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Sample records for biphenyls pcbs dibenzo-p-dioxins

  1. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  2. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  3. Retention and maternal transfer of environmentally relevant polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in zebrafish (Danio rerio) after dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldsson, Kristina; Haldén, Anna Norman; Norrgren, Leif; Haglund, Peter

    2012-04-01

    High levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), mono- and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are found in fish from coastal areas in the Baltic Sea, which may cause ecotoxicological effects. To increase our understanding of the persistency of the emerging pollutants polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), fish feed was spiked with 21 PBDD/Fs, 17 PCDD/Fs, and 30 PCBs and fed to zebrafish (Danio rerio). Concentrations in fish and eggs were examined during a 6- or 12-week uptake period, and a 6-week elimination period. Steady-state was reached for 2-, 3-, 7-, and/or 8-substituted tri- and tetra-BDD/Fs; 2,3,7,8-tetra-BDD (2,3,7,8-TeBDD) was the most strongly retained. Steady-state was not reached for tetra- to hexa-CDDs. Non-2,3,7,8 congeners showed little or no retention. Most PCBs had high retention and did not reach steady state. Half-lives decreased in the order PCBs > PCDD/Fs > PBDD/Fs. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- to octa-CDD/Fs decreased with their degree of chlorination, suggesting that the rate-limiting factor for uptake is low bioavailability. Maternal transfer was observed for all retained compounds, with most transfer factors food or water. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in breast milk of first-time Irish mothers: impact of the 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pratt, Iona S

    2012-08-01

    The 2008 dioxin incident in Ireland resulted in elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Irish pork and pork products, due to the consumption of contaminated animal feed by pigs. In order to investigate any resulting impact on the Irish population, these contaminants were measured in pooled breast milk samples from 109 first-time mothers, collected in 2010. A comparison of the results with similar data from 2002 revealed generally lower concentrations of PCDD\\/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the 2010 samples, confirming the declining trend reported by many authors. Contaminant concentration levels for both 2002 and 2010 were generally slightly lower than those reported internationally, with a mean combined PCDD\\/F and PCB WHO-TEQ of 9.66pgg(-1)fat, for an overall pooled sample of milk from 2010. An apparent slight increase in PCDFs was observed between 2002 and 2010 (from 2.73pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat to 3.21pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)fat), with the main contributory congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF. While it cannot be totally discounted that the slight increase in 2,3,4,7,8-PentaCDF and in the overall PCDF WHO-TEQ in breast milk could be attributable to consumption of Irish pork during the 2008 incident, we consider that it is more likely that this was due to other factors, including the predominantly urban\\/industrial sampling locations for the 2010 samples, compared to 2002.

  5. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, D.; Watanabe, M.; Subraminian, A.N.; Tanabe, S. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Tanaka, H. [National Research Inst. of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, G. [Fundacao Univ. Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, P.K.S.; Zheng, G.J. [City Univ. of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Muchtar, M.; Razak, H. [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, M. [De La Salle Univ. (Philippines); Chung, K. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Worldwide contamination by dioxins and related compounds, such as polychlorinated dibenzop- dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) representing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been of great concern due to their persistency in the environment, highly bioaccumulative nature and adverse effects on wildlife and humans. Several studies on air samples and marine organisms from open seas suggested a long range transport of these compounds through atomosphere. Although several investigators have monitored dioxins pollution in localized areas, information on the global distribution of dioxins which can explain their atomospheric transport, behavior and fate are still limited. Skipjack tuna is primarily distributed from offshore waters to open seas in tropical and temperate regions almost all over the world such as the Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans6. This species is an important commercial fish and its ecology and biology has been well studied. Moreover, suitability of skipjack tuna for global monitoring of organic pollutants (DDTs, HCHs PBDEs, organotins, etc.) has been established in our previous report, indicating that migration pattern, growth stage and sex of these animals have no or little effect on the variations of POPs residue levels in their bodies. Hence this species reflected POPs pollution levels in seawater when and where they were collected, caused by the rapid equilibrium partitioning between seawater and body lipid. These facts made skipjack tuna a suitable bioindicator for monitoring the contamination status of dioxins and related compounds. The objectives of this study are to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins (PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) in offshore waters and open seas, and to understand the transport and behaviour of these chemicals using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  6. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Daisuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Subramanian, Annamalai [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea (Japan); Fillmann, Gilberto [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (Brazil); Lam, Paul K.S. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Zheng, Gene J. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Razak, Hamidah [Research and Development Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Indonesia); Prudente, Maricar [Science Education Department, De La Salle University (Philippines); Chung, Kyu-Hyuck [College of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2005-07-15

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator.

  7. Global pollution monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), furans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fillmann, Gilberto; Lam, Paul K.S.; Zheng, Gene J.; Muchtar, Muswerry; Razak, Hamidah; Prudente, Maricar; Chung, Kyu-Hyuck; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate the global distribution of dioxins and related compounds, such as PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs, levels of these compounds were determined in the muscle of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) collected from the offshore waters and open seas near Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia, Seychelles and Brazil, and the Japan Sea, the East China Sea, the South China Sea, the Indian Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. PCDDs, PCDFs and coplanar PCBs were detected in almost all the specimens collected from all the locations surveyed, indicating widespread contamination by these compounds in the marine environment. Higher concentrations of dioxins and coplanar PCBs were detected in the samples from temperate Asian regions, plausibly due to larger usage and anthropogenic generation in highly industrialized countries around the East China Sea and the South China Sea, such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and coastal China. - Global pollution monitoring of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in offshore water and open sea were conducted using skipjack tuna as bioindicator

  8. A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the livestock waste compost of Hong Kong, PR China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Q.Y.C.; Chan, A.H.M. [Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, 33/F Revenue Tower, 5 Gloucester Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China); Ma, S.W.Y. [Environmental Protection Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Government, 33/F Revenue Tower, 5 Gloucester Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: mawystephanie@epd.gov.hk

    2008-07-01

    Composting is one of the waste disposal methods adopted for disposal of livestock waste in Hong Kong. The composting livestock waste normally undergoes 6-8 weeks fermentation, followed by 16-20 weeks maturation. The matured compost is sold as soil conditioner in the local market. In 2006, feedstock material and a time-series of compost samples were collected throughout the fermentation and maturation process from the Sha Ling Composting Plant in the New Territories. The feedstock material and compost samples were analyzed for contents of three unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs), i.e. dioxins/furans, dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs. These POPs are unintentionally produced by-products of chemical industrial processes and combustion processes. Selected heavy metals were also analyzed, which served as conservative tracers to determine potential mass loss during the composting process. Levels of contamination by these POPs were found to be low in the matured compost for sale. The mean concentrations (lower-upper bound) of total dioxins/furans, total dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs were 2.01-2.05 ng I-TEQ/kg dw, 0.04-0.05 ng WHO-TEQ/kg dw and 1.55-1.55 {mu}g/kg dw, respectively. Progressively elevated levels of these POPs were observed in the compost samples during the fermentation process. Analysis of the congener profiles revealed that the heptaCDD and octaCDD were the main contributors to the observed increase in dioxin/furan content. The possible sources of dioxins/furans in the compost were discussed. The study results established a local dioxins/furans emission factor specific to the trade and provided a better estimate of the annual dioxins/furans emission for the livestock waste composting activity in Hong Kong.

  9. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Inui

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126 to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  10. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A four-year survey in the farming region of Chile, occurrence and human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and dioxin -like polychlorinated biphenyls in different raw meats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    San Martin, B.V.; Pizarro-Aránguiz, N.; García-Mendoza, D.; Araya-Jordan, C.; Maddaleno, A.; Abad, E.; Galbán-Malagón, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in South America, a four-year survey (2011-2014) was conducted to assess the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in different raw meats (bovine, pork, ovine, chicken, and turkey) sampled from

  12. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eljarrat, Ethel; De La Cal, Agustina; Larrazabal, David; Fabrellas, Begona; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo Rodriguez; Borrull, Francesc; Marce, Rosa Maria; Barcelo, Damia

    2005-01-01

    Fifteen sediment samples were analysed in order to determine their content of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Samples were collected from several hot spots on the Spanish coast, such as the harbours of Almeria and Tarragona, and the mouths of the Besos and Llobregat rivers in Barcelona. A generic analytical procedure based on Soxhlet extraction followed by an automated cleanup system and gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry was employed for determining the toxic congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs, as well as dioxin-like PCBs. As regards PBDE determinations, a rapid method based on the use of selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was applied. Total toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) values were calculated using the toxicity equivalent factors proposed by WHO for dioxin-like PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. WHO-TEQ values ranged from 0.3 to 75 pg/g dry weight (dw), with PCB contribution on the toxicity of the samples between 1 and 84%. Total PBDE levels ranged from 2.7 to 134 ng/g dw, with BDE-209 contribution on the total PBDE contamination between 50 and 99%. - Decabrominated diphenyl ether makes a substantial contribution to the total PBDE contamination found in Spanish coastal sediments

  13. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data......The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCB) are ubiquitous in food of animal origin and accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans. The most toxic congener is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo...

  14. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K.F.; Chen Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, M.K.; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity. - Health risk assessment of organochlorine compounds associated with seafood consumption reveals low health risks for two coastal populations in China

  15. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  16. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klop, A.; Herbes, R.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBS) in bivalve mollusk from Galician Rías (N. W., SPAIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2018-04-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs (2,3,7,8-chlorosubstituted) and three dioxin-like PCBs (PCB 77, PCB 126 and PCB169) were analyzed in bivalve mollusk collected in several Galician Rías between 2006 and 2014. Levels of Total PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.03 to 0.62 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 wet weight. Total dl-PCBs values were higher than Total PCDD/Fs and ranged from 0.01 to 2.11 pg WHO-TEQ g -1 wet weight. These concentrations were below those considered safe for human consumption. The PCDD/Fs profile was dominated by 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF with a percentage of 24.95 and 23.87 of the Total PCDD/Fs, respectively. In relation to Total dl-PCBs, CB126 was the priority congener with the highest TEF value (0.1). Principal component analysis (PCAs) indicated a clear separation between the northern (Rías de Ferrol and Coruña) and southern Rías (Ría de Pontevedra and Vigo). The northern Rías were the highest contaminated one. Temporal trends showed important reduction rates suggesting that the regulations on dioxin like contaminants have been effective for quality waters in Galician Rías. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  19. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the negative chemical ionization mode with different reagent gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Revelsky, Alexander I; Revelsky, Igor A; Mikhasenko, Ilya A; Sobolevsky, Tim G

    2002-01-01

    Reagent gases that are used in mass spectrometry in the NCI mode for the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are discussed. Ion-molecule reactions and respective characteristic ions that form while using reagent gases (CH(4), O(2), i-C(4)H(10), NH(3), H(2), He, Ar, Xe, SF(6)) or gas mixtures (CH(4)/O(2), Ar/CH(4), CH(4)/H(2)O, Ar/O(2), i-C(4)H(10)/CH(2)Cl(2)/O(2)) are reviewed. It is shown that only CH(4), O(2), CH(4)/O(2), and CH(4)/N(2)O are widely used and well studied, even though-in the case of these reagent gases-there are contradictions between the publications of various authors. Such reagent gases as NH(3) and He are not well studied, but further investigations of their use for the determination of organochlorine pollutants could be of interest. The possibilities of more sensitive and selective determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs are discussed. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls: inclusion in the toxicity equivalency factor concept for dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Martin; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Devito, Michael J; Fiedler, Heidelore; Falandysz, Jerzy; Rose, Martin; Schrenk, Dieter; Safe, Stephen; Tohyama, Chiharu; Tritscher, Angelika; Tysklind, Mats; Peterson, Richard E

    2013-06-01

    In 2011, a joint World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) expert consultation took place, during which the possible inclusion of brominated analogues of the dioxin-like compounds in the WHO Toxicity Equivalency Factor (TEF) scheme was evaluated. The expert panel concluded that polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and some dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PBBs) may contribute significantly in daily human background exposure to the total dioxin toxic equivalencies (TEQs). These compounds are also commonly found in the aquatic environment. Available data for fish toxicity were evaluated for possible inclusion in the WHO-UNEP TEF scheme (van den Berg et al., 1998). Because of the limited database, it was decided not to derive specific WHO-UNEP TEFs for fish, but for ecotoxicological risk assessment, the use of specific relative effect potencies (REPs) from fish embryo assays is recommended. Based on the limited mammalian REP database for these brominated compounds, it was concluded that sufficient differentiation from the present TEF values of the chlorinated analogues (van den Berg et al., 2006) was not possible. However, the REPs for PBDDs, PBDFs, and non-ortho dl-PBBs in mammals closely follow those of the chlorinated analogues, at least within one order of magnitude. Therefore, the use of similar interim TEF values for brominated and chlorinated congeners for human risk assessment is recommended, pending more detailed information in the future.

  2. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in placentas from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mariana F; Parera, Jordi; Arrebola, Juan P; Marina, Loreto Santa; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina; Abalos, Manoli; Tardon, Adonina; Castaño, Argelia; Abad, Esteban; Olea, Nicolas

    2012-12-15

    Because fetuses are considered significantly more sensitive to various environment toxicants, there is a need for continuous biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs (DL-PCBs) to assess their impact on this susceptible population. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in placenta samples from women participating in the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) birth cohort study and to evaluate whether maternal and child characteristics predict placenta concentrations of these pollutants. The presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was investigated in 50 placenta samples selected at random in the recruitment period 2000-2008. Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of 30.7 years (18.0-38.0 years), pre-pregnancy BMI of 23.3 kg/m² (18.0-40.2 kg/m²), and 31% were smokers. Median total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 6.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid and 2.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations. The congener distribution pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCB congeners were similar to previous reports in placenta. PCDD/F and DL-PCB exposure was related to the age of the mother and the year of the delivery. Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g - 1 wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g - 1 wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g - 1 wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  5. Mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls: Simultaneous congener-selective determination in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alwyn R; Rose, Martin; Mortimer, David; Carr, Melanie; Panton, Sean; Smith, Frankie

    2011-12-23

    Of the 4600 individual poly-halogenated (bromo-chloro) dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzo-furans (PXDD/Fs) and 9180 poly-halogenated biphenyls (PXBs), 19 compounds were selected for analysis in food, based on current toxicological knowledge, chemical configuration, type and degree of halogenation, and the limited knowledge on environmental occurrence levels. The selection was also tempered by the availability of reliable analytical standards. The analytical methodology designed to allow simultaneous determination of PXDD/Fs and PXBs, was based on internal standardisation with (13)C(12) labelled compounds and high resolution mass spectrometry and involved a new separation procedure using dual activated carbon column fractionation. In order to unambiguously measure these compounds a practical, higher mass resolution (13,500-15,000 res) was used, coupled with a judicious choice of analyte ions and relative ion ratios. Further specificity was incorporated by exploiting the differences in chromatographic retention from those of potential interferants. The methodology was validated and used to measure occurrence levels of these contaminants in different matrices such as milk, meat, fish, eggs, offal, shellfish and soil. The limits of detection achieved by this methodology ranged from 0.005 to 0.02ngkg(-1) fat for foods. The analyses revealed the presence of both PXDD/Fs and PXBs, with the latter occurring to a greater extent, followed by PXDFs. This work represents the first targeted approach to measuring a range of individual PXDD/Fs and PXBs simultaneously. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined as a function of depth in killer whale (Orcinus orca) blubber samples. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and ...

  8. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Ikonomou, Michael G.; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Hee-Sun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of blood samples is an effective way of evaluating contamination by persistent pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human population. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured in the blood of laborers (n=13) working full time in two different municipal waste incinerator (MWI) plants and residents from the general population (n=22) living in areas near MWIs in Korea. The concentrations of PBDEs were found to be slightly higher in the blood of incineration workers (8.61-46.05 ng/g lipid; mean, 19.33 ng/g lipid; median, 15.94 ng/g lipid) in comparison to that of residents from the general population (7.24-28.89 ng/g lipid; mean, 15.06 ng/g lipid; median, 14.34 ng/g lipid). The total average PCDD/Fs and PCB TEQ concentration was 20.11 pg/g lipid, averaged over incineration workers (17.73 pg/g lipid) and the general population (21.52 pg/g lipid). In addition, the average total crude concentration of PCDD/Fs was 7.40 ng/g lipids, which was 4.1 times greater than for PBDEs. Congener specific analysis confirmed that BDE 47 was a predictive indicator for total PBDE concentration (correlation coefficient r=0.912), and that PCB 153 was a predictive indicator for total PCB concentration (r=0.967). The PBDE levels in human blood in Korea are much higher than those reported in other countries. The presence of the BDE 183 congener was characteristic in the blood of workers from an electronic dismantling facility in MWIs

  10. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chang Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample and large marine fish (0.6. In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60–65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13–40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future.

  12. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pegg yolks from different regions of collection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Human dietary exposure and levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter, Northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squadrone, S.; Brizio, P.; Nespoli, R.; Stella, C.; Abete, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    PCDD/Fs and PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Contamination of soils, animal feed and pastures leads to their bioaccumulation of in food products of animal origin, which are considered the major source of intake of these contaminants in humans. We analyzed eggs from free-range hens, sampled from small farms, located within a distance of 4.5 km from a secondary aluminum smelter in Northern Italy. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs were higher in eggs from locations close to the plant, and strongly exceeded the limits set by EU Regulation 1259/2011 (2.5 pg WHO TEQ fat g −1 for PCDD/Fs, 5.0 pg WHO TEQ g −1 for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs L, 40 ng g −1 for NDL-PCBs). Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a risk for human health, especially for children (≤9 years) and infants (≤3 years), due to the 2-fold excess of the current exposure limits. - Highlights: • We analyzed free-range eggs from farms close to a secondary aluminum smelter (ALS). • Concentrations of dioxins and PCBs strongly exceeded the limit set by EU Regulation. • Concentrations decrease at increasing distances from the plant. • Consuming contaminated eggs may pose a health risk for humans. - Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are of concern in free-range eggs close to a secondary aluminum smelter.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD/F) and biphenyls (PCB) in fish, beef, and fowl purchased in food markets in Northern California USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksemburg, W.; Maier, M.; Patterson, A. [Alta Analytical Laboratory, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wenning, R.; Braithwaite, S. [ENVIRON International, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Food basket surveys and exposure studies conducted over the past decade suggest that one of the main routes of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) is likely through the consumption of food products such as eggs, meats, fish, and dairy products. More recently, studies of human milk, blood, and adipose tissues also demonstrate human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The contamination of Belgium store-bought chicken products in 1999 and, more recently, concerns regarding farmraised fish products in the U.S., Ireland, and elsewhere by PCDD/Fs and PCBs has heightened concerns about the occurrence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PBDEs, in consumer food products. In the U.S., for example, recent studies have shown the edible portions of farm-raised fish containing higher levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs than in wild fish. In this study, fillets from several species of freshwater and ocean fish (both farm-raised and wild), as well as ground beef, ground deer, and meat from several species of fowl (chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pheasant), were purchased from food markets in the cities of Sacramento and El Dorado Hills, California USA. Foods were tested for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs and the results used to evaluate human exposure through the consumption of store-bought consumer food products.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in street dust of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Molt, Karl; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2015-04-01

    In this study the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) in street dust samples was investigated using pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Street dust samples were taken from rural, urban, industrial and industrially influenced urban areas. PCB6 concentrations ranged from 5090±2200 μg/kg (average±standard error of mean) in dusts from industrial premises to 29±8.7 μg/kg in rural areas. Concentration ranges were for dioxin-like PCB toxicity equivalents (dl-PCB TEQ) from 362±164 ng/kg (industrial premises) to 6.5±1.8 ng/kg (rural areas), and for PCDD/PCDF TEQ from 503±448 ng/kg to 2.4±0.13 ng/kg, respectively. Area concentrations of PCB6 (0.040 μg/m2-22 μg/m2), dl-PCB TEQ (0.0038 ng/m2-2.6 ng/m2) and PCDD/PCDF TEQs (14 pg/m2-1980 pg/m2) were estimated. Furthermore, particle size related concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in street dusts were analysed showing throughout almost all samples a distinctive trend of increasing concentrations with decreasing particle sizes. Characterization of homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dusts was performed showing a dependence of homologue patterns on different area types, especially for PCBs. It could be demonstrated that the analysis of concentrations in combination with specific homologue patterns of PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs in street dust samples enables allocation of potential emission sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  18. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.T.; Traag, W.A.; Murk, A.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2014-01-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US

  20. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and chlorine-containing pesticides in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokof'ev, A. K.

    1990-11-01

    Literature material has been correlated on methods of determining ecologically particularly dangerous polychlorinated compounds (dioxins, furans and biphenyls) and chlorine-containing pesticides and phenols in the environment, viz. in air, natural waters, soil, sludges and various tissues of biological organisms (including man). All stages of the analysis are reviewed, i.e. selection and storage of samples, methods of extraction and derivatisation, means of purification of organic extracts, gas chromatographic and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods of separating and estimating individual isomers and compounds and their detection limits. The bibliography contains 164 references.

  1. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  2. Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bermejo, Ángel; Ábalos, Manuela; Sauló, Jordi; Abad, Esteban; González, María José; Gómara, Belén

    2015-08-19

    This paper reports on the optimisation, characterisation, validation and applicability of gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry in its tandem operation mode (GC-QqQ(MS/MS) for the quantification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in environmental and food matrices. MS/MS parameters were selected to achieve the high sensitivity and selectivity required for the analysis of this type of compounds and samples. Good repeatability for areas (RSD = 1-10%, for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) and for ion transition ratios (RSD = 0.3-10%, for PCDD/Fs, and 0.2-15%, for DL-PCBs) and low instrumental limits of detection, 0.07-0.75 pg μL(-1) (for dioxins) and 0.05-0.63 pg μL(-1) (for DL-PCBs), were obtained. A comparative study of the congener specific determination using both GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) was also performed by analysing several fortified samples and certified reference materials (CRMs) with low (feed and foodstuffs), median (sewage sludge) and high (fly ash) toxic equivalency (TEQ) concentration levels, i.e. 0.60, 1.83, 72.9 and 3609 pg WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs) g(-1). The agreement between the results obtained for the total TEQs (dioxins) on GC-QqQ(MS/MS) and GC-HRMS in all the investigated samples were within the range of ±4%, and that of DL-PCBs at concentration levels of 0.84 pg WHO-TEQs (DL-PCBs) g(-1), in the case of feedstuffs, was 0.11%. Both instrumental methods have similar and comparable linearity, precision and accuracy. The GC-QqQ(MS/MS) sensitivity, lower than that of GC-HRMS, is good enough (iLODs in the down to low pg levels) to detect the normal concentrations of these compounds in food and environmental samples. These results make GC-QqQ(MS/MS) suitable for the quantitative analysis of dioxins and DL-PCBs and a real alternative tool to the reference sector HRMS instruments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  3. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the “Land of Fires” Area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Esposito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known “Land of Fires” area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011–2.26 ng g−1 for the six “indicator” non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, and 0.0009–0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ g−1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a “sentinel” of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  4. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  5. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-07-26

    Owing to massive pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls in the harbour area of Dortmund (Germany), several dust samples were taken from surfaces at industrial sites and analyzed by the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Nature, Environment, and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand (a dust surrogate) on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling. Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Furthermore, temperature optimization for a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method used to extract PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) from street dust samples was developed and compared with Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PCBs in real street dust samples. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases. During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Finally, the performance of the PLE method was evaluated by analysing NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a for PCB and PCDD/F concentrations. This demonstrated that the accuracy of the PLE method for the determination of both substance classes was satisfactory. In addition, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in street dust samples from industrial sites are reported. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Separation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans, non-ortho/mono/di/tri/tetra-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers groups of compounds prior to their determination with large volume injection gas chromatography-Quadrupole ion storage tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2013-10-17

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important environmental contaminants. Their maximum legally allowable levels in food and environment are in the low pg g(-1) range. Therefore some highly selective and sensitive analytical methods must be used to determine them. Prior to final determination by GC/MS the cleaned-up samples have to be split into some fractions in view of large differences in concentrations of various analytes and existence of numerous chromatographic co-elutions (which in any case cannot be fully avoided). The aim of this study was to: (i) develop a robust, time-saving analytical method to isolate, clean-up and fractionate PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs prior to their determination with gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry; (ii) assess method performance using laboratory validation data and some certified reference materials; (iii) use the developed method to assess PCB/PBDE/PCDD/F levels in samples of commercially available food. A combination of alumina, florisil, modified silica gel and two carbon columns were used for sample cleanup and fractionation. Separate fractions containing dioxins/furans, PBDE, non-ortho, mono-ortho and di-/tri-/tetra-ortho PCBs were obtained. The method statistical parameters were compatible with 1883/2006 EC Regulation (80-120%, RSD below 15%). The method performance was successfully used to evaluation of some real life food samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Serum concentrations of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and PCBs, among former phenoxy herbicide production workers and firefighters in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Eng, Amanda; Walls, Chris; Dryson, Evan; McLean, Dave; Kogevinas, Manolis; Fowles, Jeff; Borman, Barry; O'Connor, Patrick; Cheng, Soo; Brooks, Collin; H Smith, Allan; Pearce, Neil

    2016-02-01

    To quantify serum concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like compounds in former phenoxy herbicide production plant workers and firefighters, 20 years after 2,4,5-T production ceased. Of 1025 workers employed any time during 1969-1984, 430 were randomly selected and invited to take part in a morbidity survey and provide a blood sample; 244 (57%) participated. Firefighters stationed in close proximity of the plant and/or engaged in call-outs to the plant between 1962 and 1987 also participated (39 of 70 invited). Reported here are the serum concentrations of TCDD and other chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Determinants of the serum concentrations were assessed using linear regression. The 60 men who had worked in the phenoxy/TCP production area had a mean TCDD serum concentration of 19.1 pg/g lipid, three times the mean concentration of the 141 men and 43 women employed in other parts of the plant (6.3 and 6.0 pg/g respectively), and more than 10 times the mean for the firefighters (1.6 pg/g). Duration of employment in phenoxy herbicide synthesis, maintenance work, and work as a boilerman, chemist, and packer were associated with increased serum concentrations of TCDD and 1,2,3,4,7-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD). Employment as a boilerman was also associated with elevated serum concentrations of PCBs. Occupations in the plant associated with phenoxy herbicide synthesis had elevated levels of TCDD and PeCDD. Most other people working within the plant, and the local firefighters, had serum concentrations of dioxin-like compounds comparable to those of the general population.

  8. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T

    2005-12-01

    For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42-79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1-2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5-40 km) from industry during 2000-03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution.

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  10. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  11. "De Novo"-synthesis of chlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins in the fly ash catalyzed reaction of toluene with hydrochloric acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, E.W.B. de; Lexmond, R.J.; Zeeuw, M.A. de

    1989-01-01

    Toluene is converted into benzaldehyde and halogenated aromatic oxidation products in an air atmosphere at 425 °C with fly ash from a municipal waste incineration plant as the catalyst. Several halogenated products such as chlorinated and brominated benzenes, biphenyls and traces of PCDDs/PCDFs

  12. Biomonitoring aquatic pollution with feral eel (Anguilla anguilla): I. Bioaccumulation: biota-sediment ratios of PCBs, OCPs, PCDDs and PCDFs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Oost, R.; Opperhuizen, A.; Satumalay, K.; Heida, H.; Vermeulen, N.P.E.

    1996-01-01

    Samples of sediments and eel taken from six Amsterdam freshwater sites were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  15. Dioxins, dioxin-like PCBs and non-dioxin-like PCBs in foodstuffs : occurrence and dietary intake in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, A.J.; Bakker, M.I.; Baumann, R.A.; Boon, P.E.; Freijer, J.I.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klaveren, van J.D.; Liem, A.K.D.; Traag, W.A.; Vries, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Data on occurrence of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs] and dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), dioxin-like PCBs (polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (as represented by the so-called indicator-PCBs: congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) in food

  16. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  17. Effects of cooking on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds in green leafy vegetable 'Komatsuna'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, T; Nakagawa, R; Tobiishi, K; Iida, T; Tsutsumi, T; Sasaki, K; Toyoda, M

    2001-10-01

    The effects of ordinary household cooking processes on concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (dioxins) were investigated in 'komatsuna', a green leafy vegetable popular in Japan. The concentrations of dioxins were compared using isomer-specific analyses of both uncooked and cooked edible parts of the plant. The mean total 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDD and PCDF concentrations were reduced from 46.53 pg/g and 0.714 pg/g to 8.301 pg/g and 0.210 pg/g by washing with tap water, and further reduced to 6.054 pg/g and 0.148 pg/g by subsequent boiling, respectively. The cooking processes markedly decreased the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, while having little effect on those of dioxin-like PCBs. The mean total concentration as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQ) was reduced from 0.058 pgTEQ/g to 0.026 pgTEQ/g by washing with tap water and further reduced to 0.019 pgTEQ/g by subsequent boiling. These results suggest that ordinary cooking processes provide a means of reducing the level of dioxins in green leafy vegetables.

  18. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins through dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Huisman (Martijn); S.E.J. Eerenstein (S. E J); C. Koopman-Esseboom (Corine); M. Brouwer (Marije); V. Fidler (Vaclav); F.A.J. Muskiet (Frits); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Boersma (Eric)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) are potentially hazardous compounds. Since food is the major source (>90%) for the accumulation of PCBs and dioxins in the human body, food habits in women determine the degree of fetal

  19. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pussente, Igor C.; Dam, ten Guillaume; Leeuwen, van Stefan; Augusti, Rodinei

    2017-01-01

    Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) are substances that represent a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Industrial processes and other human activities as well as uncontrollable

  20. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS AND DIOXINS THROUGH DIETARY-INTAKE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, M; EERENSTEIN, SEJ; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; BROUWER, M; FIDLER, [No Value; MUSKIET, FAJ; SAUER, PJJ; BOERSMA, ER

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) are potentially hazardous compounds. Since food is the major source (> 90%) for the accumulation of PCBs and dioxins in the human body, food habits in women determine the degree of fetal exposure and

  1. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin in the Netherlands during the period 2001-2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Schoss, Stefanie; Theelen, Rob M.C.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (DL-PCBs) in food of animal origin produced in the Netherlands, including potential trends in time. Test results from about 2500

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs) in breast milk and early childhood growth and IGF1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that dioxin-like chemicals may interfere with aspects of the endocrine system including growth. However, human background population studies are, however, scarce. We aimed to investigate whether early exposure of healthy infants to dioxin-like chemicals was associa...

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran and biophenyl content in selected groups of Baltic herring and sprat from Estonian coastal waters in 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Roots

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB were determined in samples of Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras and sprat (Sprattus sprattus balticus in 2006 from commercial catches in Estonian coastal waters, Baltic Sea. The dioxin content of the fish sampled in 2006 did not exceed the European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs (4.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight and for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight. PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs content in herring were 2.12 and 3.84 pg WHO-TEQ/g of fresh weight respectively; the corresponding figures for sprat were 1.94 and 3.82 pg WHO-TEQ/g of fresh weight. Comparable with our earlier data on the content of dioxins in three to four year old herring and two to three year old sprat, these data show that two servings of fish per week are not at all harmful tothe health of the Estonian people; indeed, the opposite is more likely to be the case.

  4. Environment-related properties of polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jia-Qi; Qu, Rui-juan; Flamm, Alison; Liu, Hong-Xia; Xu, Ying; Wang, Zun-Yao

    2012-01-01

    Polyhydroxylated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PHODDs) are important metabolic and synthetic products of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Two types of hydrogen bonds exist in PHODD molecules: one between a hydroxyl group (HO) and an oxygen atom of the ether bond, and the other between two ortho hydroxyls of a benzene ring. By fully optimized calculation with density functional theory (DFT), their bond energies were ascertained to be approximately 9–14 kJ/mol and 15–19 kJ/mol respectively by the comparison of standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ f G θ ) between different molecules, which was experimentally verified. The two types of hydrogen bonds affect the hydrophilicity and stability of the molecules. The torsional potential of hydroxyls and the orientation making the congener most stable were obtained. The octanol-water partition coefficients (logK ow s) were calculated based on the group contribution method, and the standard state entropy (S θ ), standard enthalpy (Δ f H θ ) of formation and Δ f G θ were obtained from the combination of DFT calculation and isodesmic reaction for the stable PHODD congeners. The number and position of hydroxyl substitution (N PHOS ) were employed as descriptors to establish quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) models. Although the hydrophilicity of PHODDs increases with the number of hydroxyl groups, it is impaired by the intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The logK ow s of PHODDs are much smaller than those of PCDDs, and the variation trend with the number of substituents is different. In addition, the relative stability order of PHODD congeners was theoretically proposed, which is quite different from that of PCDDs. Considering the ionization in water, first-order ionization constants of PHODDs were calculated according to the results of SMD method of Self-Consistent Reaction Field Theory (SCRF), and they were influenced by the hydrogen bonds. - Highlights: ► Hydroxyl torsional potential and hydrogen

  5. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxine-like PCBs in feed material in the Netherlands, 2001-11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Schoss, S.; Jong, de J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were

  6. WHO/UNEP global surveys of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs in human milk and benefit-risk evaluation of breastfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X; Kypke, Karin; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Lee, Seoung Yong; Magulova, Katarina; Fiedler, Heidelore; Malisch, Rainer

    Since 1987, the World Health Organization (WHO) carried out global surveys on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk. This study presents a review of the three most recent surveys from 2000 to 2010,

  7. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants. Predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Koopman-Esseboom (Corine); M. Huisman (Martijn); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); C.G. van der Paauw (Cornelis); L.G.M.Th. Tuinstra (L. G M Th); H. Boersma (Eric); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels

  8. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  9. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  10. A TIME-TRENDS STUDY OF THE OCCURRENCES AND LEVELS OF CDDS, CDFS AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN SEDIMENT CORES FROM 11 GEOGRAPHICALLY DISTRIBUTED LAKES IN THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (CDFs) and certain non- and mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (cp-PCBs) are a general class of chlorinated aromatic compounds that are considered as dioxin-like. Because these chemicals are hi...

  11. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  12. Značaj emisije polikloriranih dibenzo-p-dioksina i dibenzofurana iz procesa proizvodnje željeza i čelika (Importance of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans Emissions from Iron and Steel Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šmit, Z.

    2006-12-01

    dibenzo-p-dioxins(PCDDs, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs. These compounds are the least explored of all known pollutions generated in the metallurgical processes, in terms of the impact of their emissions to the environment.The paper provides elementary toxicity data for these compounds and a survey of reference data on the currently completed listings of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in the world and in Croatia, illustrating that the metallurgical process account for most of the total emission of these compounds into the environment.Based on the experience of the developed countries that are at the same time the largest iron and steel producers, we calculated an estimate of potential emissions of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes in Croatia. The calculation took into account the coking processes, iron ore sintering processes, pig iron production, cast iron, openhearth steel and EAF steel production.The estimated total emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from metallurgical processes to the environment in the time period between 1990 and 2000 in Croatia was m = 3.987 g I-TEQ and annual emission in the same period ranged from QI-TEQ= 1.284 g a-1 in 1990 to QI-TEQ = 0.153 g a-1 in 1995.Emissions of these compounds from metallurgical processes that were active in less recent past were also calculated and the values in the time period between 1960 and 2000 ranged from m =2.888 g I-TEQ in 1980 to m = 0.153 g I-TEQ in 1995.Based on the data on the existing facilities for steel production in electric arc furnaces we estimated that annual emission of dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans could amount to QI-TEQ ~ 0.260 g a-1, whereas the future emission of these compounds from the existing cast iron facilities could be QI-TEQ ~ 0.100 g a-1.In the research follow-up for the impact of metallurgical processes on the overall emission of these compounds

  13. Patterns and dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in food products in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) to human being should be assessed regularly. To evaluate the contamination levels in various food products in the Chinese market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Chinese population, 11 varieties of food groups totaling 634 samples including beef and mutton, chicken and duck, pork, fish and seafood, milk and dairy products were evaluated. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs in all groups ranged from 0.291 to 8.468pg/g whole weight (w.w.). The average toxic equivalency concentrations were from 0.012pg TEQ/g w.w. for cereal to 0.367pg TEQ/g fat for marine oil. OCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were the dominant congeners in foodstuffs. The dietary estimated mean intake for the Chinese rural and urban populations were 0.656 and 0.514pg TEQ/kg body weight/day, respectively, however, the cereal group exposure were higher to the estimate daily intake and contributed 81% for rural and 48% for urban population, followed by fish and seafood which contributed 4% and 16% to the estimate daily intake. The estimated dietary intakes were compared with the toxicological reference values and showed that both rural and urban populations were well below those values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Linear correlation between photolysis rates and toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamantov, A.

    1984-01-01

    Linear correlations have been detected between the photolysis half-lives of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (in n-hexadecane solution) and (a) the LD/sub 50/ values (of guinea pigs and chick embryo, r = 0.98) and (b) the relative biological potency values (derived from ED/sub 50/ values, rat hepatoma cell, r = -0.7 to -0.8). These correlations are surprising in view of the wide disparity between a photolysis reaction and a biological end point. It is difficult to avoid considering the possibility of a common or related reactive intermediate in the photolysis reaction and the biological end point. 2 tables.

  15. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isosaari, Pirjo [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland)]. E-mail: pirjo.isosaari@ktl.fi; Laine, Olli [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Tuhkanen, Tuula [Tampere University of Technology, Environmental Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 541, FI-33101 Tampere (Finland); Vartiainen, Terttu [National Public Health Institute, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 1627, Kuopio, FI-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. {alpha}-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas {beta}-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans formed from sucralose at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-10-15

    Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3.

  17. THE CONCENTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS / - FURANS IN CHICKENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted dibenzo-p-dioxins/-furans (PCDDs/PCDFs) were determined in the edible tissues of whole chicken fryers and compared with the values found in their abdominal fat. The values are presented both on a whole weight basis and on a lipid-adju...

  18. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Talidda, A.; Malisch, R.; Kotz, A.; Tritsher, A.; Fiedler, H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Kooijman, M.; Wienk, K.J.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

  19. Gechloreerde dibenzo-p-dioxines (PCDD's) en gechloreerde dibenzo-furanen (PCDF's) in bestrijdingsmiddelen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman RCC; Werken G van de; Boer AC den; Vredenbregt MJ; Groenemeijer GS; Korte GAL de

    1987-01-01

    De bestrijdingsmiddelen 2,4-dichloorfenoxyazijnzuur (2,4-D), dichlobenil, diflubenzuron en pentachloorfenol (PCP) werden onderzocht op de aanwezigheid van gechloreerde dibenzo-p-dioxines (PCDD's) en gechloreerde dibenzofuranen (PCDF's). Het analytisch-chemisch onderzoek werd beperkt

  20. Microbial degradation of slow-degrading compounds in low concentrations exemplified by dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin; Mikrobieller Abbau schwerabbaubarer Verbindungen in niedrigen Konzentrationen am Beispiel von Dibenzofuran und Dibenzo-p-dioxin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellge, S.

