive problems (p Conclusion We provide information useful to researchers when selecting indicators from survey data to identify children with health problems. Researchers and policy makers need to be aware of the impact of such definitions on prevalence rates as well as on the composition of children classified as

  13. Comparison of the key mechanisms leading to rollovers in Liquefied Natural Gas using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Antoine; Dadonau, Maksim; Dembele, Siaka; Denissenko, Petr; Wen, Jennifer

    2017-11-01

    Growing demand for the LNG fosters growth of the number of production sites with varying composition and density. Combining different sources of LNG may result in a stably stratified system, in which heat and mass transfer between the layers is limited. Heating of the LNG due to wall thermal conductivity leads to formation of convection cells confined within the layers. While the upper layer can release the extra energy via preferential methane boil-off, the bottom layer cannot and hence becomes superheated. Gradual density equilibration reduces stratification and may eventually lead to a sudden mixing event called ``rollover'', accompanied by violent evaporation of the superheated LNG. Three phenomena are potentially responsible for density equilibration. The first is the growing difference in thermal expansion of the layers due to the reduced ability of the bottom layer to reject heat. The second is the penetration of the heated near-wall boundary layer into the upper layer. The third is the ``entrainment mixing'' occurring at the contact surface between the two layers. The present study uses CFD to compare these mechanisms. Boussinesq approximation and an extended version of the k- ɛ model is used. The code is validated by comparison with a large-scale LNG rollover experiment.

  14. Magnetic properties comparison of mass standards among seventeen national metrology institutes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Becerra, LO

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available ?7 [3] Muller J 1995 Possible advantages of a robust evaluation of comparisons Rapport BIPM-95/2 P 7 Reprinted with minor changes in 2000 J. Res. Natl Inst. Stand. Technol. 105 551?5 [4] ISO 1995 Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement.... Louis, France) [6] Davis R S 1996 Magnetic properties of samples 1E and 2J (EUROMET Project 324) Rapport BIPM-96/4 [7] International Organization of Legal Metrology 2005 International Recommendation 111.1?Weights of classes E1,E2,F1,F2,M1,M1-2,M2,M2...

  15. Results of an international comparison of activity measurements of68Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, J T; Fitzgerald, R; Zimmerman, B E; Laureano-Pérez, L; Bergeron, D E; van Wyngaardt, F; Smith, M; Jackson, T; Howe, B; da Silva, C J; Iwahara, A; da Cruz, P A L; Zhang, M; Liu, H; Liang, J; Fréchou, C; Bobin, C; Cassette, P; Kossert, K; Nähle, O; Marganiec-Gałązka, J; Joseph, L; Ravindra, A; Kulkarni, D N; Yunoki, A; Sato, Y; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Agung; Dziel, T; Listkowska, A; Tymiński, Z; Sahagia, M; Antohe, A; Ioan, M-R; Luca, A; Krivosek, M; Ometakova, J; Javornik, A; Zalesakova, M; García-Toraño Martinez, E; Roteta, M; Mejuto, M; Nedjadi, Y; Juget, F; Yuan, M-C; Yeh, C Y; Yeltepe, E; Dirican, A; Keightley, J; Pearce, A

    2018-04-01

    An international key comparison, identifier CCRI(II)-K2.Ge-68, has been performed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) served as the pilot laboratory, distributing aliquots of a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga solution. Results for the activity concentration, C A , of 68 Ge at a reference date of 12h00 UTC 14 November 2014 were submitted by 17 laboratories, encompassing many variants of coincidence methods and liquid-scintillation counting methods. The first use of 4π(Cherenkov)β-γ coincidence and anticoincidence methods in an international comparison is reported. One participant reported results by secondary methods only. Two results, both utilizing pure liquid-scintillation methods, were identified as outliers. Evaluation using the Power-Moderated Mean method results in a proposed Comparison Reference Value (CRV) of 621.7(11)kBqg -1 , based on 14 results. The degrees of equivalence and their associated uncertainties are evaluated for each participant. Several participants submitted 3.6mL ampoules to the BIPM to link the comparison to the International Reference System (SIR) which may lead to the evaluation of a Key Comparison Reference Value and associated degrees of equivalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Three Key Marine Shale Reservoirs in the Southeastern Margin of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study performs a comprehensive comparison of three key marine shale reservoirs in the southeastern margin of the Sichuan Basin, and explains why commercial gas production was only achieved in the Lower Silurian Longmaxi (LSL and Upper Ordovician Wufeng (UOW formations, but not in the Lower Cambrian Niutitang (LCN formation. The experimental methods included in situ gas content and gas composition tests, methane adsorption analysis, low-pressure N2 adsorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, and total organic carbon (TOC and vitrinite reflectance (Ro analyses to evaluate the lithology, mineralogy, physical properties of the reservoir, organic geochemistry, in situ gas content and methane adsorption capacity characteristics of the three shales. The LCN shale has lower quartz and clay mineral contents and a low brittleness index, but higher contents of feldspar, pyrite and carbonate minerals than the LSL and UOW shales. The porosity and permeability of the LSL and UOW shales are higher than those of the LCN shale. The primary contributions to the high permeability in the LSL shale are its well-developed fractures and organic matter pores. In contrast, the over-mature LCN shale is unfavorable for the development of organic pores and fractures. Although the LCN shale has a higher methane sorption capacity than the LSL and UOW shales, the gas content and methane saturation of the LCN shale are distinctly lower than those of the LSL and UOW shales. This is primarily due to gas migration from the LCN shale, resulting from the activities of tectonic uplift and the unconformable contact between the LCN shale and the Dengying formation. When compared with gas shale in North America, the LSL shale is the most favorable shale reservoir out of the three Sichuan shales, while the combination of the LSL and UOW shales is also potentially productive. However, the individual single layer production of the UOW or LCN shales is still

  17. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON: Final report on EUROMET Project 427, EUROMET.EM-S7: Comparison of AC and DC conductivity standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Stuart; Henderson, Lesley; Hall, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of non-ferrous metals with conductivities in the range 2.2 MS/m to 35.8 MS/m, provided by NPL in the form of bars (600 mm by 80 mm by 10 mm) and square blocks (80 mm side by 10 mm), was measured using an AC method at NPL and a DC method at PTB and VSL. The purpose of the comparison was to establish if there is a difference in the electrical conductivity measured for AC and DC conditions. Conductivity standards are used by industries involved with non-destructive testing (NDT) and evaluation (NDE) to calibrate the instruments used. These instruments operate at frequencies of at least 60 kHz and it was therefore necessary to establish agreement between AC and DC methods. For all cases the uncertainty for AC conductivity measurements is considerably larger than that for DC measurements due to the increased complexity of the unique NPL bridge method. For DC measurements on blocks the PTB and VSL values agreed within the measurement uncertainties provided. A small difference between the values for a bar made from Nordic gold was removed when the CMC uncertainty for PTB was used. A better agreement between the DC measurement for blocks is believed to be due to a reduced sensitivity to material homogeneity as well as fewer dimensional measurements for the Van der Pauw technique used. A significant difference between the measured AC and DC conductivities for the titanium bar was found. This is believed to be due to a variation in the properties of the material through the thickness. The AC method is surface sensitive and so such a change in properties will influence the value compared to DC methods that are a volume average. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by EUROMET, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition

  18. A Comparison between Two Off-the-Shelf Algebraic Tools for Extraction of Cryptographic Keys from Corrupted Memory Images

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Abdel,; Zahno, Roger; Youssef, Amr,

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Modern Cryptography; International audience; Cold boot attack is a class of side channel attacks which exploits the data remanence property of random access memory (RAM) to retrieve its contents which remain readable shortly after its power has been removed. Specialized algorithms have been previously proposed to recover cryptographic keys of several ciphers from decayed memory images. However, these techniques were cipher-dependent and certainly uneasy to develop and fine tune. On th...

  19. A comparison of land use change accounting methods: seeking common grounds for key modeling choices in biofuel assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo Saez; Hamelin, Lorie; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Five currently used methods to account for the global warming (GW) impact of the induced land-use change (LUC) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been applied to four biofuel case studies. Two of the investigated methods attempt to avoid the need of considering a definite occupation -thus...... amortization period by considering ongoing LUC trends as a dynamic baseline. This leads to the accounting of a small fraction (0.8%) of the related emissions from the assessed LUC, thus their validity is disputed. The comparison of methods and contrasting case studies illustrated the need of clearly...... distinguishing between the different time horizons involved in life cycle assessments (LCA) of land-demanding products like biofuels. Absent in ISO standards, and giving rise to several confusions, definitions for the following time horizons have been proposed: technological scope, inventory model, impact...

  20. Comparison of the aggregation of homologous β2-microglobulin variants reveals protein solubility as a key determinant of amyloid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashley, Clare L; Hewitt, Eric W; Radford, Sheena E

    2016-02-13

    The mouse and human β2-microglobulin protein orthologs are 70% identical in sequence and share 88% sequence similarity. These proteins are predicted by various algorithms to have similar aggregation and amyloid propensities. However, whilst human β2m (hβ2m) forms amyloid-like fibrils in denaturing conditions (e.g. pH2.5) in the absence of NaCl, mouse β2m (mβ2m) requires the addition of 0.3M NaCl to cause fibrillation. Here, the factors which give rise to this difference in amyloid propensity are investigated. We utilise structural and mutational analyses, fibril growth kinetics and solubility measurements under a range of pH and salt conditions, to determine why these two proteins have different amyloid propensities. The results show that, although other factors influence the fibril growth kinetics, a striking difference in the solubility of the proteins is a key determinant of the different amyloidogenicity of hβ2m and mβ2m. The relationship between protein solubility and lag time of amyloid formation is not captured by current aggregation or amyloid prediction algorithms, indicating a need to better understand the role of solubility on the lag time of amyloid formation. The results demonstrate the key contribution of protein solubility in determining amyloid propensity and lag time of amyloid formation, highlighting how small differences in protein sequence can have dramatic effects on amyloid formation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C. [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Beijing, People' s Republic of China (China); Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N. [EC-JRC-Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), Geel (Belgium); Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg (United States); Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba (Japan); Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P. [National Physical Laboratory (NPL), Teddington (United Kingdom); Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A. [Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM), St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  2. International key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields: C.C.R.I.(3)-K10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Rong, C.; Lovestam, G.; Plompen, A.; Puglisi, N.; Gilliam, D.M.; Eisenhauer, C.M.; Nico, J.S.; Dewey, M.S.; Kudo, K.; Uritani, A.; Harano, H.; Takeda, N.; Thomas, D.J.; Roberts, N.J.; Bennett, A.; Kolkowski, P.; Moisseev, N.N.; Kharitonov, I.A.; Guldbakke, S.; Klein, H.; Nolte, R.; Schlegel, D.

    2007-01-01

    C.C.R.I. Section III (neutron measurements) conducted a unique key comparison of neutron fluence measurements in mono-energetic neutron fields. In contrast to former comparisons, here the fluence measurements were performed with the participants' instruments in the same neutron fields at the P.T.B. accelerator facility. Seven laboratories- the C.I.A.E. (China), I.R.M.M. (E.C.), N.M.I.J. (Japan), N.I.S.T. (USA), N.P.L. (UK), P.T.B. (Germany) and the V.N.I.I.M. (Russia)-employed their primary standard reference methods or transfer instruments carefully calibrated against their primary standards, to determine the fluence of 0.144 MeV, 1.2 MeV, 5.0 MeV and 14.8 MeV neutrons and reported calibration coefficients for a selected neutron monitor and each neutron energy with a detailed uncertainty budget for the measurements. The key comparison reference values (K.C.R.V.) were finally evaluated as the weighted mean values of the neutron fluence at 1 m distance from the target in vacuum per neutron monitor count. The uncertainties of each K.C.R.V. amounted to about 1%. The degree of equivalence (D.o.E.), defined as the deviation of the result reported by the laboratories for each energy from the corresponding K.C.R.V., and the associated expanded uncertainty are also reported. The deviations between the results of two laboratories each with the corresponding expanded uncertainties complete the documentation of the degrees of equivalence. (authors)

  3. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and mineral-transported (mineral-tran.) modes. Therefore, we are convinced that our results hold promise for updating and improving accuracies of Asian dust characteristics in present-day remote sensing applications and regional or global climate models.

  4. Comparison of Key Absorption and Optical Properties Between Pure and Transported Anthropogenic Dust over East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jianrong; Huang, Jianping; Holben, Brent N.; Zhang, Guolong

    2016-01-01

    Asian dust particulate is one of the primary aerosol constituents in the Earth-atmosphere system that exerts profound influences on environmental quality, human health, the marine biogeochemical cycle, and Earth's climate. To date, the absorptive capacity of dust aerosol generated from the Asian desert region is still an open question. In this article, we compile columnar key absorption and optical properties of mineral dust over East and Central Asian areas by utilizing the multiyear quality-assured datasets observed at 13 sites of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). We identify two types of Asian dust according to threshold criteria from previously published literature. (1) The particles with high aerosol optical depth at 440 nm (AOD(440) > or = 0.4) and a low Angstrom wavelength exponent at 440-870 nm (alpha or = 0.4 and 0.2 < alpha < 0.6 are designated as Transported Anthropogenic Dust (TDU), which is mainly dominated by dust aerosol and might mix with other anthropogenic aerosol types. Our results reveal that the primary components of high AOD days are predominantly dust over East and Central Asian regions, even if their variations rely on different sources, distance from the source, emission mechanisms, and meteorological characteristics. The overall mean and standard deviation of single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, real part and imaginary part of complex refractive index at 550 nm for Asian PDU are 0.935 +/- 0.014, 0.742 +/- 0.008, 1.526 +/- 0.029, and 0.00226 +/- 0.00056, respectively, while corresponding values are 0.921 +/- 0.021, 0.723 +/- 0.009, 1.521 +/- 0.025, and 0.00364 +/- 0.0014 for Asian TDU. Aerosol shortwave direct radiative effects at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), at the surface (SFC), and in the atmospheric layer (ATM) for Asian PDU (alpha < 0.2) and TDU (0.2 < alpha < 0.6) computed in this study, are a factor of 2 smaller than the results of Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) mineral-accumulated (mineral-acc.) and

  5. Comparison of the NMIJ and the ARPANSA standards for absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Morishita, Y; Kato, M; Tanaka, T; Kurosawa, T; Takata, N; Saito, N; Ramanathan, G; Harty, P D; Oliver, C; Wright, T; Butler, D J

    2015-04-01

    The authors report the results of an indirect comparison of the standards of absorbed dose to water in high-energy photon beams from a clinical linac and (60)Co radiation beam performed between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA). Three ionisation chambers were calibrated by the NMIJ in April and June 2013 and by the ARPANSA in May 2013. The average ratios of the calibration coefficients for the three ionisation chambers obtained by the NMIJ to those obtained by the ARPANSA were 0.9994, 1.0040 and 1.0045 for 6-, 10- and 15-MV (18 MV at the ARPANSA) high-energy photon beams, respectively. The relative standard uncertainty of the value was 7.2 × 10(-3). The ratio for (60)Co radiation was 0.9986(66), which is consistent with the results published in the key comparison of BIPM.RI(I)-K4. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. The Key Lake project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Key Lake is located in the Athabasca sand stone basin, 640 kilometers north of Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. The three sources of ore at Key Lake contain 70 100 tonnes of uranium. Features of the Key Lake Project were described under the key headings: work force, mining, mill process, tailings storage, permanent camp, environmental features, worker health and safety, and economic benefits. Appendices covering the historical background, construction projects, comparisons of western world mines, mining statistics, Northern Saskatchewan surface lease, and Key Lake development and regulatory agencies were included

  7. Use of gas chromatography-olfactometry to identify key odorant compounds in dark chocolate. Comparison of samples before and after conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counet, Christine; Callemien, Delphine; Ouwerx, Caroline; Collin, Sonia

    2002-04-10

    After vacuum distillation and liquid-liquid extraction, the volatile fractions of dark chocolates were analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aroma extract dilution analysis revealed the presence of 33 potent odorants in the neutral/basic fraction. Three of these had a strong chocolate flavor: 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. Many others were characterized by cocoa/praline-flavored/nutty/coffee notes: 2,3-dimethylpyrazine, trimethylpyrazine, tetramethylpyrazine, 3(or 2),5-dimethyl-2(or 3)-ethylpyrazine, 3,5(or 6)-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, and furfurylpyrrole. Comparisons carried out before and after conching indicate that although no new key odorant is synthesized during the heating process, levels of 2-phenyl-5-methyl-2-hexenal, Furaneol, and branched pyrazines are significantly increased while most Strecker aldehydes are lost by evaporation.

  8. Longitudinal meta-analysis of NIST pH Standard Reference Materials(®): a complement to pH key comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Kenneth W

    2015-04-01

    This meta-analysis assesses the long-term (up to 70 years) within-laboratory variation of the NIST pH Standard Reference Material® (SRM) tetroxalate, phthalate, phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers. Values of ΔpH(S), the difference between the certified pH value, pH(S), of each SRM issue and the mean of all pH(S) values for the given SRM at that Celsius temperature, t, are graphed as a function of the SRM issue and t. In most cases, |ΔpH(S)| materials, and methodology of the pH(S) measurement yield t-dependent variations. The standard deviation of ΔpH(S) characterizes such changes. Standard deviations of ΔpH(S) are generally 0.0015 or less. The results provide a long-term, single-institution complement to the time-specific, multi-institution results of pH key comparisons administered by the Consultative Committee for Metrology in Chemistry and Biology (CCQM).

  9. The use of the AOA TTR-4P GPS receiver in operation at the BIPM for real-time restitution of GPS time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Claudine

    1994-01-01

    The Global Positioning System is an outstanding tool for the dissemination of time. Using mono-channel C/A-code GPS time receivers, the restitution of GPS time through the satellite constellation presents a peak-to-peak discrepancy of several tens of nanoseconds without SA but may be as high as several hundreds of nanoseconds with SA. As a consequence, civil users are more and more interested in implementing hardware and software methods for efficient restitution of GPS time, especially in the framework of the project of a real-time prediction of UTC (UTCp) which could be available in the form of time differences (UTCp - GPS time). Previous work, for improving the real-time restitution of GPS time with SA, to the level obtained without SA, focused on the implementation of a Kalman filter based on past data and updated at each new observation. An alternative solution relies upon the statistical features of the noise brought about by SA; it has already been shown that the SA noise is efficiently reduced by averaging data from numerous satellites observed simultaneously over a sufficiently long time. This method was successfully applied to data from a GPS time receiver, model AOA TTR-4P, connected to the cesium clock kept at the BIPM. This device, a multi-channel, dual frequency, P-code GPS time receiver, is one of the first TTR-4P units in operation in a civil laboratory. Preliminary comparative studies of this new equipment with conventional GPS time receivers are described in this paper. The results of an experimental restitution of GPS time, obtained in June 1993, are also detailed: 3 to 6 satellites were observed simultaneously with a sample interval of 15 s, an efficient smoothing of SA noise was realized by averaging data on all observed satellites over more than 1 hour. When the GPS system is complete in 1994, 8 satellites will be observable continuously from anywhere in the world and the same level of uncertainty will be obtained using a shorter averaging

  10. Report on EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 (EUROMET project no. 813): Comparison of air kerma and absorbed dose to water measurements of {sup 60}Co radiation beams for radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csete, I. [National Office of Measures (OMH) - pilot laboratory and corresponding author (Hungary); Leiton, A.G. [Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CMRI-CIEMAT) (Spain); Sochor, V. [Czech Metrology Institute (CMI) (Czech Republic); Lapenas, A. [Latvian National Metrology Center (LNMC-RMTC) (Latvia); Grindborg, J.E. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) (Sweden); Jokelainen, I. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) (Finland); Bjerke, H. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) (Norway); Dobrovodsky, J. [Slovak Institute of Metrology (SMU) (Slovakia); Megzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA, Vienna (Austria); Hourdakis, C.J. [Hellenic Atomic Energy Committee (HAEC-HIRCL) (Greece); Ivanov, R. [National Centre of Metrology (NCM) (Bulgaria); Vekic, B. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute (IRB) (Croatia); Kokocinski, J. [Central Office of Measures (GUM) (Poland); Cardoso, J. [Institute for Nuclear Technology (ITN-LMRIR) (Portugal); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) (Germany); Tiefenboeck, W. [Bundesamt fur Eich und Vermesungswesen (BEV) (Austria); Stucki, G. [17 Bundesamt fur Metrologie (METAS) (Switzerland); Van Dijk, E. [NMi Van Swinden Laboratorium (NMi) (Netherlands); Toni, M.P. [ENEA-CR Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti (ENEA) (Italy); Minniti, R. [20 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (United States); McCaffrey, J.P. [National Research Council Canada (NRC) (Canada); Silva, C.N.M. [National Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI-IRD) (Brazil); Kharitonov, I. [D I Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology (VNIIM) (RU); Webb, D. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) (Australia); Saravi, M. [National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA-CAE) (Argentina); Delaunay, F. [Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) (France)

    2010-06-15

    The results of an unprecedented international effort involving 26 countries are reported. The EUROMET.RI(I)-K1 and EUROMET.RI(I)-K4 key comparisons were conducted with the goal of supporting the relevant calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) planned for publication by the participant laboratories. The measured quantities were the air kerma (K{sub air}) and the absorbed dose to water (Dw) in {sup 60}Co radiotherapy beams. The comparison was conducted by the pilot laboratory MKEH (Hungary), in a star-shaped arrangement from January 2005 to December 2008. The calibration coefficients of four transfer ionization chambers were measured using two electrometers. The largest deviation between any two calibration coefficients for the four chambers in terms of air kerma and absorbed dose to water was 2.7% and 3.3% respectively. An analysis of the participant uncertainty budgets enabled the calculation of degrees of equivalence (DoE), in terms of the deviations of the results and their associated uncertainties. As a result of this EUROMET project 813 comparison, the BIPM key comparison database (KCDB) will include eleven new Kair and fourteen new D{sub w} DoE values of European secondary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs), and the KCDB will be updated with the new DoE values of the other participant laboratories. The pair-wise degrees of equivalence of participants were also calculated. In addition to assessing calibration techniques and uncertainty calculations of the participants, these comparisons enabled the experimental determinations of N{sub Dw}/N{sub Kair} ratios in the {sup 60}Co gamma radiation beam for the four radiotherapy transfer chambers. (authors)

  11. The New INTA High-Range Standard Humidity Generator and Its Comparison with the Austrian National Humidity Standard Maintained at BEV/E+E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyon, Robert; Mitter, Helmat

    2008-10-01

    A EUROMET collaborative project has been set up between Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA) and E+E ELEKTRONIK Ges.m.b.H, the two designated laboratories of the Spanish and Austrian National Metrology Institutes, Centro Español de Metrología (CEM) and Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen (BEV), respectively. The objective of the project is to provide INTA with a new standard that covers the dew-point temperature range from - 27°C to +90°C with a gas flow up to 5 L· min-1 in the “two-pressure” mode, extended to 95°C when operated as a continuous flow “single-pressure” generator, and investigate the importance of the enhancement factors in the uncertainty estimations used in support of the participants’ calibration and measurement capabilities (CMC) (The CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement, http://www.bipm.fr/en/cipm-mra/ ). The equivalence of the Spanish and Austrian national standards is also to be evaluated, further supporting the outcomes of the Key Comparisons, in which both have already participated. The preliminary results obtained to date are reported and discussed in the context of the project and the consistency of the declared CMC’s.

  12. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Yan, Hui-Jun; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Li, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2018-02-12

    Rosa chinensis var. spontanea , an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. s pontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses . This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa , and it might also facilitate the

  13. Final report on CCQM-K79: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Ethanol in aqueous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Sebastian; Philipp, Rosemarie; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    -weighted generalized distance regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, all of the assigned values for all 27 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the very wide range of ethanol mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). The median of the absolute values of the %D for the participating NMIs is less than 0.05% with a median U95(%D) of less than 1%. These results demonstrate that the participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for ethanol in aqueous media and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  14. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the wide range of creatinine mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, the assigned values for 16 of the 17 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. The excluded material was identified as having a marginally underestimated assigned uncertainty, giving it large and potentially anomalous influence on the KCRF. However, this material's %d of 1.4 +/- 1.5 indicates that it is equivalent with the other materials at the 95% level of confidence. The median |%d| for all 17 of the materials is 0.3 with a median U95(%d) of 1.9. All of these higher-order CRMs for creatinine in human serum are equivalent within their assigned uncertainties. The median |%D| for the participating NMIs is 0.3 with a median U95(%D) of 2.1. These results demonstrate that all participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for creatinine in human serum and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Evaluation of alanine as a reference dosimeter for therapy level dose comparisons in megavoltage electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, Malcolm; Sharpe, Peter; Voros, Sandor

    2015-01-01

    When comparing absorbed dose standards from different laboratories (e.g. National Measurement Institutes, NMIs, for Key or Supplementary comparisons) it is rarely possible to carry out a direct comparison of primary standard instruments, and therefore some form of transfer detector is required. Historically, air-filled, unsealed ionization chambers have been used because of the long history of using these instruments, very good stability over many years, and ease of transport. However, the use of ion chambers for therapy-level comparisons is not without its problems. Findings from recent investigations suggest that ion chambers are prone to non-random variations, they are not completely robust to standard courier practices, and failure at any step in a comparison can render all measurements potentially useless. An alternative approach is to identify a transfer system that is insensitive to some of these concerns - effectively a dosimeter that is inexpensive, simple to use, robust, but with sufficient precision and of a size relevant to the disseminated quantity in question. The alanine dosimetry system has been successfully used in a number of situations as an audit dosimeter and therefore the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether alanine could also be used as the transfer detector for dosimetric comparisons, which require a lower value for the measurement uncertainty. A measurement protocol was developed for comparing primary standards of absorbed dose to water in high-energy electron beams using alanine pellets irradiated in a water-equivalent plastic phantom. A trial comparison has been carried out between three NMIs and has indicated that alanine is a suitable alternative to ion chambers, with the system used achieving a precision of 0.1%. Although the focus of the evaluation was on the performance of the dosimeter, the comparison results are encouraging, showing agreement at the level of the combined uncertainties (∼0.6%). Based on this

  16. BILATERAL KEY COMPARISON SIM.T-K6.5 ON HUMIDITY STANDARDS IN THE DEW/FROST-POINT TEMPERATURE RANGE FROM −30 °C TO +20 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.W.; Solano, A.

    2016-01-01

    A Regional Metrology Organization (RMO) Key Comparison of dew/frost point temperatures over the range −30 °C TO +20 °C was carried out by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, USA) and the Laboratorio Costarricense de Metrología (LACOMET, Costa Rica), between February 2015 and August 2015. The results of this comparison are reported here, along with descriptions of the humidity laboratory standards for NIST and LACOMET and the uncertainty budget for these standards. This report also describes the protocol for the comparison and presents the data acquired. The results are analyzed, determining the degree of equivalence between the dew/frost-point standards of NIST and LACOMET. PMID:28066029

  17. Electronic assessment of clinical reasoning in clerkships: A mixed-methods comparison of long-menu key-feature problems with context-rich single best answer questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwendiek, S.; Reichert, F.; Duncker, C.; Leng, B.A. De; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.; Bosse, H.M.; Haag, M.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Tonshoff, B.; Dolmans, D.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear which item format would best suit the assessment of clinical reasoning: context-rich single best answer questions (crSBAs) or key-feature problems (KFPs). This study compared KFPs and crSBAs with respect to students' acceptance, their educational impact, and

  18. What are the key characteristics of a Christian life? A comparison of the ethics of Calvin to that of Augustine and their relevance today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. van Wyk

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Augustine and Calvin are two of the greatest (western theologians of all times and it is illuminating and inspiring to investigate what they have to teach as far as Christian life is concerned. Augustine never wrote a work on Christian ethics in the modern sense of the word but from his many writings we can easily deduce what the key characteristics are. He accepted the natural virtues of philosophers (prudence, for- titude, temperance and justice but subordinated them to the “infused virtues” of faith, hope and love. Special attention was also paid to inter alia happiness, humility and truth. Calvin, on the other hand, although following Augustine in many aspects of theology, rejected the virtue ethics of the Greek philosophers and developed a Christological ethics within the broader context of pneumatology. The key characteristics of a Christian life are self-denial, cross-bearing and meditation on the future life – and of course the correct enjoyment of the present life. Although we appreciate much of what the two church fathers have to say, we live in a totally different world context today, facing challenges of far greater proportions, like economical uncertainty, political instability and an immense ecological crisis. Morality is chal- lenged today as never before in world history. Today we have to rethink the relevance of Christian life not only from an individual personal perspective but also in terms of broader social Christian ethics.

  19. International Comparison of FTIR measurements traceable to HITRAN and Gravimetrically prepared Gas Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, F.; Joële, V.; Philippe, M.; Faraz, I.; Robert, W.

    2009-12-01

    gas standards and to the molecular data base HITRAN version 2004. Reference values for the comparison will be developed by the BIPM based on gravimetric mixtures prepared from the BIPM’s Primary NO2 facility. The BIPM NO2 facility realises a source of primary reference mixtures and a primary calibration method that combines gravimetry with the dynamic generation of gas mixtures. The primary reference mixtures are prepared and used virtually simultaneously, so stability problems are diminished. The BIPM NO2 facility facilitates the comparison of dynamically generated mixtures with static NO2 mixtures contained in high pressure cylinders which have been used as transfer standards for the comparison. The assigned BIPM NO2 value for each cylinder will be equal to the value predicted from a calibration line calculated from a set of dynamic NO2 primary gas mixtures obtained from the BIPM Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Primary Facility where two independent analytical methods, based on ultraviolet spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy are used for the assignment procedure. This will allow the comparability of HITRAN traceable measurements in over ten different laboratories to be compared to gravimetrically determined values.

  20. Re-establishment of the air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the BIPM protection-level 60Co beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, C.; Roger, P.

    2005-07-01

    The air kerma and ambient dose equivalent standards for the protection-level 60 Co beam have been re-established following the repositioning of the irradiator and modifications to the beam. Details concerning the standards and the new uncertainty budgets are described in this report with their implications for dosimetry comparisons and calibrations. (authors)

  1. Secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Brands (Stefan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe notion of secret-key certificate schemes is introduced and formalized. As with public-key certificates, triples consisting of a secret key, a corresponding public key, and a secret-key certificate on the public key can only be retrieved by engaging in an issuing protocol with the

  2. Key parameters controlling radiology departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    For radiology departments and outstanding practises control and optimization of processes demand an efficient management based on key data. Systems of key data deliver indicators for control of medical quality, service quality and economics. For practices effectiveness (productivity), for hospitals effectiveness and efficiency are in the focus of economical optimization strategies. Task of daily key data is continuous monitoring of activities and workflow, task of weekly/monthly key data is control of data quality, process quality and achievement of objectives, task of yearly key data is determination of long term strategies (marketing) and comparison with competitors (benchmarking). Key parameters have to be defined clearly and have to be available directly. For generation, evaluation and control of key parameters suitable forms of organization and processes are necessary. Strategies for the future will be directed more to the total processes of treatment. To think in total processes and to steer and optimize with suitable parameters is the challenge for participants in the healthcare market of the future. (orig.)

  3. Key Players and Key Groups in Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Sudipta Sarangi; Emre Unlu

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on centrality measures in economics by defining a team game and identifying the key players in the game. As an illustration of the theory we create a unique data set from the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament. To capture the interaction between players we create the passing network of each team. This all allows us to identify the key player and key groups of players for both teams in each game. We then use our measure to explain player ratings by experts and t...

  4. Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Kim, C.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Agency' s Laboratories, Seibersdorf (Austria); Wershofen, H. [Environmental Radioactivity, PTB, Braunschweig (Germany); Bollhofer, A. [Environmental Radioactivity, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Darwin (Australia); Kim, C.S. [Department of Environmental Radioactivity Assessment, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korun, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Moune, M. [LNE-LNHB, Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lee, S.H. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Tarjan, S. [Central Radiological Laboratory, Hungarian Agricultural Authority, Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-10-15

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II-Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. (authors)

  5. Quantum key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Richard John; Thrasher, James Thomas; Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth

    2016-11-29

    Innovations for quantum key management harness quantum communications to form a cryptography system within a public key infrastructure framework. In example implementations, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a Merkle signature scheme (using Winternitz one-time digital signatures or other one-time digital signatures, and Merkle hash trees) to constitute a cryptography system. More generally, the quantum key management innovations combine quantum key distribution and a quantum identification protocol with a hash-based signature scheme. This provides a secure way to identify, authenticate, verify, and exchange secret cryptographic keys. Features of the quantum key management innovations further include secure enrollment of users with a registration authority, as well as credential checking and revocation with a certificate authority, where the registration authority and/or certificate authority can be part of the same system as a trusted authority for quantum key distribution.