    1997-12-01

    The possibility and efficiency of the biological degradation of dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins was investigated. The investigations were made with a sequencing batch reactor and a flow reactor with biofilms consisting of sphingomonas sp. HH68 and sphingomonas sp. RW1. The degradation has been tested with and without mixed cultures and the influence of the presence of easily degradable substances has been investigated. (SR)

  1. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emissions control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans at municipal waste combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, S.C.; Jozewicz, W.; Sedman, C.B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives the results of an analysis of available emission data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) to evaluate the effectiveness of various air pollution control devices on PCDD/PCDF removal. The effects of flue gas temperature, recycling fabric filter ash, and process additives such as ammonia and Tesisorb powder were also analyzed. The analysis shows that MWCs equipped with a spray dryer followed by fabric filters can achieve PCDD/PCDF removal efficiencies (REs) of 97% and higher. A RE of 94% has been achieved at a combustor equipped with a Thermal DeNO x system followed by a spray dryer and fabric filters. MWCs equipped with a duct sorbent injection system followed by fabric filters can potentially achieve a RE of 99%. A combustor equipped with a spray dryer followed by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) has achieved a RE of 64%. Neither a duct sorbent injection system followed by ESPs nor a furnace sorbent injection system followed by ESPs could effectively remove PCDD/PCDF. PCDD/PCDF were not effectively removed from MWCs equipped with ESPs as the only devices to control air pollution

  3. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  4. In Situ Enhancement of Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Marine and Estuarine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-18

    syringe. Butyric acid (440 :M) and pre- fermented yeast extract (4 :L of a 50 g/L solution) were added as electron donor and nutrient source...and pre- 18 fermented yeast extract were added at time zero and on day 8, 26, 120 and 178. Mixed cultures were agitated inverted at 200 rpm at 34 °C...In Situ Enhancement of Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Marine and Estuarine

  5. Application of the AhR reporter gene assay for the determination of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in feed samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs belong to a well-known group of pollutants. Present in feedstuffs, they bioaccumulate in tissues of food-producing animals. Food is the source of over 90% of human PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs intake. Thus, feed control is one of the pillars of the EU strategy and a mean of reducing human exposure. The article presents AhR based reporter gene bioassay method for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs analysis in feed and its validation results.

  6. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in Brazilian cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Dayse A M; Torres, João P M; Reichel, Klaus; Novotny, Etelvino H; Estrella, Leonardo F; Medeiros, Rebeca O; Netto, Annibal D Pereira

    2016-12-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in raw cow milks have never been reported in Brazil. Since the consumption of food of animal origin, including milk and dairy products, is the major source of human exposure to these compounds, this study aimed to establish the levels and profile of seven PCDDs and ten PCDFs in raw cow milk samples collected in eight Brazilian states which among the major milk producer states. Raw milk samples were collected in 34 different dairy cattle farms during the summer of 2013. All PCDD/Fs congeners were found at least in some of the 34 samples studied. The octa-chlorinated congeners (OCDD and OCDF) were ubiquitous and also present in high concentrations. The mean values of WHO-TEQ 1998;2005 were respectively 1.66 and 1.36pgTEQg -1 fat and samples taken in São Paulo showed the highest WHO-TEQ values (2.46 TEQ 1998 g -1 fat and 2.10pgTEQ 2005 g -1 fat). Although all samples showed some contamination level, all values were below the limit established by European Union for total PCDD/Fs in cow milk (3pgWHO-TEQ 1998 g -1 fat). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that OCDD and OCDF were responsible for 73% and 20% of the total data variance, respectively and they presented an independent behavior, probably as a result of distinct origins. The use of TEQ as weights in the PCA, revealed the importance of the penta-chloro congeners and it was possible to identify sample distribution patterns probably associated with the main PeCDD and PeCDF. The importance of local sources to PCDD/Fs concentrations is still to be evaluated and determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ting-Wei, E-mail: M10126010@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lee, Jai-Wei, E-mail: joeylee@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Tropical Agriculture and International Cooperation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Liu, Hsueh-Yen, E-mail: M9926012@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wei-Hsiao, E-mail: M10126011@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Chu, Chun-Yen, E-mail: cychu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Animal Vaccine Technology, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun, E-mail: sllin100@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Center for General Education, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Chang-Chien, Guo Ping, E-mail: guoping@csu.edu.tw [Supermicro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Department of Cosmetics and Fashion styling, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Dist., Kaohsiung City 83347, Taiwan (China); Yu, Chi, E-mail: chiyu@mail.npust.edu.tw [Department of Animal Science, National Pingtung University of Science Technology, No. 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan (China)

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  9. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-01-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. - Highlights: • We describe the accumulation and elimination of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks. • The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in mule ducks was tissue-specific. • The elimination of PCDD/Fs in tissues of mule ducks was congener-specific. • The

  10. Health impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, D

    1998-02-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), commonly known as dioxins, form as unwanted impurities in the manufacturing of chlorophenol and its derivatives--pulp and paper--and in the combustion of municipal, sewage-sludge, hospital, and hazardous waste. Combustion, in presence of a chlorine donor, seems to be a major source of these compounds. High levels of dioxins are also emitted from metallurgical industries including copper smelters, electric furnaces in steel mills, and wire reclamation incinerators. Trace levels are detectable in emissions from motor vehicles using leaded gasoline or diesel fuel, in forest fires, and in residential wood burning. Extremely persistent and widely distributed in the environment, PCDDs have been detected in all three primary and many secondary media. Releases into the air occur mainly from combustor emissions. Atmospheric dispersion, deposition, and subsequent accumulation in the food chain seem to be the major pathways of exposure to the general population. Residues of these chemicals have been detected in soil, sediment, fish, meat, cow's milk, human adipose tissue, and mothers' milk. In general, these chemicals have high lipophilicity. The elimination half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in humans is approximately 7-11 years. Very little human toxicity data from exposure to PCDDs are available. Health-effect data obtained from occupational settings in humans are based on exposure to chemicals contaminated with TCDD. It produces a spectrum of toxic effects in animals and is one of the most toxic chemicals known. Most of the toxicity data available on TCDD are from high-dose oral exposures to animals. Very few percutaneous and no inhalation exposure data are available in the literature. There is a wide range of difference in sensitivity to PCDD lethality in animals. The signs and symptoms of poisoning with chemicals contaminated with TCDD in humans are analogous to those observed in animals. Dioxin exposures

  11. DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE ENVIRONMENT FROM CERAMICS AND POTTERY PRODUCED FROM BALL CLAY MINED IN THE U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processed ball clay samples used in the production of ceramics and samples of the ceramic products were collected and analyzed for the presence and concentration of the 2,3,7,8-Cl substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The processed ball clay had...

  12. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  13. Degradation of diclorinated dibenzo-P-dioxin by a cell free extract from Geobacillus midosuji SH2B-J2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Otsuka, Y.; Katayama, Y.; Takahashi, A.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) have been widespread environmental contaminants formed unintentionally as a by-products during the bleaching of pulp and paper, the manufacture of pesticides, and the incineration of halogen containing chemicals. PCDDs and PCDFs contamination has led to serious social problem because of their toxicity mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. (Author)

  14. Selective adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by the zeosils UTD-1, SSZ-24, and ITQ-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralph; Schneider, Andreas M; Behrens, Peter; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Lenoir, Dieter

    2004-01-05

    Zeosils are microporous solids with a pure silica framework. Due to their hydrophobic properties, zeosils are ideal host materials for the adsorption of hydrophobic guest molecules. We tested zeosils with different pore diameters (UTD-1, SSZ-24 and ITQ-4 as well as CIT-5) for the selective adsorption of the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. This group of highly toxic substances contains 210 congeners that possess similar chemical properties, but differ in their size and shape. In the experiment, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were extracted from fly ash of a waste incinerator, adsorbed on amorphous silica, then thermally desorbed and flushed over a sequential arrangement of the zeosils at elevated temperature by a stream of nitrogen. ITQ-4 with the smallest pore diameter was placed first, followed by SSZ-24 and, finally, by UTD-1 with the largest pore diameter. After the experiment, the zeosils were analysed for their contents of the different congeners. The results show that the sorption of the congeners occurs selectively and that it is governed by the size and the shape of the dioxin molecules, which in turn depend on the number of chlorine atoms and the pattern of chlorine substitution (regioisomers). Geometrical reasoning as well as molecular dynamics calculations on the zeosil structures and on the dioxin molecules were helpful in rationalising the results. This work represents an especially complex case of the molecular sieving effect and may lead to a selective on-line monitoring of the concentrations of dioxin molecules in waste gases of industrial combustion processes. The size- and shape-selective sorption of dioxin molecules may also bear some resemblance to the molecular recognition process that occurs in nature at the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

  15. Occurrence and characteristics of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in stack gas emissions from industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bing; Zheng, Minghui; Tian, Honghai; Liu, Aimin; Huang, Yeru; Li, Lingling; Ba, Te; Li, Nan; Ren, Yue; Li, Yuwu; Dong, Shuping; Su, Guijin

    2010-08-01

    The occurrence and characteristics of 2,3,7,8-substituted polybrominated and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/F and PCDD/F) from various combustion and metallurgic industrial thermal processes were investigated. PBDD/F levels from metallurgic processes (TEQ) concentrations from 0.14 to 1.5 ng Nm(-3), mass concentrations from 0.56 to 5.8 ng Nm(-3)) were markedly higher than those from combustion processes (TEQ) concentrations from 0.010 to 0.054 ng Nm(-3), mass concentrations from 0.025 to 0.15 ng Nm(-3)). This indicated that metallurgic processes could be important sources of PBDD/F. Consequently, more attention should be paid to the metallurgical emission sources in addition to combustion of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and related products. Specific isomeric patterns for PCDD/F from various industrial sources were highly consistent, while PBDD/F patterns were not. This revealed that PCDD/F might form through a common mechanism such as de novo synthesis mechanism, while PBDD/F might form by different mechanisms in thermal processes such as precursor mechanisms. Finally, an approach to identify the PBDD/F sources in ambient air by using the PBDD/F to PCDD/F ratio was developed. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Associations between dietary intake and serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) levels in Taiwanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-L.; Lee, C.-C.; Liao, P.-C.; Guo, Y.-L.; Chen, C.-H.; Su, H.-J. mail: hjsu@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2003-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the consumption frequency of different food groups (milk, eggs, fish, and others) and the levels of serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations of residents living near a municipal waste incinerator. All selected subjects were between 18 and 65 years old and proportionally chosen from each age group based on population distribution. In addition, they had to have lived within a 5-km radius of the incinerator for at least 5 years. Trained interviewers administered a dietary questionnaire interview. Higher serum CDD/F levels were found in older than in younger subjects, and higher PCDD/F concentrations were found in females than in males. An analysis between the consumption frequency of different foods and serum PCDD/F levels showed that fish might have contributed the highest quantity of measured serum PCDD/Fs. et, the regression coefficient of dietary intake and PCDD/F concentration as only 0.017 before and 0.105 after adjusting for the variables of age, gender, and smoking status of the study subjects. The frequency of fish consumption may be the most significant contributor to serum PCDD/F levels. Further research is needed to quantify the association between the consumption of various food groups and their potential contributions to the corresponding serum PCDD/F concentrations

  17. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the air of Seveso, Italy, 26 years after the explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Elena; Di Guardo, Antonio; Mariani, Giulio; Guzzi, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2003-04-15

    This study reports the current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs) in air at Seveso, where an explosion in a 2,4,5,-trichlorophenol production reactor occurred 26 years ago. The aims were to assess if residues of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) released during the accident and still present in soil could contaminate the above air and to investigate other potential sources in the area. Long-term air collection was carried out in zones A and B in Seveso and in a reference location in Milan, and samples were analyzed for PCDD and PCDF concentrations by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Experimental results showed that no important contribution to the air concentrations is due to the soil contamination and that contemporary sources essentially control the atmospheric burden of PCDDs and PCDFs in the Seveso area. The theoretical release of 2,3,7,8-TCDD from the soils of zones A and B of Seveso was calculated using the SoilFug model. In the worst case, the model simulated an enrichment in atmospheric 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations of 4 and 22% for zones A and B, respectively. The investigation of the potential emission sources in the area indicated that combustion of wood residues from furniture factories may be an additional local source of PCDDs and PCDFs.

  19. Emission factors and congener-specific characterization of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PBDD/Fs and PBDEs from an off-road diesel engine using waste cooking oil-based biodiesel blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung; Yeh, C Kuei-Jyum

    2017-10-05

    Few studies have been performed up to now on the emission factors and congener profiles of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) emitted from off-road diesel engines. This investigation elucidates the emission factors and congener profiles of various POPs, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the exhausts of a diesel generator fueled with different waste cooking oil-based biodiesel (WCO-based biodiesel) blends. The PCDD/Fs contributed 87.2% of total dioxin-like toxicity (PCDD/Fs+PCBs+PBDD/Fs) in the exhaust, while the PCBs and PBDD/Fs only contributed 8.2% and 4.6%, respectively. Compared with petroleum diesel, B20 (20vol% WCO-based biodiesel+80vol% diesel) reduced total toxicity by 46.5% for PCDD/Fs, 47.1% for PCBs, and 24.5% for PBDD/Fs, while B40 (40vol% WCO-based biodiesel+60vol% diesel) reduced it by 89.5% for PCDD/Fs, 57.1% for PCBs, and 63.2% for PBDD/Fs in POP emission factors. The use of WCO-based biodiesel not only solves the problem of waste oil disposal, but also lowers POP emissions from diesel generators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A full-scale study on thermal degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and its secondary air pollution control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Yan, Dahai; Huang, Qifei; Zhu, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash is beneficial to its risk control. Fly ash was treated in a full-scale thermal degradation system (capacity 1 t d -1 ) to remove polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Apart from the confirmation of the polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran decomposition efficiency, we focused on two major issues that are the major obstacles for commercialising this decomposition technology in China, desorption and regeneration of dioxins and control of secondary air pollution. The toxic equivalent quantity values of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans decreased to solid waste incinerator economiser, and then co-processed in the air pollution control system. The degradation furnace released relatively large amounts of cadmium, lead and polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans compared with the municipal solid waste incinerator, but the amounts emitted to the atmosphere did not exceed the Chinese national emission limits. Thermal degradation can therefore be used as a polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxin and dibenzofuran abatement method for municipal solid waste incinerator source in China.

  1. A model assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources and fate in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage, James M; McLachlan, Michael S; Wiberg, Karin; Jonsson, Per

    2009-06-01

    The contamination of the Baltic Sea with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) has resulted in restrictions on the marketing and consumption of Baltic Sea fish, making this a priority environmental issue in the European Union. To date there is no consensus on the relative importance of different sources of PCDD/Fs to the Baltic Sea, and hence no consensus on how to address this issue. In this work we synthesized the available information to create a PCDD/F budget for the Baltic Sea, focusing on the two largest basins, the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper. The non-steady state multimedia fate and transport model POPCYCLING-Baltic was employed, using recent data for PCDD/F concentrations in air and sediment as boundary conditions. The PCDD/F concentrations in water predicted by the model were in good agreement with recent measurements. The budget demonstrated that atmospheric deposition was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs to the basins as a whole. This conclusion was supported by a statistical comparison of the PCDD/F congener patterns in surface sediments from accumulation bottoms with the patterns in ambient air, bulk atmospheric deposition, and a range of potential industrial sources. Prospective model simulations indicated that the PCDD/F concentrations in the water column will continue to decrease in the coming years due to the slow response of the Baltic Sea system to falling PCDD/F inputs in the last decades, but that the decrease would be more pronounced if ambient air concentrations were to drop further in the future, for instance as a result of reduced emissions. The study illustrates the usefulness of using monitoring data and multimedia models in an integrated fashion to address complex organic contaminant issues.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Functional 4-Hydroxysalicylate/Hydroxyquinol Degradative Pathway Gene Cluster Is Linked to the Initial Dibenzo-p-Dioxin Pathway Genes in Sphingomonas sp. Strain RW1

    OpenAIRE

    Armengaud, Jean; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Wittich, Rolf-Michael

    1999-01-01

    The bacterium Sphingomonas sp. strain RW1 is able to use dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and several hydroxylated derivatives as sole sources of carbon and energy. We have determined and analyzed the nucleic acid sequence of a 9,997-bp HindIII fragment downstream of cistrons dxnA1A2, which encode the dioxygenase component of the initial dioxygenase system of the corresponding catabolic pathways. This fragment contains 10 colinear open reading frames (ORFs), apparently organized in one compact...

  4. Comparative toxicity of PCBs and related compounds in various species of animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, E.E.

    1985-05-01

    There are several basic principles that apply to the clinicopathologic syndrome produced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). They are as follows: the degree of halogenation and position of the halogen atoms determine the potency of PCB, PBB, CDD, CDF and CN; in a given species of animals, the clinicopathologic syndrome induced by PCB is comparable to that induced by polybrominated biphenyls (PBB), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), chlorinated dibenzofurans (CDF), and chlorinated naphthalenes (CN) when an equitoxic dose is achieved; the clinicopathologic syndrome is different in each species of animals; different species of animals vary in their susceptibility to intoxication; intoxication is more readily effected in young animals than in adults; at lethal doses the time between exposure and death is prolonged (> 2 weeks).

  5. Matrix Effect on the De novo Synthesis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, Biphenyls and Benzenes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Weber, R.; Grabic, R.; Šolcová, Olga; Fišerová, Eva; Šyc, Michal; Karban, Jindřich

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2007), s. 51-61 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : model fly ash * PCDD/F * formation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2007

  6. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    -p-dioxin (TCDD). The toxic responses include dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive and developmental toxicity. Toxic equivalency factors have been established for the other PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCB relative to TCDD, and the combined toxicity of a sample can be expressed...

  7. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.-C.; Hsi, H.-C.; Wang, Y.-F.; Lin, S.-L.; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2010-01-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Bottom ashes (BA) exhibited much higher PBDD/F (8.11-52.2 pg TEQ/g) and PBDE contents (20.4-186 ng/g) than those of fly ashes (0.0932-2.02 pg TEQ/g and 0.332-25.5 ng/g), revealing that the PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the feeding waste may not be completely destroyed. The PBDE concentrations/contents in the stack flue gases (26.1-109 ng/Nm 3 ) and in the BA (20.4-186 ng/g) of the MSWIs could reach three orders higher than those in the atmosphere and reference soils. PBDE contributions to the environment from the stack flue gases or the reutilization of BA of MSWIs should not be ignored from the developing PBDE inventory. - Municipal solid waste incinerators contributed PBDEs and PBDD/Fs to the environment through stack flue gases and reutilization of bottom ashes.

  8. Modeling adsorption of brominated, chlorinated and mixed bromo/chloro-dibenzo-p-dioxins on C60 fullerene using Nano-QSPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Urbaszek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Many technological implementations in the field of nanotechnology have involved carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes such as the buckminsterfullerene, C60. The unprecedented properties of such organic nanomaterials (in particular their large surface area gained extensive attention for their potential use as organic pollutant sorbents. Sorption interactions can be very hazardous and useful at the same time. This work investigates the influence of halogenation by bromine and/or chlorine in dibenzo-p-dioxins on their sorption ability on the C60 fullerene surface. Halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PXDDs, where X = Br or Cl are ever-present in the environment and accidently produced in many technological processes in only approximately known quantities. If all combinatorial Br and/or Cl dioxin substitution possibilities are present in the environment, the experimental characterization and investigation of sorbent effectiveness is more than difficult. In this work, we have developed a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR model (R2 = 0.998, predicting the adsorption energy [kcal/mol] for 1,701 PXDDs adsorbed on C60 (PXDD@C60. Based on the QSPR model reported herein, we concluded that the lowest energy PXDD@C60 complexes are those that the World Health Organization (WHO considers to be less dangerous with respect to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR toxicity mechanism. Therefore, the effectiveness of fullerenes as sorbent agents may be underestimated as sorption could be less effective for toxic congeners than previously believed.

  9. Comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to low resolution quadrupole mass spectrometry for the analysis of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, J.P. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Facultat de Quimica, Dept. de Quimica Analitica; Korytar, P.; Boer, J. de [Netherlands Institutes for Fisheries Research, Ijmuiden (Netherlands); Leonards, P. [Instituto Quimico de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    Because of the high persistency and extreme toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and so-called dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), their trace level determination is a topic of much interest. The typical concentrations of this compounds, sub-ng/kg, makes that they have to be clearly separated from other, less toxic, congeners present in the samples and from the matrix and the use of sensitive techniques is required for the quantification. The analyses of the compounds are usually done by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS). Recently, alternative novel techniques have been developed which are improving the chromatographic separation, e.g. comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), for the analysis of the compounds. The aim of this work is to evaluate GC x GC coupled to a low resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer for the quantification of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin like PCBs.

  10. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129.105 Section 129.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS TOXIC POLLUTANT EFFLUENT STANDARDS Toxic Pollutant Effluent Standards and Prohibitions § 129.105 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a)...

  11. Guidelines for the determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial products. Final report, March 1985-July 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.H.; Stanley, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (HDDs) and dibenzofurans (HDFs) in commercial products require specific and sensitive analytical procedures. The development of methods for the measurement of HDD and HDF in commercial products is complicated by the diverse range of matrices, the potentially large number of halogenated (specifically chloro, bromo, or bromo/chloro) HDD and HDF congeners and potential interference due to major components of the product matrices. This report provides: (1) a review of the literature pertaining to commercial product analyses for HDDs and HDFs; (2) detail on the total number of bromo, chloro, and bromo/chloro HDDs and HDFs; (3) a tentative scheme for the analysis of HDDs and HDFs in diverse matrices; and (4) guidelines for the high-resolution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry or electron capture detector analysis of commercial products for HDDs and HDFs. The guidelines specify a rigorous OA/QC program for the analysis of the commercial products

  12. Scientific opinion on the assessment of a decontamination process for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fish oil by physical filtration with activated carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    to demonstrate the safe disposal of the waste material. The CONTAM Panel concluded that on the basis of the information submitted by the feed business operator the proposed decontamination process to remove dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs from the fish oil by means of physical filtration with activated carbon...... the amount of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs). All feed decontamination processes must comply with the acceptability criteria specified in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/786. The data...... provided by the feed business operator were assessed with respect to the efficacy of the process and on information demonstrating that the process does not adversely affect the characteristics and the nature of the product. As described in scientific literature, the process was effective in removing PCDD...

  13. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of New...

  14. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blueÂżsh collected in the vicinity...

  15. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 2. Appendix. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 2. Anhang. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration

  16. A new alternative paraffinic-palmbiodiesel fuel for reducing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Liu, Shou-Heng; Chen, Yan-Min; Wu, Tzi-Yi

    2011-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines (HDDEs) fuelled with paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends have been rarely addressed in the literature. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was used to analyze 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results indicate that the main species of PCDD/Fs were OCDD (octachlorinated debenzo-p-dioxin) and OCDF (octachlorodibenzofuran), and they accounted for 40-50% of the total PCDD/Fs for all test fuels. Paraffinic-palmbiodiesel blends decreased PCDD/Fs by 86.1-88.9%, toxic PCDD/Fs by 91.9-93.0%, THC (total hydrocarbons) by 13.6-23.3%, CO (carbon monoxide) by 27.2-28.3%, and PM (particulate matter) by 21.3-34.2%. Using biodiesel blends, particularly BP9505 or BP8020, instead of premium diesel fuel (PDF) significantly reduced emissions of both PCDD/Fs and traditional pollutants. Using BP9505 (95vol% paraffinic fuel+5vol% palmbiodiesel) and BP8020 instead of PDF can decrease PCDD/F emissions by 5.93 and 5.99gI-TEQyear(-1) in Taiwan, respectively. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Modelling the environmental transfer of phthalates and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into agricultural products: the EN-forc model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, T; Cornelis, C; Standaert, A; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to predict the occurrence of four phthalates, two polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and two polychlorinated dibenzofurans in environmental and agricultural media from observed concentrations in air, sludge, manure and concentrate. For the environmental and agricultural fate modelling, the newly developed multimedia model "EN-forc" (ENvironmental Food transfer model for ORganic Contaminants) was used. To validate EN-forc calculations, the predicted concentrations of the considered chemicals in soil, groundwater, drinking water, plants and animal products were compared with both observed and modelled concentrations available in the literature. For the majority of the considered matrices, predicted phthalate and dioxin levels differed one order of magnitude at most with observed concentrations. Unfortunately, the transfer models implemented in EN-forc lacked power to predict levels of some phthalates and dioxins in pasture, root crops and/or tubers. Concentrations of phthalates and dioxins in offal could not be predicted due to the absence of suitable models that have an acceptable level of complexity to implement in EN-forc. For this type of food products, further research is highly encouraged. In a next step, the modelling framework of EN-forc will be extended in order to be able to predict human dietary exposure to organic chemicals like phthalates and dioxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Jing [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Kunisue, Tatsuya [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wu Minghong [Applied Radiation Institute, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, P.O. Box 144, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kannan, Kurunthachalam, E-mail: kkannan@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2011-02-28

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of {Sigma}PBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans in the common fishes in Zhujiang area of China by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianqing; Zhuang Zhixiong; Jiang Yousheng; Zhou Jian [Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen (China); Jiang Jie

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzo-Furans(PCDDs /PCDFs) are important two kinds of persistent organic pollutants(POPs) in environment since their persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulative properties. The primary route of human exposure to POPs for the general population is through consumption of food. The dietary intake of PCDDs, PCDFs for human exposure is estimated to account for greater than 90%. Levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods have been widely reported in the largely international literature. Where sufficient historical data are available in many nations and tighter regulatory controls on them, the general trend internationally has been for a decline in the levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in foods. Although the research work on POPs has been processed in China currently, less information especially for food or environment background is available on PCDDs and PCDFs level in China. The HRGC/HRMS method has been constructed in our laboratory reference US EPA 1613 method, and the method has been validated by participated the international laboratory proficiency test for fish. The paper reports the results of a survey to determine the level of PCDDs/PCDFs in fishes commonly consumed by zhujiang river area people.

  1. Elevated concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in hair from workers at an electronic waste recycling facility in Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jing; Cheng Jinping; Wang Wenhua; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Wu Minghong; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Hair samples collected from e-waste recycling workers (n = 23 males, n = 4 females) were analyzed to assess occupational exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) at a large e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, eastern China. Hair samples from a reference population composed of residents of Shanghai (n = 11) were analyzed for comparison. The mean concentration of ΣPBDEs (range, 22.8-1020 ng/g dw; mean, 157 ng/g dw) found in hair samples from e-waste recycling workers was approximately 3 times higher than the mean determined for the reference samples. The congener profiles of PBDEs in hair from e-waste recycling workers were dominated by BDE 209, whereas the profiles in the reference-population samples showed comparable levels of BDE 47 and BDE 209. Total PCDD/F concentrations in hair from e-waste workers (range, 126-5820 pg/g dw; mean, 1670 pg/g dw) were approximately 18-fold greater than the concentrations measured in hair from the reference population. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than concentrations of PCDDs, in all of the hair samples analyzed (samples from e-waste and non-e-waste sites). Tetrachlorodibenzofurans (TCDFs) were the major homologues in hair samples. Overall, e-waste recycling workers had elevated concentrations of both PBDEs and PCDD/Fs, indicating that they are exposed to high levels of multiple persistent organic pollutants.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  3. Comparative analysis of changes in protein and lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and hemostasis under the effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuntsevich, A.D.; Baulin, S.I.; Golovkov, V.F.; Rembovskii, V.R.; Smirnova, L.A.; Troshkin, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and ionizing radiation are among the most hazardous environmental factors causing ecological catastrophes and mass afflications in various accidents involving nuclear power plants and chemical industrial enterprises. The authors previously established that the simultaneous action of a toxic dose of PCDD and ionizing radiation increases the combined toxic effect. The effects of these chemical and physical factors were superadditive (the biological potentiation effect). Here, the authors compare the effects of PCDD and irradiation on protein and lipid metabolism, lipid peroxidation, and hemostasis in order to learn more about biochemical mechanisms mediating the potentiation effect. The experimental evidence suggests that PCDD can modify the biological effects of ionizing radiation through the generation of free radicals and activation of the chain reactions of free-radical lipid peroxidation, such as the formation of peroxides or malonic dialdehyde. The toxic effects of PCDD and ionizing radiation are based on free-radical reactions and chemical pathology. In other words, the chemical and physical factors directly and selectively hit the same biological target, thereby increasing their combined toxic effects. The results can partially explain the observed potentiating effect of the combined action of ionizing radiation and PCDD on the body. This phenomenon is based on biochemical processes generating an abundance of products of lipid peroxidation and the decrease in the body's defenses caused by disorders in protein and lipid metabolism and blood coagulation

  4. Effects of energy conservation in major energy-intensive industrial sectors on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jing; Lu Yonglong; Wang Tieyu; Giesy, John P.; Chen Chunli

    2010-01-01

    China has set an ambitious target of increasing energy efficiency by 20% and reducing pollution discharges by 10% over the period 2006-2010. Promoting advanced technologies and closing outdated facilities are widely recognized as important measures to achieve these targets. These actions can also indirectly decrease release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The objectives of this paper are to identify and quantify reductions of PCDD/F emissions to air due to measures such as phasing out of obsolete facilities in the four most energy-intensive industrial sectors. Reductions in PCDD/F emissions from power generation were estimated to be 7, 33 and 38 g I-TEQ in 2006, 2007 and 2008, respectively. For the cement industry, reductions were estimated to be 680 g I-TEQ between 2007 and 2008, and 740 g I-TEQ between 2009 and 2010. For the iron and steel industry, the reduction was estimated to be 113.3 g I-TEQ over the period 2007-2010, which includes 76.6 g I-TEQ in 2007. For the coke industry, the reduction was estimated to be 68 g I-TEQ in 2007 and 62 g I-TEQ in 2008.

  5. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Pt. 1. Texts. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen. T. 1. Textband. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Welsch-Pausch, K.; Koemp, P.

    1998-07-01

    Introduction of PCDD/Fs into the agricultural food chain `atmosphere - fodder - cattle - cows` milk/beef - human` plays a major role in human exposure. The aim of this study was to establish a quantitative relationship between PCDD/Fs immissions and fodder concentrations. The identification of the most important atmospheric pathway of PCDD/F into greenland cultures was conducted under near natural conditions in a combined field/glasshouse experiment. It was found that for the Cl{sub 4-6}DD/Fs dry gaseous and for the Cl{sub 7/8}DD/Fs dry particle-bound deposition was the primary mechanism of uptake. A further greenhouse experiment showed that there is an isomere-unspecific photodegradation of PCDD/Fs on plant surfaces. Dry gaseous deposition, which is the major pathway of atmospheric deposition for the less chlorinated toxicological relevant PCDD/Fs, can be understood as a partitioning process between the gas phase of the atmosphere and the vegetation. Experiments investigating this topic were conducted in the laboratory using PCBs as model substances for the PCDD/Fs. Important knowledge was gained with regard to plant/air partitioning, their dependence on temperature and plant species, the kinetics and reversibility of the process. No partitioning equilibrium between the vegetation and the gas phase of the atmosphere was approached for the PCDD/Fs. The accumulation of PCDD/Fs in agricultural greenland was therefore controlled by a gaseous deposition velocity. In two typical German agricultural regions representative gaseous and particle-bound deposition velocities were determined, which were all in all quite constant and independent of the different exposure conditions. All results from this study were incorporated into a mathematical model of the accumulation of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in greenland. Based on air concentration, plant species composition and growth, temperature and physical-chemical properties of the chemical the model is able to predict the concentration

  6. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Man, Yu Bon [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); Xing, Guan Hua [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); China National Environmental Monitoring Center, 100012, Beijing (China); Wu, Sheng Chun [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Murphy, Margaret B. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Xu, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430072, Wuhan, Hubei Province (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.hk [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs.

  7. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B.; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives “early warning” to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1–4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. - Highlights: ► Freshwater fish are contaminated by PCDD/F at 2 e-waste sites in China. ► Guiyu residents are exposed to unsafe levels of PCDD/Fs through dietary exposure. ► H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive screening tool for PCDD/Fs

  10. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in soil and sediment from the Yellow Sea region of China and Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naile, Jonathan E.; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang Tieyu; Wan Yi; Luo Wei; Hu Wenyou; Jiao Wentao; Park, Jinsoon; Ryu, Jongseong; Hong, Seongjin; Jones, Paul D.; Lu Yonglong

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in soils and sediments from the Yellow Sea region. Korean soils and sediments mostly contained detectable PCDD/Fs and showed a widespread distribution among locations. Soil and sedimentary PCDD/Fs from China were comparable to or less than those in Korea. The patterns of relative concentrations of individual congeners in soils were different between the two countries, but similar in sediments. Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were found to be independent of each other and their distributions reflected matrix-dependent accumulation. Spatial distribution indicated some point sources in Korea while Chinese sources were more widespread and diffuse. PCDD/Fs measured in the coastal areas of the Yellow Sea were comparable to or less than those previously reported in for eastern Asia. However, ΣTEQs in soils and sediments were near to or, in some cases exceeded environmental quality guidelines. - Research highlights: → PCDDs were comparable or greater than PCDFs for Yellow Sea soils and sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns in soils were different but similar in sediments. → PCDD/Fs congener patterns varied among regions reflecting regional activities. → Sources of PCDD/Fs in China and Korea were mainly independent of each other. → ΣTEQs in Yellow Sea soils and sediments often exceeded corresponding guidelines. - PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments along the Yellow Sea indicated both point and non-point sources and their contribution to total TEQs differed among land uses and by regional activities.

  11. PCDDs, PCDFs AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBs IN SHEEP MILK IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Scarano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs are widespread contaminants with important implications for the environment protection and for the human health. Milk and dairy products consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of human exposure to these toxic chemicals. In this study we evaluated the levels of 17 laterally substituted PCDD/Fs and 12 DL-PCBs in 45 sheep milk samples collected from small dairy sheep farms in Sardinia (Italy. Mean concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs were 2.31 and 3.11 pg g-1 fat basis, respectively. With regard to the DL-PCBs only PCB 118 was detected in 51.1% of samples (0.73 ng g-1 fat basis, while the rest of the studied congeners was never detected. The contamination of milk by PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs (0.92 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat being within the permissible limit set by the European Commission (6 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat gives no indication of particular health risk. However, continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs levels in milk is needed in order to correctly evaluate either the environmental impact and human health risk.

  12. Comparison of SFE with Soxhlet in the analyses of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Mari; Koistinen, Jaana; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2002-12-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the isolation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) from sediments was investigated by comparing SFE with Soxhlet. Five sediments obtained from an international interlaboratory study were used as a test material. SFE was performed with an automatic system where extracted analytes were collected by solid-phase trapping using carbon mixed with Celite as an adsorbent. For the first time, SFE of the most toxic PCBs, coplanar PCBs, was studied with real sediment samples. The majority of PCBs investigated, a total of 38 congeners from tri- to decachlorinated, were quantitatively extracted from sediment by SFE with pure CO2 at pressure 400 atm and temperature 100 degrees C. Under these conditions a successful extraction was obtained also for PCDD/PCDFs except for hepta- and octachlorinated congeners. Copper powder added to the sediment efficiently prevented the transfer of sulfur from the sample during SFE. The TEQs of both PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs obtained by SFE corresponded well with those obtained by the Soxhlet-based method. The reproducibility of SFE was high for both groups.

  13. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  14. Occurrence, composition, source, and regional distribution of halogenated flame retardants and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran in the soils of Guiyu, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengjun; Tao, Bu; Zhou, Zhiguang; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Aimin; Dong, Shuping; Yuan, Jingli; Li, Hong; Chen, Jiping; Huang, Yeru

    2017-09-01

    Guiyu, China, is well-known for the crude disposal of electronic waste (EW) and severe persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, in this study, the occurrence, composition, and source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB153), some novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), Dechlorane Plus (DP) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in farmland soils covering Guiyu were studied. In EW disposal area soils, PBDEs were the most abundant FRs, with concentrations of 13-1014 ng g -1 . The primary PBDE sources were technical Penta- and Deca-BDE mixtures in northern and southern Guiyu, respectively. The levels of BB153 were relatively low, possibly because it has been banned in the 1970s. The concentrations of hexabromobenzene (HBB) were 0.048-3.3 ng g -1 , while pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) was almost not detected in the soils. Two alternatives to commercial PBDEs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), were the primary NBFRs, with concentrations of 1.8-153 ng g -1 and 0.43-15 ng g -1 , respectively. DP was another primary FR, with concentrations of 0.57-146 ng g -1 . Moreover, syn-DP and anti-DP isomers were not stereoselectively decomposed during the EW disposal process and were therefore present in their original fractions in the soils. The levels of PBDD/Fs in EW disposal area soils were 2.5-17 pg TEQ g -1 . 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF and OBDF were the dominant congeners, mainly derived from processing, pyrolysis and combustion of BFRs. The regional distribution of pollutants was shown to be related to the disposal manner of EW, with their open thermal disposal tending to release more highly brominated compounds such as BDE209, DBDPE, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF. Additionally, some riverbank sites were heavily polluted because of nearby point sources, downwind Simapu (SMP) town without EW disposal activity was also contaminated by these pollutants

  15. Body loadings and health risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at an intensive electronic waste recycling site in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Janet K Y; Xing, Guan Hua; Xu, Ying; Liang, Ying; Chen, Ling Xuan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris K C; Leung, Clement K M; Wong, Ming H

    2007-11-15

    This study is one of the very few investigating the dioxin body burden of a group of child-bearing-aged women at an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site (Taizhou, Zhejiang Province) (24 +/- 2.83 years of age, 40% were primiparae) and a reference site (Lin'an city, Zhejiang Province, about 245 km away from Taizhou) (24 +/- 2.35 years of age, 100% were primiparae) in China. Five sets of samples (each set consisted of human milk, placenta, and hair) were collected from each site. Body burdens of people from the e-waste processing site (human milk, 21.02 +/- 13.81 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat (World Health Organization toxic equivalency 1998); placenta, 31.15 +/- 15.67 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 33.82 +/- 17.74 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) showed significantly higher levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/ Fs) than those from the reference site (human milk, 9.35 +/- 7.39 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; placenta, 11.91 +/- 7.05 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g fat; hair, 5.59 +/- 4.36 pg WHO-TEQ1998/g dry wt) and were comparatively higher than other studies. The difference between the two sites was due to e-waste recycling operations, for example, open burning, which led to high background levels. Moreover, mothers from the e-waste recycling site consumed more foods of animal origin. The estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs within 6 months by breastfed infants from the e-waste processing site was 2 times higher than that from the reference site. Both values exceeded the WHO tolerable daily intake for adults by at least 25 and 11 times, respectively. Our results implicated that e-waste recycling operations cause prominent PCDD/F levels in the environment and in humans. The elevated body burden may have health implications for the next generation.