  6. Smooth Phase Interpolated Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, Deva K.

    2007-01-01

    Smooth phase interpolated keying (SPIK) is an improved method of computing smooth phase-modulation waveforms for radio communication systems that convey digital information. SPIK is applicable to a variety of phase-shift-keying (PSK) modulation schemes, including quaternary PSK (QPSK), octonary PSK (8PSK), and 16PSK. In comparison with a related prior method, SPIK offers advantages of better performance and less complexity of implementation. In a PSK scheme, the underlying information waveform that one seeks to convey consists of discrete rectangular steps, but the spectral width of such a waveform is excessive for practical radio communication. Therefore, the problem is to smooth the step phase waveform in such a manner as to maintain power and bandwidth efficiency without incurring an unacceptably large error rate and without introducing undesired variations in the amplitude of the affected radio signal. Although the ideal constellation of PSK phasor points does not cause amplitude variations, filtering of the modulation waveform (in which, typically, a rectangular pulse is converted to a square-root raised cosine pulse) causes amplitude fluctuations. If a power-efficient nonlinear amplifier is used in the radio communication system, the fluctuating-amplitude signal can undergo significant spectral regrowth, thus compromising the bandwidth efficiency of the system. In the related prior method, one seeks to solve the problem in a procedure that comprises two major steps: phase-value generation and phase interpolation. SPIK follows the two-step approach of the related prior method, but the details of the steps are different. In the phase-value-generation step, the phase values of symbols in the PSK constellation are determined by a phase function that is said to be maximally smooth and that is chosen to minimize the spectral spread of the modulated signal. In this step, the constellation is divided into two groups by assigning, to information symbols, phase values

  7. Calibration campaign against the international prototype of the kilogram in anticipation of the redefinition of the kilogram part I: comparison of the international prototype with its official copies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michael; Barat, Pauline; Davis, Richard S.; Picard, Alain; Milton, Martin J. T.

    2015-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the campaign of calibration carried out with respect to the international prototype of the kilogram (IPK) in anticipation of the redefinition of the kilogram (Extraordinary Calibrations). The definition of the kilogram was realized according to the procedure outlined in the 8th Edition of the SI Brochure. Thus the IPK and its six official copies have been cleaned and washed following the BIPM procedure. The mass comparisons carried out during this campaign showed a very good repeatability. The pooled standard deviation of repeated weighings of the prototypes was 0.4 µg. The effect of cleaning and washing of the IPK was to remove a mass of 16.8 µg. The effect of cleaning and washing of the six official copies was found to be very similar, giving an average mass removed from the seven prototypes of 15 µg with a standard deviation of 2 µg. The differences in mass between the IPK and the official copies have changed by an average of 1 µg since the 3rd Periodic Verification of National Prototypes of the Kilogram (1988-1992). These results do not confirm the trend for the masses of the six official copies to diverge from the mass of the IPK that was observed during the 2nd and 3rd Periodic Verifications. All BIPM working standards and the prototypes reserved for special use have been calibrated with respect to the IPK as part of this campaign. All of them were found to have lower masses than when they were calibrated during the 3rd Periodic Verification. As a consequence, the BIPM ‘as-maintained’ mass unit in 2014 has been found to be offset by 35 µg with respect to the IPK. This result will be analyzed in a further publication.

  8. Modular Connector Keying Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishman, Scott; Dukes, Scott; Warnica, Gary; Conrad, Guy; Senigla, Steven

    2013-01-01

    For panel-mount-type connectors, keying is usually "built-in" to the connector body, necessitating different part numbers for each key arrangement. This is costly for jobs that require small quantities. This invention was driven to provide a cost savings and to reduce documentation of individual parts. The keys are removable and configurable in up to 16 combinations. Since the key parts are separate from the connector body, a common design can be used for the plug, receptacle, and key parts. The keying can then be set at the next higher assembly.

  9. Group key management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunigan, T.; Cao, C.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes an architecture and implementation for doing group key management over a data communications network. The architecture describes a protocol for establishing a shared encryption key among an authenticated and authorized collection of network entities. Group access requires one or more authorization certificates. The implementation includes a simple public key and certificate infrastructure. Multicast is used for some of the key management messages. An application programming interface multiplexes key management and user application messages. An implementation using the new IP security protocols is postulated. The architecture is compared with other group key management proposals, and the performance and the limitations of the implementation are described.

  10. Public Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

  11. Financial Key Ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Tănase Alin-Eliodor

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on computing techniques starting from trial balance data regarding financial key ratios. There are presented activity, liquidity, solvency and profitability financial key ratios. It is presented a computing methodology in three steps based on a trial balance.

  12. Public Key Infrastructure Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berkovits, Shimshon

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has tasked The MITRE Corporation to study the alternatives for automated management of public keys and of the associated public key certificates for the Federal Government...

  13. Key Management Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides a secure environment to research and develop advanced electronic key management and networked key distribution technologies for the Navy and DoD....

  14. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables, Part 4: Atmospheric relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J W; Feistel, R; Harvey, A H; Hellmuth, O; Bell, S A; Heinonen, M; Cooper, J R

    2016-01-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest “greenhouse” gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. In this paper, we examine the climatologically relevant atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definition of this key observable. The metrological history of this quantity is reviewed, problems with its current definition and measurement practice are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, (BIPM), in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organisations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for this long standing metrological problem, such as are suggested here. PMID:26877551

  15. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables. Part 3: seawater pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, A. G.; Camões, M. F.; Spitzer, P.; Fisicaro, P.; Stoica, D.; Pawlowicz, R.; Feistel, R.

    2016-02-01

    Water dissolves many substances with which it comes into contact, leading to a variety of aqueous solutions ranging from simple and dilute to complex and highly concentrated. Of the multiple chemical species present in these solutions, the hydrogen ion, H+, stands out in importance due to its relevance to a variety of chemical reactions and equilibria that take place in aquatic systems. This importance, and the fact that its presence can be assessed by reliable and inexpensive procedures, are the reasons why pH is perhaps the most measured chemical parameter. In this paper, while examining climatologically relevant ocean pH, we note fundamental problems in the definition of this key observable, and its lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological history of seawater pH is reviewed, difficulties arising from its current definition and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent TEOS-10 seawater standard. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), along with other international organisations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems.

  16. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables. Part 4: atmospheric relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Feistel, R.; Harvey, A. H.; Hellmuth, O.; Bell, S. A.; Heinonen, M.; Cooper, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. In this paper, we examine the climatologically relevant atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definition of this key observable. The metrological history of this quantity is reviewed, problems with its current definition and measurement practice are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS), along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions, such as are suggested here, for what are long-standing metrological problems.

  17. LOCKS AND KEYS SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Locks and Keys Service

    2002-01-01

    The Locks and Keys service (ST/FM) will move from building 55 to building 570 from the 2nd August to the 9th August 2002 included. During this period the service will be closed. Only in case of extreme urgency please call the 164550. Starting from Monday, 12th August, the Locks and Keys Service will continue to follow the activities related to office keys (keys and locks) and will provide the keys for furniture. The service is open from 8h30 to 12h00 and from 13h00 to 17h30. We remind you that your divisional correspondents can help you in the execution of the procedures. We thank you for your comprehension and we remain at your service to help you in solving all the matters related to keys for offices and furniture. Locks and Keys Service - ST Division - FM Group

  18. Keys to the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2014-01-01

    Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118......Review of: Keys to the City: How Economics, Institutions, Social Interaction, and Politics Shape Development / Michael Storper Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2013, 288 pp., $39.95/£27.95 (cloth), ISBN 9780691143118...

  19. Key World Energy Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997. This new edition responds to the enormously positive reaction to the book since then. Key World Energy Statistics produced by the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts. It exists in different formats to suit our readers' requirements.

  20. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  1. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without

  2. Cryptographic Key Management System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No, author

    2014-02-21

    This report summarizes the outcome of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-OE0000543, requesting the design of a Cryptographic Key Management System (CKMS) for the secure management of cryptographic keys for the energy sector infrastructure. Prime contractor Sypris Electronics, in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Valicore Technologies, and Purdue University's Center for Education and Research in Information Assurance and Security (CERIAS) and Smart Meter Integration Laboratory (SMIL), has designed, developed and evaluated the CKMS solution. We provide an overview of the project in Section 3, review the core contributions of all contractors in Section 4, and discuss bene ts to the DOE in Section 5. In Section 6 we describe the technical construction of the CKMS solution, and review its key contributions in Section 6.9. Section 7 describes the evaluation and demonstration of the CKMS solution in different environments. We summarize the key project objectives in Section 8, list publications resulting from the project in Section 9, and conclude with a discussion on commercialization in Section 10 and future work in Section 11.

  3. Locks and Keys Service

    CERN Multimedia

    Claude Ducastel

    The GS-LS-SEM section is pleased to inform you that as from Monday 30 November 2009, the opening hours of the Locks and Keys service will be the following: 08h30 - 12h30 / 13h30 - 16:30, Mondays to Fridays. GS-SEM-LS 73333

  4. Key Features of oxypnictides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Key Features of oxypnictides. Metal –insulator boundary. Quasi 2D structure. Doping important. Charge transfer (redox behaviour). Normal resistivity : mohms (little higher in oxypnictides). Near antiferromagnetic ground state. Superexchange through Fe-As-Fe (Cu-O-Cu) ...

  5. Selecting cryptographic key sizes

    OpenAIRE

    Verheul, E. R.; Lenstra, Arjen K.

    2001-01-01

    In this article we offer guidelines for the determination of key sizes for symmetric cryptosystems, RSA, and discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems both over finite fields and over groups of elliptic curves over prime fields. Our recommendations are based on a set of explicitly formulated parameter settings, combined with existing data points about the cryptosystems.

  6. Semantic Keys and Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev bar-Lev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic Keys are elements (word-parts of written language that give an iconic, general representation of the whole word’s meaning. In written Sino-Japanese the “radical” or semantic components play this role. For example, the character meaning ‘woman, female’ is the Semantic Key of the character for Ma ‘Mama’ (alongside the phonetic component Ma, which means ‘horse’ as a separate character. The theory of semantic Keys in both graphic and phonemic aspects is called qTheory or nanosemantics. The most innovative aspect of the present article is the hypothesis that, in languages using alphabetic writing systems, the role of Semantic Key is played by consonants, more specifically the first consonant. Thus, L meaning ‘LIFT’ is the Semantic Key of English Lift, Ladle, Lofty, aLps, eLevator, oLympus; Spanish Leva, Lecantarse, aLto, Lengua; Arabic aLLah, and Hebrew① ªeL-ºaL ‘upto-above’ (the Israeli airline, Polish Lot ‘flight’ (the Polish airline; Hebrew ªeL, ªeLohim ‘God’, and haLLeluyah ‘praise-ye God’ (using Parallels, ‘Lift up God’. Evidence for the universality of the theory is shown by many examples drawn from various languages, including Indo-European Semitic, Chinese and Japanese. The theory reveals hundreds of relationships within and between languages, related and unrelated, that have been “Hiding in Plain Sight”, to mention just one example: the Parallel between Spanish Pan ‘bread’ and Mandarin Fan ‘rice’.

  7. Efficient error estimation in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Treeviriyanupab, Patcharapong; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    In a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, the error rate needs to be estimated for determining the joint probability distribution between legitimate parties, and for improving the performance of key reconciliation. We propose an efficient error estimation scheme for QKD, which is called parity comparison method (PCM). In the proposed method, the parity of a group of sifted keys is practically analysed to estimate the quantum bit error rate instead of using the traditional key sampling. From the simulation results, the proposed method evidently improves the accuracy and decreases revealed information in most realistic application situations. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos.2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos.61101137, 61201239, and 61205118).

  8. Physician Appraisals: Key Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klich Jacek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the article is to identify key criteria being used for physician appraisals and to find how communication skills of physicians are valued in those appraisals. ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost databases were used for this search. The results show that a physician appraisal is underestimated both theoretically and empirically. The particular gap exists with respect to the communication skills of physicians, which are rarely present in medical training syllabi and physician assessments. The article contributes to the theoretical discourse on physician appraisals and points out at the inconsistency between the high status of physicians as a key hospital resource on the one hand and, on the other hand, at inadequate and poorly researched assessment of their performance with a special emphasis on communication skills. The article may inspire health managers to develop and implement up-to-date assessment forms for physicians and good managerial practices in this respect in hospitals and other health care units.

  9. Chapter 06: Identification key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    The key is written to guide you through the identification process in the most efficient and accurate way possible. It presents you with a numbered series of questions and asks you to answer them. The answers you provide will be based on your interpretations of the anatomical characters in your unknown specimen and will lead you to a new set of questions. Each time you...

  10. The operation of the CIPM mutual recognition arrangement and its relevance to the SSDL members of the IAEA/WHO network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allisy-Roberts, P.J.; Thomas, C.; Shortt, K.R.; Meghzifene, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the background, history and current operation of the arrangement for the mutual recognition of national measurement standards and of calibration and measurement certificates issued by national metrology institutes (MRA). The organization of key comparisons and the operation of the BIPM key comparison database resulting from the MRA are described and the relevant roles of the International Committee, the regional metrology organizations and the IAEA are outlined. (author)

  11. Key health indicators database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menic, J L

    1990-01-01

    A new database developed by the Canadian Centre for Health Information (CCHI) contains 40 key health indicators and lets users select a range of disaggregations, categories and variables. The database can be accessed through CANSIM, Statistics Canada's electronic database and retrieval system, or through a package for personal computers. This package includes the database on diskettes, as well as software for retrieving and manipulating data and for producing graphics. A data dictionary, a user's guide and tables and graphs that highlight aspects of each indicator are also included.

  12. Key appropriations subcommittee assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Below are membership lists for appropriations subcommittees in the 100th Congress that have direct jurisdiction over geophysical research. Last week, Eos published membership lists for other key congressional committees (Eos, March 10, 1987, p. 138.).Letters to Senate committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. Senate, Washington, DC 20510; letters to House committees should be addressed to the committee, U.S. House of Representatives, Washington, DC 20515. Initial contacts with committee and subcommittee staff may be valuable. For additional guidelines on contacting a member of Congress or congressional staff, see “AGU's Guide to Legislative Information and Contacts” (Eos, September 30, 1986, p. 739).

  13. PERBANDINGAN APLIKASI MENGGUNAKAN METODE CAMELLIA 128 BIT KEY DAN 256 BIT KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanny Sutanto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the Internet today to easily exchange data. This leads to high levels of risk in the data piracy. One of the ways to secure data is using cryptography camellia. Camellia is known as a method that has the encryption and decryption time is fast. Camellia method has three kinds of scale key is 128 bit, 192 bit, and 256 bit.This application is created using the C++ programming language and using visual studio 2010 GUI. This research compare the smallest and largest key size used on the file extension .Txt, .Doc, .Docx, .Jpg, .Mp4, .Mkv and .Flv. This application is made to comparing time and level of security in the use of 128-bit key and 256 bits. The comparison is done by comparing the results of the security value of avalanche effect 128 bit key and 256 bit key.

  14. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    key standards are being performed and similar components used in the operation of the watt balances are being jointly verified. To this end, a comparison between the gravitational measurement systems used in conjunction with the NIST and NRC watt balances was carried out in early 2012. The results of the comparison provide verification of the gravity values used in the recently published Planck constant determinations that play a vital role in the redefinition effort of the SI. [1] Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) 2011 On the possible future revision of the International System of Units, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Paris, http://www.bipm.org/en/si/new_si/ [2] Steiner R L, Williams E R, Liu R, and Newell D B 2007 Uncertainty Improvements of the NIST Electronic Kilogram, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., 56 2 592-596 [3] Steele A G, Meija J, Sanchez C A, Yang L, Wood B M, Sturgeon R E, Mester Z and Inglis A D 2012 Reconciling Planck constant determinations via watt balance and enriched-silicon measurements at NRC Canada Metrologia 49 1 L8-L10

  15. Key data. Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Energy actors and economical energy context are changing: the world extension and the opening of markets calls for reliable and convenient indicators to understand the energy choices and stakes of France with respect to European and world data. The examination of this 2001 issue of the key energy data will help the reader in his understanding of the French energy policy which is mainly based on: the imperative security of energy supplies, the limitation of CO 2 emissions and the respect of the environment, the growth of economic competitiveness, the keeping of public utilities, and the employment. The energy data are presented in tables, graphs, curves and charts. The production, consumption, and foreign market data of France and of the rest of the world are presented successively for: the overall energy sources, petroleum, natural gas, coal and electricity. Renewable energy data are presented for Europe and France (consumption, production, wind energy, solar energy, heat distribution networks, bio-fuels, biogas, biomass). A chapter concerns the rational use of energy in the industry, in transports and in the residential and tertiary sectors. The emissions of pollutants (CH 4 , CO, CO 2 , VOCs, N 2 O, NO x , SO 2 ) are given for France and compared to the worldwide CO 2 emissions. (J.S.)

  16. Key Updating Methods for Combinatorial Design Based Key Management Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chonghuan Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN has become one of the most promising network technologies for many useful applications. However, for the lack of resources, it is different but important to ensure the security of the WSNs. Key management is a corner stone on which to build secure WSNs for it has a fundamental role in confidentiality, authentication, and so on. Combinatorial design theory has been used to generate good-designed key rings for each sensor node in WSNs. A large number of combinatorial design based key management schemes have been proposed but none of them have taken key updating into consideration. In this paper, we point out the essence of key updating for the unital design based key management scheme and propose two key updating methods; then, we conduct performance analysis on the two methods from three aspects; at last, we generalize the two methods to other combinatorial design based key management schemes and enhance the second method.

  17. In rats fed high-energy diets, taste, rather than fat content, is the key factor increasing food intake: a comparison of a cafeteria and a lipid-supplemented standard diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Aranda, Tània; Caviola, Giada; Fernández-Bernal, Anna; Alemany, Marià; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Food selection and ingestion both in humans and rodents, often is a critical factor in determining excess energy intake and its related disorders. Two different concepts of high-fat diets were tested for their obesogenic effects in rats; in both cases, lipids constituted about 40% of their energy intake. The main difference with controls fed standard lab chow, was, precisely, the lipid content. Cafeteria diets (K) were self-selected diets devised to be desirable to the rats, mainly because of its diverse mix of tastes, particularly salty and sweet. This diet was compared with another, more classical high-fat (HF) diet, devised not to be as tasty as K, and prepared by supplementing standard chow pellets with fat. We also analysed the influence of sex on the effects of the diets. K rats grew faster because of a high lipid, sugar and protein intake, especially the males, while females showed lower weight but higher proportion of body lipid. In contrast, the weight of HF groups were not different from controls. Individual nutrient's intake were analysed, and we found that K rats ingested large amounts of both disaccharides and salt, with scant differences of other nutrients' proportion between the three groups. The results suggest that the key differential factor of the diet eliciting excess energy intake was the massive presence of sweet and salty tasting food. The significant presence of sugar and salt appears as a powerful inducer of excess food intake, more effective than a simple (albeit large) increase in the diet's lipid content. These effects appeared already after a relatively short treatment. The differential effects of sex agree with their different hedonic and obesogenic response to diet.

  18. In rats fed high-energy diets, taste, rather than fat content, is the key factor increasing food intake: a comparison of a cafeteria and a lipid-supplemented standard diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Food selection and ingestion both in humans and rodents, often is a critical factor in determining excess energy intake and its related disorders. Methods Two different concepts of high-fat diets were tested for their obesogenic effects in rats; in both cases, lipids constituted about 40% of their energy intake. The main difference with controls fed standard lab chow, was, precisely, the lipid content. Cafeteria diets (K were self-selected diets devised to be desirable to the rats, mainly because of its diverse mix of tastes, particularly salty and sweet. This diet was compared with another, more classical high-fat (HF diet, devised not to be as tasty as K, and prepared by supplementing standard chow pellets with fat. We also analysed the influence of sex on the effects of the diets. Results K rats grew faster because of a high lipid, sugar and protein intake, especially the males, while females showed lower weight but higher proportion of body lipid. In contrast, the weight of HF groups were not different from controls. Individual nutrient’s intake were analysed, and we found that K rats ingested large amounts of both disaccharides and salt, with scant differences of other nutrients’ proportion between the three groups. The results suggest that the key differential factor of the diet eliciting excess energy intake was the massive presence of sweet and salty tasting food. Conclusions The significant presence of sugar and salt appears as a powerful inducer of excess food intake, more effective than a simple (albeit large increase in the diet’s lipid content. These effects appeared already after a relatively short treatment. The differential effects of sex agree with their different hedonic and obesogenic response to diet.

  19. Identification and determination of trapping parameters as key site parameters for CO2 storage for the active CO2 storage site in Ketzin (Germany) - Comparison of different experimental approaches and analysis of field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemke, Kornelia; Liebscher, Axel

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical properties like porosity and permeability are key parameters for a safe long-term storage of CO2 but also for the injection operation itself. The accurate quantification of residual trapping is difficult, but very important for both storage containment security and storage capacity; it is also an important parameter for dynamic simulation. The German CO2 pilot storage in Ketzin is a Triassic saline aquifer with initial conditions of the target sandstone horizon of 33.5 ° C/6.1 MPa at 630 m. One injection and two observation wells were drilled in 2007 and nearly 200 m of core material was recovered for site characterization. From June 2008 to September 2013, slightly more than 67 kt food-grade CO2 has been injected and continuously monitored. A fourth observation well has been drilled after 61 kt injected CO2 in summer 2012 at only 25 m distance to the injection well and new core material was recovered that allow study CO2 induced changes in petrophysical properties. The observed only minor differences between pre-injection and post-injection petrophysical parameters of the heterogeneous formation have no severe consequences on reservoir and cap rock integrity or on the injection behavior. Residual brine saturation for the Ketzin reservoir core material was estimated by different methods. Brine-CO2 flooding experiments for two reservoir samples resulted in 36% and 55% residual brine saturation (Kiessling, 2011). Centrifuge capillary pressure measurements (pc = 0.22 MPa) yielded the smallest residual brine saturation values with ~20% for the lower part of the reservoir sandstone and ~28% for the upper part (Fleury, 2010). The method by Cerepi (2002), which calculates the residual mercury saturation after pressure release on the imbibition path as trapped porosity and the retracted mercury volume as free porosity, yielded unrealistic low free porosity values of only a few percent, because over 80% of the penetrated mercury remained in the samples after

  20. Secure key storage and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Punit

    2015-06-02

    This disclosure describes a distributed, fault-tolerant security system that enables the secure storage and distribution of private keys. In one implementation, the security system includes a plurality of computing resources that independently store private keys provided by publishers and encrypted using a single security system public key. To protect against malicious activity, the security system private key necessary to decrypt the publication private keys is not stored at any of the computing resources. Rather portions, or shares of the security system private key are stored at each of the computing resources within the security system and multiple security systems must communicate and share partial decryptions in order to decrypt the stored private key.

  1. Key Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are a challenging field of research when it comes to security issues. Using low cost sensor nodes with limited resources makes it difficult for cryptographic algorithms to function without impacting energy consumption and latency. In this paper, we focus on key management issues in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. These networks are easy to attack due to the open nature of the wireless medium. Intruders could try to penetrate the network, capture nodes or take control over particular nodes. In this context, it is important to revoke and renew keys that might be learned by malicious nodes. We propose several secure protocols for key revocation and key renewal based on symmetric encryption and elliptic curve cryptography. All protocols are secure, but have different security levels. Each proposed protocol is formally proven and analyzed using Scyther, an automatic verification tool for cryptographic protocols. For efficiency comparison sake, we implemented all protocols on real testbeds using TelosB motes and discussed their performances.

  2. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  3. CCQM-K90, formaldehyde in nitrogen, 2 μmol mol-1 Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viallon, Joële; Flores, Edgar; Idrees, Faraz; Moussay, Philippe; Wielgosz, Robert Ian; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. D.; Lee, S.; Persijn, S.; Konopelko, L. A.; Kustikov, Y. A.; Malginov, A. V.; Chubchenko, I. K.; Klimov, A. Y.; Efremova, O. V.; Zhou, Z.; Possolo, A.; Shimosaka, T.; Brewer, P.; Macé, T.; Ferracci, Valerio; Brown, Richard J. C.; Aoki, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    uncertainty of the trend parameters, as well as how the dispersion of the dates when measurements were made by the participants was taken into account. Upon decision of the participants, the Key Comparison Reference Values were assigned by the BIPM using the largest uncertainty for measurements performed at the BIPM, linear regression without weight to calculate the trend parameters, and not taking into account the dispersion of dates for measurements made by the participant. Each transfer standard was assigned its own reference value and associated expanded uncertainty. An expression for the degree of equivalence between each participating institute and the KCRV was calculated from the comparison results and measurement uncertainties submitted by participating laboratories. Results of the alternative mathematical treatment are presented in annex of this report. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  4. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents fundamental outcomes from an experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW). Hydrodynamic performance was tested in a circulated open channel that comprised of PKW and sand bed (d50 = 0.25 mm). Instantaneous velocities were measured at 20 cross ...

  5. Quality Management and Key Performance Indicators in Oncologic Esophageal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockel, Ines; Ahlbrand, Constantin Johannes; Arras, Michael; Schreiber, Elke Maria; Lang, Hauke

    2015-12-01

    Ranking systems and comparisons of quality and performance indicators will be of increasing relevance for complex "high-risk" procedures such as esophageal cancer surgery. The identification of evidence-based standards relevant for key performance indicators in esophageal surgery is essential for establishing monitoring systems and furthermore a requirement to enhance treatment quality. In the course of this review, we analyze the key performance indicators case volume, radicality of resection, and postoperative morbidity and mortality, leading to continuous quality improvement. Ranking systems established on this basis will gain increased relevance in highly complex procedures within the national and international comparison and furthermore improve the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma.

  6. Comparison of Key West and Persian Gulf Seawaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-18

    classified as micronutrient elements. They are defined as materials essential to the growth of plants and animals that are present in such small...Mercury Hg (5.0 x 10-6) 5.6 x 102 Gallium Ga (3.0 x 10-4) 9.0 x 103 Bismuth al (1.0 x 10-4) - Niobium Nb (ɝ x 10-5) - Thallium Ti 6.0 x 10- - Gold Au

  7. EMF 7 model comparisons: key relationships and parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, B.G.

    1983-12-01

    A simplified textbook model of aggregate demand and supply interprets the similarities and differences in the price and income responses of the various EMF 7 models to oil and policy shocks. The simplified model is a marriage of Hicks' classic IS-LM formulation of the Keynesian theory of effective demand with a rudimentary model of aggregate supply, combining a structural Phillips curve for wage determination and a markup theory of price determination. The reduced-form income equation from the fix-price IS-LM model is used to define an aggregate demand (AD) locus in P-Y space, showing alternative pairs of the implicit GNP deflator and real GNP which would simultaneously satisfy the saving-investment identity and the condition for money market equilibrium. An aggregate supply (AS) schedule is derived by a similar reduction of relations between output and labor demand, unemployment and wage inflation, and the wage-price-productivity nexus governing markup pricing. Given a particular econometric model it is possible to derive IS and LM curves algebraically. The resulting locuses would show alternative combinations of interest rate and real income which equilibrate real income identity on the IS side and the demand and supply of money on the LM side. By further substitution the reduced form fix-price income relation could be obtained for direct quantification of the AD locus. The AS schedule is obtainable by algebraic reduction of the structural supply side equations.

  8. Model plant Key Measurement Points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    For IAEA safeguards a Key Measurement Point is defined as the location where nuclear material appears in such a form that it may be measured to determine material flow or inventory. This presentation describes in an introductory manner the key measurement points and associated measurements for the model plant used in this training course

  9. Secret Public Key Protocols Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hoon Wei; Paterson, Kenneth G.

    Password-based protocols are important and popular means of providing human-to-machine authentication. The concept of secret public keys was proposed more than a decade ago as a means of securing password-based authentication protocols against off-line password guessing attacks, but was later found vulnerable to various attacks. In this paper, we revisit the concept and introduce the notion of identity-based secret public keys. Our new identity-based approach allows secret public keys to be constructed in a very natural way using arbitrary random strings, eliminating the structure found in, for example, RSA or ElGamal keys. We examine identity-based secret public key protocols and give informal security analyses, indicating that they are secure against off-line password guessing and other attacks.

  10. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  11. Model plant key measurement points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The key measurement points for the model low enriched fuel fabrication plant are described as well as the measurement methods. These are the measurement points and methods that are used to complete the plant's formal material balance. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the basis for each key measurement; and (2) understand the importance of each measurement to the overall plant material balance. The feed to the model low enriched uranium fuel fabrication plant is UF 6 and the product is finished light water reactor fuel assemblies. The waste discards are solid and liquid wastes. The plant inventory consists of unopened UF 6 cylinders, UF 6 heels, fuel assemblies, fuel rods, fuel pellets, UO 2 powder, U 3 O 8 powder, and various scrap materials. At the key measurement points the total plant material balance (flow and inventory) is measured. The two types of key measurement points-flow and inventory are described

  12. Algorithms for Lightweight Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Rafael; Caballero-Gil, Cándido; Santonja, Juan; Zamora, Antonio

    2017-06-27

    Public-key cryptography is too slow for general purpose encryption, with most applications limiting its use as much as possible. Some secure protocols, especially those that enable forward secrecy, make a much heavier use of public-key cryptography, increasing the demand for lightweight cryptosystems that can be implemented in low powered or mobile devices. This performance requirements are even more significant in critical infrastructure and emergency scenarios where peer-to-peer networks are deployed for increased availability and resiliency. We benchmark several public-key key-exchange algorithms, determining those that are better for the requirements of critical infrastructure and emergency applications and propose a security framework based on these algorithms and study its application to decentralized node or sensor networks.

  13. Wiki keys on mobile devices

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Gisela; Hagedorn, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The development of increasingly powerful mobile devices like PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) and Smartphones, with larger displays and greater resolution makes them increasingly suitable for identification tools available directly “in the field”. One of several approaches towards this aim in the KeyToNature project is based on wiki-stored documents. Important features of wiki-based keys, such as hidden text and media information as well as links to glossary entries are su...

  14. Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2005-10-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties to communicate in absolute security based on the fundamental laws of physics. Up till now, it is widely believed that unconditionally secure QKD based on standard Bennett-Brassard (BB84) protocol is limited in both key generation rate and distance because of imperfect devices. Here, we solve these two problems directly by presenting new protocols that are feasible with only current technology. Surprisingly, our new protocols can make fiber-based QKD unconditionally secure at distances over 100km (for some experiments, such as GYS) and increase the key generation rate from O(η2) in prior art to O(η) where η is the overall transmittance. Our method is to develop the decoy state idea (first proposed by W.-Y. Hwang in "Quantum Key Distribution with High Loss: Toward Global Secure Communication", Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 057901 (2003)) and consider simple extensions of the BB84 protocol. This part of work is published in "Decoy State Quantum Key Distribution", . We present a general theory of the decoy state protocol and propose a decoy method based on only one signal state and two decoy states. We perform optimization on the choice of intensities of the signal state and the two decoy states. Our result shows that a decoy state protocol with only two types of decoy states--a vacuum and a weak decoy state--asymptotically approaches the theoretical limit of the most general type of decoy state protocols (with an infinite number of decoy states). We also present a one-decoy-state protocol as a special case of Vacuum+Weak decoy method. Moreover, we provide estimations on the effects of statistical fluctuations and suggest that, even for long distance (larger than 100km) QKD, our two-decoy-state protocol can be implemented with only a few hours of experimental data. In conclusion, decoy state quantum key distribution is highly practical. This part of work is published in "Practical Decoy State for Quantum Key Distribution

  15. Key distillation in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slutsky, Boris Aron

    1998-11-01

    Quantum cryptography is a technique which permits two parties to communicate over an open channel and establish a shared sequence of bits known only to themselves. This task, provably impossible in classical cryptography, is accomplished by encoding the data on quantum particles and harnessing their unique properties. It is believed that no eavesdropping attack consistent with the laws of quantum theory can compromise the secret data unknowingly to the legitimate users of the channel. Any attempt by a hostile actor to monitor the data carrying particles while in transit reveals itself through transmission errors it must inevitably introduce. Unfortunately, in practice a communication is not free of errors even when no eavesdropping is present. Key distillation is a technique that permits the parties to overcome this difficulty and establish a secret key despite channel defects, under the assumption that every particle is handled independently from other particles by the enemy. In the present work, key distillation is described and its various aspects are studied. A relationship is derived between the average error rate resulting from an eavesdropping attack and the amount of information obtained by the attacker. Formal definition is developed of the security of the final key. The net throughput of secret bits in a quantum cryptosystem employing key distillation is assessed. An overview of quantum cryptographic protocols and related information theoretical results is also given.

  16. Key to good fit: body measurement problems specific to key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research (as part of a broader research project) was to explore and describe the problems that the South African Clothing Industry currently experiences with regard to the key body measurements needed for the manufacturing of well-fitting clothes. A postal survey was conducted among South African ...

  17. Flow hydrodynamics near inlet key of Piano Key Weir (PKW)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    smoothly bifurcate the flow. 3. Experimental setup. The experiments were conducted in River Engineering Laboratory, Water Resources Devel- opment and Management Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India. An experimental program was established to quantify the flow behavior at crest level inlet key ...