  16. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  17. Effects of lactational exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on immune response and thyroid hormone systems in Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J. [School of Health Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Tsuji, H. [Kitakyushu-Tsuyazaki Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Graduate School of Mathematics, Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Our environments including food have been polluted with some organochlorine compounds such as dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides. Japanese people have also been contaminated with these chemicals. Consequently, some pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexans (HCHs), 1,1,1-trichloro- 2,2-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-ethane (DDT), dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide (HCE), and PCBs have been determined in Japanese breast milk and their mean or median concentrations on fat weight basis were about 420, 330, 3, 4 and 110 ppb, respectively. Their levels were considered more than 100 to 10,000 times higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs), so-called dioxins, in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) value as a whole. Therefore, we should give due attention to possible health consequences of these organochlorine pesticides and PCBs as well as dioxins in Japanese infants. We have already reported effects of the perinatal exposure to these compounds on lymphocyte subsets and thyroid hormone statuses in the peripheral blood of Japanese infants. In this study, in order to clarify the sexual distinction in their effects on the immune response and thyroid hormone systems, we investigated the lymphocyte subsets and thyroid related chemicals in the blood of Japanese male and female infants in relation to their concentrations of the breast milk.

  18. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Ross, Peter S; Costa, Daniel; Salazar, Sandie; Aurioles-gamboa, David; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Only traces of PBDEs were detected in one male pup, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were not detected in any sample. The total concentration of PCBs (ΣPCB) in the pups averaged 104 μg/kg lipid (range, 49-384 μg/kg). No statistically significant differences in ΣPCB were observed among the four study sites in the Galapagos Islands. Concentrations of PCB congeners in Galapagos sea lion pups were dominated by low-molecular-weight congeners. These results suggest that global transport is the main source for PCBs in Galapagos sea lions. The ΣPCB levels were below immunotoxic and endocrine-disruption thresholds in pinnipeds, suggesting a limited risk of adverse health effects. The present study indicates that Galapagos sea lions can serve as a useful sentinel of pollutants with a long-range transport capacity and that Galapagos Islands are not exempt from the threats of global pollutants despite its remote locale.

  20. Environmental contamination of ready meals by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus

    2012-01-01

    The level of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in ready meals was investigated to determine exposure compared to other foodstuffs. Chilled ready meals from nine categories (ambient, Chinese, Indian, Traditional UK, Italian, American Tex-Mex, Vegetarian and Organic), and three samples within each category were Soxhlet extracted in triplicate with hexane for 24 h, followed by a clean-up on deactivated silica gel. The cleaned extracts were concentrated to 1 ml under N(2) gas and analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for 7 target PCBs (congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138, and 180). Individual congener concentrations ranged from non-detectable to 0.40 ng g(-1) (wet weight). The cumulative concentration of all congeners (ΣPCBs) ranged between 0.20 and 1.00 ng g(-1) (wet weight). These values translate into exposure levels of less than 1 μg kg(-1)day(-1) for reference men and women of 70 and 57 kg, respectively. This preliminary study demonstrates that ready meals, like many other foods, are contaminated by PCBs and may represent an important route of human exposure given contemporary changes in consumer food choice. Even though low levels of contamination were observed, long-term exposure for population groups consuming a high volume of ready meals may have cause for concern regarding chronic health risks.

  1. Effects of perinatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins on total development in 10-month-old Japanese male and female infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagayama, J.; Shiraha, A.; Yanagawa, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukushige, J. [Fukuoka Children' s Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan); Iida, T.; Nakagawa, R.; Matsueda, T.; Hirakawa, H. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Watanabe O.B.G.Y. Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Introduction Organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, heptachlor and chlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned to use in late 1960s and in early 1970s in Japan, because of their persistence and bioaccumulation in the environment, their appearance in animal and human tissue, and their toxicity. However, these chemicals and their metabolites still have been contaminating our environment, food and human beings. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs), highly toxic organochlorine compounds and so-called dioxins, are also determined in human beings. Consequently, the chemicals mentioned above and their metabolites have been measured in Japanese breast milk, which indicates Japanese mothers are also contaminated with these compounds. These compounds in Japanese mothers may cause some deleterious effects on the developmental condition of Japanese infants. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between perinatal exposure to the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and dioxins and the total developmental condition at about 10 months of age in Japanese male and female infants.

  2. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns Jane S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009, and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid, and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid. Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town.

  3. Dioxins, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudaryanto, A.; Kunisue, T.; Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S. [Center for Marine Environmental Studies, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama (Japan); Niida, M. [Japan Offspring Fund, Tokyo (Japan); Hashim, H. [Consumers Association of Penang, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2004-09-15

    Contaminations by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in the environment have been of great concern due to their endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. Chemically stable and lipophilic properties of these contaminants led to their high contamination in higher trophic biota, including human. Despite the intensive monitoring efforts and anticipated results of decreasing trends of POPs in developed countries as a consequence of their regulation on use and waste treatment, little information are available on their contamination status in developing countries even though these chemicals are still being used and unintentionally produced in several parts of these countries. To ensure the reliability of exposure data and to delineate contamination status, fate and behavior in tropical developing countries, during last few years, our research groups conducted monitoring studies using various environmental matrices including air, water, sediment, soil, biota and human from several Asian developing countries. From these results, existing sources of OCs and formation of dioxins and related compounds could be predicted in this region. However, there is very little information addressing the accumulation of OCs pollution in Malaysia. Particularly available data are only on marine biota. To date no data are available on OCs contaminations in human milk samples from Malaysia. The present study aims at understanding recent contamination of POPs, including dioxins and related compounds, PCBs and OCs pesticides in human breast milk from the general population of Malaysia.

  4. Dioxins, Furans and PCBs in Recycled Water for Indirect Potable Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of potential health impacts of dioxin and dioxin-like compounds in recycled water for indirect potable reuse was conducted. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD and dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs congeners have been developed by the World Health Organization to simplify the risk assessment of complex mixtures. Samples of secondary treated wastewater in Perth, Australia were examined pre-and post-tertiary treatment in one full-scale and one pilot water reclamation plant. Risk quotients (RQs were estimated by expressing the middle-bound toxic equivalent (TEQ and the upper-bound TEQ concentration in each sampling point as a function of the estimated health target value. The results indicate that reverse osmosis (RO is able to reduce the concentration of PCDD, PCDF and dioxin-like PCBs and produce water of high quality (RQ after RO=0.15. No increased human health risk from dioxin and dioxin-like compounds is anticipated if highly treated recycled water is used to augment drinking water supplies in Perth. Recommendations for a verification monitoring program are offered.

  5. Sources, transport, reservoirs and fate of dioxins, PCBs and HCB in the Baltic Sea environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, Karin (Dept. of Chemistry, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)); McLachlan, Michael; Jonsson, Per (Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Johansson, Niklas (Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-01-15

    A better knowledge of sources, transport, reservoirs and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Baltic Sea environment is crucial for the identification of effective actions against these compounds. In this report the present situation regarding sources and current fluxes of persistent pollutants in the Baltic Sea ecosystem is presented. The compounds selected for the study were: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). These classes of compounds represent a broad range of physical-chemical properties, and hence their environmental behaviour encompasses the spectrum of most chemicals listed in the Stockholm Convention. Based on current knowledge and some new field measurements in air, sea water and sediments, mass balances for the selected POPs were calculated. These mass balances indicate that the atmosphere is the major source of PCDD/Fs to the Bothnian Sea and the Baltic Proper and also the dominant external source of HCB and PCBs to the Baltic Sea. These findings emphasise the need for further international agreements to prevent long-range transboundary transport of these POPs

  6. PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PBDEs in blood samples of a rural population in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Albrecht, Michael; Appel, Markus; Hilger, Bettina; Völkel, Wolfgang; Liebl, Bernhard; Roscher, Eike

    2015-01-01

    The body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-PCBs) polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was determined in blood samples from 70 subjects between 4 and 76 years old. The participants of the study were recruited in the neighborhood of a reclamation plant located in a rural area in Southern Germany. The median concentrations (95th percentiles in parentheses), expressed as WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents), for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 4.5 (17.9)pgg(-1) l.w. and 2.6 (13.2)pgg(-1) l.w., respectively. The dl-PCBs contributed 40% of the total TEQ (median values), and the most abundant congener was PCB 156. Combined, the sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs had a median of 0.773μgL(-1) and a 95th percentile of 4.895μgL(-1). For the six tetra to hepta PBDE congeners, the median was 1.8ngg(-1) l.w. (95th percentile: 16.2ngg(-1) l.w.). None of our study subjects had a body burden that exceeded the biomonitoring equivalents for dioxins or PBDE congener 99 or the human biomonitoring values for ndl-PCBs. Likewise the study group did not exceed German reference values or values obtained in similar investigations. Overall, our study did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. The results also hint further decreasing tendencies for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in Germany and demonstrates that people in the vicinity of a reclamation plant with no indication of an environmental contamination did not exhibit elevated internal exposures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Heo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17 of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3 and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3, respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11 was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1 and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°. The slope (m values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies was the dominant source for PCBs.

  8. O legado das bifenilas policloradas (PCBs The legacy of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Pires Penteado

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of 209 chemical compounds with the molecular formula C12H10-nCl n, where 1 <= n <= 10. They were commercially produced as complex mixtures for various uses, being employed principally as dielectric fluids in capacitors and transformers. They are not easily degraded due their chemical and physical stability and tend to bioaccumulate in the organisms. After the discovery of their xenobiotic activity, restrictions were imposed for their use, as well as for their discards. Nowadays the development of recovery processes for contaminated environment urges to be done due to the extension of reached areas.

  9. Learning from Dioxin & PCBs in meat - problems ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R.

    2017-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; “Dioxins”), or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely recognized environmental and food contaminants. More than 90% of PCDD/Fs and PCB exposure of the average population stem from animal based food including meat. While average PCDD/F and PCB levels have decreased compared to levels 1980s, still contamination above regulatory limits are observed and a share of the population is above the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO. For PCBs the contamination of feed and food along the life cycle from production, use, recycling, end of life and related contaminated sites has been documented and can be seen as a model. Furthermore, it has been recently discovered that levels of PCBs in feed and soil below regulatory limits can result in meat contamination above EU regulatory limits. In particular, beef meat and chicken meat/eggs have been found very sensitive towards PCB contamination in the environment (soil and feed) but also in stables (paints and sealants). For PCDD/Fs, the major exposure pathways are feed, feed additives and contaminated sites. Chlorinated paraffins have substituted PCBs the last 40 years in open application and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently (05/2017) listed in the Stockholm Convention. Furthermore, brominated and fluorinated POPs have been listed in the Convention. All these POPs groups can accumulate in meat animals. For these new listed POPs no regulatory limits in food including meat has been established yet. Initial information on presence and risk of new listed POPs to food animals is compiled. A more systematic assessment of exposure and risks of POPs to food animals/meat is needed.

  10. Levels and sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in the water ecosystems of central Poland — A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Zieliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs are unwanted by-products in a variety of industrial and thermal processes. They have been present on Earth long before the human era, since they may be also formed as a result of forest fires or volcanic explosions. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in turn, have been intentionally produced by humans. Poland was a minor producer of PCB mixtures (Chlorofen and Tarnol, which were a source of direct and indirect environmental diffusion with PCB and less with PCDDs/PCDFs. Industrial accidents with PCDDs/PCDFs were absent in Poland. Their stability and resistance to thermal breakdown made them very dangerous for environment and, in consequence, due to their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation and biomagnification in the terrestrial and aquatic food chains, to humans. Humans may become affected by PCDDs/PCDFs and PCBs through environmental (soil and water contamination, fish and food, occupational (incinerators; pulp, paper and metallurgy industry; copper production, or accidental (Seveso accident exposure. The aim of this review was to evaluate environmental hazard caused by PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like-PCBs in the central region of Poland based on the accessible data on diffusion of those compounds in sediments and riverine, reservoir and storm water from our previous studies and discussed in the context of other achievements in Poland and elsewhere.

  11. Estimation and characterization of PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, PCNs, HxCBz and PeCBz emissions from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Guorui; Su, Guijin; Lv, Pu; Xiao, Ke

    2011-12-01

    Magnesium production is considered to be one potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). However, studies on the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy are still lacking. Emissions of unintentional POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) are covered under the Stockholm Convention. In this study, these emissions were investigated through a magnesium smelting process. Stack gas and fly ash samples from a typical magnesium plant in China were collected and analyzed to estimate the emissions of unintentional POPs from magnesium metallurgy. Emissions factors of 412 ng TEQ t(-1) for PCDD/Fs, 18.6 ng TEQ t(-1) for dl-PCBs, 3329 μg t(-1) for PCNs, 820 μg t(-1) for HxCBz, and 1326 μg t(-1) for PeCBz were obtained in 2009. Annual emissions from magnesium metallurgy in China were estimated to be 0.46 g WHO-TEQ for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, 1651 g for PCNs, 403 g for HxCBz and 653 g for PeCBz, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Halogenated Contaminants in Farmed Salmon, Trout, Tilapia, Pangasius, and Shrimp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Velzen, van M.J.M.; Swart, C.P.; Veen, van der I.; Traag, W.A.; Boer, de J.

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as

  13. Functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons in experimental animals and human infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.; Ahlborg, U. G.; van den Berg, M.; Birnbaum, L. S.; Boersma, E. R.; Bosveld, B.; Denison, M. S.; Gray, L. E.; Hagmar, L.; Holene, E.

    1995-01-01

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and

  14. Unintentional formed PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs as impurities in Chinese pentachloronitrobenzene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Gao, Jie; Yu, Gang; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Deng, Shubo; Wang, Bin; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) products have been reported to contain relatively high levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) as impurities. No data was available for Chinese PCNB products which are still produced and used in China. Therefore, we analysed Chinese PCNB products, including two raw pesticides and three formulations available on the market. In all samples, PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were detected at levels exceeding Japanese regulation limits. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs (0.16 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1)) were lower than the PCNB formulations measured from the Australian market (3.9 ng TEQ g(-1)). However, the Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) contribution from DL-PCBs (0.7 to 2.5 ng TEQ g(-1)) to total TEQ was higher compared to PCDDs and PCDFs. This discovery demonstrated that it is necessary to consider the DL-PCBs impurity in organochlorine pesticides and other organochlorine chemicals in particular chlorinated aromatic compounds for adequate risk assessment. In addition to DL-PCBs, other unintentionally POPs-hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (3.7 to 52 ng g(-1)) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) (0.04 to 0.3 ng g(-1)) which are listed in the Stockholm Convention-were detected in the PCNB samples. The PCNB production steps were assessed for their unintentional POPs formation potential. Thermolysis of the aromatic compounds using iron chloride (FeCl3) as catalyst is suggested as relevant production step for (DL-)PCBs formation. Since the levels in the formulated PCNB recalculated to active ingredient were higher compared to the raw pesticide, the formulation process (e.g., milling) may also have had an influence on additional PCDD/Fs and PCBs formation.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dioxins-Furans in Lake Trout and Whitefish Composite Samples from Commercial Fisheries in Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Dowd, Michael; Scuby, Matthew J S; Pantazopoulos, Peter P; Feeley, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; sum of 36 congeners) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; sum of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners) were measured in 93 composite samples prepared from individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) samples collected from Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior. All samples had detectable concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs; maximum PCB concentrations in both trout (750 ng g -1 whole weight [ww]) and whitefish (210 ng g -1 ww) were found in composites from fish collected from Lake Huron. The maximum toxic equivalent concentration was found in a lake trout composite sample from Lake Huron (53 pg g -1 ww). PCB and PCDD/F congener profiles were comparable to patterns observed in fishes collected from other regions of Canada, although concentrations were above those found in other regions. A positive correlation was found between PCB concentrations determined using the historical Aroclor equivalency method and those determined using the sum of the congeners measured (r 2 = 0.871; Spearman correlation r = 0.917) or using the six indicator PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180; r 2 = 0.850; Spearman correlation r = 0.935). PCBs were the dominant contributor to the overall toxic equivalent concentrations in the fish composite samples tested. These findings provide insight into PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in two commercially important fish species over a discrete time period.

  16. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries

  17. Levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food of animal origin in the Netherlands during the period 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Schoss, Stefanie; Theelen, Rob M C; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (DL-PCBs) in food of animal origin produced in the Netherlands, including potential trends in time. Test results from about 2500 samples of animal derived food products (beef, veal, lamb, chicken, pork, deer, milk and eggs), sampled for the National Residue Monitoring Plan from 2001-2011, were evaluated. Most samples were screened with a bioassay and, if suspected, analysed by GC-HRMS. The fraction of samples which were non-compliant with European maximum levels was rather low, being below 1% for most food products, except for lamb. Exceedance of action levels was particularly observed for lamb and beef. To obtain an insight into background levels, a randomly taken part of the samples was directly analysed by GC-HRMS. In general, only minor decreases in mean PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations could be observed for the period 2001-2011. This may be due to a plateauing of current background levels but also to factors like the sensitivity of the analytical method.

  18. Assessment of the emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from an industrial area over a nearby town using a selective wind direction sampling device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Karell; Austrui, Joan Rivera [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Jover, Eric [FEMAN group, IN2UB, Applied Physics and Optics Department, Physics Faculty, University of Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Abalos, Manuela; Rivera, Josep [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Abad, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.abad@idaea.csic.e [Lab. of Dioxins, Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Environmental Chemistry Department, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    The development of new sampling devices or strategies to assess the concentration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the environment has increased in the last two decades. In this study, a selective sampling device was used to evaluate the impact of potential local sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) emissions on the ambient air levels of such compounds in a town near an important industrial estate. Average concentrations of target compounds of up to 2.5 times for PCDD/Fs and 2 times for dl-PCBs were found to come from the industrial state confirming this area as the main responsible for the majority of such compounds reaching the town. This finding was supported by a PCDD/F and dl-PCB sample profile analysis and a principal component analysis (PCA), which established a direct link between the dioxin-like compounds found in the samples collected in the town and their source. - Selective ambient air samplers provide a valuable information on POP emission sources

  19. Use of polychlorinated biphenyl and toxic equivalent concentrations in scat from mink(Neovison vison) fed fish from the upper Hudson River to predict dietary and hepatic concentrations and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J; Kern, John; Remington, Richard E; Link, Jane E

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate health effects associated with consumption of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the upper Hudson River, farm-raised mink were fed diets containing fish collected from the river. Endpoints assessed included adult reproductive performance, offspring growth and mortality, and organ mass and pathology of adults and their offspring. Scat samples were collected from adult males at the time of necropsy and from adult females just prior to whelping. Scat samples were analyzed for PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The present study provides the results of these analyses and compares ∑PCB and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations in scat with dietary and hepatic concentrations associated with effects reported previously. Dry weight concentrations of ∑PCBs and ∑TEQs in scat generally increased with dietary concentration and reflected corresponding increases in hepatic concentrations of ∑PCBs and ∑TEQs. Maternal concentrations of ∑PCBs in scat expressed on a dry, wet, and lipid weight basis predicted to result in 50% kit mortality (LC50) were 1.0, 0.30, and 12 μg ∑PCBs/g. Concentrations of ∑PCBs in scat expressed on a dry, wet, and lipid weight basis predicted to result in 50% incidence of a previously reported jaw lesion (EC50) were 1.7, 0.48, and 24 μg ∑PCBs/g in adult females and 2.5, 0.87, and 19 μg ∑PCBs/g in adult males. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:563-575. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. [Associations of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls with diabetes: based on epidemiological findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Hirokazu

    2012-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of chemical substances that have the common properties of resistance to biodegradation, wide-range transportation, high lipophilicity, bioaccumulation in fat, and biomagnification in the food chain. POPs are persistent in the environment worldwide and have potential adverse impacts on human health and the environment. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well known chemicals that are considered as POPs. The association between high-level exposure to dioxins and type 2 diabetes among U.S. Air Force veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during the Vietnam War was reported in the late 1990s. This association has been supported by similar epidemiologic studies, whose subjects were exposed to high doses of dioxins in their places of work involving phenoxyacid herbicide production and spraying, and in the industrial accident in Seveso, Italy. Recently, low-level exposure to dioxins and PCBs has been reported to be linked to type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional studies in the U.S. general population and Japanese general population showed that body burden levels of some dioxins and PCBs were strongly associated with the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Very recently, following these cross-sectional studies, several prospective studies have suggested that low-level exposure to some PCBs predicted the future risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population. Environmental exposure to some dioxins and PCBs, which mainly accumulate in adipose tissue, may play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  2. Analysis of dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs in food and feed samples from Lithuania and estimation of human intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godliauskienė, R; Petraitis, J; Jarmalaitė, I; Naujalis, E

    2012-11-01

    The methods, validated for determination of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyls were applied for investigation of food and feed matrixes. Validation criteria on repeatability and reproducibility conditions comply with the requirements of European Commission. Validated methods were successfully applied for determination of PCDD/F and DL-PCB in fish, meat and feed using HRGC-HRMS. Statistical data was evaluated. One focal point of this work was to determine a fit for dioxins, furans and DL-PCBs of fatty fish for human consumption from the Baltic Sea ICES 26. Daily intake was found to be in the range of 2-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight and it is in the range of recommended TDI of 1-4 TEQ pg/kg body weight. The range of Baltic cod liver was 2-4 pg TEQ kgbw(-1)d(-1) WHO-TEQ((1998)) PCDD/F, PCB and its consumption was forbidden in Lithuania in 2011. Baltic fish represents 97.9% of human daily intake. Other matrixes like meat, eggs and feed did not exceed the maximum limit set by EU during the period of 2005-2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The inhibition effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation in human hepatoma cells with the treatment of cadmium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, How-Ran [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Emerging Compounds Research Center, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Tsou, Tsui-Chun [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Chen, Hung-Ta [Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Chang, Eddy Essen; Tsai, Feng-Yuan [Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli 350, Taiwan (China); Lin, Ding-Yan [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Neipu, Pingtung 912, Taiwan (China); Chen, Fu-An [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yan-Pu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Wang, Ya-Fen, E-mail: yfwang@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli, Taoyuan 320, Taiwan (China); R and D Center of Membrane Technology, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), considered as endocrine disruptors, tend to accumulate in fatty tissues. Dioxin-responsive element chemical activated luciferase gene expression assay (DRE-luciferase assay) has been recognized as a semi-quantitative method for screening dioxins for its fast and low-cost as compared with HRGC/HRMS. However, some problems with the bioassay, including specificity, detection variation resulted from different cleanup strategies, and uncertainty of false-negative or false-positive results, remain to be overcome. Cadmium is a prevalent environmental contaminant around the world. This study was aimed to examine the effects of cadmium on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated gene expression in human hepatoma cells (Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and Huh7 cells). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and DRE-luciferase assay were employed to determine the enzyme activity of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and activation of AhR, respectively. The results showed that Cd{sup 2+} levels significantly inhibited the induction of TCDD-induced CYP1A1 and DRE luciferase activation in hepatoma cells. The 50% inhibited concentrations (IC{sub 50}) of CdCl{sub 2} were 0.414 {mu}M (95% confidence interval (C.I.): 0.230-0.602 {mu}M) in Huh7-DRE-Luc cells and 23.2 {mu}M (95% C.I.: 21.7-25.4 {mu}M) in Huh7 cells. Accordingly, prevention of interference with non-dioxin-like compounds in a DRE-luciferase assay is of great importance in an extensive cleanup procedure.

  4. Contribution of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the toxic equivalency of dioxin-like compounds in archived biosolids from the U.S. EPA's 2001 national sewage sludge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2014-09-16

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40-100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630-42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼ 0.002% vs ∼ 0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15-672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12-96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530-1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids.

  5. Contribution of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) to the Toxic Equivalency of Dioxin-like Compounds in Archived Biosolids from the U.S. EPA’s 2001 National Sewage Sludge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recently proposed the inclusion of brominated congeners in addition to chlorinated congeners when computing the toxic equivalency (TEQ) of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) in assessments of human health risks. In the present study, 12 polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PBDD/Fs) were analyzed by gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry in the composited, archived biosolids that were collected in 32 U.S. states and the District of Columbia from 94 wastewater treatment plants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its 2001 national sewage sludge survey. Two PBDDs and five PBDFs were detected in the biosolids composites at varying frequencies (40–100%) with a total mean concentration of 10,000 ng/kg dry weight (range: 630–42,800), of which 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-hepta-BDF constituted about 95% by mass. Relative to commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) formulations, the ratio of PBDD/Fs to PBDEs in biosolids was 55-times higher (∼0.002% vs ∼0.11%), which indicates potential PBDE transformation or possibly additional sources of PBDD/Fs in the environment. The TEQ contribution of PBDD/Fs was estimated at 162 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (range: 15–672), which is equivalent to 75% (range: 12–96%) of the total TEQ in biosolids. The TEQ of DLCs released annually to U.S. soils as a result of the land application of biosolids was estimated at 720 g (range: 530–1600 g). Among all known DLCs determined in biosolids, brominated analogs contributed 370% more TEQ than did chlorinated congeners, which indicates the need to include brominated DLCs in the exposure and risk assessment of land-applied biosolids. PMID:25157505

  6. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in anaerobic soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, N.B.K.

    1980-01-01

    Degradation of 14 C labelled 2,5,2; 2,5,2',5' PCBs was studied in Hagerstown silty clay loam with and without sludge amendments under anaerobic conditions for 42 days. Soil respiration was enhanced by PCBs in soil. PCBs reduced the soil respiration in soil with sludge. Volatilization of PCBs was decreased by sludge in soil. Most of the radioactivity was found in hexane extracts of soils. No further degradation products were observed. (author)

  7. Effects of in ovo exposure to PCBs (coplanar congener, kanechlor mixture, hydroxylated metabolite) on the developing cell-mediated immunity in chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, J.; Matsuda, M.; Kawano, M.; Wakimoto, T. [Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime Univ., Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Kashima, Y. [Dept. of Hygiene, Yokohama City Univ. School of Medicine, Yokohama (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are wide spread environmental contaminants and known to cause various adverse effects on health of human and wildlife. Immune system is one of the several targets for toxic effects of PCBs and its normal balance is often disrupted by the exposure of the compounds. For example, PCBs may induce immune suppression and result in increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections, or conversely, excessive immune enhancement may cause adverse outcomes including as autoimmune disease and anergy. Therefore immune function is regarded as one of an important endpoint in toxicological risk assessment. There are a number of studies shown that neonatal organisms perinatally exposed to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) such as PCBs have severer effects on their immune system than adult. Dioxins and coplanar PCB congeners, structurally planar PHAHs are known to have high affinity for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the strongest affinity among such compounds and these are considered to act on immune system through AhR. On the other hand, such as non-planar PCB congeners with low affinity for AhR, which are abundantly contained in commercial PCB preparations have non-additive (antagonistic) effects on immune function. Prenatal exposure of TCDD to rodent induced abnormal lymphoid development in the thymus and thymus-dependent immune functions were remarkably disturbed. Although several experimental studies in mammals have been carried out on the developmental immunotoxicity of PCBs, there are still limited information available on avian species. Thus in this study, prenatal exposure to low level of PCBs and the effects on the developing immune system were investigated with chicken as a model animal of avian species, especially it is focused on the cell-mediated immune function.

  8. Dietary exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of Hong Kong adults: results of the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Waiky W K; Yip, Yiu-chung; Choi, Koon-kay; Ho, Y Y; Xiao, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) covered by the Stockholm Convention on POPs. To assess the associated health risk of the Hong Kong population, the dietary exposure of the Hong Kong population and various age-gender subgroups to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was estimated in the first Hong Kong Total Diet Study (TDS), where food samples were collected and prepared "as consumed". A total of 142 composite food samples, mainly foods of animal origin and their products and oily food, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs by the high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) system. Dietary exposures were estimated by combining the analytical results with the food consumption data of Hong Kong adults. The mean and 95th percentile exposures to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs of the Hong Kong population were 21.9 and 59.7 pg toxic equivalent (TEQ) kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) month⁻¹ respectively, which amounted to 31.3% and 85.2% of the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The main dietary source of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs was "Fish and seafood and their products" (61.9% of the total exposure), followed by "Meat, poultry and game and their products" (20.0%) and "Mixed dishes" (6.95%). The study findings suggest that the Hong Kong population is unlikely to experience the major undesirable health effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

  9. Distribution and ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of Σ15 PCBs in sediments of the Forcados River, Nigeria, were determined in 2012 to provide information on the profile, sources and ecotoxicological risks of PCBs in the sediment. The screening concentrations of PCBs were quantified using a gas chromatograph equipped with a Ni-63 electron capture ...

  10. Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations in Larus dominicanus. Case study: Marambaia island, Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i3.18344

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds play a significant role as bioindicators: they are conspicuous, relatively easy to observe, well-established studied group of organisms, and in the focus of public interest due to pollution in aquatic ecosystem. Systematically, a significant number of man-made chemicals have been introduced in the marine environment and represent the major problem arising in the development worldwide. Many of these chemical contaminants are persistent, known to bioaccumulate and biomagnify through the aquatic food web, affecting species associated with aquatic systems. Dioxins [polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD, dibenzofurans (PCDF] and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB concentrations were measured in Kelp gull Larus dominicanus collected from 2006 to 2011 on Marambaia Island, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Detectable liver concentrations of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs were found in all samples analyzed. These represent some of the first measurements of PCDD Fs-1 and PCBs in seabirds from this area. Although levels of these contaminants in the tested species currently appear to fall below critical values, a continuous and systematic monitoring on these compounds becomes essential and desirable to not express toxic values in the future.   

  11. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OCPs in sediments from selected areas in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čonka, Kamil; Chovancová, Jana; Stachová Sejáková, Zuzana; Dömötörová, Milena; Fabišiková, Anna; Drobná, Beáta; Kočan, Anton

    2014-03-01

    Within our research project, 34 river bottom sediments were collected in 2006-2007 at five areas across Slovakia with industrial sources of persistent organic pollutants (Košice, Krompachy, Nemecká, Šala, Nováky) and one background area (Starina). Sediments were analyzed for seven 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and 10 dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like and 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and 1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) with 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE). Analytical procedure based on accelerated solvent extraction followed by a semi-automated clean-up and fractionation was used. Determination of target compounds was performed by HRGC-HRMS analysis. Total WHO toxic equivalent WHO1998-PCDD/F/dl-PCB-TEQ concentrations ranged from 0.26 to 559 pg TEQ g(-1) dry matter (dm), with a median 2.2 pg TEQ g(-1) dm. The sums of six indicator PCBs were in the range 0.56-1014 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 11.8 ng g(-1) dm. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides HCB and p,p'-DDE/DDT varied from 0.15 to 34.8 ng g(-1) dm, with a median 0.91 ng g(-1) dm and 0.46-34.1 ng g(-1)dm, with a median 6.7 ng g(-1)dm, respectively. The most abundant congeners in all sediment samples among dioxins, furans and PCBs were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, PCB-118 and PCB-153. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in feed materials in the Netherlands, 2001-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; Schoss, Stefanie; de Jong, Jacob; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into contamination of feed materials used in the Netherlands with dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Monitoring results from the period 2001-11, covering in total 4938 samples, were statistically analysed and evaluated against the statutory limits set at the beginning or during this period. The percentage of samples exceeding maximum levels set within the European Union for either dioxins or the sum of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs were below 1% for most feed categories, except for fish meal (4.1%), clay minerals (binders and anti-caking agents) (3.4%), and vegetable oils and byproducts (1.7%). For most feed categories, non-compliance with the action threshold (roughly 33% lower than maximum levels) for either dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs was up to three times higher than non-compliance with the respective maximum levels. Exceedance of action thresholds was just above 1% for animal fat, pre-mixtures and feed materials of plant origin excluding vegetable oils. For the categories fish meal, clay minerals, and vegetable oils and byproducts, the action thresholds were exceeded by 5.0%, 9.8% and 3.0% of the samples, respectively. In general, the percentages of samples that exceeded the action thresholds and maximum levels were lower than those reported for the European Union by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In most of the feed materials, there seems to be a decreasing trend in concentrations of dioxins or dioxin-like PCBs over the years. However, a lowering of the limits of quantification during this period and the low concentrations in most samples precludes drawing strong conclusions.

  13. Gas/particle partitioning and particle size distribution of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in urban ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, B; de la Torre, A; Sanz, P; Navarro, I; Artíñano, B; Martínez, M A

    2018-05-15

    Urban ambient air samples, including gas-phase (PUF), total suspended particulates (TSP), PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 airborne particle fractions were collected to evaluate gas-particle partitioning and size particle distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Clausius-Clapeyron equation, regressions of logKp vs logP L and logK OA, and human respiratory risk assessment were used to evaluate local or long-distance transport sources, gas-particle partitioning sorption mechanisms, and implications for health. Total ambient air levels (gas phase+particulate phase) of TPCBs and TPCDD/Fs, were 437 and 0.07pgm -3 (median), respectively. Levels of PCDD/F in the gas phase (0.004-0.14pgm -3 , range) were significantly (pgas phase, and displayed maximum levels in warm seasons, probably due to an increase in evaporation rates, supported by significant and strong positive dependence on temperature observed for several congeners. No significant differences in PCDD/Fs and PCBs concentrations were detected between the different particle size fractions considered (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2.5 and PM 1 ), reflecting that these chemicals are mainly bounded to PM 1 . The toxic content of samples was also evaluated. Total toxicity (PUF+TSP) attributable to dl-PCBs (13.4fg-TEQ 05 m -3 , median) was higher than those reported for PCDD/Fs (6.26fg-TEQ 05 m -3 ). The inhalation risk assessment concluded that the inhalation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs pose a low cancer risk in the studied area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in sediments of the Liaohe River, China: levels, distribution, and possible sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.J.; Zhao, X.F.; Ni, Y.W.; Lu, X.B.; Chen, J.P.; Su, F.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, N.; Zhang, X.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian (China)

    2010-04-15

    The contamination status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surface sediments of the middle and lower reaches of the Liaohe River, which is one of the most heavily polluted rivers in China, were investigated. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were in the range of 0.24-27.49 ng WHO-TEQ kg{sup -1} (average value: 3.01 ng WHO-TEQ kg{sup -1}) and 0.015-0.99 ng WHO-TEQ kg{sup -1} (average value: 0.33 WHO-TEQ kg{sup -1}), respectively. For most sediment samples, the pollution levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs exceeded the interim sediment quality guidelines (ISQGs) established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. The highest level of PCDD/F contamination was found at the Tai'an reach of the Liaohe River, whereas the highest level of PCB contamination was found at the Xinmin reach of the Liaohe River. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were applied to the data set of sediment samples and to source-related samples from the literature. The results suggested that, PCDD/F contamination in most sediments of the middle and lower reaches of the Daliao River should mainly originated from the local combustion processes, including coal burning, agricultural straw open burning, iron ore sintering, cement production and secondary Al and Cu metallurgy. For the PCBs, the major source was identified as the usage of technical PCB products, especially Chinese No. 1 PCB.

  15. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Status and influencing factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in the coastal areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min-Xia; Yang, Yu-Yi; Li, Qing-Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This review focused on the distribution, pollution status, sources and influencing factors of PCBs in the coastal areas (seawater, surface sediments and biota) in China. A few main points are listed as follows: (1) For coastal seawater, concentrations of PCBs were increasing from the north to the south and the highest concentrations of PCBs were observed in the developed east coastal areas. The concentrations of PCBs in most coastal areas were higher than the seawater standard of U. S. EPA (30 ng x L(-1)), indicating that there was a high potential risk. (2) Only a small part of surface sediments had PCBs concentrations higher than the ISQG (interim sediment quality guideline) and ERL (effects range-low) values, suggesting little probability of causing biological adverse effects and potential risk in surface sediments. (3) High-molecular-weight PCBs (4, 5 and 6 chlorinated biphenyl) were bio-accumulated in marine biota. The concentrations of PCBs in organisms were generally lower than 2000 ng x g(-1), which may have negligible effects on human health. (4) The main sources of PCBs were wastewater discharged from factories and the leakage of dismantling PCBs from electronic wastes. Factors influencing the concentrations and distribution of PCBs in the coastal areas included distance from land, flow exchange situation, water-carrying capacity, season, sediment particle size and total organic carbon content.

  17. Did municipal solid waste landfill have obvious influence on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in ambient air: A case study in East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Wang, Chong; Du, Lei; Lv, Zhiwei; Li, Xiaonan; Hu, Xuepeng; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill was a main way to disposal of MSW and almost 95% of MSW was disposed by landfills in the world. In order to understand the influence of MSW landfill on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in surrounding atmosphere, 42 ambient air samples were collected and analyzed from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site of a MSW landfill in East China. The results of present study were summarized as follows. (1) The total concentrations of PCDD/Fs (∑PCDD/Fs) in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 2.215±1.004, 2.058±0.458, 2.617±1.092 and 1.822±0.566pgNm -3 , respectively. (2) The toxic equivalent concentrations (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 0.103±0.017, 0.096±0.015, 0.120±0.024 and 0.108±0.014pg I-TEQNm -3 , respectively. (3) The congener profiles, ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ between background atmosphere and surrounding atmosphere of landfill did not show statistically significant difference. (4) The ∑PCDD/Fs and TEQ in ambient air of downwind site were not higher than that of upwind site, suggesting that studied landfill did not have obvious influence on PCDD/Fs in ambient air from downwind site. (5) The 95th percentile carcinogenic risk (CR) of PCDD/Fs in ambient air from surrounding sites, background site, upwind site and downwind site were 8.03×10 -9 , 7.57×10 -9 , 9.69×10 -9 and 8.15×10 -9 , respectively, which were much lower than the threshold value of CR (10 -6 ), suggesting that studied landfill did not influence the CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and negligible cancer risk occurred. (6) The non-carcinogenic risk (non-CR) analysis indicated that landfill did not have influence on the non-CR of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and no obvious non-carcinogenic effects developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  18. Dust levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) in the Taiwanese elementary school classrooms: Assessment of the risk to school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Yan-You; Que, Danielle E; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Chao, How-Ran; Shy, Cherng-Gueih; Hsu, Yi-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Wen; Chuang, Kuo Pin; Tsai, Chih-Chung; Tayo, Lemmuel L

    2016-12-01

    Elementary school classroom dust is an important source of exposure to polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans and diphenyl ethers (PBDD/DF/DEs) for school-age children. Our goal is thus to investigate concentrations of PBDD/DF/DEs in elementary school classroom dust to further assess the impact on school-age children via ingestion. The dust from classrooms, including both normal (NR) and computer classrooms (CR), was collected from six urban and four rural schools. Fourteen PBDEs and twelve PBDD/Fs were measured using high-resolution gas-chromatography/high-resolution mass-spectrometry. The mean levels of Σ 14 PBDEs in NR and CR dust from the urban classrooms were 370 and 2510ng/g and those whose dust from the rural classrooms were 464 and 1780ng/g. The means of ΣPBDD/Fs were 0.0401ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (concentration: 4.72ng/g) in urban NR dust, 0.0636ng-WHO 2005 -TEQ/g (7.51ng/g) in urban CR dust, 0.0281ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (3.60ng/g) in rural NR dust, and 0.0474ng-WHO 2005 TEQ/g (6.28ng/g) in rural CR dust. The PBDEs pattern in NR dust was quite different from that in CR dust, but the PBDD/Fs patterns in NR and CR dust were similar. A linearly significant correlation coefficient (n=20, r=0.862, pschool classrooms. This study assessed the risks (daily intake and cancer and non-cancer risks) of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs for the children from the classroom dust, and the calculated risk values did not exceed the related thresholds. With regard to the exposure scenarios for school-age children in an indoor environment, the results suggest that they might ingest more dust PBDD/DF/DEs in their homes than in the schools. In conclusion, the exposure of Taiwanese elementary school children to PBDD/DF/DEs via indoor dust was with a safe range based on our findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Study of New Analytical Methodologies for the Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-P-Dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated Di benzofurans (PCDFs) by Quadrupole Ion Storage Tandem-in-time Mass Spectrometry. Application to Environmental Samples; Estudio de nuevas metodologias analiticas en la determinacion de policlorodibenzo-P-dioxinas (PCDDs) y policlosrodibenzofuranos (PCDFs) por espectrometria de masas con trampa ionica. Aplicacion a muestras medioambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz Chichon, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    Two alternative analytical methodologies have been developed for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and di benzofurans (PCDFs) in environmental samples. The techniques studied have been: Pressurized Fluid Extraction (PFE) and Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) versus Soxhlet extraction; the automated system Power-PrepTM versus the conventional cleanup using open chromatographic columns with different adsorbents and the application of tandem mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS/MS) versus high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) for PCDD/Fs detection and quantification. (Author) 233 refs.

  20. Pollutants make rheumatic diseases worse: Facts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure and rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Vanessa; Pérez, Tamara; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pirozzi, Claudio; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, disturbing its metabolism and the balance of adipokines, related to obesity. The altering secretion pattern of adipokines from the adipose tissue and the increasing mechanical load in weight-bearing joints presented in obesity condition, are risk factors for osteoarthritis development. The most prevalent rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic conditions that target the whole joints, leading to increasing disability and health care cost. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of PCBs in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. A PubMed search was managed using keywords as "rheumatic diseases", "polychlorinated biphenyls", "obesity" and "endocrine disruption". The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis has been reported to be increased especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of environment in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Analysis of two cohorts exposed to PCBs food contamination showed high incidence of arthritis. In addition, PCBs in serum correlated positively with the prevalence of self-reported arthritis. Few studies support the hypothesis that osteoarthritis development could be related to PCBs induction of chondrocytes apoptosis. Evidences have emerged for a relationship between PCBs and development of several types of arthritis. Further research is encouraged to determine the correlation between PCBs exposure and the development of rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  2. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. (Department of Bioogy, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  3. Biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bioformation of hydroxylated PCBs in fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, Andrea H.; Wong, Charles S.; Chow, Elaine A.; Brown, Scott B.; Solomon, Keith R.; Fisk, Aaron T.

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) are a class of organic contaminants that have been found recently in the plasma of Great Lakes fish, the source of which is either bioformation from PCBs or accumulation from the environment. To address the potential for fish to biotransform PCBs and bioform OH-PCBs juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; ∼80 g) were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Eight OH-PCBs were found in the plasma of rainbow trout after 30 days of exposure to the PCBs, the relative pattern of which was similar to those observed in wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario. Hydroxylated-PCBs were not found (detection limit 0.02 pg/g) in the food or control (not PCB-exposed) fish. A curvilinear log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship for recalcitrant PCBs was found, similar to previously reported relationships, although t 1/2 values were longer and shorter than studies using smaller fish or cooler temperatures, respectively. A number of PCB congeners fell below the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship providing the first estimates of non-chiral PCB biotransformation rates in fish. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral congeners PCBs 91 and 136, also indicated biotransformation. Biotransformation of PCBs was structure-dependent with greater biotransformation of PCBs with vicinal hydrogen atoms in the meta/para positions, suggesting CYP 2B-like biotransformation. Other chiral congeners with a meta/para substitution pattern showed no enantioselective degradation but were biotransformed based on the log t 1/2 -log K ow relationship. The results of this study demonstrate that laboratory held rainbow trout can biotransform a number of PCB congeners and that bioformation is likely an important source of OH-PCBs in wild salmonids of the Great Lakes

  4. Contamination levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and Co-PCBs in several fast foods in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-12-01

    We determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in three types of fast foods [(1) seventeen hamburgers and two hot dogs, (2) six portions of fried potatoes and (3) three chicken products] obtained from fast food shops or convenience stores in Japan. All samples tested showed low toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) levels of dioxins in the range of 0.001-0.083 pg-TEQ/g wet weight (0.006-0.053 pg-TEQ/g for hamburgers and hot dogs, 0.001-0.083 pg-TEQ/g for fried potatoes and 0.053-0.065 pg-TEQ/g for chicken products). The congener profile in hamburgers and hot dogs suggested that the total TEQ was mainly determined by Co-PCBs, especially by 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (#126), which accounted for 44% of the total TEQ value. Findings for animal foods such as beef and cheese were consistent with this result. For fried potatoes, PCDD/Fs accounted for 94% of the total TEQ value, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF accounted for 32% of PCDD/Fs. Dioxins in the chicken products consisted of 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (#126) and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, which accounted for 23% and 21% of the total TEQ, respectively. If an adult (50 kg weight) eats 150 g of hamburger, 100 g of potatoes and 150 g of chicken, the daily intake is estimated to be 0.299 pg-TEQ/kg b.w./day using the average values (0.022, 0.028 and 0.059 pg-TEQ/g, respectively) obtained in this study. This value corresponds to 7.5% of the tolerable daily intake (TDI) for PCDD/Fs and Co-PCBs in Japan.

  5. 77 FR 54863 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... today's rule on small entities, small entity is defined as: (1) A small business that is primarily...). Today's changes are to match, as much as possible, the manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to... to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by...

  6. Development and validation of prediction models for blood concentrations of dioxins and PCBs using dietary intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Stigum, Hein; Thomsen, Cathrine; Haugen, Margaretha; Alexander, Jan; Knutsen, Helle K

    2012-12-01

    Dioxins and PCBs accumulate in the food chain and might exert toxic effects in animals and humans. In large epidemiologic studies, exposure estimates of these compounds based on analyses of biological material might not be available or affordable. To develop and then validate models for predicting concentrations of dioxins and PCBs in blood using a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire and blood concentrations. Prediction models were built on data from one study (n=195), and validated in an independent study group (n=66). We used linear regression to develop predictive models for dioxins and PCBs, both sums of congeners and 33 single congeners (7 and 10 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho), sum of all the 29 dioxin-like compounds (total TEQ) and sum of 4 non dioxin-like PCBs (∑ CB-101, 138, 153, 183=PCB(4)). We used the blood concentration and dietary intake of each of the above as dependent and independent variables, while sex, parity, age, place of living, smoking status, energy intake and education were covariates. We validated the models in a new study population comparing the predicted blood concentrations with the measured blood concentrations using correlation coefficients and Weighted Kappa (К(W)) as measures of agreement, considering К(W)>0.40 as successful prediction. The models explained 78% (sum dioxin-like compounds), 76% (PCDDs), 76% (PCDFs), 74% (no-PCBs), 69% (mo-PCBs), 68% (PCB(4)) and 63% (CB-153) of the variance. In addition to dietary intake, age and sex were the most important covariates. The predicted blood concentrations were highly correlated with the measured values, with r=0.75 for dl-compounds 0.70 for PCB(4), (p0.40. The models developed had high power to predict blood levels of dioxins and PCBs and to correctly rank subjects according to high or low exposure based on dietary intake and demographic information. These models

  7. Transgenic plants to improve rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sylvestre, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2009), s. 242-247 ISSN 0958-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bacterial dioxygenases * GM- plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 7.820, year: 2009

  8. A review of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in indoor air environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qizhou; Min, Xia; Weng, Mili

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were widely used in industrial production due to the unique physical and chemical properties. As a kind of persistent organic pollutants, the PCBs would lead to environment pollution and cause serious problems for human health. Thus, they have been banned since the 1980s due to the environment pollution in the past years. Indoor air is the most direct and important environment medium to human beings; thus, the PCBs pollution research in indoor air is important for the protection of human health. This paper introduces the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarizes the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compares the indoor air levels of urban areas with those of industrial areas in different countries according to various reports. This paper can provide a basic summary for PCBs pollution control in the indoor air environment. The review of PCBs pollution in indoor air in China is still limited. In this paper, we introduce the industrial application and potential harm of PCBs, summarize the sampling, extracting, and analytical methods of environment monitoring, and compare the indoor air levels of urban areas with industrial areas in different countries according to various reports.

  9. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  10. GC x GC-ECD: a promising method for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Peter; Korytár, Peter; Danielsson, Conny; Diaz, Jordí; Wiberg, Karin; Leonards, Pim; Brinkman, Udo A T; de Boer, Jacob

    2008-04-01

    There is a need for cost-efficient alternatives to gas chromatography (GC)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC-micro electron capture detection (GC x GC-microECD) was tested and all relevant (according to the World Health Organisation, WHO) PCDD/Fs and PCBs could be separated when using a DB-XLB/LC-50 column combination. Validation tests by two laboratories showed that detectability, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of GC x GC-microECD are all statistically consistent with GC-HRMS results. A limit of detection of 0.5 pg WHO PCDD/F tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalency concentration per gram of fish oil was established. The reproducibility was less than 10%, which is below the recommended EU value for reference methods (less than 15%). Injections of vegetable oil extracts spiked with PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes and diphenyl ethers at concentrations of 200 ng/g showed no significant impact on the dioxin results, confirming in that way the robustness of the method. The use of GC x GC-microECD as a routine method for food and feed analysis is therefore recommended. However, the data evaluation of low dioxin concentrations is still laborious owing to the need for manual integration. This makes the overall analysis costs higher than those of GC-HRMS. Further developments of software are needed (and expected) to reduce the data evaluation time. Combination of the current method with pressurised liquid extraction with in-cell cleanup will result in further reduction of analysis costs.

  11. GC x GC-ECD: a promising method for the determination of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food and feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund, Peter; Danielsson, Conny; Wiberg, Karin [Umeaa University, Department of Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Korytar, Peter [Wageningen IMARES - Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, P.O. Box 68, IJmuiden (Netherlands); Diaz, Jordi [Ramon Llull University, Analytical and Environmental Chemistry, Institute Quimic de Sarria, Barcelona (Spain); Leonards, Pim; Boer, Jacob de [Free University, Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brinkman, Udo A.T. [Free University, Department of Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (ACAS), Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    There is a need for cost-efficient alternatives to gas chromatography (GC)-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC-micro electron capture detection (GC x GC-{mu}ECD) was tested and all relevant (according to the World Health Organisation, WHO) PCDD/Fs and PCBs could be separated when using a DB-XLB/LC-50 column combination. Validation tests by two laboratories showed that detectability, repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy of GC x GC-{mu}ECD are all statistically consistent with GC-HRMS results. A limit of detection of 0.5 pg WHO PCDD/F tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalency concentration per gram of fish oil was established. The reproducibility was less than 10%, which is below the recommended EU value for reference methods (less than 15%). Injections of vegetable oil extracts spiked with PCBs, polychlorinated naphthalenes and diphenyl ethers at concentrations of 200 ng/g showed no significant impact on the dioxin results, confirming in that way the robustness of the method. The use of GC x GC-{mu}ECD as a routine method for food and feed analysis is therefore recommended. However, the data evaluation of low dioxin concentrations is still laborious owing to the need for manual integration. This makes the overall analysis costs higher than those of GC-HRMS. Further developments of software are needed (and expected) to reduce the data evaluation time. Combination of the current method with pressurised liquid extraction with in-cell cleanup will result in further reduction of analysis costs. (orig.)

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities; Polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB) beim Rueckbau von kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander [WAK-Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  13. Optimization of an oil leaching process to reduce the level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in fishmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oterhals, Åge; Kvamme, Bjørn

    2013-05-01

    Fishmeal produced from fish caught in polluted fishing areas might contain dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above maximum permitted levels (MPL) for use in feed. Decontamination of the fishmeal can be achieved by hexane extraction. The principal objective of this study was to optimize a more environmentally friendly alternative based on oil leaching of the moist presscake intermediate product during fishmeal manufacturing. A central composite design and response surface methodology was used to study the influence of the process variables temperature (T), presscake moisture content (MC) and leaching time (LT) on the decontamination process. A significant squared MC effect was observed, resulting in an optimum leaching rate at 27% MC. This corresponds to 5% improved dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzo furan (PCDD/F)-PCB toxic equivalent (TEQ) reduction compared to normal presscake (55% MC). The initial leaching rate was fast, with a TEQ reduction of 69% after only 2 min at 87 °C and 55% MC. Under the best experimental conditions (87 °C, 38% MC, 12 min LT) a TEQ reduction of 82% was achieved. Excess oil in the presscake after the leaching operation could be removed by use of a water washing step. No reduction in protein quality measured by mink digestibility could be observed. The results confirm that the oil leaching process is robust and offers easily achievable TEQ levels well below present MPLs based on process conditions normally used by the industry. Comparative effects on non-dioxin-like PCBs are expected. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) questions ampersand answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This open-quotes Management of PCBs Questions and Answersclose quotes has been developed from a presentation given by Dr. John Smith of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the transcribed question and answer session which followed the presentation. Dr. Smith was featured at the first DOE complex-wide PCB Focus Group meeting held in San Francisco, California in December 1992. The meeting was attended by representatives from field elements who were actively involved in the management of PCBs. The meeting served as a forum for the exchange of information and discussion of PCB management issues. This document has been prepared as one of several guidance documents developed by the Department of Energy Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (EH-41) (formerly the Office of Environmental Guidance, EH-23) to assist DOE elements in their PCB management programs. This document is organized into three parts: (1) an introduction describing the conception and development of this document, (2) a summary of Dr. Smith's presentation, and (3) the question and answer session

  15. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...... tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln...... temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where...

  16. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Greisy, Zeinab Abdalbagi; Abdallah, A. Mohamed Ali

    2005-01-01

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  17. Consensus Toxicity Factors for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls Combining in Silico Models and, Extensive in Vitro Screening of AhR-Mediated Effects in Human and Rodent Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Larsson, M.; van den Berg, M.; Brenerová, P.; van Duursen, M. B. M.; van Ede, K.I.; Lohr, C.; Luecke-Johansson, S.; Machala, M.; Neser, S.; Pěnčíková, K.; Poellinger, L.; Schrenk, D.; Strapáčová, S.; Vondráček, Jan; Andersson, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2015), s. 641-650 ISSN 0893-228X Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : relative effect potencies * blood mononuclear-cells * cyp1a2 enzyme-activity * equivalency factors Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.025, year: 2015

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Africa: a review of environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Akindele, Abidemi James; Adebusoye, Sunday Adekunle; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Buekens, Alfons; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown an increase in PCB sources in Africa due to leakage and wrongly disposed transformers, continuing import of e-waste from countries of the North, shipwreck, and biomass burning. Techniques used in the recycling of waste such as melting and open burning to recover precious metals make PCBs contained in waste and other semivolatile organic substances prone to volatilization, which has resulted in an increase of PCB levels in air, blood, breast milk, and fish in several regions of Africa. Consequences for workers performing these activities without adequate measures of protection could result in adverse human health effects. Recent biodegradation studies in Africa have revealed the existence of exotic bacterial strains exhibiting unique and unusual PCB metabolic capability in terms of array of congeners that can serve as carbon source and diversity of congeners attacked, marking considerable progress in the development of effective bioremediation strategies for PCB-contaminated matrices such as sediments and soils in tropical regions. Action must be taken to find and deal with the major African sources of these pollutants. The precise sources of the PCB plume should be pinned down and used to complete the pollutant inventories of African countries. These nations must then be helped to safely dispose of the potentially dangerous chemicals.

  19. Ultratrace analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in human serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K.; Watanabe, K.; Takemori, H. [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Shoda, T. [Ehime Univ. Medical Research Center, Matsuyama (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, we established pretreatment and high sensitivity analytical method of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of humans for the first time. Analyzing serum and CSF samples from humans found unique because PCBs behavior and metabolism could be discerned. Furthermore, so far studies reported concentrations of OH-PCBs in wildlife samples obtained by HRGC-LRMS or GC-ECD data. In this study, we established cleanup and analytical methods by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) using 1 mL of sample. Mainly, total PCBs and OH-PCBs in the CSF were extracted by specialized developed method. Using this method, PCBs and OH-PCBs could be determined swiftly. Based on this method, major OH-PCB congeners were detected from human, serum, CSF, control serum and Rhesus monkey plasma. Present methodology developed based on the isotope dilution technique using OH-PCBs standard and thus we suggest the present methodology could apply for ultra trace analysis of OHPCBs as well as total PCBs in human samples.

  20. Levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs in the blood of childbearing-aged women living in the vicinity of a chemical plant in Tianjin: a primary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Chen, Jing-shan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Jing-guang; Yao, Lena; Self, Steven G; Sun, Xin; Tang, Nai-jun

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that maternal exposure to Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), poly-chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may affect foetal growth and infant development. The aim of our study was to determine whether the childbearing-aged residents living near a chemical plant have a greater exposure risk. Concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs congeners and 12 non-ortho and mono-ortho dioxin-like PCBs were measured using HRGC-HRMS in the blood of 30 non-occupational childbearing-aged women living near a chemical plant (Dagu) that had been producing chlorinated pesticides from 1958 to 2004. The factors that influenced the body burden were investigated based on responses to a questionnaire. Levels of PCDD/Fs+PCBs were in the range of 16.43-155.29pg WHO 2005-TEQg(-1) lipid. PCDDs and PCDFs contributed 56.72% and 34.44%, respectively, to the total TEQ value. Total WHO-TEQ was approximately tenfold higher in the participants living in the vicinity of the plant (distance: 1.52±0.148km) than in the groups living farther away (distance: 4.93±1.124km). A negative correlation between total WHO-TEQ and distance to Dagu was observed by multiple linear regression models. The data provide basic information for monitoring dioxin-like chemicals in the district and for the future study of the relationship between POPs and pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of low level pre- and perinatal exposure to PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and lead on attention performance and attention-related behavior among German school-aged children: results from the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Julia; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Schöneck, Nina; Schölmerich, Axel; Wilhelm, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead are thought to be risk factors for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereas the prenatal influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) on attention performance has been less studied. Within the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study, we investigated low-level exposure to these compounds in relation to children's attention. We measured blood levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and lead from pregnant mothers (32(nd) week of pregnancy) and PCDD/Fs and PCBs in breast milk (2 weeks after delivery). The attention of school-aged children (N=117) was investigated with a computer-based test battery of attention performance (KITAP) and a parent rating questionnaire of behaviors related to ADHD (FBB-ADHS). Influences of the exposure on attention were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. Increasing prenatal PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) associated with a higher number of omission errors in the subtest Divided Attention (47% and 42%; 95% confidence intervals (95%-CI): 1.08-2.00 and 1.07-1.89, respectively). Prenatal lead concentrations had few significant associations with attention performance (e.g., a 23% higher number of omission errors in the subtest Distractibility; 95%-CI: 1.00-1.51), whereas ADHD-related behavior (questionnaire based) was increased with increasing lead exposure (Overall-ADHD: 9%; 95%-CI: 1.01-1.17). ADHD-related behavior was negatively associated with prenatal PCDD/F or PCB exposures (e.g., for PCB exposure: -10%; 95%-CI: 0.82-0.99). Pre- and perinatal PCDD/F and PCB exposure may have subtle influences on attention performance in healthy children at low environmental levels, while behavior changes are negatively associated. Furthermore, we provide additional evidence for the impact of prenatal lead exposure on attention deficits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  3. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  4. Individual breast milk consumption and exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs in Hungarian infants: a time-course analysis of the first three months of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigh, Éva; Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Håkansson, Helen; Berglund, Marika; Bódis, József; Garai, János

    2013-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. These compounds are transferred to breast milk, therefore breastfed infants are at risk of being exposed to considerable amounts of PCBs and PCDD/Fs during this sensitive age. In the present study individual breast milk samples were collected at three time points (days 5, 12 and 84 postpartum) from 22 mothers who delivered their infants during 2007 in Baranya County, Hungary. Breast milk samples were analyzed for 17 PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like (DL) PCBs and 7 non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Each infant's daily breast milk consumptions have been measured biweekly over three months. The concentration of several PCB and PCDD congeners in breast milk decreased significantly during lactation, with a main decline between days 5 and 12. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations, derived from PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs, were 3.17±1.72, 2.70±1.57 and 2.41±1.47 pg TEQ/g fat at the three time points, respectively. The corresponding NDL-PCB concentrations were 33.5±29.2, 27.4±20.6 and 26.9±24.8 ng/g fat, respectively. The results highlight the importance of timing of breast milk sampling for consistent exposure assessment estimation. Levels of pollutants in Hungarian breast milk samples were at the lower concentration range when data from Europe are considered. This is the first study in Hungary where each infant's daily intakes of PCBs and PCDD/Fs via breast milk have been measured. The daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding per kg body weight were 11.79±6.42, 16.54±13.02 and 11.59±7.70 pg TEQ/kg bw on days 5, 12 and 84, respectively. The exposure was the highest on day 12 but at all three time points each infants' daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs via breastfeeding exceeded the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  6. Development of an online emission measuring system for quasi-continuous measurement of organic halgen compounds in off-gases of thermal processes. The example of polychlorinated dibeno-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in pure gas of incinerators for domestic waste; Entwicklung einer on-line Emissionsmesstechnik zur quasi-kontinuierlichen Bestimmung von Organohalogen-Verbindungen in Abgasen thermischer Prozesse. Ausgefuehrt am Beispiel polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane im Reingas von Hausmuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohr, K.

    2000-07-01

    Industrial processes are connected with the emission of xenobiotic substances that represent a burden on the environment. Standardised methods currently available for the quantitative determination of these substances are time consuming, require a lot of work and are therefore expensive. Consequently they are not suited to perform extensive screening or monitoring programs. The aim of this work was therefore to develop a reliable quasi-continuous time and cost effective measuring method that can be used as a screening tool for the determination of such substances. The method has been developed according to stack emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). (orig.)

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Enhance Metastatic Properties of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating Rho-Associated Kinase (ROCK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijin; Li, Shitao; Du, Yuguo

    2010-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxocity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogensis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. Methodology/Principal Findings In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. Conclusions/Significance PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure. PMID:20585605

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs enhance metastatic properties of breast cancer cells by activating Rho-associated kinase (ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijin Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogenesis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera correlated to breast cancer risk, and PCBs might be implicated in advancing breast cancer progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current study, we for the first time report that PCBs greatly promote the ROCK activity and therefore increase cell motility for both non-metastatic and metastatic human breast cancer cells in vitro. In the in vivo study, PCBs significantly advance disease progression, leading to enhanced capability of metastatic breast cancer cells to metastasize to bone, lung and liver. Additionally, PCBs robustly induce the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in breast cancer cells; ROS mechanistically elevate ROCK activity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: PCBs enhance the metastatic propensity of breast cancer cells by activating the ROCK signaling, which is dependent on ROS induced by PCBs. Inhibition of ROCK may stand for a unique way to restrain metastases in breast cancer upon PCB exposure.

  9. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walter, W. David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  10. Dioxin and dioxin-like PCB exposure of non-breastfed Dutch infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, P J M; Bakker, Martine I; Korver, K R; Goor Ghanaviztchi, K van; Wijnen, Joop H van

    2006-01-01

    The exposure of humans to PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs, i.e. polychlorinated non-ortho and mono-ortho biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. Young children have a relatively high intake of these substances, due to their

  11. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  12. Influence of Low-Level Prenatal Exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Empathizing, Systemizing and Autistic Traits: Results from the Duisburg Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Nowack

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are assumed to act as endocrine disruptor chemicals. Prenatal exposure to these pollutants might influence fetal steroid hormone levels, which are thought to be related to sex-typical development and autistic traits.We examined associations of prenatal levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs with autism traits and sex-typical behaviour in childhood.We measured levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples during pregnancy using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Sex-typical behaviour was assessed at 9 years of age (n = 96 and autistic traits at 10 years of age using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS; n = 100. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between prenatal exposure and outcome variables.Blood concentrations (WHO2005-TEq of ƩPCDD/Fs ranged from 2.93-46.45 pg/g lipid base (median = 12.91 pg/g lipid base and concentrations of ƩPCBs were in the range of 1.24-25.47 pg/g lipid base (median = 6.85 pg/g lipid base which is within the range of German background exposure. We found significant negative associations between PCDD/F levels in maternal blood and SRS scores in the whole group (β = -6.66, p < .05, in girls (β = -10.98, p < .05 and, in one SRS subscale, in boys (β = -6.86, p < .05. For PCB levels, associations with one SRS subscale were significant for the whole study group as were associations with two subscales in girls. We did not find significant associations between PCDD/F or PCB levels and sex-typical behaviour for either sex.In an earlier part of this study, prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs was found to be associated with lower testosterone levels, therefore, our findings are consistent with the idea that autism spectrum conditions are related to fetal androgen levels. Several possible mechanisms, through which PCDD/Fs and PCBs might influence autistic behaviour, are discussed.

  13. Behavioral sexual dimorphism in school-age children and early developmental exposure to dioxins and PCBs: a follow-up study of the Duisburg Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winneke, Gerhard; Ranft, Ulrich; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Fürst, Peter; Krämer, Ursula; Seitner, Gabriele; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been characterized as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Within the Duisburg birth cohort study, we studied associations of prenatal exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs with parent-reported sexually dimorphic behavior in children. We measured lipid-based and WHO2005-TEQ (toxic equivalents established in 2005 by the World Health Organization)-standardized PCDD/Fs and PCBs in maternal blood samples and in early breast milk using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. At the child's age of 6-8 years, parents (mostly mothers) reported sex-typical characteristics, preferred toys, and play activities using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI), which was used to derive feminine, masculine, and difference (feminine - masculine) scores. We estimated exposure-outcome associations using multivariate linear regression. A total of 91-109 children were included in this follow-up. Mean blood levels of summed WHO2005-TEQ-standardized dioxins (ΣPCDD/Fs) were 14.5 ± 6.4 pg/g blood lipids, and ΣPCBs were 6.9 ± 3.8 pg/g blood lipids, with similar values for milk lipids. Regression analyses revealed some highly significant interactions between sex and exposure-such as for ΣPCBs in milk, pronounced positive (boys: β = 3.24; CI = 1.35, 5.14) or negative (girls: β = -3.59; CI = -1.10, -6.08) associations with reported femininity. Less pronounced and mostly insignificant but consistent associations were found for the masculinity score, positive for boys and negative for girls. Given our results and the findings of previous studies, we conclude that there is sufficient evidence that these EDCs modify behavioral sexual dimorphism in children, presumably by interacting with the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Winneke G, Ranft U, Wittsiepe J, Kasper-Sonnenberg M, Fürst P, Krämer U, Seitner G, Wilhelm M. 2014. Behavioral

  14. Potential use of Vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in Peregrine falcon exposed to organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, B. [CSIC, Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Madrid (Spain); Mori, G.; Concejero, M.A.; Casini, S.; Fossi, M.C. [Siena Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    Many different classes of environmental contaminants such as industrial chemicals (e.g. alkylphenols, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, PAHs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans), ''can cause adverse effects in the reproductive functions of intact organisms or their progenies, consequent to changes in endocrine functions'' showing a so-called Endocrine disruptor activity. Avian raptor species, such as peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) for their peculiar position in the food web are potentially at risk in relation to the accumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals. Recent studies carried out with Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Spain reveal a contamination with organochlorine compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) which could be responsible of the decrease of successful pairs observed during the last ten years. Thus there is a need to develop sensitive diagnostic monitoring tools for the evaluation of toxicological risk and potential effects on the reproductive function and population dynamic of avian top predator species. Two markers for the detection of EDs effects in oviparous vertebrates are induction of Vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona Radiata Proteins (ZR). Vtg, a complex phospholipoglycoprotein, is the major egg-yolk protein precursor and is normally synthesized by females in response to estradiol. ZR together with Zona Pellucida (ZP) constitutes in birds part of the eggshell. These proteins (Vtg, ZR and ZP) are normally synthesised in the liver as a response to an estrogen signal given by Estradiol. Males and sexually undifferentiated specimens also have the Vtg and ZR genes but do not express them unless exposed to estrogenic compounds. The main aim of this preliminary study was to develop methods for the detection of Vtg and ZR in plasma obtained from peregrine falcon as a specific biomarker for the evaluation of the effects of EDCs.

  15. In vitro cellular responses in the RTG-2 cell line to complex mixtures of dioxins and dioxin-like PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babín, María del Mar; Sanz, Paloma; Concejero, Miguel Angel; Martínez, María Angeles; Tarazona, José Vicente

    2010-08-01

    High-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HRGC/MS) is the standard method for analysing dioxin, furan and polybrominated retardants in hazardous waste. Determination of dioxin-like compounds using in vitro bioassays such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) is an important tool to evaluate their Ah receptor-mediated toxic effects, because it detects all arylhydrocarbon receptor ligands in a variety of sample matrices. In the present work, we compared RTG-2 cell line EROD bioassay with HRGC/MS for assessing waste samples (liquid and solid) contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) and other xenobiotics. For liquid samples, HRGC/MS-toxic equivalent (HRGC/MS-TEQ) values ranged from 273.26 to 5.84 ng TEQ l(-1) and correlated well (correlation coefficient 0.99) with values obtained by EROD-TEQ, which ranged from 128 to 2.5 ng TEQ l(-1). For solid samples, HRGC/MS-TEQ values ranged from 3.44 to 0.49 ng TEQ g(-1) and correlated less well than liquid samples (correlation coefficient 0.64) with values obtained by EROD-TEQ ranging from 2.27 to 0.93 ng TEQ g(-1). The overestimation of RTG-2 EROD-TEQ (1.2 +/- 0.92 of values established by HRGC/MS) and the absence of false-negative results may limit analytical costs by eliminating the need for follow-up GC/MS analysis on the negative samples. We suggest that RTG-2 EROD bioassay is an inexpensive means for preliminary dioxin and furan positive screenings of waste samples. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Evidence of Spatially Extensive Resistance to PCBs in an Anadromous Fish of the Hudson River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhanpeng; Courtenay, Simon; Chambers, R. Christopher; Wirgin, Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Populations of organisms that are chronically exposed to high levels of chemical contaminants may not suffer the same sublethal or lethal effects as naive populations, a phenomenon called resistance. Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) from the Hudson River, New York, are exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bioaccumulate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). They have developed resistance to PCBs and PCDDs but not to PAHs. Resistance is largely heritable and manifests at early-life-stage toxic end points and in inducibility of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA expression. Because CYP1A induction is activated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway, as are most toxic responses to these compounds, we sought to determine the geographic extent of resistance to CYP1A mRNA induction by PCBs in the Hudson River tomcod population. Samples of young-of-the-year tomcod were collected from seven locales in the Hudson River, extending from the Battery at river mile 1 (RM 1) to RM 90, and from the Miramichi River, New Brunswick, Canada. Laboratory-reared offspring of tomcod adults from Newark Bay, in the western portion of the Hudson River estuary, were also used in this study. Fish were partially depurated in clean water and intraperitoneally injected with 10 ppm coplanar PCB-77, 10 ppm benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), or corn oil vehicle, and levels of CYP1A mRNA were determined. CYP1A was significantly inducible by treatment with BaP in tomcod from the Miramichi River, from laboratory-spawned offspring of Newark Bay origin, and from all Hudson River sites spanning 90 miles of river. In contrast, only tomcod from the Miramichi River displayed significantly induced CYP1A mRNA expression when treated with PCB-77. Our results suggest that the population of tomcod from throughout the Hudson River estuary has developed resistance to CYP1A inducibility and probably

  17. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in livers of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Livers from four pups and ten adult harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) stranded in San Francisco Bay (SFB) and the Gulf of Maine (GOM) were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. Sigma(28)PCB concentrations (di- to octa-CBs) ranged from 1.81 to 35.9 microg/g lipid with a median of 6.53 for the seal pups and 2.31 to 249 microg/g lipid with a median of 28.9 for the adult seals. Sigma(8)OH-PCB concentrations (penta- to hepta-OH-PCBs) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69 microg/g lipid with a median of 0.04 for the adult seals, i.e., at much lower concentrations than those for PCBs. Ratios of OH-PCBs to PCBs (0.24% on average) were comparable to those in beluga whale, but were lower than ratios in human livers. The OH-PCB profiles were slightly different between SFB and GOM seal livers, although similar PCB congener patterns were observed. Generally, 4-OH-CB107 was found predominantly in seal livers and was the only OH-PCB detectable in most of seal pup livers. This study provides information on OH-PCBs in seals, adding to the scarce exposure data for these chemicals.

  19. Assessment of the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in Orogodo River sediments Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edjere Oghenekohwiroro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs concentration in Orogodo River Sediments at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Sixteen sediment samples at different sample point were collected and analyzed; obtained concentrations were compared with exiting standards. Sediment samples were extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone (1:1, sonicated in an ultrasonic bath (15 min and placed on a shaker for two hours. Chromatographic analysis was done after solvent exchange, was carried out on the final extract using n-hexane (1000 μl and injected (1 μl into a gas chromatographic system coupled with an electron capture detector (ECD. Results from this study revealed that the concentration of PCBs in all the sediment samples under investigation was highest with 0.198 μg/kg in the Agric yard Agbor 2 sample point and lowest with 0.026 μg/kg in the Behind Prison - Agbor 1. The concentration of PCBs for all the sediment samples analyzed ranged in the order: Agric Yard Agbor 2 < Slaugther Agbor 2 < River Ama 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 1 < Behind Prison Agbor 2 < River Ama 2 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 2 < River Ama 4 < Agric Yard Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 4 < SlaugtherAgbor 1 < River Ama 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 2 < Behind Prison Agbor 1. The obtained results in this study suggest the urgent need to establish a program for monitoring organochlorine pollutants in our rivers and sediment in other to curb any elevation in concentration of pollutants over the environmental quality standards and appropriate actions taken.

  20. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs. Copyright © 2014

  1. Discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine and amphetamine in rats following developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Helen J. K.; Monaikul, Supida; Poon, Emily; Eubig, Paul A.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental neurotoxicants known to affect the brain dopaminergic (DA) system. This project investigated whether developmental exposure to PCBs would alter the discriminative stimulus effects of psychostimulant drugs known to act on the DA system. Female Long-Evans rats were orally exposed to 0, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from four weeks prior to breeding through weaning of their litters on PND 21. When they reached adulthood one male and female/litter were trained to discriminate cocaine (10.0 mg/kg, IP) from saline by repeatedly pairing cocaine injections with reinforcement on one operant response lever, and saline injections with reinforcement on the other lever. After response training, generalization tests to four lower doses of cocaine (7.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 1.25 mg/kg, IP) and to amphetamine (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.125 mg/kg, IP) were given two days/week, with additional training dose days in-between. Percent responding of the PCB-exposed rats on the cocaine-paired lever was significantly higher than that of controls for the highest generalization dose of cocaine, and lower than that of controls for the highest dose of amphetamine. Response rate and percent responding on the cocaine lever did not differ among the exposure groups on the days when the training dose of cocaine was given, suggesting the generalization test results were not due to pre-existing differences in discrimination ability or rate of responding. These findings suggest developmental PCB exposure can alter the interoceptive cues of psychostimulants. PMID:20933596

  2. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PCBs and PCDD/Fs in soil from informal e-waste recycling sites and open dumpsites in India: Levels, congener profiles and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Nakamura, Masafumi; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Bang, John J

    2018-04-15

    Growth of informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling sector is an emerging problem for India. The presence of halogenated compounds in e-wastes may result in the formation of persistent organic pollutants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during recycling processes. We therefore investigated PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface soils explicitly from the informal e-waste recycling sites and nearby open dumpsites of major metropolitan cities from four corners of India, viz., New Delhi (North), Kolkata (East), Mumbai (West) and Chennai (South). In the informal e-waste recycling sites, the range of Σ 26 PCBs (0.4-488ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (1.0-10.6ng/g) were higher than Ʃ 26 PCBs (0.3-21ng/g) and ƩPCDD/Fs (0.15-7.3ng/g) from open dumpsites. In the e-waste sites, ƩPCDDs were found with increasing trend from ƩTetraCDD to OctaCDD, whereas ƩPCDFs showed a reverse trend. The dominance of PCDF congeners and maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQ) for both PCDDs (17pg TEQ/g) and PCDFs (82pg TEQ/g) at Mandoli in New Delhi has been related to intensive precious metal recovery process using acid bath. Among dumpsites, highest TEQ for PCDD/Fs was observed at Kodangaiyur dumpsite of Chennai (CN DS -02, 45pg TEQ/g). Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) model identified distinct congener pattern based on the functional activities, such as e-waste dismantling, shredding, precious metal recovery and open burning in dumpsites. E-waste metal recovery factor was loaded with 86-91% of PCB-77, -105, -114, -118 and 30% of PCB-126, possibly associated with the burning of wires during the copper extraction process. Almost 70% of the Ʃ 26 PCB concentrations was comprised of the dioxin-like PCB congeners with a maximum concentration of 437ng/g at New Moore market in Chennai, followed by Wire Lane (102ng/g), in Mumbai. We speculate that PCB-126 might have resulted from combustion of plastic materials in e-waste stream and dumped waste

  4. Association between levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and cryptorchidism in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskenniemi, Jaakko J; Virtanen, Helena E; Kiviranta, Hannu

    2015-01-01

    play a role in its pathogenesis. We aimed to assess the association between cryptorchidism and prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). METHODS: We conducted a case-control study consisting...