  18. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    , for instance), KeyPathwayMiner extracts connected sub-networks containing a high number of active or differentially regulated genes (proteins, metabolites) in the molecular profiles. The web interface at (http://keypathwayminer.compbio.sdu.dk) implements all core functionalities of the KeyPathwayMiner tool set......We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...... such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  19. Key World Energy Statistics 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    The IEA produced its first handy, pocket-sized summary of key energy data in 1997 and every year since then it has been more and more successful. Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  20. Key Lake spill. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    On January 5, 1984 contaminated water overflowed a storage reservoir at the Key Lake uranium mill onto the ice on a neighboring lake, into a muskeg area and onto a road. Outflow continued for two days, partially undercutting a retaining dyke. This report concludes the spill was the result of poor operation by the Key Lake Mining Corp.. The environmental impact will be minimal after cleanup. Improvements can be made in the regulatory process, and it is necessary to prepare for possible future mishaps

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). The Group has published seven editions to date of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  2. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fino-Chen, Cecilia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) was established in 1988. Over the years the Group has gained recognition as an authoritative source of China energy statistics through the publication of its China Energy Databook (CED). In 2008 the Group published the Seventh Edition of the CED (http://china.lbl.gov/research/chinaenergy-databook). This handbook summarizes key statistics from the CED and is expressly modeled on the International Energy Agency’s “Key World Energy Statistics” series of publications. The handbook contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation, and consumption of all major energy sources.

  3. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  4. Women are still the key

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    September 2005, V ol. 18, No. 2. Member of Parliament, Kenya, Founder and Chair of Board of Trustees, Rural Outreach. Program, Professor of Food Science and Nutrition, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. Ruth K Oniang'o. WOMEN AND FOOD SECURITY. Women are still the key.

  5. Key concepts in glioblastoma therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartek, Jiri; Ng, Kimberly; Bartek, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    regimen, the median survival remains approximately 14 months. Meaningful strategies for therapeutic intervention are desperately needed. Development of such strategies will require an understanding of the therapeutic concepts that have evolved over the past three decades. This article reviews the key...

  6. Key World Energy Statistics 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Key World Energy Statistics contains timely, clearly-presented data on supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The interested businessman, journalist or student will have at his or her fingertips the annual Canadian production of coal, the electricity consumption in Thailand, the price of diesel oil in Spain and thousands of other useful energy facts.

  7. Key energy technologies for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    This report on key energy technologies is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. Senior Scientist BirteHolst Jørgensen, Risø National Laboratory...

  8. Key to marine arthropod larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Fornshell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this key is restricted to the larvae of marine arthropods. The key is based solely on their morphology, patterns of body segmentation, numbers of appendages, and mode of locomotion. An effort has been made to treat all traditionally named larval forms, both planktonic and benthic. It is intended that this key be useful for a researcher working with archived museum specimens and therefore, does not include habitat information as a identifying trait, even though this information is usually available in the archived records. Within the phylum Arthropoda there are two sub-phyla and eleven classes having larval stages in the marineenvironment. Where feasible the original names of the various larval types have been used. Because this nomenclature is less commonly used today compared to the past, the more recent taxonomic affinities are included in parentheses after the original larval name. The key includes the following thirty-four larvae: Branchhiopoda nauplii; Cephalocarida nauplii; Mystacocarida nauplii; trilobite larva; protonymphon; hexapod larvae; Remipedia nauplii; nauplius - Y larvae; Cirripedia nauplii; Ascothoracida nauplii; Ostracoda nauplii; Euphausiacea nauplii; Penaeidea nauplii; Cyclopoida nauplii; Calanoida nauplii; Harpacticoida nauplii;Polyarthra nauplii; cypris larva; eryonecius larva; cypris-Y larva; elapthocaris larvae; mysis larvae; lucifer zoea; acetes zoea; acanthosoma larva; phyllosoma; antizoea larva; anomuran zoea; brachyuran zoea; calyptopis larvae; furcilia larva; crytopia larva; puerulus larva; alima larva.

  9. The Key to School Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotle, Dan

    1993-01-01

    In addition to legislative accessibility requirements, other security issues facing school administrators who select a security system include the following: access control; user friendliness; durability or serviceability; life safety precautions; possibility of vandalism, theft, and tampering; and key control. Offers steps to take in considering…

  10. Key drivers of airline loyalty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty. PMID:27064618

  11. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  12. The Body: The Key Concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Questions around 'the body' are central to social theory. Our changing understanding of the body now challenges the ways we conceive power, ideology, subjectivity and social and cultural process. The Body: the key concepts highlights and analyses the debates which make the body central to current sociological, psychological, cultural and feminist thinking. Today, questions around the body are intrinsic to a wide range of debates - from technological developments in media and communications, t...

  13. A comparison of Australian and Canadian calibration coefficients for air kerma and absorbed dose to water for 60Co gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, K R; Huntley, R B; Kotler, L H; Boas, J F; Webb, D V

    2006-06-01

    Australian and Canadian calibration coefficients for air kerma and absorbed dose to water for 60Co gamma radiation have been compared using transfer standard ionization chambers of types NE 2561 and NE 2611A. Whilst the primary standards of air kerma are similar, both being thick-walled graphite cavity chambers but employing different methods to evaluate the Awall correction, the primary standards of absorbed dose to water are quite different. The Australian standard is based on measurements made with a graphite calorimeter, whereas the Canadian standard uses a sealed water calorimeter. The comparison result, expressed as a ratio of calibration coefficients R=N(ARPANSA)/N(NRC), is 1.0006 with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.35% for the air kerma standards and 1.0052 with a combined standard uncertainty of 0.47% for the absorbed dose to water standards. This demonstrates the agreement of the Australian and Canadian radiation dosimetry standards. The results are also consistent with independent comparisons of each laboratory with the BIPM reference standards. A 'trilateral' analysis confirms the present determination of the relationship between the standards, within the 0.09% random component of the combined standard uncertainty for the three comparisons.

  14. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  15. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  16. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  17. Public/private key certification authority and key distribution. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J.P.; Christensen, M.J.; Sturtevant, A.P.; Johnston, W.E.

    1995-09-25

    Traditional encryption, which protects messages from prying eyes, has been used for many decades. The present concepts of encryption are built from that heritage. Utilization of modern software-based encryption techniques implies much more than simply converting files to an unreadable form. Ubiquitous use of computers and advances in encryption technology coupled with the use of wide-area networking completely changed the reasons for utilizing encryption technology. The technology demands a new and extensive infrastructure to support these functions. Full understanding of these functions, their utility and value, and the need for an infrastructure, takes extensive exposure to the new paradigm. This paper addresses issues surrounding the establishment and operation of a key management system (i.e., certification authority) that is essential to the successful implementation and wide-spread use of encryption.

  18. Key energy technologies for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  19. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  20. Fibre optic communication key devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. Devices treated include semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters and other passives, detectors, all-optical switches, but relevant properties of optical fibres and network aspects are included as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, technologies used for their realization, typical performance characteristics and limitations, but development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. This new edition of a successful book was expanded and updated extensively. The new edition covers among others lasers for optical communication, optical switches, hybrid integration, monolithic integration and silicon photonics. The main focus is on Indium phosphide-based structures but silicon photonics is included as well. The book covers relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, status of curren...

  1. Cogeneration: Key feasibility analysis parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coslovi, S.; Zulian, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper first reviews the essential requirements, in terms of scope, objectives and methods, of technical/economic feasibility analyses applied to cogeneration systems proposed for industrial plants in Italy. Attention is given to the influence on overall feasibility of the following factors: electric power and fuel costs, equipment coefficients of performance, operating schedules, maintenance costs, Italian Government taxes and financial and legal incentives. Through an examination of several feasibility studies that were done on cogeneration proposals relative to different industrial sectors, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effects of varying the weights of different cost benefit analysis parameters. With the use of statistical analyses, standard deviations are then determined for key analysis parameters, and guidelines are suggested for analysis simplifications

  2. Key concepts in social pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Lotte Junker

    2011-01-01

    “Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions and activi......“Now I can actually play soccer with the young people without fearing that my colleagues think I am escaping the paper work.” These were the words from a participant in a social pedagogy training course in England a few years ago. This understanding emerged through in-depth discussions...... and activities around key social pedagogical concepts, such as the Common Third, the 3 P’s, the Zone of Proximal Development and the Learning Zone model. In the article we explore how a joint activity, for example playing soccer, can be seen as a pedagogical activity and with what intentions it is undertaken...

  3. Key energy technologies for Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holst Joergensen, Birte

    2005-09-01

    The report is part of the work undertaken by the High-Level Expert Group to prepare a report on emerging science and technology trends and the implications for EU and Member State research policies. The outline of the report is: 1) In the introductory section, energy technologies are defined and for analytical reasons further narrowed down; 2) The description of the socio-economic challenges facing Europe in the energy field is based on the analysis made by the International Energy Agency going back to 1970 and with forecasts to 2030. Both the world situation and the European situation are described. This section also contains an overview of the main EU policy responses to energy. Both EU energy R and D as well as Member State energy R and D resources are described in view of international efforts; 3) The description of the science and technology base is made for selected energy technologies, including energy efficiency, biomass, hydrogen, and fuel cells, photovoltaics, clean fossil fuel technologies and CO{sub 2} capture and storage, nuclear fission and fusion. When possible, a SWOT is made for each technology and finally summarised; 4) The forward look highlights some of the key problems and uncertainties related to the future energy situation. Examples of recent energy foresights are given, including national energy foresights in Sweden and the UK as well as links to a number of regional and national foresights and roadmaps; 5) Appendix 1 contains a short description of key international organisations dealing with energy technologies and energy research. (ln)

  4. Key Elements of a Good Mathematics Lesson as Seen by Japanese Junior High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2016-01-01

    This study makes a comparison between what literature on Japanese Lesson Study suggests are key elements of a good mathematics lesson and what junior high school mathematics teachers in Japan value in planning their lessons. The teachers' strong consensus in their endorsements of these key elements explains why Japanese teachers strongly support…

  5. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...

  6. Simple Web-based interactive key development software (WEBiKEY) and an example key for Kuruna (Poaceae: Bambusoideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attigala, Lakshmi; De Silva, Nuwan I; Clark, Lynn G

    2016-04-01

    Programs that are user-friendly and freely available for developing Web-based interactive keys are scarce and most of the well-structured applications are relatively expensive. WEBiKEY was developed to enable researchers to easily develop their own Web-based interactive keys with fewer resources. A Web-based multiaccess identification tool (WEBiKEY) was developed that uses freely available Microsoft ASP.NET technologies and an SQL Server database for Windows-based hosting environments. WEBiKEY was tested for its usability with a sample data set, the temperate woody bamboo genus Kuruna (Poaceae). WEBiKEY is freely available to the public and can be used to develop Web-based interactive keys for any group of species. The interactive key we developed for Kuruna using WEBiKEY enables users to visually inspect characteristics of Kuruna and identify an unknown specimen as one of seven possible species in the genus.

  7. VICKEY: Mining Conditional Keys on Knowledge Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symeonidou, Danai; Prado, Luis Antonio Galarraga Del; Pernelle, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    A conditional key is a key constraint that is valid in only a part of the data. In this paper, we show how such keys can be mined automatically on large knowledge bases (KBs). For this, we combine techniques from key mining with techniques from rule mining. We show that our method can scale to KBs...... of millions of facts. We also show that the conditional keys we mine can improve the quality of entity linking by up to 47% points....

  8. Means to form key competencies by teaching „Chemistry and environmental protection” in grade 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, Stefan; Dimitrova, Velichka; Gushterova, Pavlina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A comparison was made of expected results set in grade 8 „Chemistry and environment preservation” curriculum and requirements to form one of eight key competencies „Mathematical literacy and basic knowledge in science and technologies”. The results obtained allow to make some recommendations towards improvement of teaching through a more effective use of science content to form key competencies. Keywords: teaching, science, chemistry, key competencies, curriculum

  9. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ali Narvani

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye

  10. Key issues in transplant tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-02-24

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations.

  11. Introduction strategies raise key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, W R; Keller, S

    1995-09-01

    Key issues that must be considered before a new contraceptive is introduced center on the need for a trained provider to begin or terminate the method, its side effects, duration of use, method's ability to meet users' needs and preferences, and extra training or staff requirements. Logistics and economic issues to consider are identifying a dependable way of effectively supplying commodities, planning extra services needed for the method, and cost of providing the method. Each contraceptive method presents a different side effect pattern and burdens the service delivery setting differently. The strategy developed to introduce or expand the 3-month injectable Depo-Provera (DMPA) can be used for any method. It includes a needs assessment and addresses regulatory issues, service delivery policies and procedures, information and training, evaluation, and other concerns. Viet Nam's needs assessment showed that Norplant should not be introduced until the service delivery system becomes stronger. Any needs assessment for expansion of contraceptive services should cover sexually transmitted disease/HIV issues. A World Health Organization strategy helps officials identify the best method mix for local situations. Introductory strategies must aim to improve the quality of family planning programs and expand choices. Many begin by examining existing data and conducting interviews with policymakers, users, providers, and women's health advocates. Introductory programs for Norplant focus on provider training, adequate counseling and informed consent for users, and ready access to removal. They need a well-prepared service delivery infrastructure. The first phase of the DMPA introductory strategy for the Philippines comprised a social marketing campaign and DMPA introduction at public clinics in 10 pilot areas with strong service delivery. Successful AIDS prevention programs show that people tend to use barrier methods when they are available. USAID is currently studying

  12. Key issues in transplant tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoh, Jacob A

    2012-01-01

    Access to organ transplantation depends on national circumstances, and is partly determined by the cost of health care, availability of transplant services, the level of technical capacity and the availability of organs. Commercial transplantation is estimated to account for 5%-10% (3500-7000) of kidney transplants performed annually throughout the world. This review is to determine the state and outcome of renal transplantation associated with transplant tourism (TT) and the key challenges with such transplantation. The stakeholders of commercial transplantation include: patients on the waiting lists in developed countries or not on any list in developing countries; dialysis funding bodies; middlemen, hosting transplant centres; organ-exporting countries; and organ vendors. TT and commercial kidney transplants are associated with a high incidence of surgical complications, acute rejection and invasive infection which cause major morbidity and mortality. There are ethical and medical concerns regarding the management of recipients of organs from vendors. The growing demand for transplantation, the perceived failure of altruistic donation in providing enough organs has led to calls for a legalised market in organ procurement or regulated trial in incentives for donation. Developing transplant services worldwide has many benefits - improving results of transplantation as they would be performed legally, increasing the donor pool and making TT unnecessary. Meanwhile there is a need to re-examine intrinsic attitudes to TT bearing in mind the cultural and economic realities of globalisation. Perhaps the World Health Organization in conjunction with The Transplantation Society would set up a working party of stakeholders to study this matter in greater detail and make recommendations. PMID:24175191

  13. Oral Health in the US: Key Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Oral Health in the U.S.: Key Facts Published: Jun 01, ... Email Print This fact sheet provides data on oral health care coverage and access for children, nonelderly adults ...

  14. Attaching Chuck Keys to Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, V.

    1984-01-01

    Chuck keys attached to portable machine tools by retracting lanyards. Lanyard held taut by recoil caddy attached to tool base. Chuck key available for use when needed and safely secured during operation of tool.

  15. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  16. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-01-01

    This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of bot...

  17. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West, Florida during the Key West... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Key West or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  18. Harry Potter and the Dichotomous Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, David T.

    2003-01-01

    In this lesson, students use Bertie Bott's Every Flavor Beans--a "wild" candy written about in the Harry Potter books and now available in stores--to learn about classification and dichotomous keys. In these activities, students sort jelly beans according to a key and then construct a key for a "new" flavor of beans. Students then build on their…

  19. Optimizing Key Updates in Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low–resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of particular importance in many cases such as when sensitive data is communicated or tamper-resistance is required. Updating the security keys is one of the key points in security, which...... restrict the amount of data that may be exposed when a key is compromised. In this paper, we propose novel key update methods, and benefiting from stochastic model checking we propose a novel method for determining optimal key update strategies for custom network scenarios. We also present a case study...

  20. Indistinguishable encoding for bidirectional quantum key distribution: Theory to experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsul Shaari, Jesni; Soekardjo, Suryadi

    2017-12-01

    We present a bidirectional quantum key distribution protocol with minimal encoding operations derived from the use of only two “nonorthogonal” unitary transformations selected from two mutually unbiased unitary bases. Differently from many bidirectional protocols, these transformations are indistinguishable in principle for a single use. Along with its decoding procedure, it is unique compared to its “orthogonal encoding” predecessors. Given the nature of such protocols where key rates are usually dependent on two different types of error rates, we define a more relevant notion of security threshold for such protocols to allow for proper comparisons to be made. The current protocol outperforms its predecessor in terms of security as the amount of information an eavesdropper can glean is limited by the indistinguishability of the transformations. We further propose adaptations for a practical scenario and report on a proof of concept experimental scheme based on polarised photons from an attenuated pulsed laser for qubits, demonstrating the feasibility of such a protocol.

  1. A key technology for standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Su

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a key technology, polarization modulation (PM, which should be taken into account when standardizing outdoor optical wireless communications (OWC, also known as free-space optical communications (FSO. We analyze the distortion of the polarization state when a laser beam propagates through the atmospheric channel. The floating range of the optical polarization was estimated and the necessity of researching the proposed technology was discussed. Moreover, we conducted a comparison between the PM-based FSO system and intensity modulation-based FSO system. The conclusions will be helpful in establishing the FSO standard architectures.

  2. Key Management for Secure Multicast over IPv6 Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddiqi Mohammad Umar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multicasting is an efficient method for transmission and routing of packets to multiple destinations using fewer network resources. Along with widespread deployment of wireless networks, secure multicast over wireless networks is an important and challenging goal. In this paper, we extend the scope of a recent new key distribution scheme to a security framework that offers a novel solution for secure multicast over IPv6 wireless networks. Our key management framework includes two scenarios for securely distributing the group key and rekey messages for joining and leaving a mobile host in secure multicast group. In addition, we perform the security analysis and provide performance comparisons between our approach and two recently published scenarios. The benefits of our proposed techniques are that they minimize the number of transmissions required to rekey the multicast group and impose minimal storage requirements on the multicast group. In addition, our proposed schemes are also very desirable from the viewpoint of transmission bandwidth savings since an efficient rekeying mechanism is provided for membership changes and they significantly reduce the required bandwidth due to key updating in mobile networks. Moreover, they achieve the security and scalability requirements in wireless networks.

  3. How to Share a Key (Invited paper)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzi, Matthias; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Wolf, Stefan

    on the common OTP and only partial local knowledge of how many key bits have already been used by each other player, the goal is to commonly consume as many key bits as possible without any overlap. In this paper, we consider a related problem with immediate implications to the previous model. We consider n...... players to share the same k keys of length ` bits. The goal is to assign a key sequence to each player such that, for as many keys as possible and independently of which player uses how many of them, it is guaranteed that all used keys are independent. Such an assignment is called loss-free if k keys can...... always be consumed independently. Note that, in contrast to the previous model, the players are ignorant of each other’s key consumptions. We first observe a simple loss-free solution for the case that the key is of certain (small) minimal length `. Furthermore, for the case of key length ` = 1 (the most...

  4. Secret-key expansion from covert communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Amiri, Ryan

    2018-02-01

    Covert communication allows the transmission of messages in such a way that it is not possible for adversaries to detect that the communication is occurring. This provides protection in situations where knowledge that two parties are talking to each other may be incriminating to them. In this work, we study how covert communication can be used for a different purpose: secret key expansion. First, we show that any message transmitted in a secure covert protocol is also secret and therefore unknown to an adversary. We then propose a covert communication protocol where the amount of key consumed in the protocol is smaller than the transmitted key, thus leading to secure secret key expansion. We derive precise conditions for secret key expansion to occur, showing that it is possible when there are sufficiently low levels of noise for a given security level. We conclude by examining how secret key expansion from covert communication can be performed in a computational security model.

  5. Key Recovery Attacks on Recent Authenticated Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Dobraunig, Christoph; Eichlseder, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and wireless networks. All these schemes use well-established and secure components such as the AES, Grain-like NFSRs, ChaCha and SipHash as their building blocks. However, we discover key recovery attacks for all three designs, featuring square-root complexities. Using a key collision technique, we can...... recover the secret key of AVALANCHE in 2n/2, where n 2∈ {28; 192; 256} is the key length. This technique also applies to the authentication part of Calico whose 128-bit key can be recovered in 264 time. For RBS, we can recover its full 132-bit key in 265 time with a guess-and-determine attack. All attacks...

  6. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  7. Establishing Key Performance Indicators : Case company X

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jatinder

    2015-01-01

    The key performance indicators serve as the navigational tools for a business organization to monitor its performance. They enable the management team to take real time decisions to keep organization’s resources aligned to its business strategy to accomplish its strategic objec-tives. This research was conducted to analyse the process of establishing successful key per-formance indicators for a business organization. The research was conducted to recommend key performance indicators developme...

  8. FPGA BASED HARDWARE KEY FOR TEMPORAL ENCRYPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lakshmi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel encryption scheme with time based key technique on an FPGA is presented. Time based key technique ensures right key to be entered at right time and hence, vulnerability of encryption through brute force attack is eliminated. Presently available encryption systems, suffer from Brute force attack and in such a case, the time taken for breaking a code depends on the system used for cryptanalysis. The proposed scheme provides an effective method in which the time is taken as the second dimension of the key so that the same system can defend against brute force attack more vigorously. In the proposed scheme, the key is rotated continuously and four bits are drawn from the key with their concatenated value representing the delay the system has to wait. This forms the time based key concept. Also the key based function selection from a pool of functions enhances the confusion and diffusion to defend against linear and differential attacks while the time factor inclusion makes the brute force attack nearly impossible. In the proposed scheme, the key scheduler is implemented on FPGA that generates the right key at right time intervals which is then connected to a NIOS – II processor (a virtual microcontroller which is brought out from Altera FPGA that communicates with the keys to the personal computer through JTAG (Joint Test Action Group communication and the computer is used to perform encryption (or decryption. In this case the FPGA serves as hardware key (dongle for data encryption (or decryption.

  9. EPA Monthly Key Performance Indicator Dashboards 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each month, the Web Analytics Program posts updated Key Performance Indicator (KPI) dashboards that correspond to three Web performance goals: content consumption, content discovery, and audience engagement.

  10. Nickel exposure from keys: a Brazilian issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nathalie Mie; Duarte, Ida Alzira Gomes; Hafner, Mariana de Figueiredo Silva; Lazzarini, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Keys are a significant source of exposure to metal allergens and can be a relevant problem for nickel-allergic individuals. This study aimed to perform nickel and cobalt spot testing among the 5 most common Brazilian brands of keys. Among the tested keys, 100% showed positive result to nickel spot test, 83,3% presented strong positive reaction. 50% exhibited cobalt release as well. Nickel release from keys is very common in our country and may cause a negative impact on sensitized individual's quality of life. Study's results highlight the importance of establishing directives to regulate nickel release in Brazil.

  11. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-01-01

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes the obtainable key rate for any

  12. Final report on CCQM-K30.1: Lead in wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massif, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The key comparison CCQM-K30.1 was organized by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group of CCQM to test the abilities of the National Metrology Institutes to measure the mass fraction of lead in wine. CMQ-Fundacion Chile acted as the coordinating laboratory. Twelve institutes registered to participate in the key comparison but only eleven submitted results. One of these agreed that its result should not be included in the key comparison reference value and another indicated after completion of the study that it had recalculated its uncertainty. The participants used different measurement methods, though the most common was isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). Accounting for the achieved uncertainty, comparability of measurement results was successfully demonstrated by the majority of participating NMIs for this measurement. Participants were also asked to indicate the core capabilities required for their measurements and these are summarized in the report. This comparison may be directly used to support CMCs for lead in wine and indirectly by institutes wishing to support appropriate CMCs via the core capability route. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  14. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  15. Key-value store with internal key-value storage interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Ting, Dennis P. J.; Tzelnic, Percy; Gupta, Uday; Grider, Gary; Bonnie, David J.

    2018-01-16

    A key-value store is provided having one or more key-value storage interfaces. A key-value store on at least one compute node comprises a memory for storing a plurality of key-value pairs; and an abstract storage interface comprising a software interface module that communicates with at least one persistent storage device providing a key-value interface for persistent storage of one or more of the plurality of key-value pairs, wherein the software interface module provides the one or more key-value pairs to the at least one persistent storage device in a key-value format. The abstract storage interface optionally processes one or more batch operations on the plurality of key-value pairs. A distributed embodiment for a partitioned key-value store is also provided.

  16. The LOFAR Transients Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stappers, B.; Fender, R.; Wijers, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Transients Key Science Project (TKP) is one of six Key Science Projects of the next generation radio telescope LOFAR. Its aim is the study of transient and variable low-frequency radio sources with an extremely broad science case ranging from relativistic jet sources to pulsars, exoplanets,

  17. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the dis- tribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Conse- quently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the ...

  18. Locks & keys service moves to building 55

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that as of July 12 Locks & keys service will be at building 55 second floor. The opening hours are as follows: 08:30 am to 12:30 pm - 1:30 pm to 5:30 pm. The procedures and rules relating to applications for key and cylinder have not changed. GI-IS Group

  19. Failure of Kak quantum key distribution protocol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kak's quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol provides not only the distribution but also the integrity of secret key simultaneously in quantum channel. Consequently the additional exchange of information, used to check whether an eavesdropper exists, is unnecessary. In this comment, we will point out the failure of Kak's ...

  20. Bioenergy has a key role to play!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;......Key note speach - Opening seremony of the 6.th International Bioenergy Conference organized by NASU - Kiev, Ukraine; www.biomass.kiev.ua;...

  1. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  2. Key Competencies, Assessment and Learning Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Keryn; Wright, Jocelyn; Carr, Margaret; Peters, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Developed in response to a strong interest in the use of Learning Stories in schools, this resource is designed to answer some common questions asked by teachers. The assessment of Key Competencies is a topic that deserves a lot of discussion. A Key Competency is complex: it includes social, emotional, cognitive and cultural aspects, and is…

  3. Group Key Agreement Efficient in Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-14

    proceedings. [12] G. Caronni, M. Waldvogel, D. Sun, N. Weiler, and B. Plattner. The VersaKey framework: Versatile group key management. IEEE Journal on...scientist at the University of California at Irvine. His acdemic interests include network security and cryptography. More information about his research is

  4. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT – KEY FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Daniela DINU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper exposes Supply Chain Management by its key factors. Briefly, where the Supply Chain Management is treated as strategic part of a company then maintaining both control and influence throughout the entire supply chain are key factors and critical to success. On the other hand, finding the right partner to manage the non-strategic Supply Chains would be another key factor too. To define the most important key factors within Supply Chain Management means a deeply understanding of both Supply Chain’ s components, procedures, workflow, processes and the importance of Supply Chain Management into maximizing company's value. SCORE model able to provide solid information about measuring performance and identifying priorities within Supply Chain Management will help us to understand the key factors by analyzing its elements: Plan, Source, Make, Deliver,Return, Enable. These elements covers all the challenging areas from first to third tier of Supply Chain Management.

  5. Fundamental study on the size and inter-key spacing of numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the optimum size and inter-key spacing of numeric square keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) volunteered as subjects for this experiment. Each subject took part in data entry tasks using numeric square keys of touch devices. The sizes of keys were 6, 12, 21, 30 and 39 mm and each the inter-key spacing was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. Response times with key sizes of 6 and 12 mm were significantly slower than with key sizes of 21 and 30 mm (p touch screens should be more than 21 mm and optimum inter-key spacing should be from 3 to 6 mm. Optimum key size, however, must be selected with regard to the limitation of screen size.

  6. New weak keys in simplified IDEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafman, Sari Agustini; Muhafidzah, Arini

    2016-02-01

    Simplified IDEA (S-IDEA) is simplified version of International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) and useful teaching tool to help students to understand IDEA. In 2012, Muryanto and Hafman have found a weak key class in the S-IDEA by used differential characteristics in one-round (0, ν, 0, ν) → (0,0, ν, ν) on the first round to produce input difference (0,0, ν, ν) on the fifth round. Because Muryanto and Hafman only use three differential characteristics in one-round, we conducted a research to find new differential characteristics in one-round and used it to produce new weak key classes of S-IDEA. To find new differential characteristics in one-round of S-IDEA, we applied a multiplication mod 216+1 on input difference and combination of active sub key Z1, Z4, Z5, Z6. New classes of weak keys are obtained by combining all of these characteristics and use them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA with or without the 4th round sub key. In this research, we found six new differential characteristics in one round and combined them to construct two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used and the 4th round sub key required, we obtain 2 new classes of weak keys, 213 and 28. When two new differential characteristics in full-round of S-IDEA are used, yet the 4th round sub key is not required, the weak key class of 213 will be 221 and 28 will be 210. Membership test can not be applied to recover the key bits in those weak key classes. The recovery of those unknown key bits can only be done by using brute force attack. The simulation result indicates that the bit of the key can be recovered by the longest computation time of 0,031 ms.

  7. The Harms of Antipsychotic Drugs: Evidence from Key Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas J; Furberg, Curt D

    2017-01-01

    This safety assessment provides a detailed analysis of key studies and focuses on the six most widely used antipsychotic drugs. Lines of evidence include mechanisms of action, short-term treatment of psychosis, relapse prevention, early intervention in schizophrenia, long-term comparisons between first- and second-generation agents, and flexible treatment algorithms. Despite the diversity of study settings, several common features were seen. All the agents obstruct normal signaling through widely dispersed dopamine D 2 receptors. Treatment failure or psychosis relapse was the most frequent outcome in most key studies, ranging from 38 to 93%. High discontinuation rates caused most trials to fail to demonstrate a substantial treatment benefit, or difference from an active comparator. Assessment of harm to the extrapyramidal motor system was confounded because of extensive neurological impairment from previous antipsychotic drug treatment measured at baseline, abrupt discontinuation effects, and high rates of concomitant medications to manage drug adverse effects. Claims that second-generation antipsychotic drugs have safety advantages over classical neuroleptic drugs and prevent relapse were not supported in these key studies. The extent of injury to and impairment of multiple body systems caused by antipsychotic drugs shows the need for a scientific, clinical, and regulatory reappraisal of the appropriate use of these agents.

  8. Self Retaining Anti-Rotation Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Alan Benjamin Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Anti-rotation keys are typically used in applications where an end of a threaded stud is received in a housing, and where the opposite end of the stud projects from the housing to allow attachment of another component to the housing. Once partially received in the housing, further rotation of the stud is prevented by an anti-rotation key. The disclosed anti-rotation key is self-retaining, in that it prevents itself from "backing out" of the channel due to vibration or thermal expansion of the housing, etc., while also being removable from the channel if desired.

  9. Aerosol typing - key information from aerosol studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, Lucia; Kahn, Ralph; Papagiannopoulos, Nikolaos; Holzer-Popp, Thomas; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol typing is a key source of aerosol information from ground-based and satellite-borne instruments. Depending on the specific measurement technique, aerosol typing can be used as input for retrievals or represents an output for other applications. Typically aerosol retrievals require some a priori or external aerosol type information. The accuracy of the derived aerosol products strongly depends on the reliability of these assumptions. Different sensors can make use of different aerosol type inputs. A critical review and harmonization of these procedures could significantly reduce related uncertainties. On the other hand, satellite measurements in recent years are providing valuable information about the global distribution of aerosol types, showing for example the main source regions and typical transport paths. Climatological studies of aerosol load at global and regional scales often rely on inferred aerosol type. There is still a high degree of inhomogeneity among satellite aerosol typing schemes, which makes the use different sensor datasets in a consistent way difficult. Knowledge of the 4d aerosol type distribution at these scales is essential for understanding the impact of different aerosol sources on climate, precipitation and air quality. All this information is needed for planning upcoming aerosol emissions policies. The exchange of expertise and the communication among satellite and ground-based measurement communities is fundamental for improving long-term dataset consistency, and for reducing aerosol type distribution uncertainties. Aerosol typing has been recognized as one of its high-priority activities of the AEROSAT (International Satellite Aerosol Science Network, http://aero-sat.org/) initiative. In the AEROSAT framework, a first critical review of aerosol typing procedures has been carried out. The review underlines the high heterogeneity in many aspects: approach, nomenclature, assumed number of components and parameters used for the

  10. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-10-01

    Teaching functional groups to high school and college chemistry students is often accomplished by having students memorize the functional groups from a table. Using this approach, students typically forget what they have memorized shortly after the examination and fail to transfer the memorized material to other topics in chemistry such as nomenclature, VSEPR theory, and chemical reactions. This method is frustrating for both the teacher and the students. To facilitate the learning of functional groups and to avoid a strictly memorization approach, we developed a classification key based on discernible characteristics that students can identify and consequently key out. This key can be used by the teacher in a variety of ways: as an introduction, a review, or a homework assignment. The functional group classification key is well received by students and provides an engaging alternative for teachers to use when introducing functional groups to their classes.

  11. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  12. Key Royale bridge five year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This report describes the design, construction, instrumentation, and five-year evaluation of the Key Royale Bridge substructure. The primary focus was the evaluation of the implementation of highly reactive supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) ...

  13. Finite key analysis in quantum cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, T.

    2007-10-31

    In view of experimental realization of quantum key distribution schemes, the study of their efficiency becomes as important as the proof of their security. The latter is the subject of most of the theoretical work about quantum key distribution, and many important results such as the proof of unconditional security have been obtained. The efficiency and also the robustness of quantum key distribution protocols against noise can be measured by figures of merit such as the secret key rate (the fraction of input signals that make it into the key) and the threshold quantum bit error rate (the maximal error rate such that one can still create a secret key). It is important to determine these quantities because they tell us whether a certain quantum key distribution scheme can be used at all in a given situation and if so, how many secret key bits it can generate in a given time. However, these figures of merit are usually derived under the ''infinite key limit'' assumption, that is, one assumes that an infinite number of quantum states are send and that all sub-protocols of the scheme (in particular privacy amplification) are carried out on these infinitely large blocks. Such an assumption usually eases the analysis, but also leads to (potentially) too optimistic values for the quantities in question. In this thesis, we are explicitly avoiding the infinite key limit for the analysis of the privacy amplification step, which plays the most important role in a quantum key distribution scheme. We still assume that an optimal error correction code is applied and we do not take into account any statistical errors that might occur in the parameter estimation step. Renner and coworkers derived an explicit formula for the obtainable key rate in terms of Renyi entropies of the quantum states describing Alice's, Bob's, and Eve's systems. This results serves as a starting point for our analysis, and we derive an algorithm that efficiently computes

  14. Conclusive eavesdropping in quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Howard E

    2005-01-01

    It is argued that the BB84 (Bennett-Brassard 1984) protocol of quantum key distribution has a vulnerability similar to the well-known vulnerability of the B92 (Bennett 1992) protocol in the presence of losses. The quantum circuit and design are first reviewed for an optimized entangling probe attacking the BB84 protocol of quantum key distribution and yielding maximum information to the probe. Probe photon polarization states become optimally entangled with the signal states on their way between the legitimate transmitter and receiver. Although standard von Neumann projective measurements of the probe yield maximum information on the pre-privacy amplified key, if instead the probe measurements are performed with a certain positive operator valued measure, then the measurement results are unambiguous, at least some of the time, resulting in complete information gain by the probe for sufficient loss in the key distribution channel

  15. Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoikova, Elena; Denishev, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Shoikova, E., & Denishev, V. (2009). Keys to Successful EPIQ Business Demonstrator Implementation. Paper presented at the 'Open workshop of TENCompetence - Rethinking Learning and Employment at a Time of Economic Uncertainty-event'. November, 19, 2009, Manchester, United Kingdom: TENCompetence.

  16. Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: Key to Medical Progress Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo iStock Clinical trials are research studies that test how well new ...

  17. PDS4 Training: Key Concepts and Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Neakrase, L. D. V.; Padams, J.; Raugh, A. C.

    2017-06-01

    Those planning to attend the PDS4 training session are strongly encouraged to review this poster prior to the training session. This poster briefly describes new vocabulary and a number of key concepts introduced with PDS4.

  18. La progettazione di nuovi spazi educativi per l’infanzia: da Ellen Key a Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Pironi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents a comparison between the thought of Ellen Key and that of Maria Montessori. Changes that involved the role of women, caught in its interdependence with the development of new educational practices, were the center of the theoretical contribution of Ellen Key. Maria Montessori believed that only women work outside the home would guarantee the economic independence necessary to form a union on sentiment rather than on utilitarian calculations and therefore she did not seem to share the concerns of the Key on an increasingly massive female entry into the world of work. The paper offers an updated reflection on the work of two scholars of education.

  19. Key performance indicators in agile software development

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    The background of the study was an organisation's need to have new ideas to measure a development team performance and the organisation’s performance in work efficiency and quality. The target was to define working and need based agile software development key performance indicators for the organisation. The study was implemented by evaluating agile software development related books and internet sources to identify recommended key performance indicators and select some of them for the or...

  20. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  1. Mathematical Background of Public Key Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Gerhard; Lange, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material.......The two main systems used for public key cryptography are RSA and protocols based on the discrete logarithm problem in some cyclic group. We focus on the latter problem and state cryptographic protocols and mathematical background material....

  2. SAXICOLE BRYOPHYTES FROM VÂLSAN KEYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codruţa Mihaela Dobrescu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of the saxicole species in the Vâlsan Keys and considerations regarding the bryophytic saxicole cenoses from the protected area. To analyze the diversity of the saxicole bryophytes, we considered the number of species, as well as the phytogeografical element, the growth form and the “life strategy” of each species. From the systematic perspective, Vâlsan Keys are featured by a high specific diversity of the saxicole bryophytes.

  3. Is the Green Key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, M.G.; Van Rheede, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if

  4. Key handling in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y; Newe, T

    2007-01-01

    With the rapid growth of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), many advanced application areas have received significant attention. However, security will be an important factor for their full adoption. Wireless sensor nodes pose unique challenges and as such traditional security protocols, used in traditional networks cannot be applied directly. Some new protocols have been published recently with the goal of providing both privacy of data and authentication of sensor nodes for WSNs. Such protocols can employ private-key and/or public key cryptographic algorithms. Public key algorithms hold the promise of simplifying the network infrastructure required to provide security services such as: privacy, authentication and non-repudiation, while symmetric algorithms require less processing power on the lower power wireless node. In this paper a selection of key establishment/agreement protocols are reviewed and they are broadly divided into two categories: group key agreement protocols and pair-wise key establishment protocols. A summary of the capabilities and security related services provided by each protocol is provided

  5. Key Frame Extraction in the Summary Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelong; Zhao, Bin; Lu, Xiaoqiang

    2017-07-04

    Key frame extraction is an efficient way to create the video summary which helps users obtain a quick comprehension of the video content. Generally, the key frames should be representative of the video content, meanwhile, diverse to reduce the redundancy. Based on the assumption that the video data are near a subspace of a high-dimensional space, a new approach, named as key frame extraction in the summary space, is proposed for key frame extraction in this paper. The proposed approach aims to find the representative frames of the video and filter out similar frames from the representative frame set. First of all, the video data are mapped to a high-dimensional space, named as summary space. Then, a new representation is learned for each frame by analyzing the intrinsic structure of the summary space. Specifically, the learned representation can reflect the representativeness of the frame, and is utilized to select representative frames. Next, the perceptual hash algorithm is employed to measure the similarity of representative frames. As a result, the key frame set is obtained after filtering out similar frames from the representative frame set. Finally, the video summary is constructed by assigning the key frames in temporal order. Additionally, the ground truth, created by filtering out similar frames from human-created summaries, is utilized to evaluate the quality of the video summary. Compared with several traditional approaches, the experimental results on 80 videos from two datasets indicate the superior performance of our approach.

  6. Key-Phenomenon and Religious Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomuscio Vincenzo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I develop a phenomenology of religious experience through the notion of keyphenomenon. My analysis moves from a general phenomenology of situation, in which we have to relate different phenomena according to a sense. What does “according to a sense” mean? My suggestion is that we should look for a relationship among these data when we find a key-phenomenon (among a series of phenomena that would enlighten all the others. This key-phenomenon would show a non-phenomenal meaning which would make all the others understandable. Each other datum, therefore, becomes the witness of invisible meaning through a key-witness. The key-phenomenon we choose determines the role (i.e., the truth of each datum within its situation. This phenomenological relationship belongs to both the sense of day-life situations, and that one of possible religious situations. If the religious interpretation of a situation depends on our choice of key-phenomenon, or key-witness, we have to define what kind of keyphenomenon constitutes a religious intuition.

  7. Fundamental quantitative security in quantum key generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the fundamental security significance of the quantitative criteria on the final generated key K in quantum key generation including the quantum criterion d, the attacker's mutual information on K, and the statistical distance between her distribution on K and the uniform distribution. For operational significance a criterion has to produce a guarantee on the attacker's probability of correctly estimating some portions of K from her measurement, in particular her maximum probability of identifying the whole K. We distinguish between the raw security of K when the attacker just gets at K before it is used in a cryptographic context and its composition security when the attacker may gain further information during its actual use to help get at K. We compare both of these securities of K to those obtainable from conventional key expansion with a symmetric key cipher. It is pointed out that a common belief in the superior security of a quantum generated K is based on an incorrect interpretation of d which cannot be true, and the security significance of d is uncertain. Generally, the quantum key distribution key K has no composition security guarantee and its raw security guarantee from concrete protocols is worse than that of conventional ciphers. Furthermore, for both raw and composition security there is an exponential catch-up problem that would make it difficult to quantitatively improve the security of K in a realistic protocol. Some possible ways to deal with the situation are suggested.

  8. International Comparison on Thermal-Diffusivity Measurements for Iron and Isotropic Graphite Using the Laser Flash Method in CCT-WG9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoshima, M.; Hay, B.; Zhang, J.; Chapman, L.; Baba, T.

    2013-05-01

    The first international pilot study of thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser flash (LF) method was organized by the working group 9 (WG9) of the Consultative Committee for Thermometry (CCT) of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). Four National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) participated in this comparison. Thermal-diffusivity measurements on the Armco iron and the isotropic graphite IG-110 were carried out from room temperature to about 1200 K. The sample sets consist of five disk-shaped specimens of 10 mm in diameter and (1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0) mm in thickness, each cut from the same block of material. These sample sets were specifically prepared for the comparison and sent to the participants. In the pilot comparison, the thermal diffusivity of each sample was estimated using the LF method with a specific extrapolating procedure. This procedure has the advantage of determining the inherent thermal diffusivity of the material. The extrapolated value in a plot of measured apparent thermal-diffusivity values versus the amplitude of the output signal corresponding to the temperature rise during each measurement is defined as the inherent thermal diffusivity. The overall results showed good agreement between independent laboratories, measurement equipment, and specimen thicknesses. The thermal diffusivities of the materials were determined using our measured results. A quantitative evaluation of the variability of the data obtained by the participants has been done, by evaluating the deviations from the reference value, the Z-value, and the En-number. Some data showed a large deviation from the reference value. It was concluded that these are caused by an insufficient time response of the measurement equipment and some difficulties with changing the pulsed heating energy. The effect of the thermal expansion on the thermal diffusivity was checked. It was found that the thermal-expansion effect was very small and negligible in this case.

  9. Comparison CCEM-K8 of DC voltage ratio: results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marullo-Reedtz, G

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available (s/n20.335) as the traveling standard was adopted to normalize the participants’ results, the calculation of the key comparison reference values and the comparison results were reported for the two mandatory ratios of the comparison, 1000v/10v and 100v...

  10. Fully device-independent conference key agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jérémy; Murta, Gláucia; Wehner, Stephanie

    2018-02-01

    We present a security analysis of conference key agreement (CKA) in the most adversarial model of device independence (DI). Our protocol can be implemented by any experimental setup that is capable of performing Bell tests [specifically, the Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko (MABK) inequality], and security can in principle be obtained for any violation of the MABK inequality that detects genuine multipartite entanglement among the N parties involved in the protocol. As our main tool, we derive a direct physical connection between the N -partite MABK inequality and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, showing that certain violations of the MABK inequality correspond to a violation of the CHSH inequality between one of the parties and the other N -1 . We compare the asymptotic key rate for device-independent conference key agreement (DICKA) to the case where the parties use N -1 device-independent quantum key distribution protocols in order to generate a common key. We show that for some regime of noise the DICKA protocol leads to better rates.

  11. Synchronization in Quantum Key Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Pljonkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the description of quantum key distribution systems, much attention is paid to the operation of quantum cryptography protocols. The main problem is the insufficient study of the synchronization process of quantum key distribution systems. This paper contains a general description of quantum cryptography principles. A two-line fiber-optic quantum key distribution system with phase coding of photon states in transceiver and coding station synchronization mode was examined. A quantum key distribution system was built on the basis of the scheme with automatic compensation of polarization mode distortions. Single-photon avalanche diodes were used as optical radiation detecting devices. It was estimated how the parameters used in quantum key distribution systems of optical detectors affect the detection of the time frame with attenuated optical pulse in synchronization mode with respect to its probabilistic and time-domain characteristics. A design method was given for the process that detects the time frame that includes an optical pulse during synchronization. This paper describes the main quantum communication channel attack methods by removing a portion of optical emission. This paper describes the developed synchronization algorithm that takes into account the time required to restore the photodetector’s operation state after the photon has been registered during synchronization. The computer simulation results of the developed synchronization algorithm were analyzed. The efficiency of the developed algorithm with respect to synchronization process protection from unauthorized gathering of optical emission is demonstrated herein.

  12. Metropolitan Quantum Key Distribution with Silicon Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunandar, Darius; Lentine, Anthony; Lee, Catherine; Cai, Hong; Long, Christopher M.; Boynton, Nicholas; Martinez, Nicholas; DeRose, Christopher; Chen, Changchen; Grein, Matthew; Trotter, Douglas; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew; Hamilton, Scott; Wong, Franco N. C.; Camacho, Ryan; Davids, Paul; Urayama, Junji; Englund, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    Photonic integrated circuits provide a compact and stable platform for quantum photonics. Here we demonstrate a silicon photonics quantum key distribution (QKD) encoder in the first high-speed polarization-based QKD field tests. The systems reach composable secret key rates of 1.039 Mbps in a local test (on a 103.6-m fiber with a total emulated loss of 9.2 dB) and 157 kbps in an intercity metropolitan test (on a 43-km fiber with 16.4 dB loss). Our results represent the highest secret key generation rate for polarization-based QKD experiments at a standard telecom wavelength and demonstrate photonic integrated circuits as a promising, scalable resource for future formation of metropolitan quantum-secure communications networks.

  13. A Novel Method for Generating Encryption Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascalescu Ana Cristina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of the informational society, which has led to an impressive growth of the information volume circulating in the computer networks, has accelerated the evolution and especially the use of modern cryptography instruments. Today, the commercial products use standard cryptographic libraries that implement certified and tested cryptographic algorithms. Instead, the fragility ofencryption algorithms is given by compositional operations like key handling or key generation. In this sense, the article proposes an innovative method to generate pseudorandom numbers which can be used for the construction of secure stream encryption keys. The proposed method is based on the mathematical complements based on the algebra of the finite fields and uses a particularized structure of the linear feedback shift registers.

  14. Key-Finding by Artificial Neural Networks That Learn About Key Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Michael R W; Zielinski, Jasen A Z

    2017-05-08

    We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Depending upon which key profiles were used during training, perceptrons can perform as well as established key-finding algorithms on this task. Further analyses indicate that perceptrons generate higher activity in a unit representing a selected key and much lower activities in the units representing the competing keys that are not selected than does a traditional algorithm. Finally, we examined the internal structure of trained perceptrons and discovered that they, unlike traditional algorithms, assign very different weights to different components of a key profile. Perceptrons learn that some profile components are more important for specifying musical key than are others. These differential weights could be incorporated into traditional algorithms that do not themselves employ artificial neural networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  16. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-01-01

    In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special empha...

  17. KeyPathwayMiner 4.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaraz, Nicolas; Pauling, Josch; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    release of KeyPathwayMiner (version 4.0) that is not limited to analyses of single omics data sets, e.g. gene expression, but is able to directly combine several different omics data types. Version 4.0 can further integrate existing knowledge by adding a search bias towards sub-networks that contain...... (avoid) genes provided in a positive (negative) list. Finally the new release now also provides a set of novel visualization features and has been implemented as an app for the standard bioinformatics network analysis tool: Cytoscape. CONCLUSION: With KeyPathwayMiner 4.0, we publish a Cytoscape app...

  18. Key nuclear reaction experiments discoveries and consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Paetz gen. Schieck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    In this book the author charts the developments in nuclear physics since its inception around a century ago by reviewing the key experiments that helped drive and shape our understanding of the field, especially in the context of the wider developments in physics in the early 20th Century. In addition to providing a path through the field and the crucial events it looks at how these experiments not only answered key questions at the time but presented new challenges to the contemporary perception of the nuclear and sub-atomic worlds and how they helped develop our present understanding of nuclear physics.

  19. The emotional importance of key: do Beatles songs written in different keys convey different emotional tones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissel, R; Whissel, C

    2000-12-01

    Lyrics from 155 songs written by the Lennon-McCartney team were scored using the Dictionary of Affect in Language. Resultant scores (pleasantness, activation, and imagery of words) were compared across key signatures using one way analyses of variance. Words from songs written in minor keys were less pleasant and less active than those from songs written in major keys. Words from songs written in the key of F scored extremely low on all three measures. Lyrics from the keys of C, D, and G were relatively active in tone. Results from Dictionary scoring were compared with assignments of character to keys made more than one century ago and with current musicians' opinions.

  20. Is the green key standard the golden key for sustainability measurement in the hospitality sector?

    OpenAIRE

    Rietbergen, Martijn; Rheede, van, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    The Green Key is an eco-rating program that aims at promoting sustainable business practices in the hospitality sector. The Green Key assesses amongst others the sustainable management of energy, water and waste within hotels and other hospitality firms. The Green Key standard awards points if specific sustainable practices or environmental measures have been implemented, but does however not assess the actual environmental performance of hospitality firms. Therefore, the interesting question...

  1. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    process in the BB84-protocol. Keywords. Quantum cryptography; quantum key distribution. PACS No. 03.65.Bz. 1. Introduction. Since the act of measurement reduces the state function of a quantum object, one cannot determine what state characterized the system prior to the measurement. This property is at the heart of the ...

  2. Key characteristics of different management styles

    OpenAIRE

    AGADZHANYAN A.S.

    2015-01-01

    The article reveals main management styles practiсed by managers all over the world. The author considers key characteristics of management styles, conditions of their using. The paper analyzes cultural differences in management styles in the West and in the East.

  3. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, James; Beck, Rainer; Bell, Michael; de Bruyn, Ger; Chyzy, Krzysztof; Eislöffel, Jochen; Enßlin, Torsten; Fletcher, Andrew; Haverkorn, Marijke; Heald, George; Horneffer, Andreas; Noutsos, Aris; Reich, Wolfgang; Scaife, Anna; the LOFAR collaboration, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    Measuring radio waves at low frequencies offers a new window to study cosmic magnetism, and LOFAR is the ideal radio telescope to open this window widely. The LOFAR Magnetism Key Science Project (MKSP) draws together expertise from multiple fields of magnetism science and intends to use LOFAR to

  4. Radiology Aide. Instructor Key [and] Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwein, Jon; Dunham, John

    This manual can be used independently by students in secondary health occupations programs or by persons receiving on-the-job training in a radiology department. The manual includes an instructor's key that provides answers to the activity sheets and unit evaluations. The manual consists of the following five units: (1) orientation to radiology;…

  5. Authenticity, Autonomy and Altruism: Keys for Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The value of authentic knowing, autonomous behavior and altruistic motivation is presented. Authenticity, autonomy and altruism are primary human capacities and keys for individual and collective transformation. Realizing the full development of these three basic potentialities can serve as goals and standards for well-being. Authenticity,…

  6. Ambitious Expectations and Social Key Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    In German debates over key competencies, it was recognized that noncognitive, e.g., social competencies and transfer across situations are important. A model of social communicative action was developed, with these elements: verbal/nonverbal articulation and interpretation of statements, metacommunication, sensitivity to latent communication,…

  7. TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE AND DEMOCRATIC CHANGE: KEY CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA ANDREEVSKA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This Article proposes a genealogy of transitional justice and focuses on transitional justice as one of the key steps in peace building that needs to be taken to secure a stable democratic futureTransitional justice is a response to systematic or widespread violations of human rights. It seeks recognition for victims and promotion of possibilities for peace, reconciliation and democracy. The paper focuses on key concepts of transitional justice before addressing its traditional components: justice, reparation, truth and institutional reform. This Article meeting point on the transitional process in a society which has experienced a violent conflict and needs adequate mechanisms to deal with the legacies of the past in order to prevent future violence and cover the way for reconciliation and democratic consolidation. It provides key stakeholders with an overview of transitional justice and its different components, while examining key challenges faced by those working in this area. The present paper concludes with some remarks that challenge the traditional concept of transitional justice and its processes in order to initiate important debate on where future work in this field is needed.

  8. Number Theory and Public-Key Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Phyllis

    1991-01-01

    Described are activities in the study of techniques used to conceal the meanings of messages and data. Some background information and two BASIC programs that illustrate the algorithms used in a new cryptographic system called "public-key cryptography" are included. (CW)

  9. Five Keys for Teaching Mental Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    After studying the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and brain-based learning research, James Olsen believes mental math instruction in secondary school mathematics (grades 7-12) and in teacher education programs needs increased attention. The purpose of this article is to share some keys for teaching mental math. Olsen also…

  10. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  11. Memory for melody and key in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age.

  12. Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental conflicts: Key issues and management implications. 15 or not managed, conflicts are likely to escalate and intensify. White et al. (2009:244) state: 'What distinguishes conflicts from mere disagreement is thus a behavioural expression of formerly latent attitudes where one party is perceived to take action at the ...

  13. Quantum key distribution using three basis states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum method of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) where the transmission states have been decreased from 4 to 3 and ...

  14. Key Actions of Successful Summer Research Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, D. Raj; Geisinger, Brandi N.; Kemis, Mari R.; de la Mora, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    Summer research opportunities for undergraduates, such as those supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, can be critical experiences that help persuade students to pursue research through graduate studies. Studies analyzing the key actions of successful mentors are scarce. The goal of…

  15. Expectations as a key element in trusting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette Apollo; Hansen, Uffe Kjærgaard; Conradsen, Maria Bosse

    Considering the need for a tangible focus for qualitative research on trusting, we propose that expectations to the behavior of others can provide that. By focusing on expectations, researchers can produce narrative descriptions that explains how trusting develops and changes. Then the key...

  16. Crystallization: Key thermodynamic, kinetic and hydrodynamic aspects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the different commercial crystallizers existing till date. For evaporative and cooling crystallization from solution, where the crystallizer is operated in continuous mode in ..... An integration of these modelling methods would lead to a platform for an in-depth process understanding. In subsequent sections, the key aspects ...

  17. Key Ideas and Memorability in Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gila; Mason, John

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the concepts of "key ideas" and "memorability" and how they relate to the metric "width of a proof" put forward by the Fields medalist Timothy Gowers (2007) in a recent essay entitled "Mathematics, memory and mental arithmetic". The paper looks at the meaning of these concepts and…

  18. Team building: key to executive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen-Webb, M L

    1985-02-01

    The key to executive success is management of the information overload provided by today's high technology era. Team building, through identification of behavioral styles, helps to enhance self-esteem, utilize inherent skills of individuals, and maximize decision making. The style of the team leader who shares leadership promotes communication patterns that lead to participatory management and harmony within institutions.

  19. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Broadbent (Anne); C. Schaffner (Christian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractQuantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness

  20. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  1. Can Quantum Key Distribution Be Secure

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Horace P.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of quantum key distribution as a cryptographic method depends upon its purported strong security guarantee. The following gives reasons on why such strong security guarantee has not been validly established and why good QKD security is difficult to obtain.

  2. Key Competences in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Dibbern; Kruse, Katrine

    This article presents and discusses how key competences in the school based learning are embedded in the VET curricula during the last five years. It gives an overview of how their role has developed in light of the comprehensive Danish VET reform agreed in 2014 and implemented since August 2015....

  3. Key questions and challenges in angiosperm macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauquet, Hervé; Magallón, Susana

    2018-03-25

    Contents Summary I. Introduction II. Six key questions III. Three key challenges IV. Conclusions Acknowledgements References SUMMARY: The origin and rapid diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) represent one of the most intriguing topics in evolutionary biology. Despite considerable progress made in complementary fields over the last two decades (paleobotany, phylogenetics, ecology, evo-devo, genomics), many important questions remain. For instance, what has been the impact of mass extinctions on angiosperm diversification? Are the angiosperms an adaptive radiation? Has morphological evolution in angiosperms been gradual or pulsed? We propose that the recent and ongoing revolution in macroevolutionary methods provides an unprecedented opportunity to explore long-standing questions that probably hold important clues to understand present-day biodiversity. We present six key questions that explore the origin and diversification of angiosperms. We also identify three key challenges to address these questions: (1) the development of new integrative models that include diversification, multiple intrinsic and environmental traits, biogeography and the fossil record all at once, whilst accounting for sampling bias and heterogeneity of macroevolutionary processes through time and among lineages; (2) the need for large and standardized synthetic databases of morphological variation; and (3) continuous effort on sampling the fossil record, but with a revolution in current paleobotanical practice. © 2018 Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Memory for melody and key in childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Jaimie; Weiss, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    After only two exposures to previously unfamiliar melodies, adults remember the tunes for over a week and the key for over a day. Here, we examined the development of long-term memory for melody and key. Listeners in three age groups (7- to 8-year-olds, 9- to 11-year-olds, and adults) heard two presentations of each of 12 unfamiliar melodies. After a 10-min delay, they heard the same 12 old melodies intermixed with 12 new melodies. Half of the old melodies were transposed up or down by six semitones from initial exposure. Listeners rated how well they recognized the melodies from the exposure phase. Recognition was better for old than for new melodies, for adults compared to children, and for older compared to younger children. Recognition ratings were also higher for old melodies presented in the same key at test as exposure, and the detrimental effect of the transposition affected all age groups similarly. Although memory for melody improves with age and exposure to music, implicit memory for key appears to be adult-like by 7 years of age. PMID:29077726

  5. Quantum cryptography beyond quantum key distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadbent, A.; Schaffner, C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum cryptography is the art and science of exploiting quantum mechanical effects in order to perform cryptographic tasks. While the most well-known example of this discipline is quantum key distribution (QKD), there exist many other applications such as quantum money, randomness generation,

  6. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, J.H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, L.; Frouz, J.; Deyn, de G.B.; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, M.; Wall, D.H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; Jimenez, Juan Jose

    2016-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential

  7. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  8. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  9. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  10. Public-key quantum digital signature scheme with one-time pad private-key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Lin; Liu, Wan-Fang; Chen, Su-Gen; Wang, Zhi-Hua

    2018-01-01

    A quantum digital signature scheme is firstly proposed based on public-key quantum cryptosystem. In the scheme, the verification public-key is derived from the signer's identity information (such as e-mail) on the foundation of identity-based encryption, and the signature private-key is generated by one-time pad (OTP) protocol. The public-key and private-key pair belongs to classical bits, but the signature cipher belongs to quantum qubits. After the signer announces the public-key and generates the final quantum signature, each verifier can verify publicly whether the signature is valid or not with the public-key and quantum digital digest. Analysis results show that the proposed scheme satisfies non-repudiation and unforgeability. Information-theoretic security of the scheme is ensured by quantum indistinguishability mechanics and OTP protocol. Based on the public-key cryptosystem, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized compared with other quantum signature schemes under current technical conditions.

  11. Security of a practical semi-device-independent quantum key distribution protocol against collective attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yang; Bao Wan-Su; Li Hong-Wei; Zhou Chun; Li Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Similar to device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD), semi-device-independent quantum key distribution (SDI-QKD) provides secure key distribution without any assumptions about the internal workings of the QKD devices. The only assumption is that the dimension of the Hilbert space is bounded. But SDI-QKD can be implemented in a one-way prepare-and-measure configuration without entanglement compared with DI-QKD. We propose a practical SDI-QKD protocol with four preparation states and three measurement bases by considering the maximal violation of dimension witnesses and specific processes of a QKD protocol. Moreover, we prove the security of the SDI-QKD protocol against collective attacks based on the min-entropy and dimension witnesses. We also show a comparison of the secret key rate between the SDI-QKD protocol and the standard QKD. (general)

  12. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaari, J.S., E-mail: jesni_shamsul@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahari, Asma' Ahmad [Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Jalan Sultan Ahmad Shah, Bandar Indera Mahkota, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2012-10-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  13. Improved two-way six-state protocol for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaari, J.S.; Bahari, Asma' Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    A generalized version for a qubit based two-way quantum key distribution scheme was first proposed in the paper [Phys. Lett. A 358 (2006) 85] capitalizing on the six quantum states derived from three mutually unbiased bases. While boasting of a higher level of security, the protocol was not designed for ease of practical implementation. In this work, we propose modifications to the protocol, resulting not only in improved security but also in a more efficient and practical setup. We provide comparisons for calculated secure key rates for the protocols in noisy and lossy channels. -- Highlights: ► Modification for efficient generalized two-way QKD is proposed. ► Calculations include secure key rates in noisy and lossy channels for selected attack scenario. ► Resulting proposal provides for higher secure key rate in selected attack scheme.

  14. A Key to the Art of Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    2008-01-01

    The article examines A. Lane's grammar A Key to the Art of Letters and its contexts. Symbolically published at the threshold to the eighteenth century, Lane presents an unusually bold plan to make English a world language. Although Lane's book holds a key position in the development of English...... grammatical theory, there has been no comprehensive study of its innovative methods and radical proposals for a new national curriculum. Its challenge to Latin and French is analyzed in a historical perspective, and the impact of Lane's ideas during the eighteenth century is traced. The article shows...... that Lane is the first to use English as the basis for writing universal grammar, as part of his strategy to promote English as a universal code for learning and science...

  15. Key parameters analysis of hybrid HEMP simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Congguang; Zhou Hui

    2009-01-01

    According to the new standards on the high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) developed by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the target parameter requirements of the key structure of the hybrid HEMP simulator are decomposed. Firstly, the influences of the different excitation sources and biconical structures to the key parameters of the radiated electric field wave shape are investigated and analyzed. Then based on the influence curves the target parameter requirements of the pulse generator are proposed. Finally the appropriate parameters of the biconical structure and the excitation sources are chosen, and the computational result of the electric field in free space is presented. The results are of great value for the design of the hybrid HEMP simulator. (authors)

  16. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  17. Key Design Properties for Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Tan, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    on paper, e-mail, phone and text message, and far too costly. This paper explores the design properties for a shared information infrastructure to exchange information between all parties in the supply chain, commercial parties as well as authorities, which is called a Shipping Information Pipeline...... Infrastructures. The paper argues why the previous attempts are inadequate to address the issues in the domain of international supply chains. Instead, a different set of key design properties are proposed for the Shipping Information Pipeline. The solution has been developed in collaboration with a network......This paper reports on the use of key design properties for development of a new approach towards a solution for sharing shipping information in the supply chain for international trade. Information exchange in international supply chain is extremely inefficient, rather uncoordinated, based largely...

  18. George's secret key to the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Lucy; Galfard, Christophe; Parsons, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In their bestselling book for young readers, noted physicist Stephen Hawking and his daughter, Lucy, provide a grand and funny adventure that explains fascinating information about our universe, including Dr. Hawking's latest ideas about black holes. It's the story of George, who's taken through the vastness of space by a scientist, his daughter, and their super-computer named Cosmos. George's Secret Key to the Universe was a New York Times bestseller and a selection of Al's Book Club on the Today show.

  19. Key factors of teenagers' mobile advertising acceptance

    OpenAIRE

    Martí Parreño, José; Sanz Blas, Silvia; Ruiz Mafé, Carla; Aldás Manzano, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse key drivers of teenagers’ attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on teenagers’ mobile advertising acceptance. Design/methodology/approach – A proposed model of affective (irritation and entertainment) and cognitive (perceived usefulness) antecedents of attitude toward mobile advertising and its effects on mobile advertising acceptance is analysed. The sample consisted of 355 Spanish teenagers. The model was tested us...

  20. Network layer security and secret key authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Llovet Ureña, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this project is to update Von Mann Young Rhee’s book, ‘Internet Security: Cryptographic Principles, Algorithms and Protocols’ which is about network layer security and secret key authentication. It is an extremely important aspect in modern life to have security in the network to protect our information and prevent eavesdroppers or maleficent programs, for example. This is the reason why this project aims to update these kinds of algorithms and hash functions. This project uses me...

  1. Final report of APMP.QM-S6: clenbuterol in porcine meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, D. W.-M.; Ho, C.; Yip, Y.-C.

    2016-01-01

    At the CCQM Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) Meeting held in April 2012 and the APMP TCQM Meeting held in November 2012, an APMP supplementary comparison (APMP.QM-S6) on the determination of clenbuterol in porcine meat was supported by the OAWG and APMP TCQM. This comparison was organized by the Government Laboratory, Hong Kong. In order to accommodate a wider participation, a pilot study (APMP.QM-P22) was run in parallel to APMP.QM-S6. This study provided the means for assessing the measurement capabilities for determination of low-polarity measurands in a procedure that requires extraction, clean-up, analytical separation, and selective detection in a food matrix. A total of 7 institutes registered for the supplementary comparison and 6 of them submitted their results. 4 results were included for SCRV calculation. All participating laboratories applied Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (ID-LCMS/MS) technique with clenbuterol-d9 as internal standard spiked for quantitation in this programme. KEY WORDS FOR SEARCH APMP.QM-S6 and Clenbuterol Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Key Research Issues in Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Zhanel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is an emerging pathogen that causes C difficile-associated diarrhea, an important nosocomial infection. Control of this infection remains a challenge, and much needs to be determined about the antimicrobial resistance of the organism, antibiotic stewardship, contamination of the patient environment, and various host factors that determine susceptibility or resistance to infection. A national symposium focusing on C difficile infections, the Clostridium difficile Symposium on Emerging Issues and Research, was hosted on November 23, 2004, by the Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, in partnership with the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This symposium, which aimed to summarize key research issues regarding C difficile infections in Canada, had the following objectives: to provide a forum for learning and discussion about C difficile and its impact on the health of Canadians; to identify the key research issues that should be addressed; and to explore potential research funding opportunities and collaboration. The present report summarizes key research issues identified for C difficile infections in Canada by addressing four major themes: diagnosis and surveillance, infection prevention and control, antibiotic stewardship, and clinical management.