  5. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Ava K; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 h post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution and ecological risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Badreddine; LeMenach, Karyn; Dévier, Marie-Hélène; El megdiche, Yassine; Hammami, Bechir; Ben Ameur, Walid; Ben Hassine, Sihem; Cachot, Jérôme; Budzinski, Hélène; Driss, Mohamed Ridha

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 18 surface sediment samples collected from Bizerte lagoon, Tunisia. The total concentrations of ten PCBs (∑PCBs) and of four OCPs (∑OCPs) in the sediments from this area ranged from 0.8 to 14.6 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.9 ng g(-1) dw) and from 1.1 to 14.0 ng g(-1) dw (average value, 3.3 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Among the OCPs, the range of concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were 0.3-11.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.9 ng g(-1) dw) and 0.6-2.5 ng g(-1) dw (1.4 ng g(-1) dw), respectively. Compositional analyses of the POPs indicated that PCB 153, 138 and 180 were the predominant congeners accounting for 60 % of the total PCBs. In addition, p,p'-DDT was found to be the dominant DDTs, demonstrating recent inputs in the environment. Compared with some other regions of the world, the Bizerte lagoon exhibited low levels of PCBs and moderate levels of HCB and DDTs. The high ratios ΣPCBs/ΣDDTs indicated predominant industrial versus agricultural activities in this area. According to the established guidelines for sediment quality, the risk of adverse biological effects from such levels of OCPs and PCBs, as recorded at most of the study sites, was insignificant. However, the higher concentrations in stations S1 and S3 could cause biological damage.

  7. An integrative risk assessment approach for persistent chemicals: a case study on dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchaux, Camille; Zeilmaker, Marco; Merlo, Mathilde; Bokkers, Bas; Crépet, Amélie

    2014-10-01

    For persistent chemicals slowly eliminated from the body, the accumulated concentration (body burden), rather than the daily exposure, is considered the proper starting point for the risk assessment. This work introduces an integrative approach for persistent chemical risk assessment by means of a dynamic body burden approach. To reach this goal a Kinetic Dietary Exposure Model (KDEM) was extended with the long term time trend in the exposure (historic exposure) and the comparison of bioaccumulation with body burden references for toxicity. The usefulness of the model was illustrated on the dietary exposure to PolyChlorinatedDibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), PolyChlorinatedDibenzoFurans (PCDFs) and PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in France. Firstly the dietary exposure to these compounds was determined in 2009 and combined with its long term time trend. In order to take differences between the kinetics of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs into account, three groups of congeners were considered i.e. PCDD/Fs, PCB 126 and remaining dl-PCBs. The body burden was compared with reference body burdens corresponding to reproductive, hepatic and thyroid toxicity. In the case of thyroid toxicity this comparison indicated that in 2009 the probability of the body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 2.8% (95% CI: 1.5-4.9%) up to 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7-7.1%) (18-29 vs. 60-79year olds). Notwithstanding the decreasing long-term time trend of the dietary dioxin exposure in France, this probability still is expected to be 1.5% (95% CI: 0.3-2.5%) in 2030 in 60-79 olds. In the case of reproductive toxicity the probability of the 2009 body burden to exceed its reference ranged from 3.1% (95% CI: 1.4-5.0%) (18-29year olds) to 3.5% (95% CI: 2.2-5.2%) (30-44year olds). In 2030 this probability is negligible in 18-29year olds, however small though significant in 30-44year olds (0.7%, 95% CI: 0-1.6%). In the case of hepatic toxicity the probability in 2009 even in 60-79year olds already was negligible. In

  8. Biomagnification factors (fish to Osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and OC pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A; Bentley, V Raymond; Elliott, John E

    2003-06-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in western Oregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determine contaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrations in fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, and Biomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish species eaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samples of fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric mean residues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 microg g(-1) wet weight (ww), sigma PCBs 0.69 microg g(-1), 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg(-1), and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presented by River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggs from the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the Cascade Mountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and Northern Pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fish biomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fish eaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed), and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the large series of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification (0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for the migratory

  9. Investigation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans (PCDD/Fs and Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Bbiphenyls (dl-PCBs in Human Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 first-time mothers (primiparous living in twelve locations at mesoregion industrial area, southern of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2014. Questionnaires with questions regarding to food habits, social and economic conditions, places of dwelling were applied. Mothers were breast-feeding only one infant and milk was collected between 4 and 6 weeks after delivery. TEQs of PCDDs/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for taking better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It’s important for pregnant women to have a diet free as possible of contaminants chemical. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-bidi-language:AR-SA;}    

  10. Mortality among capacitor workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a long-term update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Renate D; Krouskas, Constantine A; Xu, Wenjing; Shields, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Concerns have been raised about cancer and other disease risks. This follow-up mortality study of PCB workers addresses some of these concerns. Mortality among 7,061 PCB capacitor workers was updated through 2008 (287,712 person-years; mean follow-up 41 years). Adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for USA and New York State referent rates. Standardized rate ratios (SRRs) were calculated based on employment duration and latency. Standardized mortality ratios for all causes of death were statistically significantly lower in the total cohort (SMR 92; 95 % CI 89-96) and in males (SMR 88; 95 % CI 83-92), but not in females (SMR 100; 95 % CI 94-106). For all cancers combined, SMRs for the total cohort (SMR 103; 95 % CI 96-111) and for males (SMR 96; 95 % CI 87-105) did not differ from the expected rates, in contrast to females (SMR 114; 95 % CI 103-126). Buccal cavity and pharyngeal cancers were statistically increased in the combined cohort (SMR 169; 95 % CI 108-251) and in females (SMR 273; 95 % CI 131-502). Respiratory system malignancies were statistically lower in males (SMR 83; 95 % CI 70-97), while they were increased in females (SMR 143; 95 % CI 118-172). Melanomas were statistically significantly increased in male salaried workers only. No positive trends (SRRs) with increasing length of employment and increasing latency were found. The positive results lacking exposure-response relationships are subject to confounding and probably do not represent causal associations.

  11. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  12. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramani, Aparna, E-mail: aparna.27889@gmail.com; Howell, Nathan L., E-mail: nlhowell@central.uh.edu; Rifai, Hanadi S., E-mail: rifai@uh.edu

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log K{sub oc} values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log K{sub ow}, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  15. Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in eel, trout, and barbel from the River Roya, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrone, S; Mignone, W; Abete, M C; Favaro, L; Scanzio, T; Foglini, C; Vivaldi, B; Prearo, M

    2015-05-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) contribute to the dietary intake of total PCBs. They are consumed via ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products. Thus, it is important to quantify their levels in aquatic organisms in order to evaluate the risks associated with fish consumption by humans. In 2013, an advisory against consumption of fish from the River Roya (IT) was disseminated after NDL PCBs were found to exceed maximum levels set by EU Regulations. We investigated the presence of NDL PCBs in eel, trout and barbel from the River Roya. We found concentrations in the range of 9.2-27.6 ng g(-)(1)ww in barbel, 9.2-97.0 ng g(-1)ww in trout and 9.0-239.5 ng g(-1)ww in eel. The distribution of congeners among different species did not show significant variations and was characterized by a higher proportion of 153, 138 and 180 congeners, according to their high resistance to metabolic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelutti, Neal, E-mail: nm37@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Liu, Huijun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Keatley, Bronwyn E. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark [Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3 (Canada); Blais, Jules M. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were approx5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary delta{sup 15}N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  18. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  19. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  20. Serum estrogen and its metabolites in pregnant women exposed to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuli; Chang, Y.C.; Li, C.M.; Chou, W.L. [National Health Research Insts., Kaohsiung (Taiwan). Div. of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine; Chao, H.R.; Guo, Y.L. [National Chung Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins and PCBs are environmental endocrine disruptors that have half-life of 7-10 years in human bodies and have toxicities including carcinogenesis. Studies showed a high estrogen 4-/2- hydroxylation ratio appears to be a marker for neoplasm. The aim is to examine dioxin and PCBs body burden1 in relation to estrogen metabolites and catabolites.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the serum of hypothyroxinemic and euthyroid dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lau

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To determine the profile of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs and 23 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in serum of domestic canines and whether this was predictive of thyroid hormone status. Samples Serum samples were collected from 51 client-owned dogs visiting the University of California Davis William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital during 2012 to 2016 for routine appointments. Fifteen dogs were diagnosed with hypothyroxinemia while 36 were euthyroid. Procedures Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in canine serum samples were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the association between the presence/absence of canine hypothyroxinemia and the serum concentration of individual PBDE or PCB congeners. Results The median concentrations of total PBDE and PCB congeners in the hypothyroxinemic group were 660 and 1,371 ng/g lipid, respectively, which were higher than concentrations detected in the control group. However, logistic regression analysis determined that current concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in canines were not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia. BDE 183 was the only congener showing near significance (p = 0.068. Conclusions PBDE and PCB congeners were detected in all canine samples confirming ongoing exposure to these pollutants. Because household dogs share the human environment, they may serve as biosentinels of human exposure to these contaminants.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  4. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  5. Anaerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mengke; Luo, Chunling; Li, Fangbai; Jiang, Longfei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Gan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen between breast-fed and bottle-fed children, with bottle-fed children being heavier and having more frequent gastroenteritis and otitis media. Children of mothers with higher levels of DDE were breast-fed for markedly shorter times, but adjustments for possible confounders and biases did not change the findings. In absence of any apparent effect on the health of the children, they speculate that DDE may be interfering with the mother's ability to lactate, possibly because of its estrogenic properties.

  7. Painted surfaces - Important sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination to the urban and marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jartun, Morten [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: morten.jartun@ngu.no; Ottesen, Rolf Tore [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Steinnes, Eiliv [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Volden, Tore [Geological Survey of Norway, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2009-01-15

    A study of a large number of samples of flaking old paint from various buildings in Bergen, Norway (N = 68) suggests that paint may be the most important contemporary source of PCBs in this urban environment with concentrations of PCB{sub 7} up to 3.39 g/kg. Twenty-three of the samples were collected from a single building, and the concentrations were found to vary over 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, 16 concrete samples from a large bridge previously coated with PCB-containing paint were collected and separated into outer- and inner samples indicating that PCBs are still present in high concentrations subsequent to renovation. PCBs were found in several categories of paint from wooden and concrete buildings, potentially introduced to the environment by natural weathering, renovation, and volatilization. Consequently, this dispersion may lead to increased levels of PCBs in urban atmospheres, soils, and harbor sediments where high concentrations have resulted in Governmental advice against consumption of certain seafood. - Paint from structures built during the period 1950-1970 may be the most important source of PCBs in an urban environment.

  8. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  9. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 μg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 μg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure. PMID:22247699

  10. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from < LOD in smoked halibut up to 18 ng/g lw in narwhal mattak and 21 ng/g lw in whale beef. ∑PCB were lowest in smoked halibut (37 ng/g lw) and highest in narwhal mattak with 1,146 ng/g lw. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the most common of the PFASs. However, ΣPFASs were below detection limits in most fish fillet samples, and varied from 2.9 ng/g ww in whale beef to 13.5 ng/g ww in seal beef. The present study shows that the exclusion from the diet of local food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  12. Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of Liaohe River: levels, spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Changbo; Guo, Changsheng; Luo, Yi; Meng, Wei; Zou, Guofang; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of Liaohe River were investigated in this study. A total of 29 surface sediment samples were collected in May and September in 2013. Results showed that levels of the two classes of compounds were higher in September than in May. The total concentration of PBDEs (∑8PBDEs) ranged from 0.30 to 5.09 ng g(-1) in May and from 0.17 to 13.73 ng g(-1) in September, respectively, and BDE 209 was the dominant compound. The total concentration of PCBs (∑33PCBs) was in the range of 4.92-76.86 and 11.69-179.61 ng g(-1) in May and September, respectively, with tri- and tetra-CBs dominated in the total PCBs in the sediments. According to the congener profiles and the principal component analysis, the major sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of Liaohe River were from the usage of commercial products and industrial activities, and the degradation of high brominated BDEs also contributed to the current PBDEs in the sediments. The mass inventories of PBDEs and PCBs in the sediments of Liaohe River were 1.74 and 21.96 t, respectively, indicating that Liaohe River sediments may act as the potential sources of PBDEs and PCBs to the downstream coastal areas.

  14. Exposure to Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in the Prenatal Period and Subsequent Neurodevelopment in Eastern Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Youn; Park, June-Soo; Sovcikova, Eva; Kocan, Anton; Linderholm, Linda; Bergman, Ake; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2009-01-01

    Background Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), unlike PCBs, are in general readily excreted yet are still detected in humans and animals. Active transport of OH-PCBs across the placenta and hydroxylation of PCBs by the fetus suggest the potential for greater impact on the fetus compared with the parent PCB compounds, but little is known about their health effects, particularly in humans. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between prenatal OH-PCB exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 16 months of age in eastern Slovakia. Methods A birth cohort (n = 1,134) was enrolled during 2002–2004. We analyzed six OH-PCB metabolites (4-OH-CB-107, 3-OH-CB-153, 4-OH-CB-146, 3′-OH-CB-138, 4-OH-CB-187, and 4′-OH-CB-172) in a subset of the cohort. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered to the children at the 16-month follow-up visit. We developed multiple linear regression models predicting standardized scores for the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) from maternal (n = 147) and cord (n = 80) serum OH-PCB concentrations, adjusting for sex of child, district, HOME (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment) score, and maternal score on Raven’s Progressive Matrices. Results Cord 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −2.27; p = 0.01) and PDI (β = −4.50; p = 0.004). Also, maternal 4-OH-CB-107 was significantly associated with lower MDI (β = −1.76; p = 0.03) but not PDI. No other OH-PCB metabolites were associated with decreased PDI or MDI. Conclusions Our findings showed a significant association of 4-OH-CB-107 with decreased MDI, which can possibly be mediated by endocrine disruption, altered neurotransmitter functions, or reduced thyroid hormone concentrations in brain. PMID:20019912

  15. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ...EPA issued an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) in the Federal Register of April 7, 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the comment period for 45 days, from July 6, 2010, to August 20, 2010. This extension is necessary to provide the public with an opportunity to provide additional and more thorough comments. Also, EPA is holding two additional public meetings to enable additional public comment on the ANPRM during the comment period extension.

  16. The influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs during pregnancy on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functions in Norwegian preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspersen, Ida Henriette; Aase, Heidi; Biele, Guido; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Kvalem, Helen Engelstad; Skogan, Annette Holth; Zeiner, Pål; Alexander, Jan; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Knutsen, Helle K

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (dioxins) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with potentially adverse impact on child neurodevelopment. Whether the potential detrimental effects of dioxins and PCBs on neurodevelopment are of specific or unspecific character is not clear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the influence of maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs on ADHD symptoms and cognitive functioning in preschoolers. We aimed to investigate a range of functions, in particular IQ, expressive language, and executive functions. This study includes n=1024 children enrolled in a longitudinal prospective study of ADHD (the ADHD Study), with participants recruited from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Boys and girls aged 3.5years participated in extensive clinical assessments using well-validated tools; The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interview (PAPA), Stanford-Binet 5th revision (SB-5), Child Development Inventory (CDI), and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, Preschool version (BRIEF-P). Maternal dietary exposure to dioxins and PCBs was estimated based on a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) answered mid-pregnancy and a database of dioxin and PCB concentrations in Norwegian foods. Exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-compounds) was expressed in total toxic equivalents (TEQ), and PCB-153 was used as marker for non-dioxin-like PCBs (ndl-PCBs). Generalized linear and additive models adjusted for confounders were used to examine exposure-outcome associations. Exposure to PCB-153 or dl-compound was not significantly associated with any of the outcome measures when analyses were performed for boys and girls together. After stratifying by sex, adjusted analyses indicated a small inverse association with language in girls. An increase in the exposure variables of 1 SD was associated with a reduction in language score of -0.2 [CI -0.4, -0

  17. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, Buca 35160, Izmir (Turkey); Muezzinoglu, Aysen [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, Buca 35160, Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: aysen.muezzin@deu.edu.tr

    2008-12-15

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle + gas) {sigma}{sub 41}-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370 {+-} 1617 pg m{sup -3}, average + SD) than in winter (1164 {+-} 618 pg m{sup -3}), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate {sigma}{sub 41}-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349 {+-} 183 and 469 {+-} 328 ng m{sup -2} day{sup -1} in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5 {+-} 3.5 cm s{sup -1}. The spatial distribution of {sigma}{sub 41}-PCB soil concentrations (n = 48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga. - Determined fluxes indicated that dry deposition and air-soil exchange are equally important mechanisms for movement of PCBs between air and soil in the study area.

  18. Spatial and temporal trends of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in mussel from Galician coast (1998-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2010-11-01

    PCBs were determined in wild mussel samples collected in several points from Galician Rías (Rías de Ferrol, A Coruña, Muros, Vigo and Arousa), Spain, during the period 1998-2008. The concentration levels of ΣPCBs ranged from 0.62 to 107.5 ng g(-1), w.w. The isomer concentrations in the Mytilus galloprovincialis were in the order hexachlorobiphenyls>pentachlorobiphenyls>tetrachlorbiphenyls>trichlorobiphenyls. CBs 153, 138 and 101 congeners were the most abundant in these samples. Two biological parameters, fat content and condition index (CI), have also been investigated for these mussel samples. Univariate techniques confirm that levels of some compounds, CBs 28, 52, 138, 153, and 180, presented significant relation (p<0.05) with biological parameters. Multivariate techniques of data exploration such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that spatial trends of PCB levels appeared in the studied samples. Rias de Ferrol and A Coruña presented the highest levels of PCBs and Ría de Arousa the lowest levels of these compounds. In general, temporal trends (linear regressions) showed a decrease of PCB levels along the period 1998-2008. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere of sub-alpine northern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Jimenez, J. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy)], E-mail: javier.castro-jimenez@jrc.it; Dueri, S. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Eisenreich, S.J. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Mariani, G.; Skejo, H.; Umlauf, G. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy); Zaldivar, J.M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, Ispra 21027, VA (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    The main objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric concentrations and seasonal variations of selected POPs in a sub-alpine location where few data are available. A monitoring and research station was set up at the JRC Ispra EMEP site (Italy). We present and discuss a one-year data set (2005-2006) on PCB air concentrations. {sigma}7PCBs monthly averaged concentration varied from 31 to 76 pg m{sup -3}. Concentrations in the gas phase (21-72 pg m{sup -3}) were higher than those in the particulate phase (3-10 pg m{sup -3}). Advection of air masses and re-volatilization from local sources seem to play a dominant role as drivers of PCB atmospheric concentrations in the area. Indications of seasonal variation affecting PCB congener patterns and the gas/particulate partitioning were found. Modeling calculations suggest a predominant importance of the wet deposition in this region (1 {mu}g m{sup -2} yr{sup -1} {sigma}7PCBs yearly total wet deposition flux; 650-2400 pg L{sup -1} rainwater concentrations). - Advection of air masses and re-volatilization from local sources play a dominant role as drivers of the PCB atmospheric concentration in sub-alpine northern Italy.

  20. Gas-particle distributions, sources and health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in Venice aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoris, Elena; Argiriadis, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Zambon, Stefano; De Pieri, Silvia; Donateo, Antonio; Contini, Daniele; Piazza, Rossano; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Air samples were collected in Venice during summer 2009 and 2012 to measure gas and particulate concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). PCB-11, considered a marker for non-Aroclor contamination of the environment, was found for the first time in the Venetian lagoon and in Europe. An investigation on sources has been conducted, evidencing traffic as the major source of PAHs, whereas PCBs have a similar composition to Aroclor 1248 and 1254; in 2009 a release of PCN-42 has been hypothesized. Toxicological evaluation by TCA and TEQ methods, conducted for the first time in Venice air samples, identified BaP, PCB-126 and PCB-169 as the most important contributors to the total carcinogenic activity of PAHs and the total dioxin-like activity of PCBs and PCNs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Historical analysis of salmon-derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in lake sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruemmel, Eva M. [Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), Canada Office, 75 Albert St., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario, K1P 5E7 (Canada)], E-mail: eva_kruemmel@hotmail.com; Scheer, Michael [Scheer Software Solutions, 6 Coghlan Lane, P.O. Box 86, Barry' s Bay, Ontario, K0J 1B0 (Canada); Gregory-Eaves, Irene [Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 1B1 (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Sidney, British Columbia, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 10 Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Finney, Bruce [Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Blais, Jules M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-03-01

    Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of salmon as a means to deliver biomagnifying contaminants to nursery lakes. There is a lack of studies, however, which demonstrate empirically how this source has varied through time. This is of great significance because past salmon-derived contaminant loading was potentially greater than it is today. By analyzing radiometrically dated sediment cores collected from ten lakes in Alaska and British Columbia (B.C.), we relate historical numbers of sockeye salmon spawners to {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N values (a paleolimnological proxy for past salmon-derived nitrogen) in the sediments. The results confirm that sockeye salmon have provided an important route for PCBs to enter the lakes in the past, a finding that is especially evident when the data of all lakes are pooled. Significant relationships between sockeye salmon numbers and {delta}{sup 15}N, as well as {sigma}PCB concentrations and {delta}{sup 15}N in sediments, were also found. However, it is difficult to establish relationships between salmon numbers, {sigma}PCBs and {delta}{sup 15}N in individual lakes. This may be due to a number of factors which may influence contaminant loadings to the lakes. The factors include: a) changing salmon contaminant loads over time resulting from a lag in the upper ocean reservoir and/or changing salmon feeding locations; b) greater importance of atmospheric transport in lakes with relatively low salmon returns; and c) increased PCB scavenging due to higher algae productivity in the lakes in recent years.

  2. Dietary intake of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke; Mischek, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) should be assessed regularly. In order to evaluate the contamination levels in various food products on the Austrian market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Austrian population for the first time, a national monitoring programme was conducted from 2005 to 2011. The 235 food products comprised meat, poultry, game and offal, fish and fish products, milk and dairy products, eggs, animal fats and vegetable oils. To estimate the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, mean concentrations in food were combined with the respective food consumption data from the Austrian food consumption survey. Estimated dietary intakes were expressed as toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs 1998). The mean intakes for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were estimated as 0.77, 0.75 and 0.61 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) for children, women and men, respectively. The main contributors to total intake were milk and dairy products followed by fish and fish products for children and women, and meat, poultry, game and offal for men (65% and 15% for children, 67% and 14% for women, and 63% and 19% for men, respectively). Comparison of the estimated dietary intakes with the toxicological reference values shows that both children and adults are well below those values.

  3. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD

  4. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs and degradation products in topsoil from Australia and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Desborough

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD is listed under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants, yet very few data are available on HBCDD concentrations in soil. Median concentrations of total hexabromocyclododecanes (ΣHBCDDs from soils from the UK (n = 24 were 0.73 ng g−1 dry weight (range  0.05 from those of HBCDDs; thereby underlining the extent to which HBCDDs have migrated into the UK environment. Moreover, PCB concentrations in this study are not markedly lower than those recorded in UK soils sampled in the mid-1980s indicating that the initial rapid decline in UK contamination with PCBs following bans on their manufacture and use, has not been maintained. Degradation products of HBCDD: pentabromocyclododecenes (PBCDs and tetrabromocyclododecadienes (TBCDs were detected in some UK soil samples with semi-quantitative concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 7.3 ng g−1 for ΣPBCDs and 0.01–1.3 ng g−1 for ΣTBCDs. In Australian soils only ΣTBCDs were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.0023 to 0.45 ng g−1. Chiral signatures of HBCDDs were racemic or non-racemic in all samples indicating minimal edaphic enantioselective degradation. A horizontal transect at the most contaminated UK location (a suburban garden revealed a marked decrease in concentrations of HBCDDs with increasing distance from buildings.

  6. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L; Grove, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p'-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 microg/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., SigmaPCBs 688 to 245 to 182 microg/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 microg/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  8. Prediction of octanol-air partition coefficients for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using 3D-QSAR models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Cai, Xiaoyu; Jiang, Long; Li, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on the experimental data of octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) for 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, two types of QSAR methods, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), are used to establish 3D-QSAR models using the structural parameters as independent variables and using logKOA values as the dependent variable with the Sybyl software to predict the KOA values of the remaining 190 PCB congeners. The whole data set (19 compounds) was divided into a training set (15 compounds) for model generation and a test set (4 compounds) for model validation. As a result, the cross-validation correlation coefficient (q(2)) obtained by the CoMFA and CoMSIA models (shuffled 12 times) was in the range of 0.825-0.969 (>0.5), the correlation coefficient (r(2)) obtained was in the range of 0.957-1.000 (>0.9), and the SEP (standard error of prediction) of test set was within the range of 0.070-0.617, indicating that the models were robust and predictive. Randomly selected from a set of models, CoMFA analysis revealed that the corresponding percentages of the variance explained by steric and electrostatic fields were 23.9% and 76.1%, respectively, while CoMSIA analysis by steric, electrostatic and hydrophobic fields were 0.6%, 92.6%, and 6.8%, respectively. The electrostatic field was determined as a primary factor governing the logKOA. The correlation analysis of the relationship between the number of Cl atoms and the average logKOA values of PCBs indicated that logKOA values gradually increased as the number of Cl atoms increased. Simultaneously, related studies on PCB detection in the Arctic and Antarctic areas revealed that higher logKOA values indicate a stronger PCB migration ability. From CoMFA and CoMSIA contour maps, logKOA decreased when substituents possessed electropositive groups at the 2-, 3-, 3'-, 5- and 6- positions, which could reduce the PCB migration ability. These results are

  9. Uptake and effects of dioxin like compounds in fish : in vitro in vivo and cross species extrapolation using physiologically based toxicokinetic models

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed an unparalleled interest of the public and of the scientific community in dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). DLCs belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, which are characterised by low environmental degradation rates and environmental half-lives ranging from months to decades. In the water c...

  10. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergknut, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bergknut@chem.umu.se [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Laudon, Hjalmar [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Jansson, Stina [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Larsson, Anna [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Gocht, Tilman [University of Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Wiberg, Karin [Umea University, Department of Chemistry, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-06-15

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > The fluxes of organic pollutants in a pristine boreal catchment were measured. > Most of the input and export occurred during winter and spring flood. > 96.0-99.9% of received bulk deposition was retained by the landscape. > Organic pollutants will impact boreal stream waters for an extended period of time. - The boreal landscape is effective in retaining diffuse atmospheric deposition of dioxins and PCBs, slowly releasing these pollutants into nearby streams.

  11. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergknut, Magnus; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Stina; Larsson, Anna; Gocht, Tilman; Wiberg, Karin

    2011-01-01

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → The fluxes of organic pollutants in a pristine boreal catchment were measured. → Most of the input and export occurred during winter and spring flood. → 96.0-99.9% of received bulk deposition was retained by the landscape. → Organic pollutants will impact boreal stream waters for an extended period of time. - The boreal landscape is effective in retaining diffuse atmospheric deposition of dioxins and PCBs, slowly releasing these pollutants into nearby streams.

  12. PCBs attenuation and abundance of Dehalococcoides spp., bphC, CheA, and flic genes in typical polychlorinated biphenyl-polluted soil under floody and dry soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Qin, Zhihui; Yao, Xiaoyan; Ahmed, Zulkifl; Xiaomei, Su; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin

    2016-02-01

    This study investigates PCBs attenuation and the abundance of active polychlorinated-degrading Dehalococcoides spp. biphenyl dioxygenase (bphC), chemotaxis (CheA), and flagellum (flic) genes in floody and dry soil conditions polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls. The results revealed that total PCBs, high chlorinated PCBs (>4 cl), and less chlorinated PCBs (<4 cl) decreased with the passage of time in floody and dry soil conditions. The reduction of total PCBs (13.87%) and less chlorinated PCBs (15.39%) was more in dry soil than floody soil, while high chlorinated PCBs showed more reduction in floody soil (8.06%) than dry soil. Dehaloccoides spp., bphC, CheA, and flic genes indicated temporal dynamics in abundance in floody and dry soil conditions. The highest abundance was 1.6 × 10(9), 3.7 × 10(4), and 3.6 × 10(2) copies in floody and 1.6 × 10(4) copies in dry soil for Dehalococcoides spp., bphC, CheA, and flic, respectively. Multivariate statistics (RDA) revealed that Dehaloccoides spp. were positively influenced by the higher chlorinated PCBs and soil physical properties, CheA gene with floody soil, flic gene with total PCBs and less chlorinated PCBs, and bphC gene was affected with moisture contents and less chlorinated PCBs. This study provides new insight in the attenuation of PCBs and the abundance of active Dehalococcoides spp. and genes in PCBs polluted soil under floody and dry soil conditions.

  13. Degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by Fe and Fe-Pd bimetals in the presence of surfactants and cosolvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, B.; Liang, L.; West, O.R.; Cameron, P.; Davenport, D.

    1997-01-01

    Surfactants and cosolvents are being used to enhance the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) such as trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) from contaminated soils. However, the waste surfactant solution containing TCE and PCBs must be treated before it can be disposed. This study evaluated the use of zero-valence iron and palladized iron fillings on the dechlorination of TCE and a PCB congener in a dihexylsulfosuccinate surfactant solution. Batch experimental results indicated that TCE can be rapidly degraded by palladized iron filings with a half-life of 27.4 min. PCB was degraded at a slower rate than TCE with a half-life ranging from 100 min to 500 min as the concentration of surfactant increased. In column flow-through experiments, both TCE and PCBs degrade at an enhanced rate with a half-life about 1.5 and 6 min because of an increased solid to solution ratio in the column than in the batch experiments. Results of this work suggest that Fe-Pd filings may be potentially applicable for ex-situ treatment of TCE and PCBs in the surfactant solutions that are generated during surfactant washing of the contaminated soils

  14. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  15. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tato, Liliana [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Tremolada, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tremolada@unimi.it [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy); Ballabio, Cristiano [Department of Environmental and Land Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza Della Scienza 1, Milan, I-20126 (Italy); Guazzoni, Niccolo; Parolini, Marco; Caccianiga, Marco; Binelli, Andrea [Department of Biology, University of Milan, Via Celoria 26, Milan, I-20133 (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher K{sub oa} values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: > A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. > Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. > A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. > A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. > Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  16. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T 4 and T 3 ) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert J. Gonzales

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties

  18. Selective separation of hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) by the structural recognition on the molecularly imprinted polymers: Direct separation of the thyroid hormone active analogues from mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Takuya; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Shiraishi, Fujio; Nomachi, Makoto; Nemoto, Koji; Hosoya, Ken; Kaya, Kunimitsu

    2007-01-01

    We developed novel separation media for hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the molecular imprinting techniques. The results of evaluation for the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the liquid chromatography (LC) suggested that MIPs had selective separation ability for certain HO-PCB analogues. The results of the LC evaluations and molecular modeling indicated that the molecular volumes and pK a values of template molecules were related with the retention factor of HO-PCBs. Additionally, according to the detail evaluation toward the selective separation behaviors of MIPs, these HO-PCB analogues have low pK a values dependent on their chemical structures. In other words, the prepared MIPs had selective recognition ability against the analogues, which have an OH group on a phenyl carbon and two chlorine atoms on the both neighboring carbons of the carbon attached with the OH group. Moreover, these analogues may have a potential for thyroid hormone activities so that we attempted to separate these analogues directly from mixtures of HO-PCBs using a prepared MIP

  19. Cancer risk assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in former agricultural soils of Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, Yu Bon [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Lopez, Brenda Natalia [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Wang, Hong Sheng [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Leung, Anna Oi Wah [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Chow, Ka Lai [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China); Wong, Ming H., E-mail: mhwong@zafu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University, Lin' an, Zhejiang 311300 (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Electronic recycling site contain high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in Hong Kong. {yields} Changing of agricultural land use to electronic waste recycling sites can increase potential cancer risk on human. {yields} High levels of soil organic matter in soils render PBDEs and PCBs more resistant to degradation. - Abstract: The major objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic risk posed to humans through PBDEs and PCBs of changing agricultural land use for recycling of e-waste and open burning of municipal waste. Nine locations were selected to represent 6 different types of land use such as e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)) and e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)). The total concentrations for PBDEs and PCBs, and the bioaccessibility of PCBs were determined using Soxhlet extraction and in vitro simulated gastric solution, respectively. Both total and bioaccessible concentrations were subsequently used to establish the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. It was found that very low cancer risk in all 6 types of different land use was caused by BDE-209. Nevertheless, at the 95th centile, the concentration of PCBs in EW (DW) and EW (OBS) indicate a low cancer risk to humans of 40 and 2.1 in a million, respectively, while the same was also observed for the bioaccessible PCBs in EW (DW) of 1.71 {+-} 2.96 in a million.

  20. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive samplers derived polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in the ambient air of Bursa-Turkey: Spatial and temporal variations and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgül, Aşkın; Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Alegria, Henry; Gungormus, Elif; Celik, Halil; Cicek, Tugba; Güven, Emine Can

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) passive samplers were employed to assess air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in background, agricultural, semi-urban, urban and industrial sites in Bursa, Turkey. Samplers were deployed for approximately 2-month periods from February to December 2014 in five sampling campaign. Results showed a clear rural-agricultural-semi-urban-urban-industrial PCBs concentration gradient. Considering all sampling periods, ambient air concentrations of Σ 43 PCBs ranged from 9.6 to 1240 pg/m 3 at all sites with an average of 24.1 ± 8.2, 43.8 ± 24.4, 140 ± 190, 42.8 ± 24.6, 160 ± 280, 84.1 ± 105, 170 ± 150 and 280 ± 540 pg/m 3 for Mount Uludag, Uludag University Campus, Camlica, Bursa Technical University Osmangazi Campus, Hamitler, Agakoy, Kestel Organised Industrial District and Demirtas Organised Industrial District sampling sites, respectively. The ambient air PCB concentrations increased along a gradient from background to industrial areas by a factor of 1.7-11.4. 4-Cl PCBs (31.50-81.60%) was the most dominant homologue group at all sampling sites followed by 3-Cl, 7-Cl, 6-Cl and 5-Cl homologue groups. Sampling locations and potential sources grouped in principal component analysis. Results of PCA plots highlighted a large variability of the PCB mixture in air, hence possible related sources, in Bursa area. Calculated inhalation risk levels in this study indicated no serious adverse health effects. This study is one of few efforts to characterize PCB composition in ambient air seasonally and spatially for urban and industrial areas of Turkey by using passive samplers as an alternative sampling method for concurrent monitoring at multiple sites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. KINETIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF EVAPORATION, BIOSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN THE SUSPENSION OF PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI. (R826652)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractKinetics of distribution of PCBs in an active bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas stutzeri was studied by monitoring the evaporated amounts and the concentration remaining in the liquid medium with the biomass. To determine the biodegradation rate const...

  2. Airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) reduce telomerase activity and shorten telomere length in immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCat)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.K.; Klingelhutz, A.J.; Jacobus, J.A.; Lehmler, H.; Robertson, L.W.; Ludewig, G.

    2011-01-01

    PCBs, a group of 209 individual congeners, are ubiquitous environmental pollutants and classified as probable human carcinogens. One major route of exposure is by inhalation of these industrial compounds, possibly daily from inner city air and/or indoor air in contaminated buildings. Hallmarks of aging and carcinogenesis are changes in telomere length and telomerase activity. We hypothesize that semi-volatile PCBs, like those found in inner city air, are capable of disrupting telomerase activity and altering telomere length. To explore this possibility, we exposed human skin keratinocytes to a synthetic Chicago Airborne Mixture (CAM) of PCBs, or the prominent airborne PCB congeners, PCB28 or PCB52 for up to 48 days and determined telomerase activity, telomere length, cell proliferation, and cell cycle distribution. PCBs 28, 52 and CAM significantly reduced telomerase activity from days 18–48. Telomere length was shortened by PCB52 from day 18 and PCB28 and CAM from days 30 on. All PCBs decreased cell proliferation from day 18; only PCB52 produced a small increase of cells in G0/G1 of the cell cycle. This significant inhibition of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB congeners suggest a potential mechanism by which these compounds could lead to accelerated aging and cancer. PMID:21530622

  3. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  4. The comparative photodegradation activities of pentachlorophenol (PCP and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs using UV alone and TiO2-derived photocatalysts in methanol soil washing solution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Zhou

    Full Text Available Photochemical treatment is increasingly being applied to remedy environmental problems. TiO2-derived catalysts are efficiently and widely used in photodegradation applications. The efficiency of various photochemical treatments, namely, the use of UV irradiation without catalyst or with TiO2/graphene-TiO2 photodegradation methods was determined by comparing the photodegadation of two main types of hydrophobic chlorinated aromatic pollutants, namely, pentachlorophenol (PCP and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Results show that photodegradation in methanol solution under pure UV irradiation was more efficient than that with either one of the catalysts tested, contrary to previous results in which photodegradation rates were enhanced using TiO2-derived catalysts. The effects of various factors, such as UV light illumination, addition of methanol to the solution, catalyst dosage, and the pH of the reaction mixture, were examined. The degradation pathway was deduced. The photochemical treatment in methanol soil washing solution did not benefit from the use of the catalysts tested. Pure UV irradiation was sufficient for the dechlorination and degradation of the PCP and PCBs.