  3. Interactive simulations for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnle, Antje; Rizzoli, Aluna

    2017-05-01

    Secure communication protocols are becoming increasingly important, e.g. for internet-based communication. Quantum key distribution (QKD) allows two parties, commonly called Alice and Bob, to generate a secret sequence of 0s and 1s called a key that is only known to themselves. Classically, Alice and Bob could never be certain that their communication was not compromised by a malicious eavesdropper. Quantum mechanics however makes secure communication possible. The fundamental principle of quantum mechanics that taking a measurement perturbs the system (unless the measurement is compatible with the quantum state) also applies to an eavesdropper. Using appropriate protocols to create the key, Alice and Bob can detect the presence of an eavesdropper by errors in their measurements. As part of the QuVis Quantum Mechanics Visualisation Project, we have developed a suite of four interactive simulations that demonstrate the basic principles of three different QKD protocols. The simulations use either polarised photons or spin 1/2 particles as physical realisations. The simulations and accompanying activities are freely available for use online or download, and run on a wide range of devices including tablets and PCs. Evaluation with students over three years was used to refine the simulations and activities. Preliminary studies show that the refined simulations and activities help students learn the basic principles of QKD at both the introductory and advanced undergraduate levels.

  4. New Security Results on Encrypted Key Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresson, Emmanuel; Chevassut, Olivier; Pointcheval, David

    2003-12-15

    Schemes for encrypted key exchange are designed to provide two entities communicating over a public network, and sharing a (short) password only, with a session key to be used to achieve data integrity and/or message confidentiality. An example of a very efficient and ''elegant'' scheme for encrypted key exchange considered for standardization by the IEEE P1363 Standard working group is AuthA. This scheme was conjectured secure when the symmetric-encryption primitive is instantiated via either a cipher that closely behaves like an ''ideal cipher,'' or a mask generation function that is the product of the message with a hash of the password. While the security of this scheme in the former case has been recently proven, the latter case was still an open problem. For the first time we prove in this paper that this scheme is secure under the assumptions that the hash function closely behaves like a random oracle and that the computational Diffie-Hellman problem is difficult. Furthermore, since Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks have become a common threat we enhance AuthA with a mechanism to protect against them.

  5. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  6. Key competencies and characteristics of accommodation managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Tourism employees are trained by various higher education institutions, yet industry still voices its concern regarding the readiness of potential employees entering the tourism industry. Research purpose: This article aims to critically assess the key competencies and personal characteristics needed by accommodation managers in the South Africa tourism industry based on the opinions of the industry itself. Motivation for the study: Tertiary institutions in South Africa educate potential tourism employees in a variety of skills and knowledge. However, some employers are still of the opinion that these students are not adequately prepared for the demand of the industry. Therefore, the tourism industry feels that students are not employable, which creates challenges for students, tertiary institutions and the tourism industry. Research, design, approach and method: It was achieved by collecting 254 self-administered questionnaires from graded tourism accommodation establishments in South Africa. Main findings: Nine key competencies needed by accommodation managers were identified and the importance of certain personal characteristics was evident. Novel to this field of research, the latter was rated more important than the nine key competencies that hold implications for training institutions and the industry. Practical/managerial implications: The implication of the study is that accommodation managers should be trained in a different manner and higher education institutions should revise their training methods and selection strategies to address the needs of industry. Contribution: Effective selection and training of accommodation managers will improve not only business success but also contribute to the success and growth of the tourism industry.

  7. Social Comparison Seeking: Providing General Comparison Curtails Local Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin T.; Zell, Ethan; Schurtz, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Past research shows that people use local social comparison information more than general social comparison information when both are given (Zell & Alicke, 2010). The present studies examined the extent to which people seek local comparisons when they have already received general comparison information. In Study 1, students received their…

  8. Key figures of renewable energies - Release 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrier, Thelma; Collet, Isabelle; Louati, Sami; Reynaud, Didier; Monnoyer-Smith, Laurence

    2015-12-01

    This publication gathers numerous graphs and tables of data and statistics on renewable energies. After a presentation of various data which characterize and illustrate the share of renewable energies in the French energy mix, production and consumption, the production of renewable energies in metropolitan France and in overseas territories, data are presented regarding renewable hydraulics, wind energy, photovoltaic and thermal solar energy, heat pumps, solid biomass, waste-based energy production, biogas and bio-fuels. The next chapters propose an overview of the present situation and of objectives for 2020, and European and international comparisons

  9. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  10. Soil fauna: key to new carbon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filser, Juliane; Faber, Jack H.; Tiunov, Alexei V.; Brussaard, Lijbert; Frouz, Jan; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Uvarov, Alexei V.; Berg, Matty P.; Lavelle, Patrick; Loreau, Michel; Wall, Diana H.; Querner, Pascal; Eijsackers, Herman; José Jiménez, Juan

    2016-11-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is key to maintaining soil fertility, mitigating climate change, combatting land degradation, and conserving above- and below-ground biodiversity and associated soil processes and ecosystem services. In order to derive management options for maintaining these essential services provided by soils, policy makers depend on robust, predictive models identifying key drivers of SOM dynamics. Existing SOM models and suggested guidelines for future SOM modelling are defined mostly in terms of plant residue quality and input and microbial decomposition, overlooking the significant regulation provided by soil fauna. The fauna controls almost any aspect of organic matter turnover, foremost by regulating the activity and functional composition of soil microorganisms and their physical-chemical connectivity with soil organic matter. We demonstrate a very strong impact of soil animals on carbon turnover, increasing or decreasing it by several dozen percent, sometimes even turning C sinks into C sources or vice versa. This is demonstrated not only for earthworms and other larger invertebrates but also for smaller fauna such as Collembola. We suggest that inclusion of soil animal activities (plant residue consumption and bioturbation altering the formation, depth, hydraulic properties and physical heterogeneity of soils) can fundamentally affect the predictive outcome of SOM models. Understanding direct and indirect impacts of soil fauna on nutrient availability, carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and plant growth is key to the understanding of SOM dynamics in the context of global carbon cycling models. We argue that explicit consideration of soil fauna is essential to make realistic modelling predictions on SOM dynamics and to detect expected non-linear responses of SOM dynamics to global change. We present a decision framework, to be further developed through the activities of KEYSOM, a European COST Action, for when mechanistic SOM models

  11. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper...... investigates the use of key performance indicators as an approach for measuring the success of global product development projects. With the conclusions from a survey and workshop together with observations during a global development project, the need for an alternative approach to measurement than...... in conventional product development is highlighted....

  12. Evolving Systems and Adaptive Key Component Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Balas, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a new framework called Evolving Systems to describe the self-assembly, or autonomous assembly, of actively controlled dynamical subsystems into an Evolved System with a higher purpose. An introduction to Evolving Systems and exploration of the essential topics of the control and stability properties of Evolving Systems is provided. This chapter defines a framework for Evolving Systems, develops theory and control solutions for fundamental characteristics of Evolving Systems, and provides illustrative examples of Evolving Systems and their control with adaptive key component controllers.

  13. Ocean energy: key legal issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Glen; Rochette, Julien; O'Hagan, Anne Marie; De Groot, Jiska; Leroy, Yannick; Soininen, Niko; Salcido, Rachael; Castelos, Montserrat Abad; Jude, Simon; Kerr, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is a novel renewable energy resource being developed as part of the push towards a 'Blue Economy'. The literature on ocean energy has focused on technical, environmental, and, increasingly, social and political aspects. Legal and regulatory factors have received less attention, despite their importance in supporting this new technology and ensuring its sustainable development. In this Issue Brief, we set out some key legal challenges for the development of ocean energy technologies, structured around the following core themes of marine governance: (i) international law; (ii) environmental impacts; (iii) rights and ownership; (iv) consenting processes; and (v) management of marine space and resources. (authors)

  14. Stahlschüssel key to steel

    CERN Document Server

    Wegst, W S

    2016-01-01

    The Key to Steel (Stahlschlüssel/Stahlschluessel) cross reference book will help you to decode / decipher steel designations and find equivalent materials worldwide. The 2016 edition includes more than 70,000 standard designations and trade names from approximately 300 steelmakers and suppliers. Presentation is trilingual: English, French, and German. Materials covered include structural steels, tool steels, valve steels, high temperature steels and alloys, stainless and heat-resisting steels, and more. Standards and designations from 25 countries are cross-referenced.

  15. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    investigates the use of key performance indicators as an approach for measuring the success of global product development projects. With the conclusions from a survey and workshop together with observations during a global development project, the need for an alternative approach to measurement than......The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper...... in conventional product development is highlighted....

  16. Key parameters governing metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yue; Cheng, Wenlong

    2015-10-21

    Engineering metallic nanoparticles constitutes a powerful route to design next-generation electrocatalysts to be used in future energy and environmental industries. In this mini review, we cover recent advances in metallic nanoparticle electrocatalysis, with a focus on understanding how the parameters such as particle sizes, crystalline structures, shapes, compositions, nanoscale alloying and interfaces influence their electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. In addition, this review highlights viable approaches for fabrication of nanoparticle-based electrocatalytic electrodes and discusses their influences on the overall catalytic performances. Finally, we discuss the opportunities and challenges ahead to program these key parameters to achieve highly durable designer electrocatalysts in future.

  17. Local innovation: The key to globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivardhini K. Jha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The round table discussion draws the panellists to weigh in on how multinational enterprises from developed countries are innovating in and for emerging markets, the challenges faced, and lessons learnt. The key takeaways are that MNEs are increasingly innovating for the Indian market, alongside their contribution to global products. They are doing so by developing close relationships with field facing organisations, co-creating with customers, empowering engineers, and taking a clean slate approach to product development. This approach has given them dividends not only in the local market but also in the global market.

  18. 5 keys to business analytics program success

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, John; Green, Brian; Harris, Tracy; Van De Vanter, Kay

    2012-01-01

    With business analytics is becoming increasingly strategic to all types of organizations and with many companies struggling to create a meaningful impact with this emerging technology, this work-based on the combined experience of 10 organizations that display excellence and expertise on the subject-shares the best practices, discusses the management aspects and sociology that drives success, and uncovers the five key aspects behind the success of some of the top business analytics programs in the industry. Readers will learn about numerous topics, including how to create and manage a changing

  19. Noiseless Steganography The Key to Covert Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Desoky, Abdelrahman

    2012-01-01

    Among the features that make Noiseless Steganography: The Key to Covert Communications a first of its kind: The first to comprehensively cover Linguistic Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Graph Steganography The first to comprehensively cover Game Steganography Although the goal of steganography is to prevent adversaries from suspecting the existence of covert communications, most books on the subject present outdated steganography approaches that are detectable by human and/or machine examinations. These approaches often fail because they camouflage data as a detectable noise b

  20. Making Knowledge Actionable: Three Key Translation Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Austin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaders regularly experience pressure to move innovation and change initiatives through their organizations. They face the challenge of transforming organizational changes and innovations from ideas into sustained behavior. In this commentary, I argue that successful implementation requires leaders to engage in a translation process that contains three key translation “moments”. The challenges presented by these translation moments are magnified by the difficulty leaders often have in shifting from one moment to the next. Techniques for handling each translation moment are discussed.

  1. Cryptographic Key Management and Critical Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CSEDS) industry led program (DE-FOA-0000359) entitled "Innovation for Increasing CyberSecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (12CSEDS)," awarded a contract to Sypris Electronics LLC to develop a Cryptographic Key Management System for the smart grid (Scalable Key Management Solutions for Critical Infrastructure Protection). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Sypris Electronics, LLC as a result of that award entered into a CRADA (NFE-11-03562) between ORNL and Sypris Electronics, LLC. ORNL provided its Cyber Security Econometrics System (CSES) as a tool to be modified and used as a metric to address risks and vulnerabilities in the management of cryptographic keys within the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) domain of the electric sector. ORNL concentrated our analysis on the AMI domain of which the National Electric Sector Cyber security Organization Resource (NESCOR) Working Group 1 (WG1) has documented 29 failure scenarios. The computational infrastructure of this metric involves system stakeholders, security requirements, system components and security threats. To compute this metric, we estimated the stakes that each stakeholder associates with each security requirement, as well as stochastic matrices that represent the probability of a threat to cause a component failure and the probability of a component failure to cause a security requirement violation. We applied this model to estimate the security of the AMI, by leveraging the recently established National Institute of Standards and Technology Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7628 guidelines for smart grid security and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 63351, Part 9 to identify the life cycle for cryptographic key management, resulting in a vector that assigned to each stakeholder an estimate of their average loss in terms of dollars per day of system

  2. On the security of a simple three-party key exchange protocol without server's public keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Park, Minkyu; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    Authenticated key exchange protocols are of fundamental importance in securing communications and are now extensively deployed for use in various real-world network applications. In this work, we reveal major previously unpublished security vulnerabilities in the password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol according to Lee and Hwang (2010): (1) the Lee-Hwang protocol is susceptible to a man-in-the-middle attack and thus fails to achieve implicit key authentication; (2) the protocol cannot protect clients' passwords against an offline dictionary attack; and (3) the indistinguishability-based security of the protocol can be easily broken even in the presence of a passive adversary. We also propose an improved password-based authenticated three-party key exchange protocol that addresses the security vulnerabilities identified in the Lee-Hwang protocol.

  3. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  4. Symmetry in the pigeon with sample and comparison stimuli in different locations. II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Melissa; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2015-09-01

    Pigeons were trained on arbitrary (hue-form) and identity (hue-hue and form-form) successive matching with center-key samples and left-key comparisons. Later, they were tested on form-hue (symmetry) probe trials that were structured either in the different-locations fashion as the baseline trials (viz., center-key samples and left-key comparisons) or with a constant location by using center-key samples and center-key comparisons. Three of four pigeons showed symmetry when the probe-trial samples and comparisons appeared in center- and left-key spatial locations, respectively, but none did when both appeared in one (center-key) location. Subsequently, pigeons previously tested with center-key samples and left-key comparisons were tested with those form-hue stimuli shown in the same (center-key) location, and vice versa for the other pigeons. None of the former pigeons showed symmetry on the second test even if they had on the first test. By contrast, two of three pigeons that had not shown symmetry with single-location samples and comparisons did so when those stimuli appeared in different (center- vs. left-key) locations. Taken together, these results show that symmetrical relations between the same, nominal matching stimuli depend on where those stimuli appear in testing vis-à-vis in training and, more generally, confirm that spatial location is part of the functional matching stimuli. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  5. Finite-key analysis for quantum key distribution with weak coherent pulses based on Bernoulli sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-07-01

    An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.

  6. Key attributes of expert NRL referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gavin; O'Connor, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Experiential knowledge of elite National Rugby League (NRL) referees was investigated to determine the key attributes contributing to expert officiating performance. Fourteen current first-grade NRL referees were asked to identify the key attributes they believed contributed to their expert refereeing performance. The modified Delphi method involved a 3-round process of an initial semi-structured interview followed by 2 questionnaires to reach consensus of opinion. The data revealed 25 attributes that were rated as most important that underpin expert NRL refereeing performance. Results illustrate the significance of the cognitive category, with the top 6 ranked attributes all cognitive skills. Of these, the referees ranked decision-making accuracy as the most important attribute, followed by reading the game, communication, game understanding, game management and knowledge of the rules. Player rapport, positioning and teamwork were the top ranked game skill attributes underpinning performance excellence. Expert referees also highlighted a number of psychological attributes (e.g., concentration, composure and mental toughness) that were significant to performance. There were only 2 physiological attributes (fitness, aerobic endurance) that were identified as significant to elite officiating performance. In summary, expert consensus was attained which successfully provided a hierarchy of the most significant attributes of expert NRL refereeing performance.

  7. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Graeme C.

    2016-03-12

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Technical advances make this an exciting time for animal movement studies, with a range of small, reliable data-loggers and transmitters that can record horizontal and vertical movements as well as aspects of physiology and reproductive biology.Forty experts identified key questions in the field of movement ecology.Questions have broad applicability across species, habitats, and spatial scales, and apply to animals in both marine and terrestrial habitats as well as both vertebrates and invertebrates, including birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, insects, and plankton. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. SARS: Key factors in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsin-Chao; Chen, Thai-Form; Chou, Shieu-Ming

    2005-03-01

    This study was conducted at a single hospital selected in Taipei during the SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreak from March to July, 2003 in Taiwan. During this period of time, 104 SARS patients were admitted to the hospital. There were no negative reports related to the selected hospital despite its being located right in the center of an area struck by the epidemic. The purpose of this study was to identify the key factors enabling the hospital to survive SARS unscathed. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with the nursing directors and nursing managers of the SARS units, along with a review of relevant hospital documents. The five key elements identified as survival factors during this SARS crisis are as follows: 1. good control of timing for crisis management, 2. careful decision-making, 3. thorough implementation, 4. effective communication, and 5. trust between management and employees. The results of this study reconfirmed the selected hospital as a model for good crisis management during the SARS epidemic.

  9. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  10. Key Lake, a model of Canadian development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runnalls, O.J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Canada ranks among the world's top four countries in terms of measured, indicated, and inferred uranium resources. Since 1984, Canada has been the world's largest uranium producer providing some 30% of the world's total. An important reason for this strong position is related to the discovery of high-grade near-surface uranium deposits in northern Saskatchewan in 1968 and subsequently. The history of the discovery of one such deposit near Key Lake made by the German-controlled Uranerz Exploration and Mining Limited is recounted briefly. The Key Lake mine became operational in 1983 and currently is the largest uranium-producing facility in the world. At present, less than 20% of the country's annual uranium output of approximately 11,000 tonnes U is required to provide fuel for the domestic nuclear power program. The excess, more than 9000 tonnes U annually, is planned to be exported abroad, primarily to customers in Western Europe, Eastern Asia and the United States. Given its strong resource base, large-scale exports from Canada should continue well into the next century. (orig.) [de

  11. A Recommended Set of Key Arctic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitski, D.; Druckenmiller, M.; Fetterer, F. M.; Gerst, M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kenney, M. A.; Meier, W.; Overland, J. E.; Stroeve, J.; Trainor, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is an interconnected and environmentally sensitive system of ice, ocean, land, atmosphere, ecosystems, and people. From local to pan-Arctic scales, the area has already undergone major changes in physical and societal systems and will continue at a pace that is greater than twice the global average. Key Arctic indicators can quantify these changes. Indicators serve as the bridge between complex information and policy makers, stakeholders, and the general public, revealing trends and information people need to make important socioeconomic decisions. This presentation evaluates and compiles more than 70 physical, biological, societal and economic indicators into an approachable summary that defines the changing Arctic. We divided indicators into "existing," "in development," "possible," and "aspirational". In preparing a paper on Arctic Indicators for a special issue of the journal Climatic Change, our group established a set of selection criteria to identify indicators to specifically guide decision-makers in their responses to climate change. A goal of the analysis is to select a manageable composite list of recommended indicators based on sustained, reliable data sources with known user communities. The selected list is also based on the development of a conceptual model that identifies components and processes critical to our understanding of the Arctic region. This list of key indicators is designed to inform the plans and priorities of multiple groups such as the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), and the Arctic Council.

  12. 78 FR 33221 - Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Annual Swim Around Key West, Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico; Key... the island of Key West, Florida during the Annual Swim around Key West on June 8, 2013. The event... clockwise around the island of Key West, Florida. The special local regulation is necessary to provide for...

  13. Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O' Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I.

    2010-10-01

    This paper provides a high-level international comparison of methods and key results from both operating practice and integration analysis, based on an informal International Energy Agency Task 25: Large-scale Wind Integration.

  14. Dynamic test of the ITER blanket key and ceramic insulated pad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khomyakov, S.; Sysoev, G.; Strebkov, Yu.; Kucherov, A.; Ioki, K.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic testing of the blanket module's key integrated into ITER vacuum vessel portion has been performed in 2008 to investigate its capability to react the electro-magnetic (EM) loads. The preliminary analysis showed the large dynamic amplification factor (DAF) of the reactions because of technological gaps between the blanket module and key. Shock load may yield the bronze pads, which protect the blanket electrical insulation from damage. However the dynamic analysis of such particularly non-linear system needs an experimental ground and confirmation. Toward this end, as well as demonstration of the key reliability, the special test facility has been made, and the full-scale mock-up of the inboard intermodular key was tested. So as not to scale non-linear dynamic parameters, 1-ton mass was built on the single flexible support. The key was welded in a 60-mm thick steel plate modeled with a fragment of the VV. The different gaps were set in between the bronze pad of the key and the mass shock worker. This system (supplemented with some additional constraints) has natural oscillations like as the 4-ton module built on four flexible supports. Thus the most critical radial torque might be modeled with a straight force. The objectives of the test were as follows: dynamic response, DAF and damping factor determination; measurement of the strain oscillations in the key's base and in the weld seam; comparison of the measured data with computation results. The paper will present the analytical grounds of the testing conditions, test facility description, analytical adaptation of the facility, experimental results, its comparison with analysis and discussion, and guidelines for the next experimental phase.

  15. Key figures for the environment - Issue 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-10-01

    Commented graphs and data tables give an overview of several indicators regarding the environment in France in 2014. A first part addresses natural media and biodiversity by commenting several indicators related to climate and greenhouse effect, air pollution and pollutants, water pollution (underground waters, rivers, rivers flowing to the sea, marine environment), soil pollution by organic materials and soil erosion, and biodiversity (birds, protected areas, humid zones). The second part addresses natural resource management and use: space consumption, material consumption, water consumption, energy consumption, consumption of biological resources (forests, fishery resources), and wastes. The third part addresses the economy of the environment and the evolution of behaviours: environmental concerns and expectations of French people, forest fire risks and natural risks, public actions to be performed and environmental concern of the French population, jobs and expenses in the environmental sector, evolution of transport modes, practices in agriculture and in industry. Some brief European comparisons are proposed, as well as a glossary

  16. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities: Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  17. Key Nuclear Verification Priorities - Safeguards and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2010-01-01

    In addressing nuclear verification priorities, we should look beyond the current safeguards system. Non-proliferation, which the safeguards system underpins, is not an end in itself, but an essential condition for achieving and maintaining nuclear disarmament. Effective safeguards are essential for advancing disarmament, and safeguards issues, approaches and techniques are directly relevant to the development of future verification missions. The extent to which safeguards challenges are successfully addressed - or otherwise - will impact not only on confidence in the safeguards system, but on the effectiveness of, and confidence in, disarmament verification. To identify the key nuclear verification priorities, we need to consider the objectives of verification, and the challenges to achieving these. The strategic objective of IAEA safeguards might be expressed as: To support the global nuclear non-proliferation regime by: - Providing credible assurance that states are honouring their safeguards commitments - thereby removing a potential motivation to proliferate; and - Early detection of misuse of nuclear material and technology - thereby deterring proliferation by the risk of early detection, enabling timely intervention by the international community. Or to summarise - confidence-building, detection capability, and deterrence. These will also be essential objectives for future verification missions. The challenges to achieving these involve a mix of political, technical and institutional dimensions. Confidence is largely a political matter, reflecting the qualitative judgment of governments. Clearly assessments of detection capability and deterrence have a major impact on confidence. Detection capability is largely thought of as 'technical', but also involves issues of legal authority, as well as institutional issues. Deterrence has both political and institutional aspects - including judgments on risk of detection and risk of enforcement action being taken. The

  18. Talent Management: Working lines and key processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Talent management represents today a challenge for companies, since the contribution of value comes increasingly from the area of intangible capital. The current paradigm of expanding technology and competitive dynamics, makes talent management that companies realize a critical success factor in today's markets. However, there is no generally accepted theoretical framework and empirical studies sufficient to demonstrate the role of talent management in creating competitive advantage. Therefore, the first objective of this paper is to analyze the evolution of talent management, to understand more deeply their fundamental dimensions: people and key positions in the organization. From these dimensions, as a second objective of the research is proposed to classify and characterize the literature about four alternative ways of study, according to the treatment they receive such dimensions and thus improve understanding of the role of talent management in business strategyDesign/methodology: To develop this paper we have selected the major contributions to the field of talent management, with particular emphasis on certain meta-analysis very quoted by the scientific community (Lewis and Heckman, 2006; Mellahi and Collings, 2009; Tarique and Schuler, 2010. In addition we have select additional papers published in high impact journals seen in ABI/Inform, Science Direct, SCOPUS, and EBSCO (Business Source Complete, through the keywords "Gestion del talento", "Plan de Gestion del Talento" and "Modelo de Gestion de Talento" and its English equivalent "Talent Management ", "Talent Management Plans/Systems" and "Talent Management Framework/Model ".Findings: From this review, we extracted the existence of different ways of understanding and talent management apply in organizations and even different understandings of what is talent itself. For this, we describe the basic dimensions of talent management (people and key positions and four alternative

  19. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  20. NTP comparison process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for the concept definition phase of the program involves requirements definition, system definition, and consistent concept definition. The requirements definition process involves obtaining a complete understanding of the system requirements based on customer needs, mission scenarios, and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) operating characteristics. A system functional analysis is performed to provide a comprehensive traceability and verification of top-level requirements down to detailed system specifications and provides significant insight into the measures of system effectiveness to be utilized in system evaluation. The second key element in the process is the definition of system concepts to meet the requirements. This part of the process involves engine system and reactor contractor teams to develop alternative NTP system concepts that can be evaluated against specific attributes, as well as a reference configuration against which to compare system benefits and merits. Quality function deployment (QFD), as an excellent tool within Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, can provide the required structure and provide a link to the voice of the customer in establishing critical system qualities and their relationships. The third element of the process is the consistent performance comparison. The comparison process involves validating developed concept data and quantifying system merits through analysis, computer modeling, simulation, and rapid prototyping of the proposed high risk NTP subsystems. The maximum amount possible of quantitative data will be developed and/or validated to be utilized in the QFD evaluation matrix. If upon evaluation of a new concept or its associated subsystems determine to have substantial merit, those features will be incorporated into the reference configuration for subsequent system definition and comparison efforts.

  1. THE EFFECT OF TEACHING WITHIN-TEXT KEY WORDS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN READING COMPREHENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Khodasenas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words on students’ performance on reading comprehension of TOEFL among Iranian EFL learners. To carry out the research, 60 Iranian EFL learners, who participated in a TOEFL preparation course, were selected as the participants of the study. Afterward they were randomly assigned into experimental and comparison groups. The experimental group was given a treatment including within-text key word synonyms, opposites and their translations, while the comparison group was given a placebo. To collect the required data, two instruments (a pre-test, and a post-test were administered to both groups during the experimentation. Subsequently, students’ scores were collected through the administration of different tests and the results were statistically analyzed. The results of these analyses revealed that the experimental group outperformed the comparison group and thus, it was concluded that teaching within-text key word synonyms, opposites and related words can improve the reading comprehension ability and general proficiency of EFL language learners.

  2. Twelve key nutritional issues in bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Ronan; Huber, Olivier; Azagury, Dan E; Pichard, Claude

    2016-02-01

    In morbidly obese patients, i.e. body mass index ≥35, bariatric surgery is considered the only effective durable weight-loss therapy. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGBP), laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) are associated with risks of nutritional deficiencies and malnutrition. Therefore, preoperative nutritional assessment and correction of vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies, as well as long-term postoperative nutritional follow-up, are advised. Dietetic counseling is mandatory during the first year, optional later. Planned and structured physical exercise should be systematically promoted to maintain muscle mass and bone health. In this review, twelve key perioperative nutritional issues are raised with focus on LRYGBP and LSG procedures, the most common current bariatric procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  3. Climate Watchlist: Key issues for Cancun negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandani, Achala; Siegele, Linda

    2010-11-15

    We must mitigate and adapt to climate change. On this, the international community is agreed. But exactly how to do that is still up for debate. There were high hopes that last year's UN climate talks in Copenhagen would deliver a legally binding agreement for action on climate change. But the outcome — the Copenhagen Accord — was instead a political 'statement of intent' that fell significantly short of expectations. Now, after a year of interim meetings and several negotiating texts, parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are gathering in Cancun, Mexico, to try again. Their success will largely depend on settling disputes — particularly between the developed and developing world — about six key issues: shared vision; adaptation; climate finance; technology transfer; reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation; and post-2012 emissions reduction targets.

  4. Key requirements for future control room functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornelli, Carlo; Zuelli, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    system operation as well as experiences and results from other European projects. On the other hand, it analyses what requirements for future control rooms arise from the ELECTRA proposed control solutions. Hence, different points of view are taken into account. The ELECTRA Use Cases (UCs...... requirements for the future control centres discussed within this report. The analysis of what happened before the European system disturbance occurred on 4th November 2006 and of the existing trends by vendors helped T8.1 in the definition of the requirements for the future control centres. Volunteer......This internal report provides the key requirements for the future control centres. R8.1 represents the starting point of WP8 activities and wants to achieve a double objective. On the one hand it collects general requirements on future control centres emerging from the general trends in power...

  5. Biocatalysis--key to sustainable industrial chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing trends to process improvements, cost reductions and increasing quality, safety, health and environment requirements of industrial chemical transformations have strengthened the translation of global biocatalysis research work into industrial applications. One focus has been on biocatalytic single-step reactions with one or two substrates, the identification of bottlenecks and molecular as well as engineering approaches to overcome these bottlenecks. Robust industrial procedures have been established along classes of biocatalytic single-step reactions. Multi-step reactions and multi-component reactions (MCRs) enable a bottom-up approach with biocatalytic reactions working together in one compartment and recations hindering each other within different compartments or steps. The understanding of the catalytic functions of known and new enzymes is key for the development of new sustainable chemical transformations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Teamwork the key to good patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    In a year when, with the inception of the new Clinical Commissioning Groups, the way that healthcare is procured and delivered will see radical changes, this month's HefmA 2013 National Conference & Exhibition will have as its theme, 'Many Players, One Goal: The Patient'. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie reports, among the wide-ranging estates and facilities topics set for discussion will be 'Getting the patient environment right'; 'Dementia Building for the Future'; 'Waterborne Infections; Lessons Learned'; 'Incorporating lean thinking into design', and the key challenges faced by the estates and facilities sector. The keynote address, touching on a wide range of issues common to all large organisations, will be given by one of the best known 'women in football', and will also reflect particularly on the importance of teamwork.

  7. Adaptation to climate change. Key terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, E.; Tirpak, D.

    2006-05-01

    Adaptation has become an important issue in international and domestic discussions on climate change. Numerous terms and concepts have come into common usage as a result of IPCC reports, discussions in the context of the UNFCCC and dialogs by the climate community at large. This paper examines the key adaptation terms and concepts used by the climate change community and other institutions. Conflicts and contradictions are noted with the aim of sensitizing different bodies to the differences, but particularly the Parties to the Convention and experts participating in the IPCC. Given the need to promote a common understanding among various stakeholders and the potential financial implications of various definitions, it appears important for the IPCC and the UNFCCC to work toward common definitions, at least for a core set of terms and concepts

  8. Public key cryptography from weaker assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zottarel, Angela

    in the case the adversary is granted access to partial information about the secret state of the primitive. To do so, we work in an extension of the standard black-box model, a new framework where possible leakage from the secret state is taken into account. In particular, we give the first construction......This dissertation is focused on the construction of public key cryptographic primitives and on the relative security analysis in a meaningful theoretic model. This work takes two orthogonal directions. In the first part, we study cryptographic constructions preserving their security properties also...... of signature schemes in a very general leakage model known as auxiliary input. We also study how leakage influences the notion of simulation-based security, comparing leakage tolerance to adaptive security in the UC-framework. In the second part of this dissertation, we turn our attention to hardness...

  9. Security of practical quantum key distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Nitin

    2015-02-24

    This thesis deals with practical security aspects of quantum key distribution (QKD) systems. At the heart of the theoretical model of any QKD system lies a quantum-mechanical security proof that guarantees perfect secrecy of messages - based on certain assumptions. However, in practice, deviations between the theoretical model and the physical implementation could be exploited by an attacker to break the security of the system. These deviations may arise from technical limitations and operational imperfections in the physical implementation and/or unrealistic assumptions and insufficient constraints in the theoretical model. In this thesis, we experimentally investigate in depth several such deviations. We demonstrate the resultant vulnerabilities via proof-of-principle attacks on a commercial QKD system from ID Quantique. We also propose countermeasures against the investigated loopholes to secure both existing and future QKD implementations.

  10. Key world energy statistics. 2004 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Key World Energy Statistics from the IEA contains timely, clearly-presented data on the supply, transformation and consumption of all major energy sources. The IEA energy balances and statistics databases on CD-Rom provide annual historical energy data extracted from four IEA/OECD data bases: energy statistics and energy balances, which contain data for most of the OECD countries for the years 1960 to 2002 and energy statistics and balances for more than 100 non-OECD countries for the years 1971 to 2002. The CDs and/or hard-copies and PDFs can be purchased individually: Energy Balances of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of OECD Countries 2004; Energy Balances of Non OECD Countries 2004; Energy Statistics of Non-OECD Countries 2004

  11. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Fernandez, Alexandra; Kouwer, Paul H J

    2016-05-16

    Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  13. Key Developments in Ionic Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Alvarez Fernandez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid crystals are materials that combine the classes of liquid crystals and ionic liquids. The first one is based on the multi-billion-dollar flat panel display industry, whilst the latter quickly developed in the past decades into a family of highly-tunable non-volatile solvents. The combination yields materials with a unique set of properties, but also with many challenges ahead. In this review, we provide an overview of the key concepts in ionic liquid crystals, particularly from a molecular perspective. What are the important molecular parameters that determine the phase behavior? How should they be introduced into the molecules? Finally, which other tools does one have to realize specific properties in the material?

  14. Risk management of key issues of FPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Sun, Hai

    2012-12-01

    Risk analysis of key systems have become a growing topic late of because of the development of offshore structures. Equipment failures of offloading system and fire accidents were analyzed based on the floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) features. Fault tree analysis (FTA), and failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) methods were examined based on information already researched on modules of relex reliability studio (RRS). Equipment failures were also analyzed qualitatively by establishing a fault tree and Boolean structure function based on the shortage of failure cases, statistical data, and risk control measures examined. Failure modes of fire accident were classified according to the different areas of fire occurrences during the FMEA process, using risk priority number (RPN) methods to evaluate their severity rank. The qualitative analysis of FTA gave the basic insight of forming the failure modes of FPSO offloading, and the fire FMEA gave the priorities and suggested processes. The research has practical importance for the security analysis problems of FPSO.

  15. Low-Power Public Key Cryptography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEAVER,CHERYL L.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.; HAMILTON,VICTORIA A.; SCHROEPPEL,RICHARD C.; GONZALES,RITA A.; MILLER,RUSSELL D.; THOMAS,EDWARD V.

    2000-11-01

    This report presents research on public key, digital signature algorithms for cryptographic authentication in low-powered, low-computation environments. We assessed algorithms for suitability based on their signature size, and computation and storage requirements. We evaluated a variety of general purpose and special purpose computing platforms to address issues such as memory, voltage requirements, and special functionality for low-powered applications. In addition, we examined custom design platforms. We found that a custom design offers the most flexibility and can be optimized for specific algorithms. Furthermore, the entire platform can exist on a single Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) or can be integrated with commercially available components to produce the desired computing platform.

  16. Altruity: Key to the Fight Against Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Kourilsky

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of altruity and illustrates its philosophical and practical importance in the fight against poverty. Altruity –a highly specific form of rational altruism– is the duty that comes with freedom. The individual duty of altruity is the necessary counterpart of the right to individual freedoms. It is, by its very nature, distinct from (though complementary to generosity, and devoid of any expectation of reciprocity (while not excluding it. The idea of altruity is the cornerstone of a theory of individual responsibility, and of a theory of justice, which provide a conceptual framework for the struggle against poverty. And because it is only meaningful if implemented with a pre-defined method, it also provides a framework for action, as the FACTS Initiative has shown. Altruity thus emerges as one of the keys to the fight against poverty.

  17. Key Lake Mining Corporation metallurgical complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendrum, F.C.

    1984-02-01

    The Key Lake uranium mine is located in Saskatchewan, 550 km northeast of Saskatoon. It began operations in 1983, and is licensed and regulated by both Saskatchewan government agencies and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board. This report examines the metallurgical processes used at the mill and discusses the spills that occurred in the first four months the mine was in operation. It finds that all spills of an acidic nature in the mill were small amounts in the CCD or solution pretreatment sections. Contingency procedures are in place and sumps are capable of handling spills. The only major change in design contemplated will be converting the secondary crushing from the use of an impact crusher to the use of a semi-autogeneous grinding mill. The monitoring program set out by the AECB and Saskatchewan Environment is thorough. It monitors effluents and water pathways, and includes aquatic biota and sediments. Air monitoring is also required by Saskatchewan Environment

  18. The Language of Comparisons: Communicating about Percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Polito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While comparisons between percentages or rates appear frequently in journalism and advertising, and are an essential component of quantitative writing, many students fail to understand precisely what percentages mean, and lack fluency with the language used for comparisons. After reviewing evidence demonstrating this weakness, this experience-based perspective lays out a framework for teaching the language of comparisons in a structured way, and illustrates it with several authentic examples that exemplify mistaken or misleading uses of such numbers. The framework includes three common types of erroneous or misleading quantitative writing: the missing comparison, where a key number is omitted; the apples-to-pineapples comparison, where two subtly incomparable rates are presented; and the implied fallacy, where an invalid quantitative conclusion is left to the reader to infer.

  19. Coral recruitment patterns in the Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Moulding

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines scleractinian zooxanthellate coral recruitment patterns in the Florida Keys to determine if differences in density or community composition exist between regions.From July to September 2002,nine patch reefs,three in each of the upper,middle and lower Keys,were surveyed for coral recruits (colonies Se examina los patrones de reclutamiento de corales escleractinios zooxantelados en los Cayos de la Florida para determinar si existen diferencias en densidad o composición de la comunidad en diferentes regiones.Entre julio y setiembre del 2002,se inventariaron los reclutas (colonias de <5 cm de diámetrousando cuadrantes y transectos al azar en nueve "parches "arrecifales:tres en los cayos del norte,tres en los del medio y tres en los del sur.Todos fueron numerados,medidos e identificados a nivel de género.Se observaron catorce géneros:entre cinco y 13 por sitio.Las densidades tuvieron un ámbito de 6.29 ±1.92 (promedio ±DSa 39.08 ±4.53 reclutas m-2, con diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre sitios y entre regiones.La densidad de reclutas en los cayos del norte fue significativamente menor que en los demás.Los cayos del norte tuvieron menor diversidad y diferente distribución de tamaños de reclutas.La mayoría de los reclutas eran de especies de escleractinios no masivas,las cuales contribuyen relativamente poco al proceso de crecimiento del arrecife,algo parecido a lo informado en otros estudios. Se encontraron menos reclutas de especies masivas en los cayos del norte.El patrón de reclutamiento en los arrecifes de los cayos del norte podría inhibir potencialmente la recuperación tras "impactos "y perturbaciones.

  20. Several Key Features of Marriage in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Hamdi Podvorica

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper titled “Several key features of marriage in Kosovo”, I have made efforts to address the matrimony, as an important societal and legal concept, in the light of positive law in Kosovo. In short terms, I have addressed the historical development of marriage in general, from the period of promiscuity until today, and I have emphasized key features of marriage in various time periods, only to comprehend better the ways of development of marriage in time and space. A special emphasis is put on the essential (material conditions of marital union. The paper provides sufficient reasons for which the positive law in Kosovo has provided on the free expression of will of spouses; opposite sexes; the age threshold; entry into matrimony before a competent state authority, and under a procedure provided by law, as substantial conditions for entering a valid matrimony. Sufficient room is allowed also for the treatment of consequences and responsibilities of various entities if marriage is developed without obeying substantial conditions as provided by law. Due to the nature of the paper, formal conditions for entering matrimony are not addressed. The right to enter marriage and establish a family under provided legal conditions is guaranteed to every Kosovo citizen, as a substantial right. The marriage is a basic cell of the family, and as such, it is protected by the state and society. Apart from normative and sociological methods, I have also used the historical method in developing this paper. The purpose was to discover several marriage features, which used to exist, and do not anymore, and also underline some new features, which nowadays form the pillars of the marriage.

  1. Cycling hypoxia: A key feature of the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiels, Carine; Tellier, Céline; Feron, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    A compelling body of evidence indicates that most human solid tumors contain hypoxic areas. Hypoxia is the consequence not only of the chaotic proliferation of cancer cells that places them at distance from the nearest capillary but also of the abnormal structure of the new vasculature network resulting in transient blood flow. Hence two types of hypoxia are observed in tumors: chronic and cycling (intermittent) hypoxia. Most of the current work aims at understanding the role of chronic hypoxia in tumor growth, response to treatment and metastasis. Only recently, cycling hypoxia, with spatial and temporal fluctuations in oxygen levels, has emerged as another key feature of the tumor environment that triggers different responses in comparison to chronic hypoxia. Either type of hypoxia is associated with distinct effects not only in cancer cells but also in stromal cells. In particular, cycling hypoxia has been demonstrated to favor, to a higher extent than chronic hypoxia, angiogenesis, resistance to anti-cancer treatments, intratumoral inflammation and tumor metastasis. These review details these effects as well as the signaling pathway it triggers to switch on specific transcriptomic programs. Understanding the signaling pathways through which cycling hypoxia induces these processes that support the development of an aggressive cancer could convey to the emergence of promising new cancer treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploration of the Future – a Key to Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatroslav Zovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history people were fascinated and curious about the future. The future was, and still is seen as a key for prosperous development in all aspects of the society. As such, new discipline is developed – future studies.This paper discusses the discipline of future studies and its role in the society and science. Future studies are analyzed in the context of sustainable development. It is argued that future studies and sustainable development are complementary in nature. Based on analysis of most developed countries in the world, that spend the greatest portion of their budget on research, development and science in comparison to the rest of the world, there is a conclusive link between investments in research, development and science, and the recognition of the importance of thinking about the future. Those countries started to formalize their future orientation in many respected research centres and universities through their educational programs and research. That situation poses the need for other, less well off countries, to follow up.

  3. Tight finite-key analysis for passive decoy-state quantum key distribution under general attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chun; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2014-05-01

    For quantum key distribution (QKD) using spontaneous parametric-down-conversion sources (SPDCSs), the passive decoy-state protocol has been proved to be efficiently close to the theoretical limit of an infinite decoy-state protocol. In this paper, we apply a tight finite-key analysis for the passive decoy-state QKD using SPDCSs. Combining the security bound based on the uncertainty principle with the passive decoy-state protocol, a concise and stringent formula for calculating the key generation rate for QKD using SPDCSs is presented. The simulation shows that the secure distance under our formula can reach up to 182 km when the number of sifted data is 1010. Our results also indicate that, under the same deviation of statistical fluctuation due to finite-size effects, the passive decoy-state QKD with SPDCSs can perform as well as the active decoy-state QKD with a weak coherent source.

  4. Cost comparisons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    How much does the LHC cost? And how much does this represent in other currencies? Below we present a table showing some comparisons with the cost of other projects. Looking at the figures, you will see that the cost of the LHC can be likened to that of three skyscrapers, or two seasons of Formula 1 racing! One year's budget of a single large F1 team is comparable to the entire materials cost of the ATLAS or CMS experiments.   Please note that all the figures are rounded for ease of reading.    CHF € $   LHC 4.6 billions 3 billions  4 billions   Space Shuttle Endeavour (NASA) 1.9 billion 1.3 billion 1.7 billion   Hubble Space Telescope (cost at launch – NASA/...

  5. Decision Trajectories in Dementia Care Networks: Decisions and Related Key Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-van de Ven, Leontine; Smits, Carolien; Oldewarris, Karen; Span, Marijke; Jukema, Jan; Eefsting, Jan; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra

    2017-10-01

    This prospective multiperspective study provides insight into the decision trajectories of people with dementia by studying the decisions made and related key events. This study includes three waves of interviews, conducted between July 2010 and July 2012, with 113 purposefully selected respondents (people with beginning to advanced stages of dementia and their informal and professional caregivers) completed in 12 months (285 interviews). Our multilayered qualitative analysis consists of content analysis, timeline methods, and constant comparison. Four decision themes emerged-managing daily life, arranging support, community living, and preparing for the future. Eight key events delineate the decision trajectories of people with dementia. Decisions and key events differ between people with dementia living alone and living with a caregiver. Our study clarifies that decisions relate not only to the disease but to living with the dementia. Individual differences in decision content and sequence may effect shared decision-making and advance care planning.

  6. An oral epidemiological comparison of Chinese and New Zealand adults in 2 key age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Songlin; Thomson, William Murray

    2018-04-01

    To use recent national survey data to compare dentition status and oral diseases in China and New Zealand (NZ), with a particular focus on differences by sex and education level. We undertook secondary analysis of representative data from oral health surveys conducted in 2009 in Sichuan (China) and NZ. Both surveys had an oral examination component and collected detailed demographic data. Socioeconomic position in this analysis was represented by the highest level of education completed. Participants were allocated to 1 of 3 comparable ordinal categories of years of education (primary, middle or tertiary). Analyses used survey weights. The proportion of Chinese who had been educated to only primary level was 3 times higher than that among their NZ counterparts, and the proportion with a tertiary education was correspondingly lower. In the 35-44 age group, the dentate proportions were similar, although the mean number of teeth was higher in China than in NZ. There were substantial differences in dental caries experience, with the mean DMFT in NZ being almost 3 times that observed in China. New Zealanders had more filled teeth, but the prevalence of 1+ missing teeth was lower. Periodontitis was more common in the NZ sample than in the Chinese one, although the extent of bleeding on probing was almost 3 times higher among the latter. For the 65-74 age group, there were significant differences in dentition status, with greater tooth retention among Chinese people. There were also significant differences in dental caries experience, with Chinese 65- to 74-year-olds having more decayed teeth but fewer filled or missing teeth, and lower DMFT scores, on average. Periodontal health was better among the New Zealanders. There were notable differences by sex and education level. The differences observed in this study provide strong support for using broader sociocultural models of oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Comparison of Key Concepts in Data Analytics and Data Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Kirby; Rague, Brian; Wolthuis, Stuart L.; Sambasivam, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    This research study provides an examination of the relatively new fields of Data Analytics and Data Science. We compare word rates in Data Analytics and Data Science documents to determine which concepts are mentioned most often. The most frequent concept in both fields is "data." The word rate for "data" is more than twice the…

  8. Key Competencies in Higher Education: A Comparison of Two Historically Female Colleges in Hampden, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matosky Szmyt, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    This research study solicited the competencies that leaders self-identify as critical to their success within their current college and to the survival of two historically female-centric colleges. These two colleges made decisions that allowed them to continue to exist as colleges: albeit one female and one co-ed. There is relatively limited…

  9. Key aspects about education for refugee children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Jesús Vega Pascual

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This presentation entitled «Key Aspects about Education for Refugee Children:Refugee Camp Situation», is based on the 2003 UNHCR Guidelines on Education and highlights the relevance of the education even in situations of emergency and crisis, interms of protection and psychosocial well-being of children. It also mentions key issues to consider when working with refugees, internally displaced people, asylum-seekers,stateless and other populations of concen to UNHCR. Aspects such as refugee children’s rights, UNHCR policy commitments to education, participation of refugees and their communities in the design, establishement and implementation of education programmes, specially in emergencies, will be dealt with in this presentation. It will alsomentions topics such as the school drop out, education for vulnerable groups and the need for promoting a gender sentitive approach, bearing in mind that the hard experience of exile, the changes of family structure, the ethnic, cultural, religious and legal differences are key when working with this populationEsta presentación titulada "Consideraciones esenciales sobre la educación de los niños refugiados: la situación en los campos de refugiados", está basada en las Directrices del ACNUR sobre Eduación de 2003, y pretende resaltar la importancia de la educación en las situaciones de refugiados, incluso en situaciones de emergencia o crisis, y cómo ésta juega en favor de la protección y del bienestar psicosocial de los niños. Se mencionan las peculiaridades más relevantes que deben tenerse en cuenta cuando se trabaja con refugiados, desplazados internos, solicitantes de asilo, apátridas y otras poblaciones de las que se ocupa el ACNUR. Se verán aspectos como los derechos de los niños refugiados, los compromisos del Alto Comisionado en materia de Educación, la participación de los refugiados y sus comunidades para diseñar, establecer e impartir programas de educación especialmente

  10. On-Going Comparison of Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.; Bennett, R.G.; Dixon, B.W.; Herring, J.S.; Shropshire, D.E.; Roth, M.; Smith, J.D.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.; Laidler, J.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current comprehensive comparison of four major fuel cycle strategies: once-through, thermal recycle, thermal+fast recycle, fast recycle. It then proceeds to summarize comparison of the major technology options for the key elements of the fuel cycle that can implement each of the four strategies - separation processing, transmutation reactors, and fuels

  11. Comparison as a Universal Learning Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, T. V.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores "comparison" as a universal metasubject learning action, a key curricular element envisaged by the Russian Federal State Educational Standards. Representing the modern learner's fundamental pragmatic skill embedding such core capacities as information processing, critical thinking, robust decision-making, and…

  12. Extended KCI attack against two-party key establishment protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an extended Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) attack against two-party key establishment protocols, where an adversary has access to both long-term and ephemeral secrets of a victim. Such an attack poses serious threats to both key authentication and key confirmation properties of a

  13. KEY FACTORS FOR A CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Ricardo Formento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine the content of continuous improvement strategies, taking into account the important role they play in building competitiveness. This paper argues that several specific issues must be taken into account in order to reach successful outcomes. This work starts with a literature review on the matter. On this basis, we designed a survey administered to a group of 30 large companies, each of which is renowned leader in Argentina. Finally, we compared the development of continuous improvement process in companies with very effective results and with scarce results. Differences that emerged from this comparison enabled us to identify critical factors for achieving a successful improvement process. As there are no recent researches on continuous improvement programs in Argentina, this paper contributes to recognizing and systematizing what has been done, comparing it with theoretical framework and uncovering research gaps for future studies. However, further research must confirm these findings and move forward on the analysis of intangible factors, like: internal communications, climate, culture, self reflexion, consensus, etc.

  14. Dynamic Session-Key Generation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ta Li

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, wireless sensor networks have been used extensively in different domains. For example, if the wireless sensor node of a wireless sensor network is distributed in an insecure area, a secret key must be used to protect the transmission between the sensor nodes. Most of the existing methods consist of preselecting m keys from a key pool and forming a key chain. Then, the sensor nodes make use of the key chain to encrypt the data. However, while the secret key is being transmitted, it can easily be exposed during transmission. We propose a dynamic key management protocol, which can improve the security of the key juxtaposed to existing methods. Additionally, the dynamic update of the key can lower the probability of the key to being guessed correctly. In addition, with the new protocol, attacks on the wireless sensor network can be avoided.

  15. Dynamic Session-Key Generation for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chin-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, wireless sensor networks have been used extensively in different domains. For example, if the wireless sensor node of a wireless sensor network is distributed in an insecure area, a secret key must be used to protect the transmission between the sensor nodes. Most of the existing methods consist of preselecting keys from a key pool and forming a key chain. Then, the sensor nodes make use of the key chain to encrypt the data. However, while the secret key is being transmitted, it can easily be exposed during transmission. We propose a dynamic key management protocol, which can improve the security of the key juxtaposed to existing methods. Additionally, the dynamic update of the key can lower the probability of the key to being guessed correctly. In addition, with the new protocol, attacks on the wireless sensor network can be avoided.

  16. Secure SCADA communication by using a modified key management scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezai, Abdalhossein; Keshavarzi, Parviz; Moravej, Zahra

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a new cryptographic key management scheme which increases the efficiency and security of the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) communication. In the proposed key management scheme, two key update phases are used: session key update and master key update. In the session key update phase, session keys are generated in the master station. In the master key update phase, the Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) protocol is used. The Poisson process is also used to model the Security Index (SI) and Quality of Service (QoS). Our analysis shows that the proposed key management not only supports the required speed in the MODBUS implementation but also has several advantages compared to other key management schemes for secure communication in SCADA networks. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cairo Plus Five: revisiting a key conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, B

    1999-02-01

    Through July 1999, the international development community will be reviewing progress made in achieving the goals of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The review process, dubbed "Cairo Plus Five," includes a NGO Forum and International Forum in the Netherlands in February, a meeting of the UN Commission on Population and Development in March, and a special session of the UN General Assembly in June-July. During the 1994 ICPD, delegates from 180 countries agreed to address rapid population growth by seeking to meet individuals' reproductive health and development needs and by affirming human rights. Key recommendations arising from the ICPD call for recognizing reproductive rights as human rights, empowering women, removing gender disparities in education, integrating family planning and other reproductive health care services, increasing funding, and strengthening public/private cooperation. It is imperative to tract the progress governments are making in implementing these goals. The Cairo Plus Five meetings will reaffirm the ICPD goals while identifying promising strategies and programs and sharing lessons learned. Funding to achieve the goals is several billion dollars short for the year 2000, and all parties must meet their commitments to ensure that a lack of political will does not compromise women's lives and health.

  18. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  19. Human Connectivity: The Key to Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Progress results from human interaction. Advances in knowledge, transportation, communication, technology and industry have aided in social development only to the extent that they have brought greater numbers of people closer. It is only human ingenuity that has achieved. Historically, every event that marks a step forward in social evolution coincides with a discovery, invention or organizational innovation that brings people closer in contact. When two people meet, the knowledge, resourcefulness and capacity that they bring together grow not cumulatively but exponentially. Thus every additional connection made to the human network adds to its depth and richness. When this is done at a larger scale, between entire cultures and civilizations, the result is an explosion of creativity. Urbanization and advances in technology have accelerated this interchange between people and cultures. Unlike all other resources, human capital is inexhaustible, self-replenishing and has the potential to meet and overcome every challenge the world faces today. The logistics of bringing human minds together effectively holds the key to consciously accelerating human progress.

  20. Outreach: Key to Sustainable Nuclear Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, V.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: With the numerous nuclear power plants being built globally and the prospects for many more, the challenge of the timely availability of a well-prepared, qualified, knowledgeable workforce is a key element in the “critical path” to commissioning these plants. All of these individuals will need quality education and training that is rooted in safety and established in experience. In addition, because many of these new plants are typically being built in developing countries, education, training, recruiting and retaining operations staff can be a significant challenge. Attracting sources of qualified employees for these nuclear power plants in local communities is paramount which implies a strong focus on the science and math education outreach programmes at all levels. This paper will highlight the Nuclear Power Institute’s integration of human resource development outreach strategies, education and training systems, and international cooperation to demonstrate how working in particular with the education sector can not only create interest in future careers in nuclear technology and capture valuable knowledge, but can also build community based support for nuclear power programmes with an emphasis of developing competent workers through education and training, mentoring and apprenticeships. Outreach has also become an important element of all nuclear knowledge management endeavours. (author

  1. KEY COMPETENCES OF SLOVENIAN SPORT MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Retar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research that examined the key competences in the management field in Slovenian sports. The success rate of sport organisations and sportsmen is based on the creative, innovative and quality expert work of employees or/and volunteers. Their work is planned, organised, managed and supervised by a sport manager who possesses knowledge as well as managerial, technical, social, creative and other competences. The purpose of the presented research, which involved successful Slovenian sport managers, was to establish which competences are the most important for successful work in the field of sport management. The paper also presents the technical framework for the selected determination of sport management terminology and competences as well as a competence structure model, prepared by the authors. We have found that the human resources management competence most significantly contributes to the success of Slovenian sport managers in the field of general competences. Respondents evaluated the competence of developing a positive working environment as the most important specific competence that supplements general competences.

  2. KEY PERFORMING FACTORS OF LEADING ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURJA CAMELIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of financial economic ratios provides managers and external partners feedback on the results obtained from operational activities and the associated performance and risks. This paper studies the functional dependence of the companies’ success (on performance over internal financial management elements. The research was carried out for the most traded non-financial securities Bucharest listed companies and covers the period 2011- 2013. To carry out its purpose it analyzed the interdependence between the key financial ratios, studying the impact of liquidity ratios, solvency and efficiency on profitability. The study provides empirical evidences to identify factors that have ensured the performance of companies and their ranking in the segment of the most traded companies in Romania. Results suggest the view that the source of company success on the capital market lies in the positive signals sent to investors regarding profitability and the low risk of solvency. This study gives additional information for managerial decision-making in order to create more value and a better positioning of the companies in the market

  3. Designing organizational structures: Key thoughts for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Patricia; Eschenbacher, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Current strategies and concepts to consider in developing a system-level organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise are discussed. There are many different ways to design an organizational structure for the pharmacy enterprise within a health system. The size of the organization, the number of states in which it operates, and the geographic spread and complexity of the pharmacy business lines should be among the key considerations in determining the optimal organizational and decision-making structures for the pharmacy enterprise. The structure needs to support incorporation of the pharmacy leadership (both system-level executives and local leaders) into all strategic planning and discussions at the hospital and health-system levels so that they can directly represent the pharmacy enterprise instead of relying on others to develop strategy on their behalf. It is important that leaders of all aspects of the pharmacy enterprise report through the system's top pharmacy executive, who should be a pharmacist and have a title consistent with those of other leaders reporting at the same organizational level (e.g., chief pharmacy officer). Pharmacy leaders need to be well positioned within an organization to advocate for the pharmacy enterprise and use all resources to the best of their ability. As the scope and complexity of pharmacy services grow, it is critical to ensure that leadership of the pharmacy enterprise is unified under a single pharmacy executive team. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secure Key Management in the Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Jakobsen, Thomas Pelle; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2013-01-01

    We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive informat......We consider applications involving a number of servers in the cloud that go through a sequence of online periods where the servers communicate, separated by offline periods where the servers are idle. During the offline periods, we assume that the servers need to securely store sensitive...... information such as cryptographic keys. Applications like this include many cases where secure multiparty computation is outsourced to the cloud, and in particular a number of online auctions and benchmark computations with confidential inputs. We consider fully autonomous servers that switch between online...... and offline periods without communicating with anyone from outside the cloud, and semi-autonomous servers that need a limited kind of assistance from outside the cloud when doing the transition. We study the levels of security one can – and cannot – obtain in this model, propose light-weight protocols...

  5. Research on Key Technologies of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufen; Yan, Hongcan; Chen, Xuebin

    With the development of multi-core processors, virtualization, distributed storage, broadband Internet and automatic management, a new type of computing mode named cloud computing is produced. It distributes computation task on the resource pool which consists of massive computers, so the application systems can obtain the computing power, the storage space and software service according to its demand. It can concentrate all the computing resources and manage them automatically by the software without intervene. This makes application offers not to annoy for tedious details and more absorbed in his business. It will be advantageous to innovation and reduce cost. It's the ultimate goal of cloud computing to provide calculation, services and applications as a public facility for the public, So that people can use the computer resources just like using water, electricity, gas and telephone. Currently, the understanding of cloud computing is developing and changing constantly, cloud computing still has no unanimous definition. This paper describes three main service forms of cloud computing: SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, compared the definition of cloud computing which is given by Google, Amazon, IBM and other companies, summarized the basic characteristics of cloud computing, and emphasized on the key technologies such as data storage, data management, virtualization and programming model.

  6. Nuclear energy: a key role despite problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy is projected to be the fastest growing power source and a key to meeting power demands in spite of the many problems facing the nuclear industry in the form of delays, protests, and cancellations. Pressures for a nuclear moratorium will slow the industry, Mr. Anderson feels, but in the long run nuclear reactors will make up an increasing share of the power generating capacity. The Arthur D. Little Co. projects a fourfold increase between 1975 and 1985 on the basis of 10-year lead times for construction of nuclear power plants. Half the new generating capacity after 1985 will be nuclear. Problems besetting every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle result from debates over proliferation, waste disposal, reactor safety, and environmental damage and lead to controversy over regulations and licensing. U.S. utilities are not ordering reactors, but manufacturers are finding markets in other countries. Financial difficulties have kept domestic utilities from undertaking large investment programs until they can resolve problems of fuel costs and rate structures. New construction is inevitable, however, to meet future electrical requirements. Nuclear companies, which number nearly 1300 manufacturers and service providers, need to develop a better public image by working together to demonstrate their ability to manage the risks and uncertainties

  7. Is Centrality the Key to High Performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckenhofer Eva Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Social Capital, the outcome for individuals from networks with shared norms and values, has already been discussed as a driver for innovation and performance improvement. Social Capital is a resource embedded in social structures, which can be accessed as well as mobilized in purposeful actions. There are various theories about social resources and structures leading to discussions on whether network closure or the absence of ties is the key to the success of Social Capital. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between network centrality and Social Capital. Therefore, this paper aims at contributing to the discussion by analyzing, using a case study, the structural position of actors who are rich in Social Capital. The study also assesses if the actors who are central in the social network are the ones with the highest performance. This study was based on a survey of 170 students from a Czech University, who form three different networks. For the detection of Social Capital, a procedure developed and tested in the European Values Study Surveys was applied. The relational data was analyzed using UCINET and illustrated with the use of VISONE. The outcomes suggest that there is a connection between the centrality of an actor and their performance, not only in terms of average grade but also Social Capital. Furthermore, the data analysis shows that the number of languages an actor speaks as well as experiences in foreign countries impacts on their performance and location within a network.

  8. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  9. Key Enabling Technologies for Virtual Private Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Jeffrey M.; Cohen, David; Kaliski, Burton S.

    The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently as a way of managing information technology resources so that they appear to be operated for a single organization from a logical point of view, but may be built from underlying physical resources that belong to the organization, an external service provider, or a combination of both. Several technologies are essential to the effective implementation of a VPC. Virtual data centers provide the insulation that sets one organization's virtual resources apart from those of other organizations and from the underlying physical infrastructure. Virtual applications collect those resources into separately manageable units. Policy-based deployment and policy compliance offer a means of control and verification of the operation of the virtual applications across the virtual data centers. Finally, service management integration bridges across the underlying resources to give an overall, logical and actionable view. These key technologies enable cloud providers to offer organizations the cost and efficiency benefits of cloud computing as well as the operational autonomy and flexibility to which they have been accustomed.

  10. Development of key fusion technologies at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The recent operational phase in JET in which Deuterium-Tritium fuel was used (DTE1) resulted in record breaking fusion performance. In addition to important contributions in plasma physics, the JET Team has also made major advances in demonstrating the viability of some of the key technologies required for the realisation of future fusion power. Two of the most important technological areas which have been successfully demonstrated in JET are the ITER scale tritium processing plant and the exchange of the divertor and maintenance of the interior of JET by totally remote means. The experiment also provided the first data on tritium retention and co-deposition in a diverted tokamak. Of the 35g of tritium injected into the JET torus, about 6g remained in the tokamak. The amount resides mainly on cool surfaces at the inboard divertor side. The precise, safe and timely execution of the remote handling shutdown proved that the design, function, performance and operational methodology of the RH equipment prepared over the years at JET are appropriate for the successful and rapid replacement of components in an activated tokamak environment. (author)

  11. RFID: A key technology for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duroc, Yvan; Tedjini, Smail

    2018-01-01

    The RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) technology is a well-known wireless application for traceability, logistics, and access control. It became ubiquitous in industry and our daily life (ticketing, payment, passports, car keys, etc.). RFID is nowadays a standardized technology; its inherent advantages, which are unitary, identification, wireless communication, and low cost of tags, provide it with decisive practical benefits that drive new developments in terms of concepts and applications. This trend is largely confirmed by the market forecast, but also by its implementation in the area of health (smart hospital), assistance to persons, anti-counterfeiting, as well as by its perspective in terms of new paradigms for distributed ambient intelligence and the Internet of Things. The first part of this paper briefly reviews the fundamental concepts of the RFID technology, and shows its link with the radio science. A state of the art including the presentation of current performance and developments is also summarized. The second part illustrates the impact of RFID to the service of our society with a focus of applications in the field of autonomy and handicap. Finally, the last part highlights a panorama of perspectives and the future directions of RFID applications dedicated to the service of Humanity. xml:lang="fr"

  12. The Efficacy of Key Performance Indicators in Ontario Universities as Perceived by Key Informants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    The Ontario Ministry of Education and Training's Task Force on University Accountability first proposed key performance indicators (KPIs) for colleges and universities in Ontario in the early 1990s. The three main KPIs for Ontario universities are the rates of (1) graduation, (2) employment, and (3) Ontario Student Assistance Program loan default.…

  13. A Novel Key Distribution Solution for Combined Public/Secret Key ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, an implementation over the new IPv6 Internet protocol is presented such that the system can be ported to both wired and wireless networking environments. Keywords: cryptography, key distribution, security server. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. Chaos-based encryption keys and neural key-store for cloud-hosted data confidentiality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosola, NN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available towards gaining unauthorised access to cloud-bound or cloud-hosted data. This paper proposes a client-end encryption and key management system to curb attacks that targets compromising the confidentiality of cloud-hosted data. The proposed system uses...

  15. Economic contribution of recreating visitors to the Florida Keys/Key West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald B.K. English; Warren Kriesel; Vernon R Leeworthy; Peter C. Wiley

    1996-01-01

    This report provides estimates of the economic impact that visitors to the Florida Keys have on both the Monroe County and larger South Florida regional economies. Estimates are made for output/sales, income, and employment and include both direct and secondary economic impacts. This report provides the basis for demonstrating the income-producing asset value of the...

  16. Key Management Strategies for Safeguards Authentication and Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coram, M.; Hymel, R.; McDaniel, M.; Brotz, J.