  5. Self-organizing maps for indications of airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs) dependence on spatial and meteorological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanić, Snježana Herceg; Vuković, Gordana; Klinčić, Darija; Antanasijević, Davor

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in air samples with meteorological parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) using the Kohonen self-organizing map (SOM). Both gas- and particle-adsorbed phase of 20 PCB congeners and 7 OCPs including the three new ones (α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH) listed in the Stockholm Convention were collected during a one-year period at urban locations in Zagreb (Croatia). Moving beyond existing studies, the SOM analysis showed that the meteorological characteristics of transient seasons such as spring had no influence on the dissimilarities in the behavior of PCBs and OCPs. Towards the identification of pollutant spatial patterns, the SOM did not isolate a clear phenomenon probably due to the absence of local pollution sources contributing to the elevated concentrations of these compounds. Overall, our results have shown that the SOM method, by recognizing significant differences among PCB and OCP seasonality, could be recommended in the analysis of pollutant distribution depending on temperature and atmospheric pressure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationships between congener distribution patterns of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCNs, PCBs, PCBzs and PCPhs formed during flue gas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Stina, E-mail: stina.jansson@chem.umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE-901 83 Umea (Sweden); Andersson, Patrik L., E-mail: patrik.andersson@chem.umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2012-02-01

    The congener patterns of mono- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC{sub 1-8}DD), dibenzofurans (PC{sub 1-8}DF), naphthalenes (PC{sub 1-8}N), mono- to deca-chlorinated biphenyls (PC{sub 1-10}B), di- to hexa-chlorinated benzenes (PC{sub 2-6}Bz) and mono- to penta-chlorinated phenols (PC{sub 1-5}Ph) in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at 450 Degree-Sign C, 300 Degree-Sign C and 200 Degree-Sign C in the post-combustion zone during waste incineration in a laboratory-scale reactor in a previous study, were in this study evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA). To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive chemical and multivariate analysis to date of the thermal formation of dioxins. The PCA indicated that different formation pathways occur in the temperature regions 450-300 Degree-Sign C and 300-200 Degree-Sign C, and reflected a chlorination effect of PCDF and PCDD between 450 Degree-Sign C and 200 Degree-Sign C which could not be discerned or was less pronounced for the other compound groups. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs, as well as total TEQ values (TEQ{sub Total}) were also calculated, and correlations between changes in levels of specific congeners and the TEQs were explored in the PCA. Levels of four HxCDF congeners and 1,2,3,4,8-, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the strongest correlations with TEQ{sub Total} (R{sup 2} {>=} 0.9). In addition, levels of 1,2,4-TriCBz correlated strongly with TEQ{sub Total} (R{sup 2} > 0.7), supporting previous reports that it may be a potential indicator of the TEQ. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Different pathways dominating between 450-300 Degree-Sign C and 300-200 Degree-Sign C, respectively. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chlorination of PCDD/Fs between 450 Degree-Sign C and 200 Degree-Sign C but not for the other chloroaromatics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Best TEQ{sub Total} correlations for four HxCDFs, and 1,2,3,4,8-/1,2,3,7,8- and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF. Black

  7. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C M; Mesa-Albernas, M; Tolosa, I

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of various organochlorinated compounds, e.g. PCBs, DDTs, HCB and HCHs, were investigated in sediments of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Among the target organochlorine compounds measured, ΣDDT isomers were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 0.019 to 1.27 ng g(-1)dry wt. Lindane was present at very low concentrations in the range n.d. to 0.05 ng g(-1), while PCBs and other organochlorine pesticide residues, such as HCB, Heptaclor, Aldrin and Mirex were lower than detection limits (∼0.010 ng g(-1)). According to established sediment quality guidelines, the OCPs concentrations encountered in the surface sediments are probably not having an adverse effect on sediment dwelling organisms. Compared to concentrations reported in coastal environments from other parts of the world, PCBs and OCs concentrations in surface sediments of Batabanó Gulf were low and similar to the reported for remote and pristine environments. These results contribute to the sparse regional database for organochlorinated compounds in the Caribbean marine environment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Lactational Transfer of Polychlorinated-Biphenyls (PCBs) and Other Organochlorines in St. Lawrence Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadieux, Marc A; Muir, Derek C G; Béland, Pierre; Hickie, Brendan E

    2016-01-01

    This study uses an individual-based contaminant bioaccumulation model for marine mammals to explore factors controlling the transfer of PCBs from mother to calf via nursing in beluga from the St. Lawrence Estuary. Beluga blubber samples (n = 46), along with four matched milk samples from stranded animals over the 1986-1994 period were used for comparison with modelled results. Based on 68 POPs, including 48 PCBs and 20 other organochlorine compounds, milk:blubber ratios were 0.65 between log K OW 3-6.5, then decreased to 0.1 at log K OW 8. Model simulations based on this relationship indicated females were transferring PCBs that were relatively very hydrophobic and highly chlorinated less readily than their lower chlorinated counterparts, resulting in an enriched concentration of very hydrophobic congeners in nursing females relative to adult males. There was very good agreement between observed and modelled male:female PCB concentration ratios. Four females within our dataset (15 %) had male-like ΣPCB concentrations as well as male-like congener profiles, suggesting that these individuals may have had a reduced or limited nursing history.

  9. Evaluation of Organochlorine Compounds (PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and DDTs) in Two Raptor Species Inhabiting a Mediterranean Island in Spain (8 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Rubén; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Olie, Kees

    2007-01-01

    -: DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1065/espr2006.01.015 Species that are at high levels of the food web have often been used as bioindicators to evaluate the presence of persistent contaminants in ecosystems. Most of these species are long-lived, so pollutant burdens may be integrated in some complex way over time. This makes them particularly sensitive to deleterious effects of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Birds have been suggested as useful organisms for monitoring pollutant levels. Traditionally such studies have been carried out with raptors such as osprey (Pandion haliaetus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), bald eagle (Haliaetus leucocephalus), etc. In this paper we present the results of a monitoring study conducted on two raptor species, osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and red kite (Milvus milvus), inhabiting a Mediterranean island (Menorca, Spain). These two species have different feeding habits; ospreys prey on fish and red kites feed on terrestrial species. This study constitutes a good opportunity to investigate if differences in feeding habits (aquatic vs. terrestrial) influences the contaminants pattern in two species inhabiting the same area. The study was conducted in a non-destructive way, using only failed eggs, to avoid the damage of the population stability. Eggs were collected during the period 1994-2000. The contaminants examined were dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs, including DDT and its main metabolite, DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including ortho PCBs (PCBs with at least one Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #28, 52, 95, 101, 123+149, 118, 114, 153, 132+105, 138, 167, 156, 157, 180, 170, 189, 194; and non ortho PCBs (PCBs with no Chlorine atom in the ortho position): #77, 126, 169 and all the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) with Chlorine atoms at the 2,3,7 and 8 position (2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs). The analysis of organochlorine compounds was performed

  10. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from marine samples using automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Power Prep™ clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helaleh, Murad I H; Al-Rashdan, Amal; Ibtisam, A

    2012-05-30

    An automated pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method followed by Power Prep™ clean-up was developed for organochlorinated pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis in environmental marine samples of fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp. OCPs and PCBs were simultaneously determined in a single chromatographic run using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-negative chemical ionization (GC-MS-NCI). About 5 g of each biological marine sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulphate and placed in the extraction cell of the PLE system. PLE is controlled by means of a PC using DMS 6000 software. Purification of the extract was accomplished using automated Power Prep™ clean-up with a pre-packed disposable silica column (6 g) supplied by Fluid Management Systems (FMS). All OCPs and PCBs were eluted from the silica column using two types of solvent: 80 mL of hexane and a 50 mL mixture of hexane and dichloromethane (1:1). A wide variety of fish and shellfish were collected from the fish market and analyzed using this method. The total PCB concentrations were 2.53, 0.25, 0.24, 0.24, 0.17 and 1.38 ng g(-1) (w/w) for fish, squid, bivalves, shells, octopus and shrimp, respectively, and the corresponding total OCP concentrations were 30.47, 2.86, 0.92, 10.72, 5.13 and 18.39 ng g(-1) (w/w). Lipids were removed using an SX-3 Bio-Beads gel permeation chromatography (GPC) column. Analytical criteria such as recovery, reproducibility and repeatability were evaluated through a range of biological matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influential Factors and Dry Deposition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs in Atmospheric Particles at an Isolated Island (Pingtan Island in Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Lao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB pollution characteristics of atmospheric particles, influential factors, and dry deposition fluxes, 28 PCB congeners were examined over a 2-year period in the environment of an isolated island in Fujian Province. In 2006 and 2007, PCB concentrations ranged from 1.12 to 87.32 pg m−3 and ND (not detected to 44.93 pg m−3, respectively, and were predominantly highly-chlorinated PCBs. The levels were much lower than those from industrial, urban, and rural areas, but slightly higher than those found in coastal areas of Europe and in the ocean. Obvious seasonal variations were found in the PCB levels, with high levels appearing in the winter, whereas low levels appeared in the summer, which indicated a significant positive correlation with the atmospheric particle mass level. The distribution pattern of the PCB concentration was largely affected by the meteorological conditions and total organic carbon (TOC levels. Moreover, air mass originating from Northern China may be responsible for the higher PCB levels over Pingtan Island during the winter, and tracing the source of atmospheric particles by the stable carbon isotope suggested that the PBC levels may be influenced by coal combustion during the “heating season” of Northern China. The total dry deposition flux of the 28 PCBs on Pingtan Island was 3.94 ng m−2 d−1 and 2.94 ng m−2 d−1 in 2006 and 2007, respectively, and the average yearly input to the adjacent waters was 7531.2 g y−1.

  12. Human Health Risks Assessment Associated with Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Soil from Different Contaminated Areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Ochoa Martínez, Ángeles C; Ruíz-Vera, Tania; Orta-García, Sandra T; Varela-Silva, José A

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. Moreover, the total CR (cancer risk) found in Alpuyeca, Morelos is of concern (total CR = 5.1E-03), being that a cut-point of 1.0E-06 has been suggested as a safe level for cancer risk. Taking into consideration the data shown in this research, we conclude that a strategy to protect human health is necessary for the assessed sites.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decrease the placental syncytiotrophoblast volume and increase Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) in the placenta of normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Aiko, Y; Kawamoto, T; T Hachisuga; Kooriyama, C; Myoga, M; Tomonaga, C; Matsumura, F; Anan, A; Tanaka, M; Yu, H S; Fujisawa, Y; Suga, R; Shibata, E

    2013-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of biologically active, highly stable compounds. Exposure risks include consumption of fatty fish, meat, dairy products and human breast milk, as well as environmental and occupational settings. Numerous reports have described PCB-dependent adverse effects on human fetal growth, including increased risk for IUGR, changes in endocrine function and hormone metabolism, and immunosuppressive and neurological deficits. Here we test the prediction that in utero PCB exposure adversely effects placental morphology, potentially leading to placental insufficiency en route to fetal growth restriction. PCB homologs (10) were measured in the maternal and fetal blood of a small cohort of normotensive pregnancies (22) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB levels were compared with angiogenesis associated proteins Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and sFlt-1, determined by ELISA, and the total estimated syncytiotrophoblast (ST) volume. Significant associations between PCB exposure and both PlGF and ST volume were identified. PCB effects on placenta morphology and predicted function are discussed. These results demonstrate that the human placenta, including ST, is a target of PCB toxicity, and that current environmental PCB exposure levels are a risk to reproductive health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A standard analysis method (SAM) for the automated analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils using the chemical analysis automation (CAA) paradigm: validation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzeszutko, C.; Johnson, C.R.; Monagle, M.; Klatt, L.N.

    1997-10-01

    The Chemical Analysis Automation (CAA) program is developing a standardized modular automation strategy for chemical analysis. In this automation concept, analytical chemistry is performed with modular building blocks that correspond to individual elements of the steps in the analytical process. With a standardized set of behaviors and interactions, these blocks can be assembled in a 'plug and play' manner into a complete analysis system. These building blocks, which are referred to as Standard Laboratory Modules (SLM), interface to a host control system that orchestrates the entire analytical process, from sample preparation through data interpretation. The integrated system is called a Standard Analysis Method (SAME). A SAME for the automated determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) in soils, assembled in a mobile laboratory, is undergoing extensive testing and validation. The SAME consists of the following SLMs: a four channel Soxhlet extractor, a High Volume Concentrator, column clean up, a gas chromatograph, a PCB data interpretation module, a robot, and a human- computer interface. The SAME is configured to meet the requirements specified in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) SW-846 Methods 3541/3620A/8082 for the analysis of pcbs in soils. The PCB SAME will be described along with the developmental test plan. Performance data obtained during developmental testing will also be discussed

  15. Patterns of benthic bacterial diversity in coastal areas contaminated by heavy metals, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Marina eQuero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prokaryotes in coastal sediments are fundamental players in the ecosystem functioning and regulate processes relevant in the global biogeochemical cycles. Nevertheless, knowledge on benthic microbial diversity patterns across spatial scales, or as function to anthropogenic influence, is still limited. We investigated the microbial diversity in two of the most chemically polluted sites along the coast of Italy. One site is the Po River Prodelta (Northern Adriatic Sea, which receives contaminant discharge from one of the largest rivers in Europe. The other site, the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea, is a chronically-polluted area due to steel production plants, oil refineries, and intense maritime traffic. We collected sediments from 30 stations along gradients of contamination, and studied prokaryotic diversity using Illumina sequencing of amplicons of a 16S rDNA gene fragment. The main sediment variables and the concentration of eleven metals, PCBs and PAHs were measured. Chemical analyses confirmed the high contamination in both sites, with concentrations of PCBs particularly high and often exceeding the sediment guidelines. The analysis of more than 3 millions 16S rDNA sequences showed that richness decreased with higher contamination levels. Multivariate analyses showed that contaminants significantly shaped community composition. Assemblages differed significantly between the two sites, but showed wide within-site variations related with spatial gradients in the chemical contamination, and the presence of a core set of OTUs shared by the two geographically distant sites. A larger importance of PCB-degrading taxa was observed in the Mar Piccolo, suggesting their potential selection in this historically-polluted site. Our results indicate that sediment contamination by multiple contaminants significantly alter benthic prokaryotic diversity in coastal areas, and suggests considering the potential contribution of the resident microbes to

  16. 2,3,7,8-DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN MINED CLAY PRODUCTS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been raised in the southern United States, represented approximately 5% of the national poultry production . All of these chickens and other animal food sources (i.e., farm-raised catfish), similarly contaminated, were fed a diet of animal feed containing ball clay as an anti-caking additive. The clay was mined in northwestern Mississippi within a geological formation referred to as the Mississippi Embayment. Individual raw and processed ball clay samples were analyzed for the presence of the 2,3,7,8-PCDDs/PCDFs. The average toxic equivalents (TEQs) for the raw and processed samples were 1513 and 996 ppt dry weight, respectively. Other mined clay-based products used in animal feeds revealed lower TEQs. All of the products exhibited either an absence of detectable concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDFs or concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than the PCDDs. The isomer distribution, specific isomer identification, and congener profile of the PCDDs in the clay were established and compared to known sources of dioxin contamination. Several unique features of this isomer distribution are characteristic of the clays and are distinguishable from those other known sources. These characteristic

  17. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  18. [Diet as a source of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, I

    1999-01-01

    Dioxins are highly toxic by-products of many industrial processes e.g. chemical and municipal waste incineration or production of chlorophenols. These compounds penetrate the environment via air, water and soil and are then incorporated in food chains. The major source of human exposure (90% of total exposition) is consumption of a wide variety of common foods (meat, fish and dairy products) containing small amounts of dioxins. The average daily intake of PCDD via food was estimated in the range of 1-3 pg/kg bw. Common characteristics of all congeners detected in foodstuffs were 2,3,7,8-chlorine substitution. Commercial milk samples could be contaminated by PCDD/DFs present in the pulp used for the production of the milk cartoon. Also higher levels of these xenobiotics were found in samples from cows grazing in the vicinity of incinerators as compared to samples from rural farms. Human exposure to dioxin begins early in life since breast-feeding is the best way to nourish an infant. The nursing baby in developed countries get a particularly high dose of dioxins (about 85 pg TEQ/kg bw/day). Food contamination with dioxins leads to enhanced accumulation of these compounds in human tissues to the extent of exceeding acceptable level.

  19. Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet; Ballester, Ferran; Bloemen, Karolien; de Boer, Michiel; Chevrier, Cécile; Eggesbø, Merete; Guxens, Mònica; Krämer, Ursula; Legler, Juliette; Martínez, David; Palkovicova, Lubica; Patelarou, Evridiki; Ranft, Ulrich; Rautio, Arja; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Slama, Rémy; Stigum, Hein; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomas; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Weihe, Pál; Kuperus, Nynke Weisglas; Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE adjusted for gestational age and a priori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140 ng/L (range of cohort medians 20–484 ng/L) and that of p,p´-DDE was 528 ng/L (range of cohort medians 50–1,208 ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150 g [95% confidence interval (CI): –250, –50 g] per 1-µg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-µg/L increase in p,p´-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –18, 4 g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p´-DDE does not. The study

  20. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fava Fabio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biotreatability of actual-site polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-contaminated soils is often limited by their poor content of autochthonous pollutant-degrading microorganisms. In such cases, inoculation might be the solution for a successful bioremediation. Some pure and mixed cultures of characterized PCB degrading bacteria have been tested to this purpose. However, several failures have been recorded mostly due to the inability of inoculated microbes to compete with autochthonous microflora and to face the toxicity and the scarcity of nutrients occurring in the contaminated biotope. Complex microbial systems, such as compost or sludge, normally consisting of a large variety of robust microorganisms and essential nutrients, would have better chances to succeed in colonizing degraded contaminated soils. However, such sources of microorganisms have been poorly applied in soil bioremediation and in particular in the biotreatment of soil with PCBs. Thus, in this study the effects of Enzyveba, i.e. a consortium of non-adapted microorganisms developed from composted material, on the slurry- and solid-phase aerobic bioremediation of an actual-site, aged PCB-contaminated soil were studied. Results A slow and only partial biodegradation of low-chlorinated biphenyls, along with a moderate depletion of initial soil ecotoxicity, were observed in the not-inoculated reactors. Enzyveba significantly increased the availability and the persistence of aerobic PCB- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading cultivable bacteria in the bioreactors, in particular during the earlier phase of treatment. It also markedly enhanced PCB-biodegradation rate and extent (from 50 to 100% as well as the final soil detoxification, in particular under slurry-phase conditions. Taken together, data obtained suggest that Enzyveba enhanced the biotreatability of the selected soil by providing exogenous bacteria and fungi able to remove inhibitory or toxic intermediates of

  1. Mortality among 24,865 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three electrical capacitor manufacturing plants: A ten-year update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Hein, Misty J.; Hopf, Nancy B.; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate mortality among a cohort of 24,865 capacitor-manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at plants in Indiana, Massachusetts, and New York and followed for mortality through 2008. Cumulative PCB exposure was estimated using plant-specific job-exposure matrices. External comparisons to US and state-specific populations used standardized mortality ratios, adjusted for gender, race, age and calendar year. Among long-term workers employed 3 months or longer, within-cohort comparisons used standardized rate ratios and multivariable Poisson regression modeling. Through 2008, more than one million person-years at risk and 8749 deaths were accrued. Among long-term employees, all-cause and all-cancer mortality were not elevated; of the a priori outcomes assessed only melanoma mortality was elevated. Mortality was elevated for some outcomes of a priori interest among subgroups of long-term workers: all cancer, intestinal cancer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (women); melanoma (men); melanoma and brain and nervous system cancer (Indiana plant); and melanoma and multiple myeloma (New York plant). Standardized rates of stomach and uterine cancer and multiple myeloma mortality increased with estimated cumulative PCB exposure. Poisson regression modeling showed significant associations with estimated cumulative PCB exposure for prostate and stomach cancer mortality. For other outcomes of a priori interest – rectal, liver, ovarian, breast, and thyroid cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease – neither elevated mortality nor positive associations with PCB exposure were observed. Associations between estimated cumulative PCB exposure and stomach, uterine, and prostate cancer and myeloma mortality confirmed our previous positive findings. PMID:23707056

  2. Non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are direct agonists for the human pregnane-X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor, and activate target gene expression in a tissue-specific manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salman, Fadheela; Plant, Nick, E-mail: N.Plant@Surrey.ac.uk

    2012-08-15

    The polychlorinated biphenyl group possesses high environmental persistence, leading to bioaccumulation and a number of adverse effects in mammals. Whilst coplanar PCBs elicit their toxic effects through agonism of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; however, non-coplanar PCBs are not ligands for AhR, but may be ligands for members of the nuclear receptor family of proteins. To better understand the biological actions of non-coplanar PCBs, we have undertaken a systematic analysis of their ability to activate PXR and CAR-mediated effects. Cells were exposed to a range of non-coplanar PCBs (99, 138, 153, 180 and 194), or the coplanar PCB77: Direct activation of PXR and CAR was measured using a mammalian receptor activation assay in human liver cells, with rifampicin and CITCO used as positive controls ligands for PXR and CAR, respectively; activation of target gene expression was examined using reporter gene plasmids for CYP3A4 and MDR1 transfected into liver, intestine and lung cell lines. Several of the non-coplanar PCBs directly activated PXR and CAR, whilst the coplanar PCB77 did not. Non-coplanar PCBs were also able to activate PXR/CAR target gene expression in a substitution- and tissue-specific manner. Non-coplanar PCBs act as direct activators for the nuclear receptors PXR and CAR, and are able to elicit transcriptional activation of target genes in a substitution- and tissue-dependent manner. Chronic activation of PXR/CAR is linked to adverse effects and must be included in any risk assessment of PCBs. -- Highlights: ► Several Non-coplanar PCBs are able to directly activate both PXR and CAR in vitro. ► PCB153 is the most potent direct activator of PXR and CAR nuclear receptors. ► Non-coplanar PCB activation of CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes is structure-dependent. ► Non-coplanar PCB activate CYP3A4/MDR1 reporter genes in a tissue-dependent. ► PCB153 is the most potent activator of PXR/CAR target gene in all tissues.

  3. Novel flame retardants (N-FRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in fish, penguin, and skua from King George Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Cai, Minghong

    2015-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in biota from Antarctica, whereas no data are available for their replacements, such as novel flame retardants (N-FRs). This study presented the occurrence of several N-FRs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissue samples of an Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), a young gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and a brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus) collected from King George Island. The total concentrations of N-FRs (ΣN-FRs; mean: 931 pg/g dry weight (dw)) were comparable to PBDEs (Σ8PBDEs; 681 pg/gdw), which were much lower than PCBs (ΣDL-PCBs; 12,800 pg/gdw). Overall, skua contained two to three orders of magnitude higher contamination than penguin and fish. In the future, more attention should be focused on the fate of N-FRs in Antarctica, where usages have increased since PBDEs were banned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N-FRs in biota from Antarctica. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of an aqueous KOH digestion followed by hexane extraction for analysis of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in retailed fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Kumiko; Toyoda, Masatake; Maitani, Tamio [Division of Foods, National Institute of Health Sciences, 1-18-1 Kamiyoga, 158-8501, Tokyo, Setagaya-ku (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Aqueous KOH digestion followed by hexane extraction has been employed in the extraction of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) for biological samples, but there are no reports on its evaluation. Therefore, we report here the evaluation of this extraction for the analysis of dioxins in retailed fish. The effect of the alkaline digestion on dioxins was evaluated by estimation of recoveries. The recoveries of dioxins after the alkaline digestion were good (79-106%) in various kinds of retailed fish except tuna. In tuna, loss of octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) was clearly observed, however, the loss was corrected by internal-standard quantification; {sup 13}C12-labeled OCDF was added before the alkaline digestion. Comparative study showed that alkaline digestion followed by hexane extraction provides extraction efficiencies of dioxins equal to those of conventional Soxhlet extraction in fish. Additionally, in analysis of a certified reference fish sample with this extraction, the values obtained for certified isomers were almost equal to the certified values. Since the present method is very simple and inexpensive, it would be useful for analysis of dioxins in retailed fish. (orig.)

  5. Update: cohort mortality study of workers highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the manufacture of electrical capacitors, 1940-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whelan Elizabeth A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously reported mortality for a cohort of workers considered highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs between 1939 and 1977 at two electrical capacitor manufacturing plants. The current study updated vital status, examined liver and rectal cancer mortality previously reported in excess in this cohort and evaluated mortality from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and cancers of the stomach, intestine, breast, prostate, skin (melanoma and brain reported to be in excess in other cohort and case-control studies of PCB-exposed persons. Methods Mortality was updated through 1998 for 2572 workers. Age-, gender-, race- and calendar year-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using U.S., state and county referent rates. SMRs using U.S. referent rates are reported. Duration of employment was used as a surrogate for exposure. Results Consistent with the previous follow-up, mortality from biliary passage, liver and gall bladder cancer was significantly elevated (11 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 1.05 – 3.77, but mortality from rectal cancer was not (6 deaths, SMR 1.47, CI 0.54 – 3.21. Among women, mortality from intestinal cancer (24 deaths, SMR 1.89, CI 1.21 – 2.82 and from "other diseases of the nervous system and sense organs", which include Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, (15 deaths, SMR 2.07, CI 1.16 – 3.42 were elevated. There were four ALS deaths, all women (SMR 4.35, CI 1.19–11.14. Mortality was elevated for myeloma (7 deaths, SMR 2.11, CI 0.84 – 4.34, particularly among workers employed 10 years or more (5 deaths, SMR 2.80, CI 0.91 – 6.54. No linear associations between mortality and duration of employment were observed for the cancers of interest. Conclusion This update found that the earlier reported excess in this cohort for biliary, liver and gall bladder cancer persisted with

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in the Antarctic coastal environment and their bioaccumulation in penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, John Kennedy; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Sung, Ping-Jyun; Fang, Lee-Shing; Lee, Yen-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been identified in penguins, lichens, soils, and ornithogenic soils in the Antarctic coastal environment in this study. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported PBDD/F and PBB data from Antarctica. The POP mass contents in penguins were in the following order: PCBs > PBDEs > PCDD/Fs; PCBs were the dominant pollutants (6310-144,000 pg/g-lipid), with World Health Organization toxic equivalency values being 2-14 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs. Long-range atmospheric transport is the most primary route by which POPs travel to Antarctica; however, local sources, such as research activities and penguin colonies, also influence POP distribution in the local Antarctic environment. In penguins, the biomagnification factor (BMF) of PCBs was 61.3-3760, considerably higher than that for other POPs. According to BMF data in Adélie penguins, hydrophobic PBDE congeners were more biomagnified at log Kow > 6, and levels decreased at log Kow > 7.5 because larger molecular sizes inhibited transfer across cell membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed halogenated dioxins/furans (PXDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs) in food: occurrence and toxic equivalent exposure using specific relative potencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alwyn R; Mortimer, David; Wall, Richard J; Bell, David R; Rose, Martin; Carr, Melanie; Panton, Sean; Smith, Frankie

    2014-12-01

    The occurrence of nineteen mixed halogenated (bromo-chloro) dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PXBs) in a range of foods (n>100) was investigated. The analytical methodology used dual activated carbon column fractionation with high resolution mass spectrometric measurement (13,500-15,000 res). Occurrence was observed in most commonly consumed foods but the most frequent detections of these environmental contaminants were made in shellfish and offal. The concentrations of the individual compounds were condensed into toxic equivalents (TEQs) using recently reported relative potency values. Although representing only a small subset of the full range of toxic PXDD/Fs and PXBs, the TEQs estimated for these compounds ranged from 0.2% to approximately 15% (depending on the food matrix) of the corresponding TEQ for the fully chlorinated analogues. This finding is of great toxicological importance as it implies that a potentially greater magnitude of TEQ could be associated with the full range of toxic PXDD/Fs and PXBs, thus making a significant contribution to dioxin-like toxicity from the diet, to human exposure. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emissions of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PAHs from legacy on-road heavy-duty diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroo, Christopher A; Schenk, Charles R; Sanchez, L James; McDonald, Joseph; Smith, Peter L

    2012-11-01

    Exhaust emissions of seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) congeners, tetra-octa PCDD/F homologues, 12 WHO 2005 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, mono-nona chlorinated biphenyl homologues, and 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from three legacy diesel engines were investigated. The three engines tested were a 1985 model year GM 6.2J-series engine, a 1987 model year Detroit Diesel Corporation 6V92 engine, and a 1993 model year Cummins L10 engine. Results were compared to United States' mobile source inventory for on-road diesel engines, as well as historic and modern diesel engine emission values. The test fuel contained chlorine at 9.8 ppm which is 1.5 orders of magnitude above what is found in current diesel fuel and 3900 ppm sulfur to simulate fuels that would have been available when these engines were produced. Results indicate PCDD/F emissions of 13.1, 7.1, and 13.6 pg International Toxic Equivalency (I-TEQ)L(-1) fuel consumed for the three engines respectively, where non-detects are equal to zero. This compares with a United States' mobile source on-road diesel engine inventory value of 946 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed and 1.28 pg I-TEQL(-1) fuel consumed for modern engines equipped with a catalyzed diesel particle filter and urea selective catalytic reduction. PCB emissions are 2 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. PAH results are representative of engines from this era based on historical values and are 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than modern diesel engines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The role of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the oncogenesis of head and neck tumors and thyroid diseases: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosino, V; Motta, G; Tenore, G; Coletta, M; Guariglia, A; Testa, D

    2018-04-01

    Previous literature has highlighted the mechanisms of molecular toxicity induced by substances such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead, barium and PCBs. The research was carried out on 20 volunteers, all the patients gave their consent to the research: the aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of metals and PCBs in these different matrices (blood and hair), correlating the biochemical data to pathological conditions present, and also to the area in which patients resided. Various quantitative determinations were carried out on samples of blood and hair for 14 heavy metals and on blood samples for 12 PCBs. For the 11 patients the results indicated that blood levels for half of the 14 displayed heavy metals measured considerably higher compared to the reference values, whilst the levels measured in hair evidenced some positive values significantly higher than the maximum reference. Of the 12 PCBs assayed in blood some showed higher positive values compared to the maximum tabular reference (although there is no clear reference quantified in the WHO-2005 report). In the 9 healthy patients heavy metals in the blood were within the expected target range, with those showing positive results (≤ 3 out of 14 heavy metals for each patient) having values only slightly higher than the reference maximum. The levels of 14 heavy metals measured in hair were below thresholds, and levels for the 12 PCBs measured in blood showed negativity or positivity with values close to the minimum benchmarks. The analyses carried out on biological matrices have uncovered important and significant differences between healthy and unhealthy subjects, both qualitative and quantitative differences with respect to heavy metals and PCBs. All patients with head and neck cancer enlisted for the study had heavy metal and PCB blood levels at least twice the maximum reference level. The levels of heavy metals in hair were at least double the maximum reference. In contrast, all healthy

  10. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaikanlaya, C.; Settachan, D.; Denison, M.; Ruchirawat, M.; van den Berg, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08660466X

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in

  11. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, C.E.; Jarman, W.M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Energy and Geosciences Inst.; Estes, J.A. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Simon, M.; Norstrom, R.J. [Canadian Wildlife Service, Hull, Quebec (Canada). National Wildlife Research Centre

    1999-03-01

    Organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in sea otter liver tissue from California, southeast Alaska, and the western Aleutian archipelago collected between 1988 and 1992. Average total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane concentrations for California otters were over 20 times higher than in Aleutian otters and over 800 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for total PCBs in Aleutian otters were 1.7 times higher than levels in California otters and 38 times higher than otters from southeast Alaska. Levels for PCDD and PCDF were extremely low in all otter populations. Levels of PCBs in Aleutian and Californian otters are abnormally high when compared with southeast Alaskan otters. The source of PCBs to the Aleutian Islands remains unclear and vital to understanding the potential impacts to sea otters.

  12. Background Contamination by Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Trace Level High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) Analytical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  13. Ability of bacterial biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356 to catalyse oxygenation of ortho-hydroxychlorobiphenyls formed from PCBs by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francova, K.; Mackova, M.; Macek, T.; Sylvestre, M.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial dioxygenases are useful in breakdown of PCB products associated with plants. - Capacity of enzymes of the biphenyl/chlorobiphenyl pathway, especially biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) of two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) degrading bacteria, Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356, to metabolize ortho-substituted hydroxybiphenyls was tested.,These compounds found among plant products of PCB metabolism, are carrying chlorine atoms on the hydroxyl-substituted ring. The abilities of His-tagged purified LB400 and B-356 BPDOs to catalyze the oxygenation of 2-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobiphenyl and 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl were compared. Both enzyme preparations catalyzed the hydroxylation of the three chloro-hydroxybiphenyls on the non-substituted ring. Neither LB400 BPDO nor B-356 BPDO oxygenated the substituted ring of the ortho-hydroxylated biphenyl. The fact that metabolites generated by both enzymes were identical for all three hydroxychlorobiphenyls tested; exclude any other mode of attack of these compounds by LB400 BPDOs than the ortho-meta oxygenation

  14. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  15. The first countrywide monitoring of selected POPs: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the atmosphere of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Ugranli-Cicek, Tugba; Sofuoglu, Sait C.; Celik, Halil; Gungormus, Elif; Gedik, Kadir; Sofuoglu, Aysun; Okten, Hatice Eser; Birgul, Askın; Alegria, Henry; Jones, Kevin C.

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric levels of 43 PCBs, 22 OCPs, and 14 PBDEs were determined in 16 cities at urban and rural sites by passive sampling to generate the first large-scale nationwide dataset of POP residues in Turkey's atmosphere. Sampling campaign was performed from May 2014 to April 2015 with three-month sampling periods at locations on east-west and north-south transects through the country to investigate seasonal and spatial variations, including long range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Factor analysis was conducted to infer on the potential sources. Overall average Σ43PCBs concentration was 108 ± 132 pg/m3. PCB-118 (26.3 ± 44.6 pg/m3) was the top congener, and penta-CBs had the highest contribution with 54.3%. ΣDDTs had the highest annual mean concentration with 134 ± 296 pg/m3 among the OCP groups among which the highest concentration compound was p'p-DDE (97.6 ± 236 pg/m3). Overall average concentration of Σ14PBDEs was 191 ± 329 pg/m3 with the highest contribution from BDE-190 (42%). Comparison of OCPs and PCBs concentrations detected at temperatures which were above and below annual average temperature indicated higher concentrations in the warmer periods, hence significance of secondary emissions for several OCPs and Σ43PCBs, as well as inference as LRAT from secondary emissions. The first nationwide POPs database constructed in this study, point to current use, local secondary emissions, and LRAT for different individual compounds, and indicate the need for regular monitoring.

  16. Concentration and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface soil near a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Dettlaff, A; Kuklińska, K; Namieśnik, J; Wolska, L

    2015-10-15

    Due to a continuous demand of land for infrastructural and residential development there is a public concern about the condition of surface soil near municipal solid waste landfills. A total of 12 surface (0-20 cm) soil samples from a territory near a landfill were collected and the concentration of 16 PAHs and 7 PCB congeners were investigated in these samples. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.038-1.2 μg/kg for PAHs and 0.025-0.041 μg/kg for PCBs. The total concentration of ∑ PAHs ranged from 892 to 3514 μg/kg with a mean of 1974 μg/kg. The total concentration of ∑ PCBs ranged from 2.5 to 12 μg/kg with a mean of 4.5 μg/kg. Data analyses allowed to state that the PAHs in surface soils near a landfill were principally from pyrogenic sources. Due to air transport, PAHs forming at the landfill are transported outside the landfill. PCB origin is not connected with the landfill. Aroclor 1242 can be the source of PCBs in several samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Ability of bacterial biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356 to catalyse oxygenation of ortho-hydroxychlorobiphenyls formed from PCBs by plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Macková, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Sylvestre, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 127, - (2004), s. 41-48 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/01/1292 Grant - others:Natural Science and Engineering Research(CA) RGPIN39579-02; NATO Collaborative linkage(XE) SA(EST.GLC.977477)5941SA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : PCB degradation * biphenyl dioxygenases * enzyme specificity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.205, year: 2004

  18. Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 μg g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 μg g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 μg g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination.

  19. REGULATORY STRATEGIES TO MINIMIZE GENERATION OF REGULATED WASTES FROM CLEANUP, CONTINUED USE OR DECOMMISSIONING OF NUCLEAR FACILITIES CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) - 11198

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N.

    2010-11-05

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of {ge} 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  20. Regulatory Strategies To Minimize Generation Of Regulated Wastes From Cleanup, Continued Use Or Decommissioning Of Nuclear Facilities Contaminated With Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) - 11198

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, N.

    2010-01-01

    Disposal costs for liquid PCB radioactive waste are among the highest of any category of regulated waste. The high cost is driven by the fact that disposal options are extremely limited. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) regulations require most liquids with PCBs at concentration of (ge) 50 parts-per-million to be disposed by incineration or equivalent destructive treatment. Disposal fees can be as high as $200 per gallon. This figure does not include packaging and the cost to transport the waste to the disposal facility, or the waste generator's labor costs for managing the waste prior to shipment. Minimizing the generation of liquid radioactive PCB waste is therefore a significant waste management challenge. PCB spill cleanups often generate large volumes of waste. That is because the removal of PCBs typically requires the liberal use of industrial solvents followed by a thorough rinsing process. In a nuclear facility, the cleanup process may be complicated by the presence of radiation and other occupational hazards. Building design and construction features, e.g., the presence of open grating or trenches, may also complicate cleanup. In addition to the technical challenges associated with spill cleanup, selection of the appropriate regulatory requirements and approach may be challenging. The TSCA regulations include three different sections relating to the cleanup of PCB contamination or spills. EPA has also promulgated a separate guidance policy for fresh PCB spills that is published as Subpart G of 40 CFR 761 although it is not an actual regulation. Applicability is based on the circumstances of each contamination event or situation. Other laws or regulations may also apply. Identification of the allowable regulatory options is important. Effective communication with stakeholders, particularly regulators, is just as important. Depending on the regulatory path that is taken, cleanup may necessitate the generation of large quantities of regulated waste

  1. Air-sea Exchange of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G. P.; Heil, A.; Kukucka, P.; Meixner, F. X.; Mulder, M. D.; Prybilova, P.; Prokes, R.; Rusina, T. S.; Song, G. Z.; Vrana, B.

    2015-12-01

    The marine atmospheric environment is a receptor for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which are advected from sources on land, primary, such as biomass burning by-products (PAHs, dioxins), and secondary, such as volatilization from contaminated soils (PCBs, pesticides). Primary sources do not exist in the marine environment, except for PAHs (ship engines) but following previous atmospheric deposition, the sea surface may turn to a secondary source by reversal of diffusive air-sea mass exchange. No monitoring is in place. We studied the vertical fluxes of a wide range of primary and secondary emitted POPs based on measurements in air and surface seawater at a remote coastal site in the eastern Mediterranean (2012). To this end, silicon rubbers were used as passive water samplers, vertical concentration gradients were determined in air and fluxes were quantified based on Eddy covariance. Diffusive air-sea exchange fluxes of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and semivolatile PAHs were found close to phase equilibrium, except one PAH, retene, a wood burning tracer, was found seasonally net-volatilisational. Some PCBs, p,p'-DDE, penta- and hexachlorobenzene (PeCB, HCB) were mostly net-depositional, while PBDEs were net-volatilizational. Fluxes determined at a a remote coastal site ranged -33 - +2.4 µg m-2 d-1 for PAHs and -4.0 - +0.3 µg m-2 d-1for halogenated compounds ( 0 means net-volatilization). It is concluded that nowadays in open seas more pollutants are undergoing reversal of the direction of air-sea exchange. Recgional fire activity records in combination with box model simulations suggest that deposition of retene during summer is followed by a reversal of air-sea exchange. The seawater surface as secondary source of pollution should be assessed based on flux measurements across seasons and over longer time periods.