    2015-01-01

    Management of cryptographic keys for the authentication and encryption of safeguards data can be the critical weak link in the practical implementation of information security. Within the safeguards community, there is the need to validate that data has not been modified at any point since generation and that it was generated by the monitoring node and not an imposter. In addition, there is the need for that data to be transmitted securely between the monitoring node and the monitoring party such that it cannot be intercepted and read while in transit. Encryption and digital signatures support the required confidentiality and authenticity but challenges exist in managing the cryptographic keys they require. Technologies developed at Sandia National Laboratories have evolved in their use of an associated key management strategy. The first generation system utilized a shared secret key for digital signatures. While fast and efficient, it required that a list of keys be maintained and protected. If control of the key was lost, fraudulent data could be made to look authentic. The second generation changed to support public key / private key cryptography. The key pair is generated by the system, the public key shared, and the private key held internally. This approach eliminated the need to maintain the list of keys. It also allows the public key to be provided to anyone needing to authenticate the data without allowing them to spoof data. A third generation system, currently under development, improves upon the public key / private key approach to address a potential man-in-the-middle attack related to the sharing of the public key. In a planned fourth generation system, secure key exchange protocols will distribute session keys for encryption, eliminating another fixed set of keys utilized by the technology and allowing for periodic renegotiation of keys for enhanced security. (author)

  17. Set-aside key to creating industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    The Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) submitted a plan of wind energy industry development to the Regie de l'energie of Quebec at its May wind set-aside hearings. According to the plan, CanWEA wants to see Hydro-Quebec buy 10 MW of wind power a year starting in 2001, progressively increasing to 50 MW power per year in four years. According to CanWEA the size of the set-aside must be large enough to foster competition in the turbine manufacturing sector, as well as put a downward pressure on wind energy prices. In 1996, Hydro-Quebec pledged to buy 10 MW of wind power per year over 10 years. It raised the target to 20 MW per year over 10 years in 1997, which was raised to 30 MW per year by a parliamentary commission in the spring of 1998. Hydro-Quebec contends that it cannot buy more than 30 MW, given that some of the utility's large industrial customers won't want to pay the increased cost of wind energy, and before buying any wind power there will have to be a decision about who will pay the additional cost. The Regie de l'energie has the power to decide whether Hydro-Quebec should spread the cost over the entire customer base, or just charge those customers willing to pay. According to the Regie, the wind set-aside is not simply an energy supply question, it is also a matter of developing a wind turbine manufacturing industry. It is this larger objective and other key issues, such as the economic spin-offs from developing wind energy, its role in regional development and its environmental impacts that will determine the the size of the set-aside and the price to be paid for wind power by Hydro-Quebec

  18. Diet, health and globalization: five key questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T

    1999-05-01

    The present paper explores possible implications of the globalization of the food system for diet and health. The paper poses five key questions to clarify the relationship between food and globalization. The first question is what is globalization. The paper suggests that it is helpful to distinguish between economic, political, ideological and cultural processes. Globalization is also marked by internal oppositional dynamics: there are re-localization and regional tendencies which counter the global. The second question is whether there is anything new about globalization. Food has been a much traded commodity for millennia. The paper concludes that what is new about the current phases of globalization is the pace and scale of the change, and the fact that power is being concentrated into so few hands. New marketing techniques and supply-chain management consolidate these features. The third question is who is in control of the globalization era and who benefits and loses from the processes of globalization. It is argued that modern food economies are hypermarket rather than market economies, with power accruing to the distributor more than has been recognized. The fourth question concerns governance of the food system. Historically, systems of local and national government have regulated the food supply where appropriate. Now, new international systems are emerging, partly using existing bodies and partly creating new ones. The final question is of the future. Globalization is a value-laden area of study, yet its implications for dietary change and for health are considerable. The paper argues that dimensions of change can be discerned, although it would be rash to bet on which end of each dimension will emerge as dominant in the 21st century.

  19. Nickel exposure from keys: alternatives for protection and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Scheman, Andrew J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2013-01-01

    Keys are an important exposure source of metal allergens to consumers and confer a significant problem for nickel-allergic individuals because of repeated daily use. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of nickel and cobalt release in keys and to consider the effectiveness of coatings for preventing metallic allergen release from common metal allergen-releasing keys. Keys from a variety of common stores were nickel and cobalt spot tested. Nickel-releasing keys were coated with enamel sprays, subjected to a use test, and retested to assess for metal allergen release. Of 55 tested keys, 80% showed a strong positive result to the nickel spot test. None of the tested keys exhibited cobalt release. No keys initially released nickel after enamel coatings. Key coatings chipped at the portion inserted into a lock after 30 insertions, and keys were found to release nickel. The handle of the key was not found to release nickel after 60 insertions. Nickel release from keys is very common; nickel-allergic consumers should consider purchasing keys that do not release nickel (eg, brass, anodized). Enamel coating may be useful in protecting nickel-sensitive individuals from their keys but cannot consistently prevent nickel-release from portions used frequently.

  20. Polarization-basis tracking scheme for quantum key distribution using revealed sifted key bits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-Yang; Chen, Wei; Chen, Hua; Wang, Chao; li, Ya-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution (QKD). An effective polarization-basis tracking scheme will decrease the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and improve the efficiency of a polarization encoding QKD system. In this paper, we proposed a polarization-basis tracking scheme using only unveiled sifted key bits while performing error correction by legitimate users, rather than introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. A polarization-encoding fiber BB84 QKD prototype was developed to examine the validity of this scheme. An average QBER of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% have been obtained during 24 hours of continuous operation.

  1. Key developments of the EP1000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noviello, L.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, a group of European utilities initiated, together with Westinghouse and its industrial partner GENESI (an Italian consortium including ANSALDO and FIAT), a program designated EPP (European Passive Plant) to evaluate Westinghouse passive nuclear plant technology for application in Europe. The Phase I of the European Passive Plant program involved the evaluation of the Westinghouse 600 MWe AP600 and 1000 MWe Simplified Pressurized Water Reactor (SPWR) designs against the European Utility Requirements (EUR), and when necessary, the investigation of possible modifications to achieve compliance with the EUR. In Phase 1 of the program, which has been completed in 1996, the following major tasks were accomplished: The impacts of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) on the Westinghouse nuclear island design were evaluated. A 1000 MWe passive plant reference design (EP1000) was developed which conforms to the EUR and is expected to be licensable in Europe. With respect to the NSSS and containment, the EP1000 reference design closely follows those of the Westinghouse SPWR design, while the AP600 design has been taken as the basis for the design of the auxiliary systems. Extensive design and testing efforts have been made for the AP600 and SPWR during the respective multi-year programs. While the results of these programs have been and will continue to be utilised, at the maximum extent, to minimise the work to be performed on the EP1000 design, the compliance with EUR is a key design requirement for the EP1000 The ultimate objective of Phase 2 of the program is to develop design details and perform supporting analyses to produce a Safety Case Report (SCR) for submittal to European Safety Authorities. The first part of Phase 2, hereafter referred as Phase 2A, started at the beginning of 1997 and will be completed at the end of 1998. Scope of this phase of the program is to develop the design modifications of important systems and structures so to comply with the

  2. Flexible Group Key Exchange with On-Demand Computation of Subgroup Keys

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, M; Chevalier, C; Manulis, M; Pointcheval, D

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Modern multi-user communication systems, including popular instant messaging tools, social network platforms, and cooperative-work applications, offer flexible forms of communication and exchange of data. At any time point concurrent communication sessions involving different subsets of users can be invoked. The traditional tool for achieving security in a multi-party communication environment are group key exchange (GKE) protocols that provide participants with a secu...

  3. Generating Secure Group Key Using m-ARY Based Key Tree Structure in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    P.Naga Jyothi,; M.Supraja,; S.Suresh

    2010-01-01

    In the security scenario , security became a critical concern in various applications of sensor networks like pay-perview, distribution of digital media, military, distributed information gathering, environment monitoring, patient monitoring and tracking etc., require Secure Group Communication (SGC) in sensor networks. A scalable SGC model ensures that whenever there is a membership change, new group key is computed and distributed to the remaining members in the group with minimal computati...

  4. Key-length analysis of double random phase encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuya; Takeda, Masafumi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-20

    Double random phase encoding (DRPE) is a classical optical symmetric-key encryption method. DRPE prevents the key length from being determined because of its redundancy between encryption and decryption, unlike digital symmetric-key cryptographies. In our study, we numerically analyzed the key length of DRPE based on key-space analysis. We estimated the key length of DRPE by calculating the inverse value of the cumulative probability of the normal distribution that was estimated from samples of DRPE and then discuss security against brute-force attacks.

  5. An SSH key management system: easing the pain of managing key/user/account associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipkin, D; Shiryaev, A; Betts, W; Lauret, J

    2008-01-01

    Cyber security requirements for secure access to computing facilities often call for access controls via gatekeepers and the use of two-factor authentication. Using SSH keys to satisfy the two factor authentication requirement has introduced a potentially challenging task of managing the keys and their associations with individual users and user accounts. Approaches for a facility with the simple model of one remote user corresponding to one local user would not work at facilities that require a many-to-many mapping between users and accounts on multiple systems. We will present an SSH key management system we developed, tested and deployed to address the many-to-many dilemma in the environment of the STAR experiment. We will explain its use in an online computing context and explain how it makes possible the management and tracing of group account access spread over many sub-system components (data acquisition, slow controls, trigger, detector instrumentation, etc.) without the use of shared passwords for remote logins

  6. An SSH key management system: easing the pain of managing key/user/account associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipkin, D.; Betts, W.; Lauret, J.; Shiryaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Cyber security requirements for secure access to computing facilities often call for access controls via gatekeepers and the use of two-factor authentication. Using SSH keys to satisfy the two factor authentication requirement has introduced a potentially challenging task of managing the keys and their associations with individual users and user accounts. Approaches for a facility with the simple model of one remote user corresponding to one local user would not work at facilities that require a many-to-many mapping between users and accounts on multiple systems. We will present an SSH key management system we developed, tested and deployed to address the many-to-many dilemma in the environment of the STAR experiment. We will explain its use in an online computing context and explain how it makes possible the management and tracing of group account access spread over many sub-system components (data acquisition, slow controls, trigger, detector instrumentation, etc.) without the use of shared passwords for remote logins.

  7. Towards understanding the known-key security of block ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Mennink, Bart

    2014-01-01

    ciphers based on ideal components such as random permutations and random functions as well as propose new generic known-key attacks on generalized Feistel ciphers. We introduce the notion of known-key indifferentiability to capture the security of such block ciphers under a known key. To show its...... meaningfulness, we prove that the known-key attacks on block ciphers with ideal primitives to date violate security under known-key indifferentiability. On the other hand, to demonstrate its constructiveness, we prove the balanced Feistel cipher with random functions and the multiple Even-Mansour cipher...... with random permutations known-key indifferentiable for a sufficient number of rounds. We note that known-key indifferentiability is more quickly and tightly attained by multiple Even-Mansour which puts it forward as a construction provably secure against known-key attacks....

  8. Intercomparación bilateral entre LATU y PTB de calibración en puntos fijos (ITS-90 del Zn al Hg de un SPRT con PTB como laboratorio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Robatto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El Laboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, es el Instituto Metrológico Nacional del Uruguay, miembro fi rmante del Acuerdo de Reconocimiento Mutuo (MRA entre Laboratorios Nacionales de Metrología del Comité Internacional de Pesas y Medidas (CIPM. Las capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs del LATU fueron reconocidas en junio de 2004 y se encuentran publicadas en la BIPM- Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009. El LATU estuvo acreditado desde 2001 hasta junio de 2007 por el Deutscher Kalibrier Dienst (Servicio de Acreditación Alemán en las magnitudes Masa, Balanzas y Temperatura (Laboratorio DKD, DKD-K-25601. Se decidió a partir de ese momento probar el cumplimiento con los criterios establecidos por el CIPM MRA y los requisitos de la Norma ISO/IEC 17025 en el marco de una auditoría in situ llevada a cabo en el LATU en enero de 2008. Como parte de ese proceso de revisión de pares, se realizó una Intercomparación Bilateral entre el PTB y el LATU en los puntos fi jos de la Escala Internacional de Temperatura (ITS-90, desde el punto triple de Hg hasta el punto de congelación del Zn, con el PTB como laboratorio piloto. En este artículo los resultados son presentados y discutidos de manera de sostener ladeclaración de mejores capacidades de medida y calibración (CMCs en sustitución de las ya declaradas.AbstractLaboratorio Tecnológico del Uruguay, LATU, is the National Metrology Institute of Uruguay, signatory of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA, has Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMCs in temperature that were fi rst published in the BIPM Key Comparison Data Base (BIPM, 2009 in June 2004. LATU was a DKD Laboratory accredited in Mass, Balances and Temperature from 2001 until June 2007 when it was decided to adopt the CIPM criteria for proving compliance with ISO/IEC 17025 through a Peer Review process. The LATU on site Peer Review was carried out in January 2008, as part of the process. During the

  9. A new two-round dynamic authenticated contributory group key ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since key distribution is a corner stone of any SGC, it has .... Group Key Distribution (CKD), Burmester–Desmedt (BD), and Steer et al (STR), were evaluated. On the basis of D–H, three group ...... Curve Cryptography, Version 1.11. Burmester M and Desmedt Y 1994 A secure and efficient conference key distribution system.

  10. Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2) Defense Acquisition Management...6615 DSN Phone: 244-4900 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 1, 2015 Program Information Program Name Public Key Infrastructure Increment 2 (PKI Inc 2... Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is a critical enabling technology for Information Assurance (IA) services to support seamless secure information flows

  11. Normalized Unconditional ϵ-Security of Private-Key Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lvqing Bi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two normalized versions of non-perfect security for private-key encryption: one version in the framework of Shannon entropy, another version in the framework of Kolmogorov complexity. We prove the lower bound on either key entropy or key size for these models and study the relations between these normalized security notions.

  12. Benefits of time-frequency coding for quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, J.; Perlot, N.; Benson, O.; Freund, R.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD), the first applicable quantum technology, is able to distribute a secret key to two parties. This key can then be used as a one-time-pad for absolutely secure communication. The first QKD protocol was the polarization based BB84 protocol proposed in [1]. Since then many QKD protocols have been proposed and investigated [2, 3].

  13. Quantum cryptography to satellites for global secure key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarity, John G.; Gorman, Philip M.; Knight, Paul; Wallace, Kotska; Tapster, Paul R.

    2017-11-01

    We have designed and built a free space secure key exchange system using weak laser pulses with polarisation modulation by acousto-optic switching. We have used this system to exchange keys over a 1.2km ground range with absolute security. Building from this initial result we analyse the feasibility of exchanging keys to a low earth orbit satellite.

  14. Key Words and the Analysis of Exploratory Talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlitz-Biró, Linda; Elbers, Ed; de Haan, Mariëtte

    2013-01-01

    The count of key words indicating the quality of reasoning has been used as a method to observe exploratory talk. However, reasoning in talk does not necessarily contain key words. The analysis of key words leaves unattended other aspects of exploratory talk, such as collaborative processes. The question is: to what extent can the analysis of key…

  15. Accelerating foreign-key joins using asymmetric memory channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirk, H.; Manegold, S.; Kersten, M.

    2011-01-01

    Indexed Foreign-Key Joins expose a very asymmetric access pattern: the Foreign-Key Index is sequentially scanned whilst the Primary-Key table is target of many quasi-random lookups which is the dominant cost factor. To reduce the costs of the random lookups the fact-table can be (re-) partitioned at

  16. Basic study on the rectangular numeric keys for touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, H; Katsuura, T; Kikuchi, Y

    1997-06-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the optimum inter-key spacing of numeric rectangular keys for touch screens. Six male students (22-25 years old) and three female students (21-24 years old) participated in the experiment. Each subject performed the data entry task using rectangular keys of touch devices. These keys were arranged in both horizontal and vertical layouts. The sizes of the rectangular keys in both layouts were 12 x 21 mm and 15 x 39 mm, and each of the inter-key spacing of each key was 0, 3, 6, 12 and 21 mm. The response time with inter-key spacing of 3 mm was significantly faster than with the inter-key spacing of 0, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05). Keys of vertical position produced faster response time than that of horizontal position. The subjective ratings showed that the inter-key spacing of 6 mm was significantly better than the inter-key spacing of 0, 3, 12 and 21 mm (p < 0.05).

  17. A Key Generation Model for Improving the Security of Cryptographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In public key cryptography, the security of private keys is very importance, for if ever compromised, it can be used to decrypt secret messages. Conventional methods that use textual passwords, graphical passwords and single modal biometric systems that are used to encryption and protect private keys do not provide ...

  18. Key scientific problems from Cosmic Ray History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Dorman

    2016-07-01

    Recently was published the monograph "Cosmic Ray History" by Lev Dorman and Irina Dorman (Nova Publishers, New York). What learn us and what key scientific problems formulated the Cosmic Ray History? 1. As many great discoveries, the phenomenon of cosmic rays was discovered accidentally, during investigations that sought to answer another question: what are sources of air ionization? This problem became interesting for science about 230 years ago in the end of the 18th century, when physics met with a problem of leakage of electrical charge from very good isolated bodies. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century, in connection with the discovery of natural radioactivity, it became apparent that this problem is mainly solved: it was widely accepted that the main source of the air ionization were α, b, and γ - radiations from radioactive substances in the ground (γ-radiation was considered as the most important cause because α- and b-radiations are rapidly absorbed in the air). 3. The general accepted wrong opinion on the ground radioactivity as main source of air ionization, stopped German meteorologist Franz Linke to made correct conclusion on the basis of correct measurements. In fact, he made 12 balloon flights in 1900-1903 during his PhD studies at Berlin University, carrying an electroscope to a height of 5500 m. The PhD Thesis was not published, but in Thesis he concludes: "Were one to compare the presented values with those on ground, one must say that at 1000 m altitude the ionization is smaller than on the ground, between 1 and 3 km the same amount, and above it is larger with values increasing up to a factor of 4 (at 5500 m). The uncertainties in the observations only allow the conclusion that the reason for the ionization has to be found first in the Earth." Nobody later quoted Franz Linke and although he had made the right measurements, he had reached the wrong conclusions, and the discovery of CR became only later on about 10 years. 4. Victor Hess, a

  19. Space division multiplexing chip-to-chip quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong; Dalgaard, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    nodes of the quantum keys to their respective destinations. In this paper we present an experimental demonstration of a photonic integrated silicon chip quantum key distribution protocols based on space division multiplexing (SDM), through multicore fiber technology. Parallel and independent quantum......Quantum cryptography is set to become a key technology for future secure communications. However, to get maximum benefit in communication networks, transmission links will need to be shared among several quantum keys for several independent users. Such links will enable switching in quantum network...... keys are obtained, which are useful in crypto-systems and future quantum network....

  20. From artefacts to atoms: the BIPM and the search for ultimate measurement standards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, T. J

    2012-01-01

    ... is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means...

  1. Efficiency calibration of the Ge(Li) detector of the BIPM for SIR-type ampoules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michotte, C.

    1999-01-01

    The absolute full-energy peak efficiency of the Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometer has been measured between 50 keV and 2 MeV with a relative uncertainty around 1 x 10 -2 and for ampoule-to-detector distances of 20 cm and 50 cm. All the corrections applied (self-attenuation, dead time, pile up, true coincidence summing) are discussed in detail. (authors)

  2. Certificateless Key-Insulated Generalized Signcryption Scheme without Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixue Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized signcryption (GSC can be applied as an encryption scheme, a signature scheme, or a signcryption scheme with only one algorithm and one key pair. A key-insulated mechanism can resolve the private key exposure problem. To ensure the security of cloud storage, we introduce the key-insulated mechanism into GSC and propose a concrete scheme without bilinear pairings in the certificateless cryptosystem setting. We provide a formal definition and a security model of certificateless key-insulated GSC. Then, we prove that our scheme is confidential under the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH assumption and unforgeable under the elliptic curve discrete logarithm (EC-DL assumption. Our scheme also supports both random-access key update and secure key update. Finally, we evaluate the efficiency of our scheme and demonstrate that it is highly efficient. Thus, our scheme is more suitable for users who communicate with the cloud using mobile devices.

  3. Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Joonwoo

    2010-01-01

    The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

  4. Key-space analysis of double random phase encryption technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, David S.; Gopinathan, Unnikrishnan; Naughton, Thomas J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2007-09-01

    We perform a numerical analysis on the double random phase encryption/decryption technique. The key-space of an encryption technique is the set of possible keys that can be used to encode data using that technique. In the case of a strong encryption scheme, many keys must be tried in any brute-force attack on that technique. Traditionally, designers of optical image encryption systems demonstrate only how a small number of arbitrary keys cannot decrypt a chosen encrypted image in their system. However, this type of demonstration does not discuss the properties of the key-space nor refute the feasibility of an efficient brute-force attack. To clarify these issues we present a key-space analysis of the technique. For a range of problem instances we plot the distribution of decryption errors in the key-space indicating the lack of feasibility of a simple brute-force attack.

  5. Quantum Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan

    2017-11-01

    Classical public key cryptosystems ( P K C), such as R S A, E I G a m a l, E C C, are no longer secure in quantum algorithms, and quantum cryptography has become a novel research topic. In this paper we present a quantum asymmetrical cryptosystem i.e. quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. In particular, in the proposed QPKC the public key are given by the first n particles of Bell states and generalized Pauli operations. The corresponding secret key are the last n particles of Bell states and the inverse of generalized Pauli operations. The proposed QPKC encrypts the message using a public key and decrypts the ciphertext using a private key. By H o l e v o ' s theorem, we proved the security of the secret key and messages during the QPKC.

  6. AUDIO CRYPTANALYSIS- AN APPLICATION OF SYMMETRIC KEY CRYPTOGRAPHY AND AUDIO STEGANOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Paira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent trend of network and technology, “Cryptography” and “Steganography” have emerged out as the essential elements of providing network security. Although Cryptography plays a major role in the fabrication and modification of the secret message into an encrypted version yet it has certain drawbacks. Steganography is the art that meets one of the basic limitations of Cryptography. In this paper, a new algorithm has been proposed based on both Symmetric Key Cryptography and Audio Steganography. The combination of a randomly generated Symmetric Key along with LSB technique of Audio Steganography sends a secret message unrecognizable through an insecure medium. The Stego File generated is almost lossless giving a 100 percent recovery of the original message. This paper also presents a detailed experimental analysis of the algorithm with a brief comparison with other existing algorithms and a future scope. The experimental verification and security issues are promising.

  7. Three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for Telecare Medicine Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Hamed; Nikooghadam, Morteza

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, with comprehensive employment of the internet, healthcare delivery services is provided remotely by telecare medicine information systems (TMISs). A secure mechanism for authentication and key agreement is one of the most important security requirements for TMISs. Recently, Tan proposed a user anonymity preserving three-factor authentication scheme for TMIS. The present paper shows that Tan's scheme is vulnerable to replay attacks and Denial-of-Service attacks. In order to overcome these security flaws, a new and efficient three-factor anonymous authentication and key agreement scheme for TMIS is proposed. Security and performance analysis shows superiority of the proposed scheme in comparison with previously proposed schemes that are related to security of TMISs.

  8. Data-derived symbol synchronization of MASK and QASK signals. [Multilevel and Quadrature Amplitude Shift Keying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    Much has been said in the literature regarding the problem of establishing symbol synchronization in binary baseband digital communication systems. By comparison, the literature contains little information relating to the extraction of symbol sync from multilevel baseband data. With the recent interest in multilevel amplitude-shift keying (MASK) and quadrature amplitude-shift keying (QASK) as signaling techniques for multilevel digital communications systems, the problem of providing symbol synchronization in the receivers of such systems becomes paramount. This paper presents a technique for extracting symbol sync from a MASK or QASK signal which has been transmitted over an infinite-bandwidth white Gaussian noise channel. The scheme is essentially a generalization of the data transition tracking loop (DTTL) which has heretofore been used in PSK systems. The performance of the loop is analyzed in terms of its mean-squared symbol sync jitter and its effects on the data detection process in MASK and QASK systems.

  9. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L.K.; Phylipsen, G.J.M.; Worrell, E.

    2001-04-01

    Iron and steel production consumes enormous quantities of energy, especially in developing countries where outdated, inefficient technologies are still used to produce iron and steel. Carbon dioxide emissions from steel production, which range between 5 and 15% of total country emissions in key developing countries (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa), will continue to grow as these countries develop and as demand for steel products such as materials, automobiles, and appliances increases. In this report, we describe the key steel processes, discuss typical energy-intensity values for these processes, review historical trends in iron and steel production by process in five key developing countries, describe the steel industry in each of the five key developing countries, present international comparisons of energy use and carbon dioxide emissions among these countries, and provide our assessment of the technical potential to reduce these emissions based on best-practice benchmarking. Using a best practice benchmark, we find that significant savings, in the range of 33% to 49% of total primary energy used to produce steel, are technically possible in these countries. Similarly, we find that the technical potential for reducing intensities of carbon dioxide emissions ranges between 26% and 49% of total carbon dioxide emissions from steel production in these countries.

  10. On the Wrong Key Randomisation and Key Equivalence Hypotheses in Matsui’s Algorithm 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    estimates. Our study suggests that the efficiency of Matsui’s Algorithm 2 has been previously somewhat overestimated in the cases where the adversary attempts to use a linear approximation with a low bias, to attain a high computational advantage over brute force, or both. These cases are typical since...... needs adjustment. We show that it systematically neglects the varying bias for wrong keys. Based on that, we propose an adjusted statistical model and derive more accurate estimates for the success probability and data complexity of linear attacks which are demonstrated to deviate from all known...... cryptanalysts always try to break as many rounds of the cipher as possible by pushing the attack to its limit. Surprisingly, our approach also reveals the fact that the success probability is not a monotonously increasing function of the data complexity, and can decrease if more data is used. Using less data...

  11. The distinction between key ideas in teaching school physics and key ideas in the discipline of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zongyi

    2001-05-01

    The distinction between key ideas in teaching a high school science and key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science has been largely ignored in scholarly discourse about what science teachers should teach and about what they should know. This article clarifies this distinction through exploring how and why key ideas in teaching high school physics differ from key ideas in the discipline of physics. Its theoretical underpinnings include Dewey's (1902/1990) distinction between the psychological and the logical and Harré's (1986) epistemology of science. It analyzes how and why the key ideas in teaching color, the speed of light, and light interference at the high school level differ from the key ideas at the disciplinary level. The thesis is that key ideas in teaching high school physics can differ from key ideas in the discipline in some significant ways, and that the differences manifest Dewey's distinction. As a result, the article challenges the assumption of equating key ideas in teaching a high school science with key ideas in the corresponding discipline of science, and the assumption that having a college degree in science is sufficient to teach high school science. Furthermore, the article expands the concept of pedagogical content knowledge by arguing that key ideas in teaching high school physics constitute an essential component.

  12. Characterization of Available Light for Seagrass and Patch Reef Productivity in Sugarloaf Key, Lower Florida Keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Toro-Farmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Light availability is an important factor driving primary productivity in benthic ecosystems, but in situ and remote sensing measurements of light quality are limited for coral reefs and seagrass beds. We evaluated the productivity responses of a patch reef and a seagrass site in the Lower Florida Keys to ambient light availability and spectral quality. In situ optical properties were characterized utilizing moored and water column bio-optical and hydrographic measurements. Net ecosystem productivity (NEP was also estimated for these study sites using benthic productivity chambers. Our results show higher spectral light attenuation and absorption, and lower irradiance during low tide in the patch reef, tracking the influx of materials from shallower coastal areas. In contrast, the intrusion of clearer surface Atlantic Ocean water caused lower values of spectral attenuation and absorption, and higher irradiance in the patch reef during high tide. Storms during the studied period, with winds >10 m·s−1, caused higher spectral attenuation values. A spatial gradient of NEP was observed, from high productivity in the shallow seagrass area, to lower productivity in deeper patch reefs. The highest daytime NEP was observed in the seagrass, with values of almost 0.4 g·O2·m−2·h−1. Productivity at the patch reef area was lower in May than during October 2012 (mean = 0.137 and 0.177 g·O2·m−2·h−1, respectively. Higher photosynthetic active radiation (PAR levels measured above water and lower light attenuation in the red region of the visible spectrum (~666 to ~699 nm had a positive correlation with NEP. Our results indicate that changes in light availability and quality by suspended or resuspended particles limit benthic productivity in the Florida Keys.

  13. Security analysis of quantum key distribution on passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyongchun; Ko, Heasin; Suh, Changho; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin

    2017-05-15

    Needs for providing security to end users have brought installation of quantum key distribution (QKD) in one-to-many access networks such as passive optical networks. In the networks, a presence of optical power splitters makes issues for secure key rate more important. However, researches for QKD in access networks have mainly focused on implementation issues rather than protocol development for key rate enhancement. Since secure key rate is theoretically limited by a protocol, researches without protocol development cannot overcome the limit of secure key rate given by a protocol. This brings need of researches for protocol development. In this paper, we provide a new approach which provides secure key rate enhancement over the conventional protocol. Specifically, we propose the secure key rate formula in a passive optical network by extending the secure key rate formula based on the decoy-state BB84 protocol. For a passive optical network, we provide a way that incorporates cooperation across end users. Then, we show that the way can mitigate a photon number splitting (PNS) attack which is crucial in an well known decoy BB84 protocol. Especially, the proposed scheme enables multi-photon states to serve as secure keys unlike the conventional decoy BB84 protocol. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our proposed scheme outperforms the decoy BB84 protocol in secure key rate.

  14. Analysis of key competencies in museums. Proposal for a tool to assess key competencies in museum managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zara Marcela Arguello Arciniegas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the field of Cultural Management, such a wide world and sometimes so difficult to outline in terms of all-encompassing, key competencies play a very important role. Therefore, we have tried to propose a tool to assess key competencies in cultural managers who perform their professional work in museums. We present a set of key competencies and then, a list of ten key competencies which are considered important for the staff of cultural management of a museum. For this it is assumed, first, the key competencies proposed by the universities offering master's degrees in official Cultural Management in Spain and, second, the key competencies proposed for the ICOM museum workers. Finally, we present a tool for the evaluation of the chosen key competencies.

  15. Enhanced diffie-hellman algorithm for reliable key exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan; Kumar, Chaithanya; Vincent, P. M. Durai Raj

    2017-11-01

    The Diffie -Hellman is one of the first public-key procedure and is a certain way of exchanging the cryptographic keys securely. This concept was introduced by Ralph Markel and it is named after Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman. Sender and Receiver make a common secret key in Diffie-Hellman algorithm and then they start communicating with each other over the public channel which is known to everyone. A number of internet services are secured by Diffie -Hellman. In Public key cryptosystem, the sender has to trust while receiving the public key of the receiver and vice-versa and this is the challenge of public key cryptosystem. Man-in-the-Middle attack is very much possible on the existing Diffie-Hellman algorithm. In man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker exists in the public channel, the attacker receives the public key of both sender and receiver and sends public keys to sender and receiver which is generated by his own. This is how man-in-the-middle attack is possible on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. Denial of service attack is another attack which is found common on Diffie-Hellman. In this attack, the attacker tries to stop the communication happening between sender and receiver and attacker can do this by deleting messages or by confusing the parties with miscommunication. Some more attacks like Insider attack, Outsider attack, etc are possible on Diffie-Hellman. To reduce the possibility of attacks on Diffie-Hellman algorithm, we have enhanced the Diffie-Hellman algorithm to a next level. In this paper, we are extending the Diffie -Hellman algorithm by using the concept of the Diffie -Hellman algorithm to get a stronger secret key and that secret key is further exchanged between the sender and the receiver so that for each message, a new secret shared key would be generated. The second secret key will be generated by taking primitive root of the first secret key.

  16. Password-based authenticated key exchange scheme using smart card

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhong, Shaojun

    2013-03-01

    A protocol that allows any two entities to negotiate a shared session key is commonly called a key exchange protocol. If the protocol provides a function to authenticate each other, we call the protocol authenticated key exchange protocol (AKE). Password authentication key exchange (PAKE) is the AKE protocol in which the two entities share a humanmemorable password. Most of current PAKE relies on the existence of a public key infrastructure, which sometime is impossible for a certain environments such as low computational device due to the computation overhead. In this paper, we propose password-based authenticated key exchange using smart card. Compared to previous PAKE, our protocol is more efficient because our protocol is based on ECC. Thereby, the proposed protocol can be well applied to low computation device.

  17. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Luan Da-Peng

    2013-01-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol

  18. Architectural Building A Public Key Infrastructure Integrated Information Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Ivanovich Korolev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article keeps under consideration the mattersto apply the cryptographic system having a public key to provide information security and to implya digital signature. It performs the analysis of trust models at the formation of certificates and their use. The article describes the relationships between the trust model and the architecture public key infrastructure. It contains conclusions in respect of the options for building the public key infrastructure for integrated informationspace.

  19. SHAMROCK: A Synthesizable High Assurance Cryptography and Key Management Coprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    designers to readily and correctly incorporate cryptography and key management into embedded systems . SHAMROCK has been incorporated in multiple...three devices are able to communicate using the same key. If device C is no longer used (or trusted ) for the application, the system is reconfigured by...encrypted communications between SHAMROCK- embedded systems . The key generation request is initiated by the protocol control module to the HAKM module

  20. Key Working for Families with Young Disabled Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernie Carter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals

  1. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor...

  2. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tsung-Hung; Tsung, Chen-Kun; Lee, Tian-Fu; Wang, Zeng-Bo

    2017-12-03

    The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA). PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE) proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie-Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  3. A Round-Efficient Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Extended Chaotic Maps for Group Cloud Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Hung Lin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The security is a critical issue for business purposes. For example, the cloud meeting must consider strong security to maintain the communication privacy. Considering the scenario with cloud meeting, we apply extended chaotic map to present passwordless group authentication key agreement, termed as Passwordless Group Authentication Key Agreement (PL-GAKA. PL-GAKA improves the computation efficiency for the simple group password-based authenticated key agreement (SGPAKE proposed by Lee et al. in terms of computing the session key. Since the extended chaotic map has equivalent security level to the Diffie–Hellman key exchange scheme applied by SGPAKE, the security of PL-GAKA is not sacrificed when improving the computation efficiency. Moreover, PL-GAKA is a passwordless scheme, so the password maintenance is not necessary. Short-term authentication is considered, hence the communication security is stronger than other protocols by dynamically generating session key in each cloud meeting. In our analysis, we first prove that each meeting member can get the correct information during the meeting. We analyze common security issues for the proposed PL-GAKA in terms of session key security, mutual authentication, perfect forward security, and data integrity. Moreover, we also demonstrate that communicating in PL-GAKA is secure when suffering replay attacks, impersonation attacks, privileged insider attacks, and stolen-verifier attacks. Eventually, an overall comparison is given to show the performance between PL-GAKA, SGPAKE and related solutions.