  2. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  3. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 193, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 22-28 ISSN 0269-7491 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0055; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : Eisenia andrei * PCDD/Fs * Calreticulin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.143, year: 2014

  4. Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Bigda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/tcoke, while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDD/F emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  6. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  8. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J. [ESR:Environmental, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

  9. Base catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.J.; Kornel, A.; Sparks, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    There are vast amounts of toxic and hazardous chemicals, which have pervaded our environment during the past fifty years, leaving us with serious, crucial problems of remediation and disposal. The accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), ''dioxins'' and pesticides in soil sediments and living systems is a serious problem that is receiving considerable attention concerning the cancer-causing nature of these synthetic compounds.US EPA scientists developed in 1989 and 1990 two novel chemical Processes to effect the dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents, PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, PCP and other pollutants in soil, sludge, sediment and liquids. This improved technology employs hydrogen as a nucleophile to replace halogens on halogenated compounds. Hydrogen as nucleophile is not influenced by steric hinderance as with other nucleophile where complete dehalogenation of organohalogens can be achieved. This report discusses catalyzed decomposition of toxic and hazardous chemicals

  10. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    OpenAIRE

    Georgieva Stanislava; Stancheva Mona; Makedonski Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE) were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus), golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus) and silverside (Atherina boyeri). Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near...

  11. PCBS AND TIGHT JUNCTION EXPRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Eum, Sung Yong; András, Ibolya E.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a broad range of adverse biological effects including neurotoxicity. The mechanisms by which PCBs cause neurotoxic effects are still not completely understood. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical and metabolic barrier separating brain microenvironment from the peripheral circulation and is mainly composed of endothelial cells connected by tight junctions. We examined the effects of several highly-chlorinated PCB congeners on expression ...

  12. Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (Σ(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of pollutions since recent long-term measurements at the same sites indicate that the atmospheric PCB concentrations are close to baseline. Emissions from an old landfill of waste and/or great fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries

  13. Organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, DDTs, HCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Stanislava

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of organochlorine compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB and hexachlorobutadiene (HBDE were determined in three fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, golden grey mullet (Mugil auratus and silverside (Atherina boyeri. Samples were collected from the Lake Varna and the Lake Beloslav in 2014. The edible fish tissues were analyzed in order to investigate the presence of pollutants in species from the lakes near Varna City, Bulgaria and compared the results to the levels in other aquatic ecosystems. The fifteen congeners of PCBs, HCB, HCBD, DDT and its two main metabolites DDE and DDD were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. The OCPs levels in the wild fish were found in the order DDTs > PCBs. The other contaminants HCB and HCBD were not detected or were below the analytical detection limit. Among the pesticides, essentially only the metabolites p, p’- DDE and p, p’- DDD were found.

  14. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  15. Occurrence and spatial distribution of chemical contaminants in edible fish species collected from UK and proximate marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Holmes, M; Rose, M; Zhihua, L; Huang, X; Smith, F; Panton, S; Marshall, L

    2018-03-06

    The occurrence of a range of regulated and emerging organic environmental contaminants was investigated in 182 samples of edible marine fish sampled mainly from UK marine regions, but extending northerly to the coast of Norway and south to the Algarve. These species (sprats, mackerel, turbot, halibut, herring, grey mullet, sea bass, grey mullet, sardines, etc.) are among those considered to be at the highest risk of contamination with regulated contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but the occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) was also investigated. Sub-sets of samples (50-75) were also analysed for emerging contaminants: polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated and mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls (PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs and PXBs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Contaminant occurrence varied with species and location, but all measured contaminants were detected, with sprats, sea bass, sardines, mackerel, and herring showing higher tissue concentrations. The concentrations of the different contaminants in the various samples were mapped utilising the GPS coordinate data of the capture locations to visualise spatial distribution levels. In terms of catch location, fish sampled from the coasts of southern Britain, north-western France and the Irish Sea appeared to contain proportionately higher levels of some contaminants - e.g. samples from the Irish Sea tended to show higher PCN concentrations, whereas higher levels of PCBs were observed in some fish sampled off the coasts of northern France. Similarly, samples of mullet from the southeast coast of UK showed much higher concentrations of BDE-99 than the other regions. In terms of occurrence trends, PCDD/F and PCB concentrations show a modest decline over the last decade but where limited background data is available for emerging

  16. Maldives: An archipelago that burns. A first survey of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from human activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.colombo@marionegri.it [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS — Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Milano (Italy); Bettinetti, Roberta [Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, via Dunant 3, Varese, VA (Italy); Strona, Giovanni [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via Enrico Fermi 1, I-21020 Ispra, VA (Italy); Cambria, Felice; Fanelli, Roberto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS — Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri”, Milano (Italy); Zubair, Zameer [CDE Consulting, Orchidmaage, Ameeru Ahmed Magu, 20095 Malé (Maldives); Galli, Paolo [Department of Theoretical and Applied Sciences, University of Insubria, via Dunant 3, Varese, VA (Italy); MaRHE Center (Marine Research and High Education Centre), Magoodhoo Island, Faafu Atoll (Maldives)

    2014-11-01

    Due to its geographical peculiarities, the Republic of Maldives represents a case study of great interest for the investigation of persistent organic pollutants, from both a socio-economic and an ecological perspective. Thus, we conducted a first survey to assess the current status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in Maldivian soils. The range for PCDD/F and DL-PCB soil concentrations was 0.01–49.3 pg WHO{sub 2005}-TEQ g{sup −1} and 0.01–3.69 pg WHO{sub 2005}-TEQ g{sup −1} dw respectively. PCDD/F concentrations exceeding several international soil guidelines were found in samples from locations in the proximity of local waste combustion sources. DL-PCB concentrations were lower than PCDD/Fs and comparable to those in previous reports from background areas and in areas with developing industrial and agricultural activities. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels (expressed as WHO{sub 2005}-TEQ) in soils were strongly correlated (r = 0.89), which suggests that, in most of the sites, they are originated from the same emission sources. Results indicate that PCDD/F soil concentrations (expressed as WHO{sub 2005}-TEQ) tend to decrease with the distance from the local pollution sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PCDD/Fs in the most polluted locations are mainly generated by waste combustion. These findings highlight the need for immediate changes in waste management policies in the Archipelago, in order to reduce the release of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the fragile local environment. - Highlights: • PCDD/F concentrations were higher in the proximity local waste combustion sources. • DL-PCB concentrations are markedly lower than PCDD/Fs. • PCDD/F and DL-PCB concentrations are well correlated. • PCDD/F concentration decrease with the distance from local sources. • PCA identified the PCDD/F pollution source in the most

  17. Use of tritium-labeled PCBs for investigation of PCBs biodegradation by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Takhtobiri, K.S.; Yadgarov, H.T.; Zinovev, P. V.; Abdukarimov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The method for tritium labelling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The strains of soil bacteria - destructors of chloro organic compounds was studied with the help of test-system based on the using of tritium-labeled PCBs. The strains of bacteria were grown on the agar synthetic medium and then were introduced into the synthetic medium containing tritium-labeled mixture of PCBs (commercial mark - SOVOL) as alone source of carbon. The samples were analysed after one and two months period of incubation. PCBs were extracted by hexane from fraction of bacteria and fraction of cultural medium and radioactivity was measured. The samples were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with following radioautography. Additionally samples were analyzed by gas chromatography. It was found that all selected strains survived in the medium with PCBs as alone source of carbon and bacteria accumulated PCBs from cultural medium. Accumulation of PCBs by strains of bacteria was different. The TLC analysis detected additional compounds labeled by tritium, that prove the degradation of PCBs in presence of bacteria. The gas chromatography analysis of cultural medium and bacteria detected redistribution in the system and qualitative changes of PCBs in bacteria. The strains of bacteria also were grown in model condition on the soil with tritium labeled PCBs. We found that some strains effectively destroy PCBs with decreasing level of tritium label in the soil. The using of tritium labeled PCBs' allows to introduce precise quantitative characteristics for study of accumulation and biodegradation PCBs by soil bacteria strains. Developed test-system is very useful tool for selection of new strains of soil bacteria - destructors of PCBs

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a river ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremle, G.

    1997-03-01

    In the Emaan River, in southeast Sweden, contaminated sediment was a source of PCB, the largest deposits of it being found in a small lake connected to the river: lake Jaernsjoen, the sediment of which contained about 400 kg of PCB. The concentration of PCB in the water and in the fish was more elevated downstream from the lake than at upstream sites. Lake Jaernsjoen was cleaned up by dredging during 1993 and 1994. The dredged sediment, estimated to contain over 95% of the PCB in the lake, was deposited in a landfill. During the cleanup action, the concentration of PCB downstream from the lake did not become higher than before. The PCB concentration in the air around the landfill increased in the vicinity and during construction of the landfill. After closure of the landfill by a layer placed on top of it, the PCB concentration in the air fell to background levels. No increase in the PCB concentration in the ground water around the landfill as a result of the remedial action could be detected. In the summer of 1996, nearly two years after remediation had been completed, an investigation of the PCB concentration in the fish of the river system was conducted. This investigation was a repetition of one made in 1991, prior to remediation. It showed that after remediation the concentration of PCB in one-year old fish in Lake Jaernsjoen was halved. The concentration of PCB in fish upstream was also lower, probably because of the decrease in overall background contamination. 155 refs, 13 figs

  19. Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmann, F.; Chen, W. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-06-05

    Highly substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be very resistant to aerobic biodegradation, particularly the initial attack by biphenyl dioxygenase. Functional evolution of the substrate specificity of biphenyl dioxygenase was demonstrated by DNA shuffling and staggered extension process (StEP) of the bphA gene coding for the large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase. Several variants with an extended substrate range for PCBs were selected. In contrast to the parental biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707, which preferentially recognize either ortho-(LB400) or para-(KF707) substituted PCBs, several variants degraded both congeners to about the same extent. These variants also exhibited superior degradation capabilities toward several tetra- and pentachlorinated PCBs as well as commercial PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 or Aroclor 1254. Sequence analysis confirmed that most variants contained at least four to six template switches. All desired variants contained the Thr335Ala and Phe336lle substitutions confirming the importance of this critical region in substrate specificity. These results suggest that the block-exchange nature of gene shuffling between a diverse class of dioxygenases may be the most useful approach for breeding novel dioxygenases for PCB degradation in the desired direction.

  20. New certified and candidate certified reference materials for the analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, OCPs and BFRs in the environment and food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Cleuvenbergen, van R.; Abalos, M.; Pasini, A.L.; Eriksson, U.; Cleemann, M.; Hajslova, J.; Boer, de J.

    2006-01-01

    Three new matrix-type certified reference materials (CRMs) have been produced for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sterilized and wet (shell) fish matrices - BCR-682 (PCBs in mussels), BCR-718 (PCBs in herring) and BCR-719 (non-ortho PCBs in chub). Additional feasibility studies have been carried

  1. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs and dibenzofurans (PCDFs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and polybrominated ethers (PBDEs, chloronaftalens (PCNs, and bisphenol A (BPA, are stable, lipophilic pollutants that affect fertility and cause serious reproductive problems, including ovotoxic action, lack of ovulation, premature ovarian failure (POF, or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS. Most of the representatives of POPs influence the activation of transcription factors, not only activation of aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, but also the steroid hormone receptors. This minireview will focus on a variety of PAH activities in oocyte, ovary, placenta, and mammary gland. The complexity and diversity of factors belonging to POPs and disorders of the reproductive function of women indicate that the impact of environmental pollution as an important determinant factor in fertility should not be minimize.

  2. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and deiodinase activity in young infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, Shalini D.; Berghuis, Sietske A.; Visser, Theo J.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Several studies have shown effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on serum thyroid hormone levels in pregnant woman and their infants, while other studies did not find such effects. How PCBs might affect thyroid hormone metabolism, is still unclear. Potential mechanisms are direct

  4. Congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls and the effect on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of freshwater as a point source of PCBs contributing to a marine outfall region. Inflowing and outflowing water from the North End Lake, Port Elizabeth, was collected to determine the contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Mussels at the outflow to the sea were also ...

  5. Photochemical of Polychlorinated biphenyl by the photolysis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pressure mercury lamp. The whole Lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling the temperature at 32 ± 2 °C. The Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed by GC/ECD. The degradation of PCBs in terms of one, two and three lamp ...

  6. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB-mixtures in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Cenijn, P.H.; Palkova, L.; Simeckova, P.; Vondracek, J.; Andersson, P.L.; Stenberg, M.; Machala, M.

    2011-01-01

    The toxic equivalency concept used for the risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of coplanar dioxin-like (DL) PCBs. Most PCBs in the environment, however, are non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs that cannot adopt a coplanar

  7. Interplay of metals and bromine with dioxin-related compounds concentrated in e-waste open burning soil from Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Itai, Takaaki; Goto, Akitoshi; Asante, Kwadwo A; Otsuka, Masanari; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-02-01

    Open burning of electronic waste (e-waste) releases various metals and organohalogen compounds in the environment. Here we investigated the interplay of metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Co, and Sr) and bromine (Br) in the formation of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs), as well as non-regulated DRCs such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) and their monobrominated PCDD/Fs in soils sampled from open burning e-waste sites at Agbogbloshie in Accra, Ghana. The predominant DRCs were PBDFs, PCDFs, PCDDs, and DL-PCBs. Statistical analyzes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and the PCDF/PCDD ratio suggested possible formation paths of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs by catalytic behaviors of copper chlorides (CuCl, CuCl2, and Cu2(OH)3Cl) and thermal breakdown of polyvinyl chloride. Predominant formation of brominated furans may be derived from electron transfer from intermediates of PBDE to copper, Cu(II) → Cu(I). Lead chloride also contributed to generate DRCs and may become highly bioaccessible through the open burning of e-waste. The main zinc species (ZnCl2 and ZnS) suggested a possible relationship to generate DRCs and specific zinc source such as tire burning. Cu, Pb, Zn, and Br contained in various e-wastes, wires/cables, plastics, and tires strongly influenced generation of many DRCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  9. Associations of dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs with diabetes and pre-diabetes: is the toxic equivalency approach useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2012-10-01

    Toxic equivalency factors for dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been established by the World Health Organization. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was derived using 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls, in blood, from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Relationships of 8 individual chemicals, the number of compounds elevated, and TEQ with pre-diabetes and total diabetes (diagnosed and undiagnosed) were investigated using logistic regressions. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds, values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Pre-diabetes with glycohemoglobin (A1c) 5.9-6.4% was associated with PCB 126, PCB 118 and having one or more compounds elevated (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.51-4.06). Pre-diabetes with A1c 5.7-5.8% was not associated with any individual chemical or the number of compounds elevated. Total diabetes was associated with 6 of the 8 individual compounds tested, and was associated with having 4 or more compounds elevated. Toxic equivalency ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g was associated with total diabetes (odds ratio 3.08, 95% CI 1.20-7.90), but was not associated with A1c 5.9-6.4%. Having multiple compounds elevated appeared to be important for total diabetes, whereas for pre-diabetes with A1c 5.9-6.4%, having a single compound elevated appeared most important. Diabetes plus A1c ≥5.9% was associated with 34.16-81.57 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.00, 95% CI 1.06-3.77) and with ≥81.58 TEQ fg/g (odds ratio 2.48, 95% CI 1.21-5.11), indicating that half the population has elevated risk for this combination of conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  11. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  12. Non-Dioxin-Like PCBs: Effects and Consideration In Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    An estimated one million metric tons of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors (USA), Kanechlors (Japan) and Clophens (Germany), were manufactured (WHO, 1993) and used worldwide as dielectric fluids

  13. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  14. Correlation between the concentration of serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys and their offspring's behavioral scores in eye-contact test and finger maze learning test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negishi, T. [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Takasuga, T. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Kawasaki, K. [Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Kuroda, Y. [CREST Japan Science and Technology Corp., Saitama (Japan); Yoshikawa, Y. [The Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    A recent review suggested that pre- or perinatal exposure of developing fetuses to dioxins, the widespread environmental contaminants, such as polychrorinated biphenlys (PCBs), induce the irreversible abnormalities in the functions of central nervous system (CNS) in human. These chemicals can be transferred to each fetus and naonate transplacentally and lactationally in rhesus monkey. Several studies also reported the adverse effect of PCB on CNS development in rodents and monkeys as well as on behavior in rodents and monkeys. In the present study, we show a preliminary data about the correlation between the serum concentrations of PCBs in pregnant cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) and the scores of two behavioral tests, eye-contact test and four-step finger maze test, which evaluate consciousness against human observer and learning ability, respectively, in their offspring. This experimental surveillance system using non-human primates would be useful to predict the risk of PCBs exposure in human fetuses because of the similarities of cynomolgus monkey to human with regard to reproduction, developmental parameter, and others.

  15. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN...

  16. Fetal exposure to PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites in a Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Athanasiadou, M.; Hovander, L.; Bergman, A.; Sauer, P. J. J.

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still the most abundant pollutants in wildlife and humans. Hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) are known to be formed in humans and wildlife. Studies in animals show that these metabolites cause endocrine-related toxicity. The health effects in humans have not

  17. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Asilian; Reza Gholamnia; Abbas Rezaee; Ahmad Jonidi Jafari; Ali Khavanin; Elmira Darabi

    2010-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume) reactor...

  18. Dioxins in Dutch vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerbrugge R; Bakker MI; Hijman WC; Boer AC den; Hartog RS den; Baumann RA; LAC; LVM; SIR

    2004-01-01

    The exposure to dioxins (including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls) occurs predominantly via the intake of food. The main contribution to the total intake originates from the consumption of animal fat. Nevertheless, vegetables were estimated

  19. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...

  20. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); S. Patandin (Svati); G.A.M. Berbers (Guy); T.C.J. Sas (Theo); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  2. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  3. Assessment of environmental data of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a methodological approach for a cross-media analysis and for balance sheets of material cycles; Auswahl und Bewertung von Daten aus Umweltbeobachtungsprogrammen zur Bilanzierung von polychlorierten Biphenylen. Modelltheoretische Ansaetze der Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knetsch, Gerlinde

    2011-12-09

    The subject of this study is to develop methodological approaches for a cross-media analysis and an integrated concept of environmental data with the aim of deriving environmental balances. Based on data from more than 100 sectoral monitoring programs of Federal Laender, institutes and agencies for the substance group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the data of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are used for an cross-media evaluation procedure and ultimately necessary for the assessment of the environmental state and PCB-footprints in the environment. It has been developed a model that allows the balancing methodology for cross-media environmental monitoring. The requirements for a technical integration include the quality assurance of environmental monitoring data and the parameterization for the balances to design a comprehensive approach to environmental balancing. This study asks which criteria for a cross-media assessment and an integrative approach are necessary and relevant to the target system and how the integrated concept can control the knowledge-based methods. The criteria have technical and spatial / temporal information combined with a functional level. A reference system for POPs is to be considered for the optimization of existing and future environmental programs and can be applied to other groups of substances. A cardinal question is how the harmonization and standardization of heterogeneous data is possible because these data were collected for different tasks and objectives. The first requirements are to define the quality assurance procedures. The conventions and constraints of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are discussed which can be used for studies of material flows between the various environmental compartments and for balancing. An assessment of national and international standards takes place to examine the technical potential for integration of data, and highlights the information technology level critically. Current data models

  4. RADIATION DEGRADATION OF PCBS IN SEDIMENTS: COMPARISON OF TWO METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Darážová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls are toxic compounds which have accumulated in river sediments in Eastern Slovakia. Bioaccumulation could cause even cancer. Radiation degradation with electrons is new and perspective method to dechlorinate PCBs in sediment matrix. We tested the influence of two difference chemical pretreatments and electron irradiation on PCB contaminated sediments.

  5. Leaching behavior of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans from the fly ash and bottom ash of a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuhara, Akio; Katami, Takeo

    2007-01-01

    The leaching behavior of dioxins from landfill containing bottom ash and fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration has been investigated by leaching tests with pure water, non-ionic surfactant solutions, ethanol solutions, or acetic acid solutions as elution solvents for a large-scale cylindrical column packed with ash. Larger amounts of dioxins were eluted from both bottom ash and fly ash with ethanol solution and acetic acid solution than with pure water. Large quantities of dioxins were leached from fly ash but not bottom ash by non-ionic surfactant solutions. The patterns of distribution of the dioxin congeners in the leachates were very similar to those in the bottom ash or fly ash from which they were derived.

  6. Transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) from soils with different levels of contamination to crops and forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huelster, A.

    1994-01-01

    This work consisted in a systematic investigation of the transfer of PCDD/PCDF to different crops and forage crops. Most of the tests were carried through on plants in the field or potted plants near a former works for low-temperature carbonization of cables at Crailsheim-Maulach. The field tests covered six levels of PCDD/PCDF soil contamination with concentrations ranging from 4.8 ng I-TEq per kilogramme of soil to 12800 ng I/TEq per kilogramme of soil (I-TEq:PCDD/PCDF concentrations calculated as international equivalents of toxicity). The vessel tests were carried through with special regard to the influence of different soil properties on the soil-to-plant transfer of PCDD/PCDF. For this reason not only soils from Maulach were used, which stand out by a high proportion of organic material and a high cation exchange capacity, but, in addition, two equally PCDD/PCDF-contaminated soils from Rastatt and Eppingen which are less rich in humus. Contamination of the soil of the test vessels ranged from 2.0 to 5335 ng I-TEq per kilogramme of soil. During the first year of test, the emphasis was mainly on the transfer from soil to plant; during the second and third year the importance of atmospheric PCDD/PCDF deposition was to be assessed as well. (EF)

  7. Concentrations of and health risks posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans around industrial sites in Hebei Province, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2016-01-01

    plants in Hebei Province, China, were determined. Forty-six soil samples were collected at distances from 500 to 9000 m from industrial plant chimneys. The concentrations of total 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F congeners in the soil samples from sites A, B, C, and D were in the range 11-130, 13-284, 2.......6-378, and 21-231 pg/g, respectively, and the internationally accepted toxic equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations were 0.37-13.2, 0.31-12.1, 0.13-13.7, and 1.60-22.7 pg I-TEQ/g, respectively. Soil ingestion was estimated the major exposure pathway to PCDD/Fs. At current PCDD/F concentrations, the local population...... will be exposed to low amounts of PCDD/Fs in soil from around the industrial sites, and this exposure will pose potential health risks for the local population living at distances of less than 1000 m from nearest stack but will have no high health risks for people living further away. These results...

  8. Modelling the intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: impact of energy under-reporting and number of reporting days in dietary surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, Tero; Sinkko, Harri; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Pietinen, Pirjo; Valsta, Liisa; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2010-08-01

    A probabilistic long-term intake estimation of dioxins was carried out using food consumption data obtained from the National FINDIET 2007 Survey (Paturi et al. 2008). The study population consisted of 606 participants who were first interviewed with a 48-h recall and then filled in a 3-day food record twice. The concentrations of dioxins were obtained from previously published studies. The intake was estimated using a semi-parametric Monte Carlo simulation. The analyses were done separately for the whole study population and for the population excluding energy under-reporters. To diminish the impact of intra-individual variation and nuisance effects, adjustment with software (C-SIDE) was also done after Monte Carlo simulation. It was found that when C-SIDE was used, the 95th percentile of intake and its confidence limit was higher with 2 reporting days than with a higher number of days. However, with a crude intake estimation (no adjustment), the confidence intervals of the 95th percentile were also smaller with a higher number of days, but the 95th percentiles were higher with a higher number of reporting days. When under-reporters were excluded the intakes increased, but the impact of energy under-reporting was smaller with 8 reporting days than with 2 days and smaller using C-SIDE than with a crude estimation. To conclude, adjustment for intra-individual variation and taking energy under-reporting into account are essential for intake estimation of dioxins with food consumption data of a limited number of reporting days.

  9. Triple domain in situ sorption modeling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorobiphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in aquatic sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Kaag, N.H.B.M.; Sneekes, A.C.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    Here we analyze the potential of black carbon (BC) and oil-inclusive models to explain in situ sorption of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD), organochlorine pesticides (OCP), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), polyaromatic hydrocarbons

  10. 2,3,7,8-Dibenzo-P-Dioxins in Mined Clay Products from the U.S.: Evidence for Possible Natural Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball clay was the source of dioxin contamination discovered in selected chickens analyzed as part of a joint U.S. Department of Agriculture/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national survey of the U.S. poultry supply conducted in 1997. The affected animals, which had been rai...

  11. Increased oxidative/nitrosative stress markers measured non- invasively in patients with high 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin plasma level

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Fenclová, Z.; Vlčková, Š.; Kupka, K.; Urban, P.; Ridzoň, P.; Zikán, V.; Landová, L.; Syslová, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2011), s. 71-76 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : dioxin * MDA * HNE Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.296, year: 2011

  12. Colloid facilitated transport of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) to the groundwater at Ma Da area, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thilo; Wendelborn, Anke

    2007-06-01

    PCDD/Fs are hydrophobic organic substances and strongly sorbing to soil particles. Once adsorbed to soil particles they are believed to be virtually immobile. However, research in the last decades confirmed that strong sorbing contaminants may reach the groundwater via colloid-facilitated transport. This pathway has not been investigated before in Vietnam. Ma Da area, 100 km north of Ho Chi Minh City, was repeatedly sprayed during the Vietnam War (1962-1971) with herbicides like Agent Orange containing, beside others, the teratogenic contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). 11 surface soil samples and 12 water samples were collected in Ma Da area for analysis of PCDD/Fs in solids. Soil TCDD concentrations ranged from 1-41 ppt with a mean of 8.8 ppt and a mean I-TEQ of 9.7 ppt. Two surface water samples showed colloid bound TCDD (7 and 19 ppt). Groundwater samples showed elevated colloid bound PCDD concentrations (mean 770 ng/kg), mainly octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. Groundwater colloids separated by filtration did not show any TCDD. The results support that TCDD/Fs can be relocated from the top soil to the groundwater by colloidal pathway. They did not provide evidence that the dioxins bound to groundwater colloids are leftovers from the Second Indochinese War. However, this study reinforces that the colloidal transport pathway has to be included investigating the relocation of strong sorbing organic contaminants.

  13. Impact of forest fires on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in coastal waters of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, Marco; Chandía, Cristian; Hernández, Aldo

    2016-12-15

    The relationship between the occurrence of forest fires in central Chile and the total concentration of dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) in nearby coastal waters was analyzed. The data for this analysis was obtained from a long-term environmental monitoring program (PROMNA) in the Bio-Bio Region. Quantification of PCDD/F was performed using HRGC/HRMS at the MSS laboratory in England. Between 2006 and 2014, peaks were observed in February 2007 and 2012. These concentration maxima coincided with major forest fires in the Bio-Bio Region and particularly with those in the Itata River Basin. The January 2012 fires generated an intense short-term response that was associated with atmospheric transport which increases medium toxicity furan-type congeners concentrations (TCDF, PCDF and HxCDF) and six months later a concentration increase of low toxicity dioxin-type congeners was observed (OCDD, HpCDD and HxCDD) coinciding with maximum winter river flow. These results suggest that forest fires near the coastal zone are responsible for increases in PCDD/F concentration observed in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Contamination of a municipal sewage system with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) with precipitation. Phase 1 (1990-1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, M.S.; Reissinger, M.; Horstmann, M.; Kaune, A.; Buresch, H.; Hutzinger, O.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of the project was to estimate and assess the contamination of a municipal sewerage with PCDD/F through precipitation. Potential sources such as the rainwash of rooves and roads were examined directly. The last stages in the sewage transport are waters or water purification plants. Primary sludge, the most important accumulating compartment for PCDD/F, was also examined. (BBR) [de

  15. Characteristics of air pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the typical industrial areas of Tangshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Pu; Li, Cheng; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2011-01-01

    The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources for PCDD/PCDFs was sampled by TSP/PM10 active samplers and passive PUF disk samplers in Tangshan City, a metropolis containing clusters of various industrial plants. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant contributor to sigma TEQ, contributing 41% (12% to 55%), while 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF were the major congeners for the total concentrations. The ratios of sigma PCDF/ sigma PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The similarities congener profiles indicated that TSP and PM10 active sampling methods are comparable for the determination of the PCDD/PCDFs in ambient air, and the ratios of concentrations determined by the two methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. It was found that 2,3,7,8-TCDF and OCDD were the dominating congeners in the passive PUF disks samples. Through principal components analysis, the coke industry was suggested to be a relatively high potential emission source for PCDD/PCDFs in the ambient air of Tangshan, which was possibly formed by de novo synthesis mechanism. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows (from high to low): coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.

  16. Comparison of PCBs and PAHs levels in European coastal waters using mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex as biomonitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olenycz, M.; Sokolowski, A.; Niewinska, A.; Wolowicz, M.; Namiesnik, J.; Hummel, H.; Jansen, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels from the Mytilus edulis complex were used as biomonitors for two groups of organic pollutants: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, congeners: 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene,

  17. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls – toxicity and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kmetič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic organochlorine compounds differing by their physico-chemical and toxicological properties and tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnificate in the environment and within the food chain. Consequently, humans may be exposed through contaminated drinking water and food, mainly fish, meat and dairy products. Production and usage of PCBs are restricted according to legislation and preventive measures in most of EU countries. In the Republic of Croatia the risk is still present due to military activities during the Patriotic War (1991-1995 when the industrial, electric power and other facilities were largely damaged resulting in leakage of PCBs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement further strategies for identifying contaminated sites and for their remediation in an environmentally sound manner. Additionally, there is a need for safe disposal of PCBs sources including stepwise monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs level in accordance with Croatian national plan for implementation of the Stockholm Convention. So far, numerous researches indicate a variety of adverse effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. Many of these compounds are potential endocrine disrupters causing reproductive dysfunctions. Toxic properties and potencies of PCB congeners generally depend upon the presence of chlorine atom in ortho position, whereas planar non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted PCB congeners are considered to be more toxic. Structural similarities between planar congeners and dioxins explain their mechanism of action mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, while non-planar PCBs appear to be weak antagonists of AhR. Some of PCBs' toxic effects are not resulting from the AhR activation, e.g. ortho-substituted PCBs can cause toxicity by other mechanisms. Influence of PCBs on human health and on health of certain members of the populations

  19. PCBs in various Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  20. Fetal exposure markers of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Erik; Eguchi, Akifumi; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2018-02-15

    Fetal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been associated with a number of adverse health outcomes. Although the placenta acts as a barrier between the mother and the fetus, these contaminants transfer through the placenta exposing the fetus. Several studies have investigated placental transfer, but few have assessed the co-variation among these contaminants. Maternal blood, cord blood, and cord tissue were collected from 41 Japanese mother-infant pairs and analyzed for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Hierarchical cluster analysis followed by principal component analysis were used to assess the co-variation. Two stable clusters of dioxin-like PCBs were found in maternal and cord blood. One cluster of low/medium chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs was present in all three matrices with 2,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#118) and 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB(#126) explaining the majority of the clusters' variances. Medium/high chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs clustered in maternal blood and cord blood but not in cord tissue. 2,3,4,4',5-PeCB(#114) and 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-HpCB(#189) explained the majority of the clusters' variances. There was a substantial correlation between the sum of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCDD/F in all three matrices. The sum of the four suggested PCBs plus 3,3',4,4'-TeCB(#77) correlated well with total PCDD/F in all three matrices. Apart from the dioxin-like PCBs, little co-variation existed among the studied contaminants. The five PCBs can be used as fetal exposure markers for dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs in maternal and cord blood respectively. In cord tissue, more higher chlorinated dioxin-like PCBs need to be measured as well.

  1. A Research Study to Investigate PCBs in School Buildings: Final Research Plan. EPA 600/R-10/074

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that were manufactured in the United States between about 1930 and 1977 for use in various industrial and commercial applications because of their nonflammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulation properties (ATSDR, 2000). PCBs were used in numerous products…

  2. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.185 Section 761.185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs)...

  3. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div., TN (United States); Abramowicz, D.A. [General Electric Co. Corporate Research and Development, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  4. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL's effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site

  5. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  6. Production of metabolites from chloro biphenyls by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400 after growth on different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.A.; Ward, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), when exposed to microorganisms, into chlorobenzoic acid metabolites was studied. PCBs are widely used in electrical transformers and have become widely dispersed in the environment. A proposed system for clean up of PCBs involves the combined use of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated congeners followed by aerobic degradation of moderately chlorinated PCBs, mediated by oxidative ring attack. Much of this work focused on biphenyl-grown cells, in particular Pseudomonas strain LB400 grown on biphenyl, which contains a multicomponent enzyme system. It was shown that resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400, grown on glycerol or glucose, could also transform purified PCB congeners and mixtures of PCBs in Aroclors, however, transformation rates were less than those observed with biphenyl-grown cells. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R

    2015-04-28

    Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl in fish samples from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Several fish samples from the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish species analyzed include Tilapia zilli (red belly Tilapia), Ethmalosa fimbriata. (Bonga shad) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish). Eight PCB congeners were identified and.

  10. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantunen, A.P.K.; Koelmans, A.A.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2010-01-01

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped

  11. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Meulman, B.; Meijer, T.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2009-01-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to

  12. Levels of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the presence and concentration of chloride, phosphate, lambda-cyhalothrin and polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method to discern contamination of selected herbal remedies. Sampling was carefully carried out in Northwest Nigeria. The chloride and the ...

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl in fish samples from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several fish samples from the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish species analyzed include Tilapia zilli (red belly Tilapia), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bonga shad) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish). Eight PCB congeners were identified and quantified in ...

  14. State of the art and advances in the impact assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo; Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent organic pollutants that are able to enter the food chain, accumulate in the fat tissues of animals, and consequently pose a serious risk for human health. Consolidated tools for exposure assessment have been implemented during the last decades and widely used, both in the environmental monitoring and in modeling activities. Although the emissive trend and the concentrations in the environment have gradually decreased during the last 20 years, some situations are still underrated and not adequately controlled by the environmental legislation. On the other hand, a complete monitoring of all the pathways of exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs is technically and economically unfeasible. Therefore, this paper aims at providing an overview of the traditional approaches used to assess the impacts of PCDD/Fs and PCBs and presenting the novelties introduced during the last years. After an initial characterization of their toxicity and their effects on health, this paper focuses on activities and situations that can result in critical releases of PCDD/Fs and PCBs into the atmosphere and that can represent a hidden threat for the population. In the final part, this study presents the current methodologies for exposure assessment, summarizes the food chain models in a unified way, and puts the light on new methods that can help environmental scientists, risk assessors, and decision makers to estimate the risk related to exposure to PCDD/Fs in different contexts.

  15. The status of soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Quanying [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)], E-mail: cai_quanying@yahoo.com; Mo Cehui [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.cn; Wu Qitang [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Katsoyiannis, Athanasios [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,), TP-281, Via E. Fermi 1, I-21020 (Italy)], E-mail: athanasios.katsogiannis@jrc.it; Zeng Qiaoyun [College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2008-01-25

    This paper summarizes the published scientific data on the soil contamination by semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in China. Data has been found for more than 150 organic compounds which were grouped into six classes, namely, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and phthalic acid esters (PAEs). An overview of data collected from the literature is presented in this paper. The Chinese regulation and/or other maximum acceptable values for SVOCs were used for the characterization of soils. In general, the compounds that are mostly studied in Chinese soils are OCPs, PAHs and PCBs. According to the studies reviewed here, the most abundant compounds were PAEs and PAHs (up to 46 and 28 mg kg{sup -1} dry weight, respectively); PCBs and OCPs occurred generally at concentrations lower than 100 {mu}g kg{sup -1} dry weight. Nevertheless, quite high concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs were observed in contaminated sites (e.g., the sites affected by electronic waste activities). The average concentrations of PAHs and OCPs in soils of North China were higher than those in South China. The principal component analysis demonstrated different distribution patterns for PAH, PCB and PCDD/F congeners and for the various sites/regions examined. The isomer ratios of DDTs and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) indicated different sources and residue levels in soils. Finally, this review has highlighted several areas where further research is considered necessary.

  16. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.

  17. Leeches as Sensor-bioindicators of River Contamination by PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Macova, Stanislava; Harustiakova, Danka; Kolarova, Jitka; Machova, Jana; Zlabek, Vladimir; Vykusova, Blanka; Randak, Tomas; Velisek, Josef; Poleszczuk, Gorzyslaw; Hajslova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the use of leeches of the genus Erpobdella as a means of assessing polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of watercourses. The River Skalice, heavily contaminated with PCBs, was selected as a model. The source of contamination was a road gravel processing factory in Rožmitál pod Třemšínem from which an estimated 1 metric ton of PCBs leaked in 1986. Levels of PCB were measured in leeches collected between 1992 to 2003 from 11 sites covering about 50 km of t...

  18. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs.

  19. Study and optimization of the biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Poly-chloro-biphenyls (PCBs) during the anaerobic and aerobic digestion of long-term contaminated urban sludge; Etude et optimisation de la biodegradation d'hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques (HAPs) et de polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) au cours de la digestion anaerobie et aerobie de boues urbaines contaminees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trably, E.

    2002-12-15

    This study deals with the behavior of PAHs and PCBs during anaerobic and aerobic digestion of long-term contaminated sludge. Initially, an analytical method of 13 PAHs in sludge was developed to PAH-monitoring in laboratory-scaled bioreactors. For this, the method was optimized and validated for its high accuracy and its high reproducibility. In order to estimate precisely the PAH and PCB biological removal performances of each reactor, it was also proposed a method of analysis of the results based on mass balance. Therefore, it was observed for the first time significant PAHs removal under methanogenic conditions. It was also shown that PAH and PCB removals were limited by the mass transfer kinetics and particularly by the reduction of solids. The anaerobic and aerobic processes were then optimized by improving the PAH diffusion with the enhancement of reactor temperature and with the addition of surfactants and solvent, such as methanol. It was highlighted the great fragility of the methanogenic ecosystems and, on the opposite, the strong potential of the aerobic ecosystem for PAHs biodegradation. Indeed, some aerobic processes were successful in decontaminating sludge significantly (at 45 deg. C or in the presence of methanol). Lastly, the PAH biodegradation was characterized partly by the monitoring of {sup 14}C-radiolabelled compounds and by the molecular identification of the methanogenic archaea species. It was suggested that some archaea microorganisms were implied in PAHs biodegradation under strict anaerobic methanogenic conditions. (author)

  20. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud R

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels, distribution and toxicological potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge samples from several WWTPs in the Alexandria area, Egypt. The POPs of interest were 26 PCBs and 16 OCPs. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) using deuterated organochlorines as internal standards. Total concentrations of OCPs and Σ7 PCBs (ICES) in sludge ranged from 44.2 to 489 μg/kg dw. and 5,600 to 11,000 μg/kg dw., respectively. The highest concentration levels were found for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and HCB, in this order. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. Seasonal variations were observed for OCPs with higher levels in summer, which reflects more usage in warmer climates. Composite profiles of OCP metabolites indicated new inputs of lindane and technical endosulfan and earlier usage of DDT and technical chlordane. Contamination levels of OCPs and PCBs for Egyptian sludge can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other countries worldwide. The OCP content in none of the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for use of sludge in agriculture; while all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were higher by one order of magnitude than the upper limit for land application.

  1. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeok; Lawal, Wasiu; Al-Abed, Souhail R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls

  2. Desorption, partitioning, and dechlorination characteristics of PCBs in sediments in interaction with reactive activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok, E-mail: hchoi@uta.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0308 (United States); Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Lawal, Wasiu [Environmental and Earth Sciences Program, The University of Texas at Arlington, 500 Yates Street, Arlington, TX 76019-0049 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • Problematic aged real PCBs-contaminated sediment (WHS) was examined. • Performance of reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Pd–ZVI was tested. • Fate and transport of PCBs bound to WHS in the presence of RAC was fully traced. • Direct mixing configuration was compared with compartment configuration. • Results reflected real world complexities associated with slow desorption of PCBs. - Abstract: Sediment (WHS) in Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, heavily contaminated and aged with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), was treated with reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles. Lab test proceeded in a direct mixing configuration of RAC and WHS. A compartment configuration, where RAC was physically separated from WHS, was also designed to trace the sequential transport and fate of PCBs, including desorption, adsorption, dechlorination, and re-partitioning. PCBs, once desorbed from WHS, were immediately sequestrated to RAC and subject to dechlorination. Direct mixing of WHS with RAC was one-order of magnitude more effective for dechlorination than compartment configuration. Compared to their desorption-followed by-adsorption route, direct physical contact of RAC with PCBs bound to WHS exhibited negligible contribution to the availability of PCBs for dechlorination reaction. Addition of RAC even in compartment configuration facilitated PCBs desorption from WHS. However, slow desorption of PCBs limited overall performance, resulting in a five-order of magnitude lower dechlorination yield when compared with treatment of purely aqueous PCBs. The low dechlorination yield reflected real world complexities in treating 3.19% organic carbon-containing WHS aged with PCBs for 40 years. These observations were further supported when compared with results on clean Cesar Creek sediment spiked with 2-chlorinated biphenyls.

  3. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  4. Kinetics and conductivity parameters of uptake and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, W.J.; Govers, H.A.J.; Groten, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) over the food chain can be attributed to contaminant uptake from food. The effect of fatty acid absorption on net uptake and transport fluxes of a selection of 14 PCBs over the organismal gut epithelium has been determined in monolayers of

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites is Associated with Neurological Functioning in 3-Month-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Sietske A.; Soechitram, Shalini D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether

  6. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  7. Fast miniaturised sample preparation for the screening and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kristenson, E.M.; Neidig, H.C.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sludge are usually extracted by a technique such as Soxhlet with subsequent fractionation prior to long GC runs using GC-ECD or GC-HRMS. In this study, the extraction of selected chlorinated biphenyls (CBs) from a spiked sludge sample by three rapid techniques,

  8. The effect of hydroxylated PCBs on DCF-fluorescence and cell death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonnum, F.; Dreiem, A.; Rykken, S. [Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (Norway); Lehmler, H.Y.; Robertson, L. [Univ. of Iowa (United States); Mariussen, E. [Norwegian Inst. for Air Research (Norway)

    2004-09-15

    We have previously investigated the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on free radical formation and cell death in cerebellar granule cells. PCBs may be metabolised to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) in the body. Therefore, we wanted to expand our study to include also the HO-PCBs. After hydroxylation, many of the PCBs are conjugated to either glucoronic acid or sulphate, which facilitates their excretion. Nevertheless, some of the HO-PCBs are retained in the body. The structures of some of the HO-PCBs show a certain similarity to the structure of the cathecholamines, and PCBs have been shown to affect the level of cathecholamines in the brain. Therefore, we compared the effect of some HO-PCBs with the effects of PCBs on some important physiological parameters in the brain. In the present communication we have compared the effects of PCB and HO-PCB on formation of DCF-fluorescence, which is used as a measure of reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and cell death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells.

  9. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinateddibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema,common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetibabay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution GasChromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B,and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g wwand PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of thesecontaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of thesespecies did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematicmonitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  10. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Moreira, Maria de Fátima Ramos

    2015-05-01

    A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  11. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha): implications for resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullon, Donna L; Yunker, Mark B; Alleyne, Carl; Dangerfield, Neil J; O'Neill, Sandra; Whiticar, Michael J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    We measured persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations in chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in order to characterize dietary exposure in the highly contaminated, salmon-eating northeastern Pacific resident killer whales. We estimate that 97 to 99% of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) in returning adult chinook were acquired during their time at sea. Highest POP concentrations (including PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs, and DDT) and lowest lipids were observed in the more southerly chinook sampled. While feeding by salmon as they enter some more POP-contaminated near-shore environments inevitably contribute to their contamination, relationships observed between POP patterns and both lipid content and delta13C also suggest a migration-related metabolism and loss of the less-chlorinated PCB congeners. This has implications for killer whales, with the more PCB-contaminated salmon stocks in the south partly explaining the 4.0 to 6.6 times higher estimated daily intake for sigmaPCBs in southern resident killer whales compared to northern residents. We hypothesize that the lower lipid content of southerly chinook stocks may cause southern resident killer whales to increase their salmon consumption by as much as 50%, which would further increase their exposure to POPs.

  14. Occurrence of Organochlorines Contaminants in Coastal Fish from Sepetiba Bay: Levels and Human Health Repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to survey levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs in white mullet (Mugil curema, common snook (Centropomus undecimalis, and acoupa weakfish (Cynoscion acoupa, collected at Sepetiba bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, March-August 2013. PCBs and PCDD/Fs were determined by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS as stated by the US EPA 1613B, 1668B, and 8290A methods. The concentration of total PCBs ranged from 0.589688 ~ 0.6981629 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.134037 ~ 0.242573 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. The concentrations of these contaminants on fish species currently appear to fall below critical values, and the dietary consumption of these species did not represent a risk for human health. However, seeking to avoid future problems, systematic monitoring can prevent complications to the environment, marine wildlife and public health impacts.

  15. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Lei; Fang Guodong; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Wang Yujun; Cang Long; Xie Zubin; Zhou Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment. - Highlights: ► Application of the biochars for PCBs sorption was a new and effective way. ► The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the soil extracted solution. ► Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones. ► Coexisting humic acid or metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars. - The biochars had higher adsorption affinity for PCBs in the extracted soil solution because coexisting humic acid and metal cations increased their sorption.

  16. Some technical issues in managing PCBs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Cen, Kefa

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were important industrial chemicals featuring high thermal and chemical stability and low flammability. They were widely used as dielectric and thermal fluid in closed electro-technical applications (transformers, capacitors…) and also in numerous dispersive uses, ranking from auto-copying paper to sealant or coatings. During the 1960s, severe environmental consequences started becoming apparent. The stability of PCBs contributed to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic character to bio-magnification. Fish-eating species seemed threatened in their existence. In Japan and in Taiwan, thousands of people consumed PCB-contaminated oil. The production of PCBs stopped completely during the 1980s. Usage could continue in closed applications only. In this paper, particular attention is given to two issues: the cleaning of PCB electric transformers and the potential impact of PCB-containing building materials. Other contributions will cover the management and treatment of PCB-contaminated soil, sludge or fly ash. The complete survey is being prepared by request of the Knowledge Center for Engineers and Professionals.

  17. The need and Potential of Biosensors to Detect Dioxins and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls along the Milk, Eggs and Meat Food Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chobtang, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Haasnoot, W.; Kijlstra, A.; Meerburg, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are hazardous toxic, ubiquitous and persistent chemical compounds, which can enter the food chain and accumulate up to higher trophic levels. Their determination requires sophisticated methods, expensive facilities and instruments,

  18. Developmental disorders of the brain can be caused by PCBs; low doses of hydroxy-PCBs disrupt thyroid hormone-dependent dendrite formation from Purkinje neurons in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Y.; Kimura-Kuroda, J. [Tokyo Metropol. Inst. for Neuroscience, Tokyo (Japan); Nagata, I. [CREST/ JST, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure to some environmental chemicals during the perinatal period causes developmental disorders of the brain. Cognitive impairment and hyperactivity in infants were reported in Taiwan, known as Yu-cheng incidents caused by the accidental contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Together with recent experimental data, Kuroda proposes a hypothesis that spatio-temporal disruptions of developing neuronal circuits by PCB exposure can cause the comobidity of learning disorders (LD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autsm with the co-exposure to other environmental chemicals. PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) have similar chemical structures to thyroid hormones (TH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). TH deficiency in the perinatal period causes cretinism children with severe cognitive and mental retardation. In primate model, Rice demonstrates that postnatal exposure to PCBs can dramatically influence later behavioral function. Epidemiological studies also indicate the possible developmental neurotoxicity of PCBs accumulated in human bodies. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and which types of PCB or OH-PCB with such effects have yet to be elucidated. It is important to establish a simple, reproducible, and sensitive in vitro assay for determining the effects of PCBs and OH-PCBs on the development of the central nervous system. Recently Iwasaki et al. established a reporter assay system and disclosed that low doses of PCBs potentially interfere TH-dependent gene expressions. This is the first demonstration that PCBs and OH-PCBs directly affect TH-receptor (TR)-mediated gene expressions crucial to the brain development, through unique mechanism. We also have demonstrated TH-dependent development of Purkinje neurons in vitro using a serum-free chemically defined medium. The degree of dendritic development of Purkinje cells is TH dose-dependent and exhibits high sensitivity in the pM order. Therefore, in the present study

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-04-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and females with yearlings. In these females, the P4 concentrations were positively correlated with plasma sigma PCBs (sum of all analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners) concentrations. The sigma PCBs concentrations explained 27% of the variation in the P4 concentrations. There were no correlations between sigma PCBs and E2 and cortisol in any of the groups of polar bears, or between sigma PCBs and P4 in single polar bears. Although the sigma PCBs-P4 relationship in female polar bears with offspring is not evidence per se of a direct cause-effect association, the results indicate that PCBs may affect levels of P4 in polar bear females. There is a clear need to further assess the hormone balance and population health of polar bears at Svalbard.

  20. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  1. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  2. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and fem...

  4. Thirty year monitoring of PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and tetrabromodiphenylether in eel from The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J.; Dao, Q.T.; Leeuwen, van P.W.; Kotterman, M.J.J.; Schobben, J.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Because of their excellent properties as a biomonitor, yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been used for time-trend monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and tetrabrominated diphenylether (tetra-BDE). The program has now lasted for thirty years and has

  5. Biodegradation of PCBs by ligninolytic fungi and characterization of the degradation products

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čvančarová, Monika; Křesinová, Zdena; Filipová, Alena; Covino, S.; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 11 (2012), s. 1317-1323 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/09/1058 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Polychlorinated biphenyls * PCBs * Biodegradation Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.137, year: 2012

  6. Bioaccumulation of PCBs from microplastics in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devriese, Lisa I.; De Witte, Bavo; Vethaak, A. Dick; Hostens, Kris; Leslie, Heather A.

    2017-01-01

    Plastic debris acts as a sorbent phase for hydrophobic organic compounds like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Chemical partitioning models predict that the ingestion of microplastics with adsorbed chemicals in the field will tend not to result in significant net desorption of the chemical to the

  7. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter Manfred; Bakker, W.; Luthe, G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the

  8. Reducing the bioavailability of PCBs in soil to plant by biochars assessed with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yu-Jun; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guo-Dong; Cang, Long; Herath, H.M.S.K.; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) technique, hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrins (HPCD) extraction method, and the greenhouse pot experiments, the influences of biochars on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioavailability in soil to plant (Brassica chinensis L. and Daucus carota) were investigated. Addition of 2% biochars to soils significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant, especially for di-, tri- and tetra-chlorobiphenyls. PCBs concentrations in the roots of B. chinensis and D. carota were reduced for 61.5–93.7%, and 12.7–62.4%, respectively in the presence of biochars. The kinetic study showed that in the soils amended with/without biochars, PCBs concentrations accumulated in TECAM, as well as in the HPCD extraction solution, followed significant linear relationships with those in plant roots. Application of biochars to soil is a potentially promising method to reduce PCBs bioavailability whereas TECAM technique can be a useful tool to predict the bioavailability of PCBs in soil. -- Highlights: ► Application of biochars significantly reduced the uptake of PCBs in plant. ► TECAM was a new and effective method to predict the PCBs bioavailability in soil. ► PCBs accumulated in TECAM followed significant linear relationships with plant. ► PCBs in TECAM were more similar with the plant uptake than HPCD solution. -- The reduced PCBs concentrations in plant roots by biochars show good linear relationship with those in TECAM

  9. 75 FR 17645 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... show photographic identification, pass through a metal detector, and sign the EPA visitor log. All... Warehousing (NAICS codes 48-49), e.g., Various modes of transportation including air, rail, water, ground, and... other leaks are visual indicators that the distribution in commerce of some of this equipment could...

  10. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... affected entities Electric Power Distribution.... 221122 Generators of PCB waste. Transportation and... email: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Contents I. Why is EPA using a... Order Reviews A. Regulatory Flexibility Act B. Congressional Review Act I. Why is EPA using a direct...

  11. Decontamination of Wastewater Contaminated by Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaštánek, František; Kaštánek, P.; Demnerová, K.; Maléterová, Ywetta

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2004), s. 131-138 ISSN 0273-1223 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : decontamination * hydrogen peroxide * underground water Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2004

  12. Definition and GIS-based characterization of an integral risk index applied to a chemical/petrochemical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Kumar, Vikas; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2006-08-01

    A risk map of the chemical/petrochemical industrial area of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain) was designed following a two-stage procedure. The first step was the creation of a ranking system (Hazard Index) for a number of different inorganic and organic pollutants: heavy metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by applying self-organizing maps (SOM) to persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity properties of the chemicals. PCBs seemed to be the most hazardous compounds, while the light PAHs showed the minimum values. Subsequently, an Integral Risk Index was developed taking into account the Hazard Index and the concentrations of all pollutants in soil samples collected in the assessed area of Tarragona. Finally, a risk map was elaborated by representing the spatial distribution of the Integral Risk Index with a geographic information system (GIS). The results of the present study seem to indicate that the development of an integral risk map might be useful to help in making-decision processes concerning environmental pollutants.

  13. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sena, Rennio F; Tambosi, José L; Floriani, Silvia L; Virmond, Elaine; Schröder, Horst Fr; Moreira, Regina F P M; José, Humberto J

    2009-09-01

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content--polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF)--were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  14. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Undeman, E., E-mail: emma.undeman@itm.su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 11418 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, E., E-mail: erik.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Gustafsson, B.G., E-mail: bo.gustafsson@su.se [Baltic Nest Institute, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-11-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate.

  15. Environmental contamination and human exposure to dioxin-related compounds in e-waste recycling sites of developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sakai, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2013-07-01

    E-waste recycling using uncontrolled processes is a major source of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs), including not only the regulated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) but also non-regulated brominated and mixed halogenated compounds (PBDD/Fs and PXDD/Fs). Various studies at informal e-waste recycling sites (EWRSs) in Asian developing countries found the soil contamination levels of PCDD/Fs from tens to ten thousand picogram TCDD-equivalents (TEQ) per gram and those of DL-PCBs up to hundreds of picogram TEQ per gram. The air concentration of PCDD/Fs was reported as high as 50 pg TEQ per m(3) in Guiyu, the largest Chinese EWRS. Non-regulated compounds also contributed substantially to the total DL toxicity of the DRC mixtures from e-waste, as evidenced by the high TEQ levels estimated for the currently identifiable PBDD/Fs as well as the large portion of unexplained bioassay-derived TEQ levels in soils/dusts from EWRSs. Considering the high exposure levels estimated for EWRS residents, especially children, comprehensive emission inventories of DRCs from informal e-waste recycling, the identities and toxic potencies of unidentified DRCs released, and their impacts on human health need to be investigated in future studies.

  16. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Shaffer Equipment Company, Minden, Fayette County, West Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. WVD981038300. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Shaffer Equipment Company (SEC) site, located in Fayette County, Minden, West Virginia constructed electrical substations for area coal mines from the period 1970 to 1984. The site is approximately one acre and has one building (SEC Equipment Building) that served as both a warehouse and office. Electrical equipment such as transformers, switches, circuit breakers, and capacitors were stored on the site. Dielectric oils that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were found in on- and off-site soils and sediments. Because PCBs are on site and PCB-contaminated oils reportedly were burned as starter fuel in the warehouse/office building, on- and off-site soil samples and on-site sediment samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs). One present potential pathway of exposure that has been identified as past, present, and future concerns involve trespassers onto the SEC site, children playing in yards and Arbuckle Creek, on-site workers in the SEC Equipment Building, and persons that eat snapping turtles from the area

  17. Les dioxines et les PCB « type-dioxine » dans les aliments gras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraisse Daniel

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Dioxin is the common name associated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD’s and dibenzofurans (PCDF’s. It includes 210 congeners of which 17 are considered the most toxic. Of the 209 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs 12 of the most toxic congeners which exhibit a planar structure are considered to have a dioxin-like toxicity. In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO assigned Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEF’s to these PCB and dioxins compounds which are used to assess the overall toxicity of samples (I-TEQ relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener. Because these ubiquitous compounds accumulate in biological tissues and thus migrate up the food chain dioxins and PCBs have been in the environmental spotlight for over two decades. Both PCDD\\\\F and PCB methods utilize isotope dilution combined with HRGC\\\\HRMS to provide the lowest detection limits in a wide variety of compounds including vegetable oils and fats.

  18. A novel modeling tool with multi-stressor functionality for organic contaminant transport and fate in the Baltic Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Undeman, E.; Gustafsson, E.; Gustafsson, B.G.

    2014-01-01

    The coupled physical–biogeochemical model BALTSEM, previously used to assess nutrient/carbon cycles and eutrophication in the Baltic Sea, has been expanded to include algorithms for calculations of organic contaminant environmental transport and fate. This novel model version (BALTSEM-POP) is evaluated for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in Baltic Sea surface water and sediment. Modeled dissolved concentrations are usually within a factor of 2–4 of observed concentrations, however with larger deviations for furans. Calculated concentrations in particulate organic matter are less accurate (within factors of 1–700), likely due to errors in estimated pelagic biomass, particulate matter–water partitioning, and large natural variability in field data. Concentrations in sediments are usually predicted within a factor of 6. The good performance of the model illustrates its usefulness for exploration of contaminant fate in response to variations in nutrient input and climatic conditions in the Baltic Sea marine environment. - Highlights: • A new model for organic chemical transport and fate in the Baltic Sea is presented. • Physical and biogeochemical processes are linked to organic contaminant transport. • The model is evaluated for PCBs, HCB and PCDD/Fs. • The model can predict dissolved concentrations within a factor of ca 2–4. • Predictions for concentrations in particulate matter and sediment are less accurate

  19. Vertical distribution of AhR-activating compounds in sediments contaminated by modernized pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratia, H; Oikari, A

    2014-03-01

    Increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity is a sensitive biomarker of exposure to the chemicals which activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induce the cytochrome P450 system, such as many polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pulp bleaching was one of the main sources of PCDDs and PCDFs until elemental chlorine free (ECF) and total chlorine free bleaching processes since 1990s have remarkably decreased but not completely eliminate discharges of these chemicals. In addition, historically contaminated sediments may act as a source of these persistent contaminants. In this study, the contamination history and recovery of a watercourse heavily loaded by the chemical wood industry were studied by analyzing PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs from vertical sediment samples and by measuring hepatic EROD activity from rainbow trout intraperitoneally dosed with the sediment extracts. No PCDDs or PCDFs were found above the chromatographic limit of detection from the study area and only small amounts of PCB congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180 were present. No increased EROD activity was observed in fish indicating the absence of any AhR-activating compounds in the surface sediment, to about 15 cm depth, representing about the last 20 years when kraft pulping and ECF bleaching with activated wastewater treatment have been used. It can be concluded that nowadays organochlorines and other AhR-ligands do not harm the previously heavily polluted watercourse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  1. Limitations of the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology

    1995-12-31

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs) are present as complex mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in most environmental matrices. Risk management of these mixtures utilize the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) approach in which the TCDD (dioxin) or toxic equivalents of a mixture is a summation of the congener concentration (Ci) times TEF{sub i} (potency relative to TCDD) where. TEQ{sub mixture} = {Sigma}[Cil] {times} TEF{sub i}. TEQs are determined only for those HAHs which are aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonists and this approach assumes that the toxic or biochemical effects of individual compounds in a mixture are additive. Several in vivo and in vitro laboratory and field studies with different HAH mixtures have been utilized to validate the TEF approach. For some responses, the calculated toxicities of PCDD/PCDF and PCB mixtures predict the observed toxic potencies. However, for fetal cleft palate and immunotoxicity in mice, nonadditive (antagonistic) responses are observed using complex PCB mixtures or binary mixtures containing an Ah receptor agonist with 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153). The potential interactive effects of PCBs and other dietary Ah receptor antagonist suggest that the TEF approach for risk management of HAHs requires further refinement and should be used selectively.

  2. Determination of inorganic and organic priority pollutants in biosolids from meat processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sena, Rennio F. de; Tambosi, Jose L.; Floriani, Silvia L.; Virmond, Elaine; Schroeder, Horst Fr.; Moreira, Regina F.P.M.; Jose, Humberto J.

    2009-01-01

    The biosolids (BS) generated in the wastewater treatment process of a meat processing plant were monitored and the priority pollutant content was characterized. The trace metal and organic pollutant content - polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) - were determined quantitatively and compared to guideline limits established by the US EPA and EU. PCBs were not detected in the solid samples, while trace metals, PAHs and PCDD/PCDF were detected in concentrations below the limits established by international standards. Toxic equivalent factors were evaluated for the biosolids, and the results proved that these wastes can be safely deposited on land or used in combustion/incineration plants. Since no previous data were found for meat processing waste, comparisons were made using municipal sewage sludge data reported in the literature. Since, this report monitored part of the priority pollutants established by the US EPA for meat and poultry processing wastewater and sludge, the results verified that low pollution loads are generated by the meat processing plant located in the southern part of Brazil. However, the BS generated in the treatment processes are in accordance with the limits established for waste disposal and even for soil fertilizer.

  3. Outdoor passive air monitoring of semi volatile organic compounds (SVOCs): a critical evaluation of performance and limitations of polyurethane foam (PUF) disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, P; Audy, O; Škrdlíková, L; Kukučka, P; Přibylová, P; Prokeš, R; Vojta, Š; Klánová, J

    2014-03-01

    The most commonly used passive air sampler (PAS) (i.e. polyurethane foam (PUF) disk) is cheap, versatile, and capable of accumulating compounds present both in gas and particle phases. Its performance for particle associated compounds is however disputable. In this study, twelve sets of triplicate PUF-PAS were deployed outdoors for exposure periods of 1-12 weeks together with continuously operated active samplers, to characterize sampling efficiency and derive sampling rates (RS) for compounds belonging to 7 SVOC classes (including particle associated compounds). PUF-PAS efficiently and consistently sampled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and eight novel brominated flame retardant (nBFR) compounds. Low accuracy and lack of sensitivity was observed for most polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans PCDD/Fs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (under the conditions of this study), with the exception of some congeners which may be used as qualitative markers for their respective classes. Application of compound specific RS was found crucial for all compounds except PCBs. Sampling efficiency of the particle associated compounds was often low.

  4. Effect of fatty acids and the aqueous diffusion barrier on the uptake and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in Caco-2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, W.J.; Groten, J.P.; Govers, H.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dissolved in dietary fat are absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract by the enterocytes in combination with the fatty acid proceeding from the lipid hydrolysis in the gut lumen. The effect of fatty acid absorption on the uptake and transport of 14 PCBs in enterocytes

  5. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  8. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pprocesses were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  11. Potential Impacts of PCBs on Sediment Microbiomes in a Tropical Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the tropical marine study site of Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are subjected to coastal and oceanic currents coupled with marine microbial and geochemical processes. To evaluate these processes a hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the transport of PCBs within nearshore and offshore marine areas of Guánica Bay. Material transport and circulation information from the model were matched with measurements from samples collected from within the bay. These samples, consisting of both intertidal and submerged sediments, were analyzed for physical characteristics (organic carbon, grain size, and mineralogy, microbial characteristics (target bacteria levels and microbial community analyses, presence of PCBs, and PCB-degrading enzymes. Results show that the bay geometry and bathymetry limit the mixing of the extremely high levels of PCBs observed in the eastern portion of the bay. Bay bottom sediments showed the highest levels of PCBs and these sediments were characterized by high organic carbon content and finer grain size. Detectable levels of PCBs were also observed within sediments found along the shore. Microbes from the bay bottom sediments showed a greater relative abundance of microbes from the Chloroflexi, phylum with close phylogenetic associations with known anaerobic PCB-degrading organisms. Based on quantitative PCR measurement of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene, the intertidal sediments showed the greatest potential for aerobic PCB degradation. These results elucidate particular mechanisms of PCB’s fate and transport in coastal, tropical marine environments.

  12. The effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Asilian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are toxic bio-accumulate components and may increase risk of adverse effects on human health and the environment. For different social, technical and economic reasons, significant quantities of PCBs contaminated transformer oil are still in use or storied. The study aimed to determine the effect of hydrogen peroxide and solvent on photolysis of PCBs to reduce occupational exposure. Methods: The photochemical annular geometry (500 ml volume reactor was designed with a cylindrical low-pressure mercury lamp (UV-C Cathodeon TUV 6WE with emission at 254 nm. The radiant power emitted by the lamp was 6w. The whole lamp was immersed in a reactor thermostat controlling of temperature at 32 ± 2 oC. The PCBs was determined using GC/ECD and data was analyzed by SPSS. Results: Degradation of total PCBs in terms of %10 and %20 of volume of H2O2 were 41%, 75% and 94%, respectively. The degradation of total PCBs in terms of ratio to solvent with oil transformer in 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 was 61%, 75% and 94%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study show that UV-C photolysis of H2O2 leads to a degradation efficiency of PCBs only in the presence of isooctane, therefore indicating that the intermediates formation after ethanol oxidation are able to initiate PCBs degradation.

  13. Interspecies variability of Dioxin-like PCBs accumulation in five plants from the modern Yellow River delta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Guolan [Environmental Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China); Cui Zhaojie [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250100 (China)], E-mail: cuizj@sdu.edu.cn; Liu Jing [School of City Planning and Environmental Engineering, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250101 (China)

    2009-04-30

    To investigate the interspecies variance of Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in the plants from modern Yellow River delta, the concentrations of 12 DL-PCBs congeners were examined in five plant species and their associated soils. The DL-PCBs concentrations in plants (2.32-287.60 ng/kg dry weight) were low compared to most published literature, and the concentrations and ratios of DL-PCBs congeners in plants varied greatly among species. The properties of plants and PCBs were then studied to explore the factors affecting the interspecies variance of DL-PCBs accumulation. The plants with the smallest variance of morphological and physiological characteristics (Imperata cylindrical var. Major and Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud) had the most similar accumulation patterns of DL-PCBs among the species tested. As the octanol-air partitioning coefficient (K{sub oa}) of the DL-PCBs increased, interspecies variance decreased on the whole plant level. Interestingly, the correlation between the DL-PCBs concentrations in plants and log K{sub oa} of congeners was found to be significant for annual plants, but for perennial plants it was not significant. Thus the patterns of uptake of DL-PCBs are different between annual and perennial plants.

  14. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Qin, Zhihui; Yang, Kai; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huang, Ronglang; Shi, Huixiang

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic

  15. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex differences in the accumulation of chlorinated dioxins in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo): Implication of hepatic sequestration in the maternal transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Akira; Yoneda, Kumiko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on gender-specific accumulation features of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/DFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in common (great) cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Lake Biwa, Japan. Male cormorants showed a tendency to have higher levels of PCDD/DFs and DL-PCBs than did females. For PCDDs, the male-to-female concentration ratio (M/F ratio) for each congener significantly decreased with the liver-to-muscle concentration ratio (Li/Mu ratio). For PCDFs, there also was a weak negative relationship between Li/Mu ratio and M/F ratio. In contrast, for DL-PCBs, M/F ratios showed no correlation with Li/Mu ratios, but increased with an increase in lipophilicity. These results, together with observations from prior studies, suggest that congener-specific hepatic sequestration may be a factor limiting the maternal transfer of PCDDs and, to a lesser extent, PCDFs. Maternal transfer of DL-PCBs seems to favor more lipophilic congeners in the cormorants. -- Highlights: •Sex-dependent accumulation of chlorinated dioxins in cormorants was revealed. •Sex-difference in PCDD levels is controlled by congener-selective hepatic sequestration. •Sex-difference in DL-PCB levels is accounted for by congener-specific hydrophobicity. •QSARs on the maternal transfer are different among PCDDs, PCDFs and DL-PCBs. -- Sex-difference in accumulation of PCDD/DFs and DL-PCBs was observed in cormorants, most likely due to the congener-specific maternal transfer

  17. Inter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 2. Biomagnification in harbour seals and harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, L.; Dirtu, A.C.; Das, K.; Gheorghe, A.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Neels, H.; Blust, R.; Covaci, A.

    2009-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) were found to differ in the ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Biomagnification factors (BMFs), calculated between both predators and their prey (sole - Solea

  18. Neurological condition in 18-month-old children perinatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanderPaauw, CG; Tuinstra, LGMT; Fidler, [No Value; WeisglasKuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ; Boersma, ER; Touwen, BCL

    1995-01-01

    The neurological optimality of 418 Dutch children was evaluated at the age of 18 months, in order to determine whether prenatal and breast milk mediated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins affected neurological development, Half of the infants were breast-fed, the other half

  19. The effect of the structure of polychlorinated biphenyls on their hydroxylation, oxidation, and glutathionyl conjugation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Er Qun; Ma, Xiao Yan; Tian, Xing Guo; Liu, Jing; Liu, Li Chao; Dong, Hui; Song, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To compare the nature of the metabolites formed from the phase I metabolism (hydroxylation and oxidation) and phase II metabolism (glutathionyl conjugation) of PCBs that have different chlorine substitution patterns. To discuss the structure-activity relationships and metabolic mechanisms of PCBs. 4-Cl-biphenyl (PCB3), 4,4'-Cl-biphenyl (PCB15), 3,4,3',4'-Cl-biphenyl (PCB77) were used for in vitro metabolic study. LC/MS and UV-Vis studies were performed for metabolites identification. The cytochrome P-450 catalyzed hydroxylation rate decreased as the number of chlorine substitutions increased. In this reaction, PCB3 was fully metabolized, approximately half of the PCB15 was metabolized and PCB77 was not metabolized at all. The oxidation rate of PCB15-HQ was higher than that of PCB3-HQ under various oxidation conditions. The LC/MS and UV-Vis data suggest that in the conjugation reaction of PCB15-Q and GSH, the Michael addition reaction occurs preferentially over the displacement reaction. The metabolic profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are dramatically affected by chlorine substitution patterns. It is suggested that the metabolic profiles of PCBs are related to their chlorine substitution patterns, which may have implications for the toxicity of PCB exposure. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    Introduction

    The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may

  2. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the exposure to a broad-spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) from the indoor environment through bio-monitoring of people working in a building with PCB-containing materials and elevated PCB levels in the indoor air. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing...

  3. Implementation Of Palladized Iron-Impregnated Reactive Activated Carbon (RAC) System For PCBs Cleanup: Effects Of PCB Loading, Reaction pH, And Co-Existing NOM And Ionic Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the treatment of chlorinated organic compounds in the environment, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have developed reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. The RAC system can couple adsorption of PCBs to activated carbon wi...

  4. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  5. PCB's take a stroll Los PCBs salen de paseo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Olea Serrano

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.La exposición humana a compuestos organoclorados bioacumulables es un problema de interés sanitario no sólo por el conocimiento de la presencia en tejidos del residuo de contaminantes históricos como DDT y otros pesticidas, sino por el riesgo de exposición actual a compuestos aún en uso como el lindano, el endosulfán y los bifenilos policlorados (PCBs, entre otros. Destaca el caso particular de los PCBs, sustancias cuya producción fue prohibida debido a su peligrosidad, persistencia y toxicidad ambiental. A pesar de esta prohibición siguen funcionando una gran cantidad de aparatos que contienen volúmenes considerables de PCBs. Estos aparatos llegarán en los próximos años, si no lo han hecho ya, a la fase de residuos, por lo que es necesario asegurar su correcta eliminación para evitar su liberación al medio

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheunert, I.; Klein, W.

    1979-08-01

    The report starts with a chapter on occurrence of PCBs in the environment. The next 2 chapters treat synthesis of C-14-labelled PCBs and abiotic conversion of PCBs. The chapter of fate and effects of PCBs in organisms deals with their occurrence in mammals, fish, microorganisms, higher plants and in a defined aquatic ecosystem. The chapter of ecotoxicological profile analysis of PCBs-C-14 presents testing of bioaccumulation, conversion and degradation. (SPI)

  7. Simultaneous elimination of cyanotoxins and PCBs via mechanical collection of cyanobacterial blooms: An application of "green-bioadsorption concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Jia, Yunlu; Liu, Anyue; Zhou, Qichao; Song, Lirong

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the distribution, transfer and fate of both polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and cyanotoxins via phytoplankton routes were systematically investigated in two Chinese lakes. Results indicated that PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation dynamics has significantly positive correlations with the biomass of green alga and diatoms. Total lipid content of phytoplankton is the major factor that influences PCB adsorption/bioaccumulation. Cyanobacterial blooms with relatively lower lipid content could also absorb high amount of PCBs due to their high cell density in the water columns, and this process was proposed as major route for the transfer of PCBs in Chinese eutrophic freshwater. According to these findings, a novel route on fates of PCBs via phytoplankton and a green bioadsorption concept were proposed and confirmed. In the practice of mechanical collections of bloom biomass from Lake Taihu, cyanotoxin/cyanobacteria and PCBs were found to be removed simultaneously very efficiently followed this theory. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  9. Mode of action of dioxin-like versus non-dioxin-like PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeters, G. [VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Dept. of Environemental Toxicology (Belgium)]|[Antwerp Univ. (Belgium); Birnbaum, L. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Exposure of humans to polychlorinated biphenyls has been associated with different adverse effects such as immune impairment, changes in hormone levels, reproductive and neuropsychological changes and cancer. It is difficult to attribute the observed effects to either dioxin-like, non-dioxin-like PCBs or to both. All known human exposures are mixed, comprising dioxin and non-dioxin like PCB congeners as well as dioxins and furans. The purpose of this work was to evaluate, based on mechanistic data available in the open literature, whether non-dioxin like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) themselves may pose specific health risks. It is clear that dioxin and NDL-PCBs differ in the spectrum of metabolizing enzymes they induce, but the mechanistic links to health of these biochemical changes remain unclear at the moment. NDL-PCBs also cause immunotoxicity and tumor promotion via different mechanisms than do dioxin-like PCBs. We focus on neurotoxicity which has been associated with developmental exposure to PCBs and which is considered as one of the most sensitive adverse health effects.

  10. Journal Article: EPA's National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) established the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) in June of 1998, and operated it until November of 2004. The objective of NDAMN was to determine background air concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). NDAMN started with 10 sampling sites, adding more over time until the final count of 34 sites was reached by the beginning of 2003. Samples were taken quarterly, and the final sample count was 685. All samples were measured for 17 PCDD/PCDF congeners, 8 PCDD/PCDF homologue groups, and 7 dl-PCBs (note: 5 additional dl-PCBs were added for samples starting in the summer of 2002; 317 samples had measurements of 12 dl-PCBs). The overall average total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in the United States was 11.2 fg TEQ m−3 with dl-PCBs contributing 0.8 fg TEQ m−3 (7%) to this total. The archetype dioxin and furan background air congener profile was seen in the survey averages and in most individual samples. This archetype profile is characterized by low and similar concentrations for tetra – through hexa PCDD/PCDF congeners, with elevations in four congeners – a hepta dioxin and furan congener, and both octa congeners. Sites were generally categorized as urban (4 sites), rural (23 sites), or remote (7 sites). The average TEQ concentrations over all sites and samples within these cat

  11. Differentiating current and past PCB and PCDD/F sources: The role of a large contaminated soil site in an industrialized city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Antonio; Terzaghi, Elisa; Raspa, Giuseppe; Borin, Sara; Mapelli, Francesca; Chouaia, Bessem; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Morosini, Cristiana; Colombo, Andrea; Fattore, Elena; Davoli, Enrico; Armiraglio, Stefano; Sale, Vanna M; Anelli, Simone; Nastasio, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Cities and contaminated areas can be primary or secondary sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and other chemicals, into air and soil and can influence the regional level of some of these pollutants. In a contaminated site, the evaluation of such emissions can be crucial in the choice of the remediation technology to be adopted. In the city of Brescia (Northern Italy), more than 100 ha of agricultural areas were contaminated with PCBs, PCDD/Fs and heavy metals, originating from the activities of a former PCB factory. In order to evaluate the current emissions of PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the contaminated site, in a location where other current sources are present, we compared measured and predicted air concentrations, resulting from chemical volatilization from soils as well as fingerprints of Brescia soils and of soils contaminated by specific sources. The results confirm that the contaminated area is still a current and important secondary source of PCBs to the air, and to a lesser extent of PCDFs (especially the more volatile), but not for PCDDs. PCBs in soils have fingerprints similar to highly chlorinated mixtures, indicating contamination by these mixtures and/or a long weathering process. PCB 209 is also present at important levels. PCDD fingerprints in soil cannot be related to current emission sources, while PCDFs are compatible to industrial and municipal waste incineration, although weathering and/or natural attenuation may have played a role in modifying such soil fingerprints. Finally, we combined chemical and microbiological analyses to provide an integrated approach to evaluate soil fingerprints and their variation in a wider perspective, which accounts for the mutual effects between contamination and soil microbiota, a pivotal hint for addressing in situ bioremediation activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...