  4. LBTool: A stochastic toolkit for leave-based key updates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative techniques have been successfully employed in verification of information and communication systems. However, the use of such techniques are still rare in the area of security. In this paper, we present a toolkit that implements transient analysis on a key update method for wireless...... sensor networks. The analysis aims to find out the probability of a network key being compromised at a specific time point, which result in fluctuations over time for a specific key update method called Leave-based key update. For such a problem, the use of current tools is limited in many ways...

  5. Experimental demonstration of subcarrier multiplexed quantum key distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, José; Ruiz-Alba, Antonio; Amaya, Waldimar; Martínez, Alfonso; García-Muñoz, Víctor; Calvo, David; Capmany, José

    2012-06-01

    We provide, to our knowledge, the first experimental demonstration of the feasibility of sending several parallel keys by exploiting the technique of subcarrier multiplexing (SCM) widely employed in microwave photonics. This approach brings several advantages such as high spectral efficiency compatible with the actual secure key rates, the sharing of the optical fainted pulse by all the quantum multiplexed channels reducing the system complexity, and the possibility of upgrading with wavelength division multiplexing in a two-tier scheme, to increase the number of parallel keys. Two independent quantum SCM channels featuring a sifted key rate of 10 Kb/s/channel over a link with quantum bit error rate <2% is reported.

  6. Key events in the history of sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2005-01-01

    This document is a table which summaries the key events in the history of sustainable development, adapted from International Institute for Sustainable Development's sustainable development timeline. Publisher PDF

  7. Formulation of a diagnostic key in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gohrbandt, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    A veterinary key of diagnosis, findings and treatments was created at the Small Animal Clinic of the Freie Universität zu Berlin. This happened in dependence on the ICD used in the human medicine. The veterinary key is collected into a tool named “Veterinary diagnosis key Berlin – small animal“. The data were stored in a purpose-built Access™ database. The specific feature of this key is the mapping of synonyms to their descriptors. After the completion of this thesis the veterinary diagn...

  8. DNA based random key generation and management for OTP encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunpeng; Liu, Xin; Sun, Manhui

    2017-09-01

    One-time pad (OTP) is a principle of key generation applied to the stream ciphering method which offers total privacy. The OTP encryption scheme has proved to be unbreakable in theory, but difficult to realize in practical applications. Because OTP encryption specially requires the absolute randomness of the key, its development has suffered from dense constraints. DNA cryptography is a new and promising technology in the field of information security. DNA chromosomes storing capabilities can be used as one-time pad structures with pseudo-random number generation and indexing in order to encrypt the plaintext messages. In this paper, we present a feasible solution to the OTP symmetric key generation and transmission problem with DNA at the molecular level. Through recombinant DNA technology, by using only sender-receiver known restriction enzymes to combine the secure key represented by DNA sequence and the T vector, we generate the DNA bio-hiding secure key and then place the recombinant plasmid in implanted bacteria for secure key transmission. The designed bio experiments and simulation results show that the security of the transmission of the key is further improved and the environmental requirements of key transmission are reduced. Analysis has demonstrated that the proposed DNA-based random key generation and management solutions are marked by high security and usability. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Water dynamics clue to key residues in protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meng; Zhu, Huaiqiu; Yao, Xin-Qiu; She, Zhen-Su

    2010-01-01

    A computational method independent of experimental protein structure information is proposed to recognize key residues in protein folding, from the study of hydration water dynamics. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics simulation, two key residues are recognized with distinct water dynamical behavior in a folding process of the Trp-cage protein. The identified key residues are shown to play an essential role in both 3D structure and hydrophobic-induced collapse. With observations on hydration water dynamics around key residues, a dynamical pathway of folding can be interpreted.

  10. Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erven, Chris; Ma Xiongfeng; Laflamme, Raymond; Weihs, Gregor

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a quantum key distribution (QKD) scheme that utilizes a biased basis choice in order to increase the efficiency of the scheme. The optimal bias between the two measurement bases, a more refined error analysis and finite key size effects are all studied in order to assure the security of the final key generated with the system. We then implement the scheme in a local entangled QKD system that uses polarization entangled photon pairs to securely distribute the key. A 50/50 non-polarizing beamsplitter (BS) with different optical attenuators is used to simulate a variable BS in order to allow us to study the operation of the system for different biases. Over 6 h of continuous operation with a total bias of 0.9837/0.0163 (Z/X), we were able to generate 0.4567 secure key bits per raw key bit as compared to 0.2550 secure key bits per raw key bit for the unbiased case. This represents an increase in the efficiency of the key generation rate by 79%.

  11. Public key infrastructure building trusted applications and web services

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2004-01-01

    OVERVIEW OF PKI TECHNOLOGYPublic Key Infrastructures (PKIs): What Are They?Type of Certificate Authorities (CAS) ServicesPKI StandardsTypes of Vendor and Third-Party CA SystemsProtecting Private KeysCA System AttacksStolen Private Keys: What Can Be Done?Certificate Practice StatementsPKI ReadinessANALYZING AND DESIGNING PUBLIC KEY INFRASTRUCTURESPKI Design IssuesCost Justification and ConsiderationPKI Standards Design IssuesPKI Architectural Design ConsiderationsIMPLEMENTING PKIRequirementsImplementation ScheduleImplementation CostsPKI PerformanceMANAGING PKIRequesting a CertificateObtaining a

  12. [Key performance indicators of OR efficiency. Myths and evidence of key performance indicators in OR management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Wicha, L L; Fiege, M

    2007-03-01

    A variety of different key performance indicators, both for process and financial performance, are used to evaluate OR efficiency. Certain indicators like OR utilization and turnover times seem to become common standard in many hospitals to evaluate OR process performance. Despite the general use and availability of these indicators in OR management, the scientific evidence behind these data is relatively low. These process indicators are strongly influenced by artefacts and depend on planning process, resource allocation and documentation. Direct financial indicators become more important with increasing autonomy of OR management. Besides budgetary compliance the focus is set on the net results of internal transfer pricing systems. By taking part in an internal transfer pricing system, OR management develops from a mere passive cost center to an active shaper of perioperative processes. However, detailed knowledge of the origin of costs and pitfalls of internal transfer pricing systems is crucial. The increased transparency due to the free accessibility of diagnosis-related-groups (DRG) cost breakdown data can help to develop tools for economic analysis of OR efficiency.

  13. A Hybrid Key Management Scheme for WSNs Based on PPBR and a Tree-Based Path Key Establishment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Liang, Jixing; Zheng, Bingxin; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-09

    With the development of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), in most application scenarios traditional WSNs with static sink nodes will be gradually replaced by Mobile Sinks (MSs), and the corresponding application requires a secure communication environment. Current key management researches pay less attention to the security of sensor networks with MS. This paper proposes a hybrid key management schemes based on a Polynomial Pool-based key pre-distribution and Basic Random key pre-distribution (PPBR) to be used in WSNs with MS. The scheme takes full advantages of these two kinds of methods to improve the cracking difficulty of the key system. The storage effectiveness and the network resilience can be significantly enhanced as well. The tree-based path key establishment method is introduced to effectively solve the problem of communication link connectivity. Simulation clearly shows that the proposed scheme performs better in terms of network resilience, connectivity and storage effectiveness compared to other widely used schemes.

  14. An Examination by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Putative Key Residues in the Determination of Coenzyme Specificity in Clostridial NAD+-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Joanna; Engel, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence and structure comparisons of various glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH) and other nicotinamide nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases have potentially implicated certain residues in coenzyme binding and discrimination. We have mutated key residues in Clostridium symbiosum NAD+-specific GDH to investigate their contribution to specificity and to enhance acceptance of NADPH. Comparisons with E. coli NADPH-dependent GDH prompted design of mutants F238S, P262S, and F238S/P262S, which were purif...

  15. Key on demand (KoD) for software-defined optical networks secured by quantum key distribution (QKD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Yongli; Colman-Meixner, Carlos; Yu, Xiaosong; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-30

    Software-defined optical networking (SDON) will become the next generation optical network architecture. However, the optical layer and control layer of SDON are vulnerable to cyberattacks. While, data encryption is an effective method to minimize the negative effects of cyberattacks, secure key interchange is its major challenge which can be addressed by the quantum key distribution (QKD) technique. Hence, in this paper we discuss the integration of QKD with WDM optical networks to secure the SDON architecture by introducing a novel key on demand (KoD) scheme which is enabled by a novel routing, wavelength and key assignment (RWKA) algorithm. The QKD over SDON with KoD model follows two steps to provide security: i) quantum key pools (QKPs) construction for securing the control channels (CChs) and data channels (DChs); ii) the KoD scheme uses RWKA algorithm to allocate and update secret keys for different security requirements. To test our model, we define a security probability index which measures the security gain in CChs and DChs. Simulation results indicate that the security performance of CChs and DChs can be enhanced by provisioning sufficient secret keys in QKPs and performing key-updating considering potential cyberattacks. Also, KoD is beneficial to achieve a positive balance between security requirements and key resource usage.

  16. Password Authenticated Key Exchange and Protected Password Change Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose new password authenticated key exchange (PAKE and protected password change (PPC protocols without any symmetric or public-key cryptosystems. The security of the proposed protocols is based on the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. The proposed scheme can resist both forgery server and denial of service attacks.

  17. Flora of St Katherine Protectorate: key to families and genera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An illustrated key to families and genera of the flora of the St Katherine Protectorate is provided to facilitate the identification of the unique flora of the area, based on five years of collecting mainly in the mountains and wadis surrounding the town of St Katherine. The key includes 43 families and 141 genera, the families ...

  18. Secure Collaborative Key Management for Dynamic Groups in Mobile Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukin Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile networks are composed of heterogeneous mobile devices with peer-to-peer wireless communication. Their dynamic and self-organizing natures pose security challenge. We consider secure group key management for peer dynamic groups in mobile wireless networks. Many group based applications have achieved remarkable growth along with increasing use of multicast based services. The key sharing among the group members is an important issue for secure group communication because the communication for many participants implies that the likelihood of illegal overhearing increases. We propose a group key sharing scheme and efficient rekeying methods for frequent membership changes from network dynamics. The proposed method enables the group members to simply establish a group key and provide high flexibility for dynamic group changes such as member join or leave and group merging or partition. We conduct mathematical evaluation with other group key management protocols and finally prove its security by demonstrating group key secrecy, backward and forward secrecy, key independence, and implicit key authentication under the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH assumption.

  19. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  20. Calculation of key reduction for B92 QKD protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Partila, Pavol; Tovarek, Jaromir; Voznak, Miroslav

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) can be used with the highest level of security for distribution of the secret key, which is further used for symmetrical encryption. B92 is one of the oldest QKD protocols. It uses only two non-orthogonal states, each one coding for one bit-value. It is much faster and simpler when compared to its predecessors, but with the idealized maximum efficiencies of 25% over the quantum channel. B92 consists of several phases in which initial key is significantly reduced: secret key exchange, extraction of the raw key (sifting), error rate estimation, key reconciliation and privacy amplification. QKD communication is performed over two channels: the quantum channel and the classical public channel. In order to prevent a man-in-the-middle attack and modification of messages on the public channel, authentication of exchanged values must be performed. We used Wegman-Carter authentication because it describes an upper bound for needed symmetric authentication key. We explained the reduction of the initial key in each of QKD phases.

  1. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Numerical rigid plastic modelling of shear capacity of keyed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herfelt, Morten Andersen; Poulsen, Peter Noe; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2015-01-01

    Keyed shear joints are currently designed using simple and conservative design formulas, yet these formulas do not take the local mechanisms in the concrete core of the joint into account. To investigate this phenomenon a rigid, perfectly plastic finite element model of keyed joints is used...

  3. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Frewer, Lynn J.; Chryssochoidis, George M.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management.......In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management....

  4. A certificateless public key encryption based return routability ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, RRP has several security threats and issues. Subsequently, RRP was integrated with identity-based encryption for improvement of security. Nevertheless, it suffers from some limitations such as inherent key escrow problem, lack of key revocation, high computational load and latency while providing security.

  5. A key for the Forest Service hardwood tree grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Leland F. Hanks; Harry V., Jr. Wiant

    1986-01-01

    A dichotomous key organizes the USDA Forest Service hardwood tree grade specifications into a stepwise procedure for those learning to grade hardwood sawtimber. The key addresses the major grade factors, tree size, surface characteristics, and allowable cull deductions in a series of paried choices that lead the user to a decision regarding tree grade.

  6. Key factors influencing the implementation success of home telecare application.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postema, T.R.F.; Peeters, J.M.; Friele, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: The introduction of home telecare in healthcare organizations has shown mixed results in practice. The aim of this study is to arrive at a set of key factors that can be used in further implementation of video communication. We argue that key factors are mainly found in the organizational

  7. Single-quadrature continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Tobias; Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2016-01-01

    Most continuous-variable quantum key distribution schemes are based on the Gaussian modulation of coherent states followed by continuous quadrature detection using homodyne detectors. In all previous schemes, the Gaussian modulation has been carried out in conjugate quadratures thus requiring two...... commercialization of continuous-variable quantum key distribution, provided that the low noise requirement can be achieved....

  8. Key Features of the Manufacturing Vision Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Riis, Jens Ove; Boer, Harry

    2005-01-01

    of companies going through the initial phases of the methodology, this research identified the key features of the Manufacturing Vision Development process. The paper elaborates the key features by defining them, discussing how and when they can appear, and how they influence the process....

  9. Secure Authentication from a Weak Key, Without Leaking Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. Bouman (Niek); S. Fehr (Serge); K.G. Paterson (Kerry)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the problem of authentication based on a weak key in the information-theoretic setting. A key is weak if its min-entropy is an arbitrary small fraction of its bit length. This problem has recently received considerable attention, with different solutions optimizing different

  10. Determinants of Key Account Management Effectiveness: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key account management (KAM) is one of the contemporary ways of maintaining enhanced relationships with strategic business customers named as 'key accounts'. It helps to build a strategic relationship particularly in businessto- business marketing. But 'what factors determine KAM effectiveness' is not much investigated ...

  11. Integrating Key Competences in School Physical Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lleixà, Teresa; González-Arévalo, Carles; Braz-Vieira, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the European Union published its recommendations on competences for lifelong learning. Since then, key competences have been integrated into the official curriculum in Spain. The objectives of the present study are: a) to describe the strategies used most frequently by physical education teachers to incorporate key competences in their…

  12. The accuracy of interpreting key psychiatric terms by ad hoc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study examined the competence and accuracy of ad hoc interpreters in interpreting key psychiatric terms at a South African psychiatric hospital. Method: Nine individuals were asked to translate key psychiatric terms from English to Xhosa. These translations were then back-translated by independent ...

  13. Key agreement in peer-to-peer wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cagalj, Mario; Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    We present a set of simple techniques for key establishment over a radio link in peer-to-peer networks. Our approach is based on the Diffie-Hellman key agreement protocol, which is known to be vulnerable to the “man-in-the-middle” attack if the two users involved in the protocol do not share any ...

  14. Linkages among Key Actors in the Climate Change and Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study used the innovation system approach to ascertain the intensity and trends of linkages among key actors in the climate change and food security innovation system in Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Liberia. Data were collected through the use of semi structured interview schedule, key informant interviews and focus ...

  15. BOOK REVIEW: Key Science Physics: New Edition and Key Science Physics for International Schools: Extension File

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybank, Maureen

    1999-09-01

    When handling , I recalled how one set of sixth-form students that I taught affectionately referred to Jim Breithaupt's large format book Understanding Physics for Advanced Level as `Big Jim'. This package, for GCSE students and teachers, is its younger brother. Key Science Physics was reviewed in this journal over four years ago. Now it is in a new edition with an expanded ring file of teacher resources (a Teacher's Guide and Extension File). It has been expanded for a wider range of students to meet the requirements of all GCSE syllabuses with additional topics for IGCSE and IB. The international bit seems to be among materials in the file of resources and does not appear in the title of the students' textbook. This is not one of those purchases that will only get occasional use and be left in a department library but it is one that contains sufficient excellent material to become central to any GCSE Physics course. For the students there is a single-volume 396-page textbook in full colour (not a heavyweight book). Marginal comments point out places where an Activity or Assignment from the Extension File fits in. All the materials in the teacher's Extension File are cross referenced to the numbering of this textbook, i.e. its Themes, Topics, Checkpoints, Tests etc, not to page numbers. The margin is used in other attractive ways to highlight a summary, propose a first thought or provide a topic summary. The text is fruitful mix of pure physics, applications and personalities. To support the students' practical work the Extension File contains photocopiable sheets. For the activities and assignments a few contain a harder version to give access to the higher levels of attainment. Four alternatives to practical questions are given; there are also exam questions and multiple choice questions for each topic. These all have helpful mark schemes on the teacher's answers pages. What else do you get? A Glossary collection of sheets to photocopy with space to enter a

  16. Apparatus, system, and method for synchronizing a timer key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condit, Reston A; Daniels, Michael A; Clemens, Gregory P; Tomberlin, Eric S; Johnson, Joel A

    2014-04-22

    A timer key relating to monitoring a countdown time of a countdown routine of an electronic device is disclosed. The timer key comprises a processor configured to respond to a countdown time associated with operation of the electronic device, a display operably coupled with the processor, and a housing configured to house at least the processor. The housing has an associated structure configured to engage with the electronic device to share the countdown time between the electronic device and the timer key. The processor is configured to begin a countdown routine based at least in part on the countdown time, wherein the countdown routine is at least substantially synchronized with a countdown routine of the electronic device when the timer key is removed from the electronic device. A system and method for synchronizing countdown routines of a timer key and an electronic device are also disclosed.

  17. Cryptographic Key Management in Delay Tolerant Networks: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Anna Menesidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since their appearance at the dawn of the second millennium, Delay or Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTNs have gradually evolved, spurring the development of a variety of methods and protocols for making them more secure and resilient. In this context, perhaps, the most challenging problem to deal with is that of cryptographic key management. To the best of our knowledge, the work at hand is the first to survey the relevant literature and classify the various so far proposed key management approaches in such a restricted and harsh environment. Towards this goal, we have grouped the surveyed key management methods into three major categories depending on whether the particular method copes with (a security initialization, (b key establishment, and (c key revocation. We have attempted to provide a concise but fairly complete evaluation of the proposed up-to-date methods in a generalized way with the aim of offering a central reference point for future research.

  18. Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising......Quantum key distribution enables two remote parties to grow a shared key, which they can use for unconditionally secure communication over a certain distance. The maximal distance depends on the loss and the excess noise of the connecting quantum channel. Several quantum key distribution schemes...... based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...

  19. 75 FR 20364 - Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Wildlife Order 187; 4-D-FL-1218] Public Buildings Service; Key Largo Beacon Annex Site; Key Largo, FL; Transfer of Property Pursuant to section 2 of Public Law 537, 80th Congress, approved May 19, 1948 (16 U.S.C. 667c), notice is hereby given that: 1. The General...

  20. Mars’ First Billion Years: Key Findings, Key Unsolved Paradoxes, and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany

    2017-10-01

    In the evolution of terrestrial planets, the first billion years are the period most shrouded in mystery: How vigorous is early atmospheric loss? How do planetary climates respond to a brightening sun? When and how are plate tectonic recycling processes initiated? How do voluminous volcanism and heavy impact bombardment influence the composition of the atmosphere? Under what conditions might life arise? Looking outward to terrestrial planets around other stars, the record from Venus, Earth and Mars in this solar system is crucial for developing models of physical can chemical processes. Of these three worlds, Mars provides the longest record of planetary evolution from the first billion years, comprising >50% of exposed geologic units, which are only lightly overprinted by later processes.Orbital observations of the last decade have revealed abundant evidence for surface waters in the form of lakes, valley networks, and evidence of chemically open-system near-surface weathering. Groundwaters at temperatures ranging from just above freezing to hydrothermal have also left a rich record of process in the mineralogical record. A rsuite of environments - similar in diversity to Earth’s - has been discovered on Mars with water pH, temperature, redox, and chemistries varying in space and time.Here, I will focus on the consequences of the aqueous alteration of the Martian crust on the composition of the atmosphere based on recent work studying aspects of the volatile budget (Usui et al., 2015; Edwards & Ehlmann, 2015; Hu et al., 2015; Jakosky et al., 2017, Wordsworth et al., 2017, and Ehlmann, in prep.). The solid crust and mantle of Mars act as volatile reservoirs and volatile sources through volcanism, mineral precipitation, and release of gases. We examine the extent to which the budget is understood or ill-understood for hydrogen and carbon, and associated phases H2O, CO2, and CH4. Additionally, I identify some key stratigraphies where a combination of focused in

  1. Authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevassut, Olivier [Catholic Univ. of Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2002-10-01

    Authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange allows two principals A and B, communicating over a public network, and each holding a pair of matching public/private keys to agree on a session key. Protocols designed to deal with this problem ensure A (B resp.)that no other principals aside from B (A resp.) can learn any information about this value. These protocols additionally often ensure A and B that their respective partner has actually computed the shared secret value. A natural extension to the above cryptographic protocol problem is to consider a pool of principals agreeing on a session key. Over the years several papers have extended the two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange to the multi-party setting but no formal treatments were carried out till recently. In light of recent developments in the formalization of the authenticated two-party Diffie-Hellman key exchange we have in this thesis laid out the authenticated group Diffie-Hellman key exchange on firmer foundations.

  2. An Identification Key for Selecting Methods for Sustainability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel C. Zijp

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessments can play an important role in decision making. This role starts with selecting appropriate methods for a given situation. We observed that scientists, consultants, and decision-makers often do not systematically perform a problem analyses that guides the choice of the method, partly related to a lack of systematic, though sufficiently versatile approaches to do so. Therefore, we developed and propose a new step towards method selection on the basis of question articulation: the Sustainability Assessment Identification Key. The identification key was designed to lead its user through all important choices needed for comprehensive question articulation. Subsequently, methods that fit the resulting specific questions are suggested by the key. The key consists of five domains, of which three determine method selection and two the design or use of the method. Each domain consists of four or more criteria that need specification. For example in the domain “system boundaries”, amongst others, the spatial and temporal scales are specified. The key was tested (retrospectively on a set of thirty case studies. Using the key appeared to contribute to improved: (i transparency in the link between the question and method selection; (ii consistency between questions asked and answers provided; and (iii internal consistency in methodological design. There is latitude to develop the current initial key further, not only for selecting methods pertinent to a problem definition, but also as a principle for associated opportunities such as stakeholder identification.

  3. Hemodialysis Key Features Mining and Patients Clustering Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Chuen Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys are very vital organs. Failing kidneys lose their ability to filter out waste products, resulting in kidney disease. To extend or save the lives of patients with impaired kidney function, kidney replacement is typically utilized, such as hemodialysis. This work uses an entropy function to identify key features related to hemodialysis. By identifying these key features, one can determine whether a patient requires hemodialysis. This work uses these key features as dimensions in cluster analysis. The key features can effectively determine whether a patient requires hemodialysis. The proposed data mining scheme finds association rules of each cluster. Hidden rules for causing any kidney disease can therefore be identified. The contributions and key points of this paper are as follows. (1 This paper finds some key features that can be used to predict the patient who may has high probability to perform hemodialysis. (2 The proposed scheme applies k-means clustering algorithm with the key features to category the patients. (3 A data mining technique is used to find the association rules from each cluster. (4 The mined rules can be used to determine whether a patient requires hemodialysis.

  4. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  5. Small Private Key MQPKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwajeong Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate quadratic (MQ cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011, a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  6. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  7. Enhanced Key Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baojiang Cui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development and extensive use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs, it is urgent to enhance the security for WSNs, in which key management is an effective way to protect WSNs from various attacks. However, different types of messages exchanged in WSNs typically have different security requirements which cannot be satisfied by a single keying mechanism. In this study, a basic key management protocol is described for WSNs based on four kinds of keys, which can be derived from an initial master key, and an enhanced protocol is proposed based on Diffie-Hellman algorithm. The proposed scheme restricts the adverse security impact of a captured node to the rest of WSNs and meets the requirement of energy efficiency by supporting in-network processing. The master key protection, key revocation mechanism, and the authentication mechanism based on one-way hash function are, respectively, discussed. Finally, the performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed from the aspects of computational efficiency, storage requirement and communication cost, and its antiattack capability in protecting WSNs is discussed under various attack models. In this paper, promising research directions are also discussed.

  8. Key Performance Indicators in the Evaluation of the Quality of Radiation Safety Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Cheryl Culver; Shaffer, Sheila; Fink-Bennett, Darlene; Winokur, Kay

    2016-08-01

    Beaumont is a multiple hospital health care system with a centralized radiation safety department. The health system operates under a broad scope Nuclear Regulatory Commission license but also maintains several other limited use NRC licenses in off-site facilities and clinics. The hospital-based program is expansive including diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine (molecular imaging), interventional radiology, a comprehensive cardiovascular program, multiple forms of radiation therapy (low dose rate brachytherapy, high dose rate brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy, and gamma knife), and the Research Institute (including basic bench top, human and animal). Each year, in the annual report, data is analyzed and then tracked and trended. While any summary report will, by nature, include items such as the number of pieces of equipment, inspections performed, staff monitored and educated and other similar parameters, not all include an objective review of the quality and effectiveness of the program. Through objective numerical data Beaumont adopted seven key performance indicators. The assertion made is that key performance indicators can be used to establish benchmarks for evaluation and comparison of the effectiveness and quality of radiation safety programs. Based on over a decade of data collection, and adoption of key performance indicators, this paper demonstrates one way to establish objective benchmarking for radiation safety programs in the health care environment.

  9. Robust ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme with privacy protection for Telecare medicine information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Zhu, Shaohui

    2015-05-01

    To protect the transmission of the sensitive medical data, a secure and efficient authenticated key agreement scheme should be deployed when the healthcare delivery session is established via Telecare Medicine Information Systems (TMIS) over the unsecure public network. Recently, Islam and Khan proposed an authenticated key agreement scheme using elliptic curve cryptography for TMIS. They claimed that their proposed scheme is provably secure against various attacks in random oracle model and enjoys some good properties such as user anonymity. In this paper, however, we point out that any legal but malicious patient can reveal other user's identity. Consequently, their scheme suffers from server spoofing attack and off-line password guessing attack. Moreover, if the malicious patient performs the same time of the registration as other users, she can further launch the impersonation attack, man-in-the-middle attack, modification attack, replay attack, and strong replay attack successfully. To eliminate these weaknesses, we propose an improved ECC-based authenticated key agreement scheme. Security analysis demonstrates that the proposed scheme can resist various attacks and enables the patient to enjoy the remote healthcare services with privacy protection. Through the performance evaluation, we show that the proposed scheme achieves a desired balance between security and performance in comparisons with other related schemes.

  10. Setting Organizational Key Performance Indicators in the Precision Machine Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsiu Hong

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to define (or set organizational key performance indicators (KPIs in the precision machine industry using the concept of core competence and the supply chain operations reference (SCOR model. The research is conducted in three steps. In the first step, a benchmarking study is conducted to collect major items of core competence and to group them into main categories in order to form a foundation for the research. In the second step, a case company questionnaire and interviews are conducted to identify the key factors of core competence in the precision machine industry. The analysis is conducted based on four dimensions and hence several analysis rounds are completed. Questionnaire data is analyzed with grey relational analysis (GRA and resulted in 5–6 key factors in each dimension or sub-dimension. Based on the conducted interviews, 13 of these identified key factors are separated into one organization objective, five key factors of core competence and seven key factors of core ability. In the final step, organizational KPIs are defined (or set for the five identified key factors of core competence. The most competitive core abilities for each of the five key factors are established. After that, organizational KPIs are set based on the core abilities within 3 main categories of KPIs (departmental, office grade and hierarchal for each key factor. The developed KPI system based on organizational objectives, core competences, and core abilities allow enterprises to handle dynamic market demand and business environments, as well as changes in overall corporate objectives.

  11. KEY CONCEPTS OF AGROECOLOGY SCIENCE. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gómez-Echeverri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted with the objective of determining the key concepts that are currently used in theoretical work in agroecology. They were obtained from titles and keywords of theoretical articles and books that included the term agroecology in the title. Fifteen terms with occurrences higher than three were obtained. They show that agroecology revolves around the concept of integral sustainability, and that there is agreement on neither its object of study nor goal. As a result, most key concepts concern the object of study or the goal of agroecology. Other key concepts are food sovereignty, agriculture, ecofeminism, climate change, family farming, and social movements.

  12. Physical layer secret key generation for fiber-optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Konstantin; Wang, Zhenxing; Trappe, Wade; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-10-07

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method for generating and sharing a secret key using phase fluctuations in fiber optical links. The obtained key can be readily used to support secure communication between the parties. The security of our approach is based on a fundamental asymmetry associated with the optical physical layer: the sophistication of tools needed by an eavesdropping adversary to subvert the key establishment is significantly greater and more costly than the complexity needed by the legitimate parties to implement the scheme. In this sense, the method is similar to the classical asymmetric algorithms (Diffie-Hellman, RSA, etc.).

  13. Development of vu mif keys and equipment accounting information system

    OpenAIRE

    Raila, Martynas

    2017-01-01

    The goal of Bachelor’s thesis is to develop new Keys and Equipment Accounting Information System. The main tasks of Bachelor’s thesis are to analyse the old system used in Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics and to project and develop new Keys and Equipment Accounting Information System. At the moment old key system is used in two buildings of faculty and is not designed to support more than one faculty. This system is temporarily adjusted to support data from new timetable system currentl...

  14. GENERATION OF A SET OF KEY TERMS CHARACTERISING TEXT DOCUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Machova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper describes statistical methods (information gain, mutual X^2 statistics, and TF-IDF method for key words generation from a text document collection. These key words should characterise the content of text documents and can be used to retrieve relevant documents from a document collection. Term relations were detected on the base of conditional probability of term occurrences. The focus is on the detection of those words, which occur together very often. Thus, key words, which consist from two terms were generated additionally. Several tests were carried out using the 20 News Groups collection of text documents.

  15. Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

  16. Quantum Encryption Minimising Key Leakage under Known Plaintext Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Brochmann

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation we show how, by using a quantum channel, we can get more unconditionally secret communication with a symmetric key under known plaintext attacks. In unconditionally secret encryption schemes the key is necessarily an expensive resource since it cannot safely be reused for more......, or interactive encryption schemes, where the interaction does not need to occur online. In our model we show that the amount of key leaked under a known plaintext attack can be made arbitrarily small even in non-interactive encryption schemes. We also give an encryption scheme where eavesdropping can be detected...

  17. Characteristics of Key Update Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks offer the advantages of simple and low-resource communication. Challenged by this simplicity and low-resources, security is of particular importance in many cases such as transmission of sensitive data or strict requirements of tamper-resistance. Updating the security keys...... is one of the essential points in security, which restrict the amount of data that may be exposed when a key is compromised. In this paper, we investigate key update methods that may be used in wireless sensor networks, and benefiting from stochastic model checking we derive characteristics...... of these methods in security perspective....

  18. A pairing-free identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement protocol for secure and efficient communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SK Hafizul Islam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many identity-based two-party authenticated key agreement (ID-2PAKA protocols using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC have been proposed, however, these protocols do not provide adequate security and their computation costs are also relatively high due to bilinear pairing and map-to-point function. Moreover, they require many communication rounds for establishing the session key, and thus results in increased communication latency, which makes them unsuitable for real applications. This paper thus aims to propose a pairing-free ID-2PAKA protocol based on ECC that removes the security flaws of previous protocols. The proposed protocol helps two users to establish a common session key between them through an open network. The formal security analysis using BAN logic and the comparisons with other protocols are given, which demonstrated that our protocol is formally secure and thus, suitable for secure and efficient peer-to-peer communications.

  19. Towards optimised information about clinical trials; identification and validation of key issues in collaboration with cancer patient advocates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellson, P; Nilbert, M; Bendahl, P-O

    2011-01-01

    Clinical trials are crucial to improve cancer treatment but recruitment is difficult. Optimised patient information has been recognised as a key issue. In line with the increasing focus on patients' perspectives in health care, we aimed to study patients' opinions about the written information used...... for improvements, 21 key issues were defined and validated through a questionnaire in an independent group of breast cancer patient advocates. Clear messages, emotionally neutral expressions, careful descriptions of side effects, clear comparisons between different treatment alternatives and information about...... the possibility to discontinue treatment were perceived as the most important issues. Patients' views of the information in clinical trials provide new insights and identify key issues to consider in optimising future written information and may improve recruitment to clinical cancer trials....

  20. Evaluation of correct knowledge of key danger signs in pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-01

    Bello IO, Fagbamigbe AF, Mumuni TO,. Adesina OA, Abdus-Salam AR, Ifemeje A, et al. Evaluation of correct knowledge of key danger signs in pregnancy among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria.