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Sample records for biphenyl pcb levels

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  3. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (PCB's). 509.30 Section 509.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND....30 Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's..., PCB's have become a persistent and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment. As a result, certain...

  4. Notifications for Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains documents of any company or person storing, transporting or disposing of PCBs or conducting PCB research and development that notified the EPA and received an identification number using Form 7710-53.

  5. [Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)--indoor air pollution by PCB-containing durable elastic sealants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludewig, S; Kruse, H; Wassermann, O

    1993-01-01

    The widespread use of the persistent and lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) e.g. in electrical engineering, hydraulics and chemistry of the polymers, caused their ubiquitous distribution and accumulation in food chains. Chronic toxicity in humans is known from several incidents of PCB contaminated food. Dose-response experiences, however, remain uncertain due to the technical grade of PCB as a complex mixture of about 150 congeners and many impurities, like polychlorinated dibenzodurans. Some information on the toxicity of a few PCB congeners is available from animal experiments. Large differences in enzyme-inductive efficacy between the PCB congeners rendered the use of toxicity equivalent factors (related to 2,3,7,8-TCDD, "Seveso-Dioxin") necessary. For risk assessment, the use of "sum of PCB", calculated from questionable determinations of 6 minor toxic congeners, is insufficient. Serious problems arise from evaporation of PCB e.g. in technical rooms of telephone companies (in Germany: Telekom) and generally, from sealing materials in buildings. The German Federal Health Administration, BGA, recommends 300 ng total PCB/m3 indoor air as "precautionary value". Since neither the extreme differences in toxicity of the congeners nor bioaccumulation are taken into account, this recommendation of BGA can not be justified any longer.

  6. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Sinjari, T.; Joensson, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14 C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14 C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14 C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14 C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  7. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.R.; Green, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm 2 , allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  8. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  9. Mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls (PCB 1-PCB 39) in the indoor air of office rooms and their relevance on human blood burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M; Sievering, S; Grün, L; Rauchfuss, K

    2017-12-29

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years. The median concentration of total PCB in the indoor air was 479 ng/m 3 . The most prevalent PCBs in the indoor air samples were the trichlorinated congeners PCB 31, PCB 18, and PCB 28, with median levels of 39, 31, and 26 ng/m 3 , respectively. PCB 8 was the most prevalent dichlorinated congener (median: 9.1 ng/m 3 ). Monochlorinated biphenyls were not detected in relevant concentrations. In the blood samples, the most abundant congener was PCB 28; nearly 90% of all mono-, di-, and trichlorinated congeners were attributed to this congener (median: 12 ng/g blood lipid). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Identification of novel extracellular protein for PCB/biphenyl metabolism in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atago, Yuki; Shimodaira, Jun; Araki, Naoto; Bin Othman, Nor'azizi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Fukuda, Masao; Futami, Junichiro; Hara, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1) degrades polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) via co-metabolism with biphenyl. To identify the novel open reading frames (ORFs) that contribute to PCB/biphenyl metabolism in RHA1, we compared chromatin immunoprecipitation chip and transcriptomic data. Six novel ORFs involved in PCB/biphenyl metabolism were identified. Gene deletion mutants of these 6 ORFs were made and were tested for their ability to grow on biphenyl. Interestingly, only the ro10225 deletion mutant showed deficient growth on biphenyl. Analysis of Ro10225 protein function showed that growth of the ro10225 deletion mutant on biphenyl was recovered when exogenous recombinant Ro10225 protein was added to the culture medium. Although Ro10225 protein has no putative secretion signal sequence, partially degraded Ro10225 protein was detected in conditioned medium from wild-type RHA1 grown on biphenyl. This Ro10225 fragment appeared to form a complex with another PCB/biphenyl oxidation enzyme. These results indicated that Ro10225 protein is essential for the formation of the PCB/biphenyl dioxygenase complex in RHA1.

  11. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocchi, Daniela; Tulipano, Giovanni; Colciago, Alessandra; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Vigano, Daniela; Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Colombo, Anita; Celotti, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities; Polychlorierte Biphenyle (PCB) beim Rueckbau von kerntechnischen Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander [WAK-Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs-GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  13. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  14. Scale-dependence in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure effects on waterbird habitat occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, James P; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Shams, Leyla

    2017-08-01

    Spatial scale is rarely considered in population-level assessments of contaminant impacts on wild animals; as a result misinterpretation of the relationship between contaminant exposure and population status may occur. We assessed the strength of expression of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure effects at local vs. regional spatial scales on population status in five species of waterbirds, "bioaccumulators" often promoted as indicators of contaminant effects in aquatic ecosystems. Our focus was the upper Hudson River where PCBs occur at levels reported to have adverse impacts on wild birds. At the local scale, waterbird habitat occupancy was estimated from 220 repeat surveys made between 2001 and 2010 along the same survey route divided into 25 contiguous river segments with markedly different PCB concentrations. At the regional scale, waterbird habitat occupancy in relation to proximity to the upper Hudson River was estimated across 1248 Breeding Bird Atlas survey blocks while controlling for region-wide variation in habitat availability. At the local scale, many associations of habitat and sampling covariates with species detection probabilities were evident but none, including PCB concentration, with habitat occupancy, extinction or colonization of a given river segment. At the regional scale, survey effort and habitat factors not related to PCB exposure were the most important drivers of waterbird occurrence although two species were more likely to occur farther from the contaminated river segment. Spatial scale clearly mediates expression of contaminant impacts on wild bird populations; large-scale, expert-generated databases provide an underused opportunity for better delineating the spatial scales at which population impacts occur and risk assessments should be performed.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,...

  16. PCB 28 metabolites elimination kinetics in human plasma on a real case scenario: Study of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) metabolites of PCB 28 in a highly exposed German Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinete, Natalia; Esser, André; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas

    2017-07-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects in animals and humans. Although background levels of PCBs have been slowly decreased after their ban, they are still among the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, remaining the subject of great concern. PCB 28 is a trichlorinated PCB found in high concentrations not only in human plasma but also in indoor air in Europe, yet little is known about its metabolic pathway and potential metabolites in humans. The present study aims to elucidate the kinetics of metabolite formation and elimination by analyzing four hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in human plasma as potential metabolites of the PCB 28 congener. For this purpose, the study was conducted in plasma samples of highly PCB-exposed individuals (N=268), collected from 2010 to 2014 as a representation of a real case scenario with longitudinal data. OH-PCBs have been predicted, synthesized in the course of this study and further identified and quantitated in human plasma. This is the first time that previously unknown PCB 28 metabolites have been measured in human plasma and half-lives have been estimated for PCB metabolites, which could then provide further understanding in the toxicological consequences of exposure to PCBs in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in Galveston Bay, Texas: Comparing concentrations and profiles in sediments, passive samplers, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziolor, Elias M; Apell, Jennifer N; Winfield, Zach C; Back, Jeffrey A; Usenko, Sascha; Matson, Cole W

    2018-05-01

    The industrialized portion of the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) is heavily contaminated with anthropogenic contaminants, most prominent of which are the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This contamination has driven adaptive evolution in a keystone species for Galveston Bay, the Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis). We investigated the geographical extent of PCB impacts by sampling 12 sites, ranging from the heavily industrialized upper portion of the HSC to Galveston Island. At each site, PCB concentrations and profiles were determined in three environmental compartments: sediment, water (polyethylene passive samplers), and fish tissue (resident Gulf killifish). We observed a steep gradient of PCB contamination, ranging from 4.00 to 100,000 ng/g organic carbon in sediment, 290-110,000 ng/g lipid in fish, and 4.5-2300 ng/g polyethylene in passive samplers. The PCB congener profiles in Gulf killifish at the most heavily contaminated sites were shifted toward the higher chlorinated PCBs and were highly similar to the sediment contamination profiles. In addition, while magnitude of total PCB concentrations in sediment and total fish contamination levels were highly correlated between sites, the relative PCB congener profiles in fish and passive samplers were more alike. This strong correlation, along with a lack of dependency of biota-sediment accumulation factors with total contamination rates, confirm the likely non-migratory nature of Gulf killifish and suggest their contamination levels are a good site-specific indicator of contamination in the Galveston Bay area. The spatial gradient of PCB contamination in Galveston Bay was evident in all three matrices studied and was observed effectively using Gulf killifish contamination as an environmentally relevant bioindicator of localized contamination in this environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: mattace@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: meli@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, Maria C.; Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna; Monnolo, Anna; Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  1. Editor's Highlight: Congener-Specific Disposition of Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Lactating Mice and Their Offspring: Implications for PCB Developmental Neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lukasiewicz, Tracy; Barnhart, Christopher D; Stamou, Marianna; Chung, Haeun; Kelly, Kevin M; Bandiera, Stelvio; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners have been implicated by laboratory and epidemiological studies in PCB developmental neurotoxicity. These congeners are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). The present study explores the enantioselective disposition and toxicity of 2 environmentally relevant, neurotoxic PCB congeners and their OH-PCB metabolites in lactating mice and their offspring following dietary exposure of the dam. Female C57BL/6N mice (8-weeks old) were fed daily, beginning 2 weeks prior to conception and continuing throughout gestation and lactation, with 3.1 µmol/kg bw/d of racemic 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) or 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in peanut butter; controls received vehicle (peanut oil) in peanut butter. PCB 95 levels were higher than PCB 136 levels in both dams and pups, consistent with the more rapid metabolism of PCB 136 compared with PCB 95. In pups and dams, both congeners were enriched for the enantiomer eluting second on enantioselective gas chromatography columns. OH-PCB profiles in lactating mice and their offspring were complex and varied according to congener, tissue and age. Developmental exposure to PCB 95 versus PCB 136 differentially affected the expression of P450 enzymes as well as neural plasticity (arc and ppp1r9b) and thyroid hormone-responsive genes (nrgn and mbp). The results suggest that the enantioselective metabolism of PCBs to OH-PCBs may influence neurotoxic outcomes following developmental exposures, a hypothesis that warrants further investigation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  3. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  4. Final report for Tank 100 Sump sludge (KON332) for polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, R.K.

    1998-01-01

    Final Report for Tank 100 Sump Sludge (KON332) for Polychlorinated Biphenyl's (PCB) Sample Receipt Sample KON332 was received from Tank 100-Sump (WESF) on May 18, 1998. The laboratory number issued for this sample is S98BOO0207 as shown on the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) form (Attachment 4). The sample breakdown diagram (Attachment 3) provides a cross-reference of customer sample identification to the laboratory identification number. Attachment 4 provides copies of the Request for Sample Analysis (RSA) and Chain of Custody (COC) forms. The sample was received in the laboratory in a 125-ml polybottle. Breakdown and subsampling was performed on June 6, 1998. PCB analysis was performed on the wet sludge. A discussion of the results is presented in Attachment 2. The 222-S extraction bench sheets are presented in Attachment 5. The PCB raw data are presented in Attachment 6

  5. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load, lipid reserves and biotransformation activity in migrating Atlantic salmon from River Moerrum, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, Maria C.; Persson, Maria E.; Larsson, Per; Schantz, Torbjoern von

    2009-01-01

    Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. The lipids are later utilized during migration for swimming and biological adaptations. We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. For these analyses we sampled adult Atlantic salmon during migration in the Swedish River Moerrum and measured the 21 most common PCB congeners (ΣPCB) and lipid levels in muscle tissue, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) transcript levels as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver. We also determined which AHR2 genotypes the salmon carried. We show that EROD activity is correlated to CYP1A1 level but not to ΣPCB concentration. ΣPCB concentration does not predict levels of neither the AHR2 nor CYP1A1 genes. We find no associations between specific AHR2 transcription levels and AHR2 genotypes or a correlation between AHR2 and CYP1A1 transcription levels, which is in direct contrast to pre-migrational adult salmon from the Baltic Sea. When we compare River Moerrum to salmon we have previously sampled in the Baltic Sea we show that migrating salmon have significantly lower lipid levels in their muscles; higher muscle concentrations of ΣPCB on a lipid basis; and significantly lower CYP1A1 and EROD levels compared to salmon from the Baltic Sea. Also, transcript levels of three out of four AHR2 genes are significantly different. In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated

  7. Serum PCB levels and congener profiles among teachers in PCB-containing schools: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background PCB contamination in the built environment may result from the release of PCBs from building materials. The significance of this contamination as a pathway of human exposure is not well-characterized, however. This research compared the serum PCB concentrations, and congener profiles between 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools and referent populations. Methods Blood samples from 18 teachers in PCB-containing schools were analyzed for 57 PCB congeners. Serum PCB concentrations and congener patterns were compared between the teachers, to the 2003-4 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) data, and to data from 358 Greater Boston area men. Results Teachers at one school had higher levels of lighter (PCB 6-74) congeners compared to teachers from other schools. PCB congener 47 contributed substantially to these elevated levels. Older teachers (ages 50-64) from all schools had higher total (sum of 33 congeners) serum PCB concentrations than age-comparable NHANES reference values. Comparing the teachers to the referent population of men from the Greater Boston area (all under age 51), no difference in total serum PCB levels was observed between the referents and teachers up to 50 years age. However, the teachers had significantly elevated serum concentrations of lighter congeners (PCB 6-74). This difference was confirmed by comparing the congener-specific ratios between groups, and principal component analysis showed that the relative contribution of lighter congeners differed between the teachers and the referents. Conclusions These findings suggest that the teachers in the PCB-containing buildings had higher serum levels of lighter PCB congeners (PCB 6-74) than the referent populations. Examination of the patterns, as well as concentrations of individual PCB congeners in serum is essential to investigating the contributions from potential environmental sources of PCB exposure. PMID:21668970

  8. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, handling, and storage of animal feed. 500.45 Section 500.45 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS... the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent...

  9. Individual Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners Produce Tissue- and Gene-Specific Effects on Thyroid Hormone Signaling during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giera, Stefanie; Bansal, Ruby; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa M.; Taub, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are industrial chemicals linked to developmental deficits that may be caused in part by disrupting thyroid hormone (TH) action by either reducing serum TH or interacting directly with the TH receptor (TR). Individual PCB congeners can activate the TR in vitro when the metabolic enzyme cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is induced, suggesting that specific PCB metabolites act as TR agonists. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we compared two combinations of PCB congeners that either activate the TR (PCB 105 and 118) or not (PCB 138 and 153) in the presence or absence of a PCB congener (PCB 126) that induces CYP1A1 in vitro. Aroclor 1254 was used as a positive control, and a group treated with propylthiouracil was included to characterize the effects of low serum TH. We monitored the effects on TH signaling in several peripheral tissues by measuring the mRNA expression of well-known TH-response genes in these tissues. Aroclor 1254 and its component PCB 105/118/126 reduced total T4 to the same extent as that of propylthiouracil but increased the expression of some TH target genes in liver. This effect was strongly correlated with CYP1A1 expression supporting the hypothesis that metabolism is necessary. Effects were gene and tissue specific, indicating that tissue-specific metabolism is an important component of PCB disruption of TH action and that PCB metabolites interact in complex ways with the TR. These are essential mechanisms to consider when evaluating the health risks of contaminant exposures, for both PCB and other polycyclic compounds known to interact with nuclear hormone receptors. PMID:21540284

  10. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  11. Accidental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in waste cargo after heavy seas. Global waste transport as a source of PCB exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Wegner, Ralf; Rogall, Ulrich; Baur, Xaver

    2014-02-01

    After cargo with PCB-containing transformer oil waste was damaged in heavy seas, the vessel crew exposed to PCB developed itching and acne-form eruption of the skin. The objective of our study was to analyse this work-related incident and its effects on health. Air and wipe test samples were taken in the ship for analysis of PCB (28/52/101/138/153/180); clinical investigations of all seafarers (n = 6) included lung function, chest X-ray, clinical chemistry and biomonitoring (plasma PCBs, chlorophenols in urine) measured after a latency of 7 weeks. The biomonitoring data were adjusted according to age-related reference values and validated against controls (n = 96). Biomonitoring showed elevated PCB-28-/52/-102/-138 congeners (mean 1.16/0.91/136, ∑PCB: 5.82 μg/l), which correlates with the dust samples from the cargo hold (∑PCB. 9,440 mg/m(2)) and with 6.1 and 5.0 μg/m(3) in stern and bow cargo air samples. IgE elevation in two seafarers and substantial blood sedimentation rate increase with anaemia or pulmonary emphysema were unlikely to be caused by PCB exposure. Although two members showed slightly elevated airway resistance values, other lung function parameters were normal and reactive airways dysfunction syndrome due to PCBs could be excluded. Elevated chlorophenols in urine could contribute to the manifestation of chloracne. PCB-52/-101/-138 found in plasma and in air samples confirm exposure to PCB. Acne-form skin eruptions were from occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in the spilt transformer oil. There were no other abnormal findings in medical and clinical examinations that could be attributed to PCBs. This does not exclude possible long-term effects.

  12. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  13. Notification Dated November 06, 2017, Submitted by Public Service Company of New Hampshire to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal Notifications November 06, 2017 for Public Service Company of New Hampshire and the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste

  14. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colciago, A.; Casati, L.; Mornati, O.; Vergoni, A.V.; Santagostino, A.; Celotti, F.; Negri-Cesi, P.

    2009-01-01

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  15. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants. Predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Koopman-Esseboom (Corine); M. Huisman (Martijn); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); C.G. van der Paauw (Cornelis); L.G.M.Th. Tuinstra (L. G M Th); H. Boersma (Eric); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels

  16. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  17. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined

  18. Annual variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings at Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) study sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2018-01-01

    Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected from 16 sites across the Great Lakes to quantify normal annual variation in total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and to validate the sample size choice in earlier work. A sample size of five eggs or five nestlings per site was adequate to quantify exposure to PCBs in tree swallows given the current exposure levels and variation. There was no difference in PCB exposure in two randomly selected sets of five eggs collected in the same year, but analyzed in different years. Additionally, there was only modest annual variation in exposure, with between 69% (nestlings) and 73% (eggs) of sites having no differences between years. There was a tendency, both statistically and qualitatively, for there to be less exposure in the second year compared to the first year.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) recovery from spiked organic matrix using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrha, Y; Raghavan, D

    2000-12-30

    The recovery of five PCB congeners from PCB spiked organic matrices was studied using Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and Soxhlet extraction (SE). The chromatogram of ASE extract was found to be relatively clean and similar to that of SE extract. ASE extraction efficiency was dependent on the operation temperature and sample size loading. ASE showed extraction efficiency comparable or slightly higher to that of SE for the PCB spiked organic matrix. PCB recovery from spiked matrix was dependent on the type and molecular weight of congener, and nature of matrix. For some selected PCB congeners, ortho-substitution did influence the PCB recovery from graphite matrix.

  20. Can polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and enantiomer fractions be used for source identification and to age date occupational exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megson, David; Focant, Jean-Françios; Patterson, Donald G; Robson, Matthew; Lohan, Maeve C; Worsfold, Paul J; Comber, Sean; Kalin, Robert; Reiner, Eric; O'Sullivan, Gwen

    2015-08-01

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) signatures and chiral Enantiomer Fractions (EFs) of CB-95, CB-136 and CB-149 were measured for 30 workers at a transformer dismantling plant. This was undertaken to identify sources of exposure and investigate changes to the PCB signature and EFs over different exposure periods. Approximately 1.5 g of serum was extracted and PCB signatures were created through analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and EFs calculated following analysis by gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). A total of 84 PCBs were identified in the serum samples with concentrations of the 7 indicator PCBs ranging from 11-350 ng g(-1) of serum (1.2-39 μg g(-1) lipid). The PCB signatures were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) which was able to distinguish workers with background or recent minimal exposure from those with prolonged occupational exposure. Occupationally exposed individuals had a similar PCB profile to Aroclor A1260. However, individuals with prolonged exposure had depleted proportions of several PCB congeners that are susceptible to metabolism (CB-95, CB-101 and CB-151) and elevated proportions of PCBs that are resistant to metabolism (CB-74, CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180). The results also identified a third group of workers with elevated proportions of CB-28, CB-60, CB-66, CB-74, CB-105 and CB-118 who appeared to have been exposed to an additional source of PCBs. The results show near complete removal of the CB-95 E2 enantiomer in some samples, indicating that bioselective metabolism or preferential excretion of one enantiomer occurs in humans. By considering PCB concentrations along with detailed congener specific signatures it was possible to identify different exposure sources, and gain an insight into both the magnitude and duration of exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Levels of PCB 126 and PCB 153 in plasma and tissues in goats exposed during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyche, Jan L; Skaare, Janneche U; Larsen, Hans J S; Ropstad, Erik

    2004-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain knowledge about the disposition of the PCB congeners 126 and 153 in a goat model where pregnant does were given oral doses of PCB from day 60 of gestation until delivery. The goat kids were thus exposed to PCB during gestation and lactation. The doses of PCB 153 and PCB 126 were 98 and 49 ng/kg body wt/day, respectively. PCB levels were measured in plasma from the does at day 90 of gestation and at delivery, and in plasma from the kids at birth and four weeks post partum. Concentrations of PCB were analysed in brain, liver and fat tissue from the does six weeks after delivery and in liver and fat tissue from the kids at nine months of age. The ratio of estimated body burden to ingested dose in the does, was 0.95 +/- 0.07 for PCB 153 and 0.41 +/- 0.03 for PCB 126. Approximately 9% of PCB 153 and 6% of PCB 126 was transferred from the mothers to their kids during gestation and lactation. Prenatal exposure contributed to a much lower fraction of the body burden than postnatal PCB intake via milk, due to the fact that almost 100% of the PCB 153 transferred from the does to kids was transferred via milk, and the PCB 126 intake via milk was threefold higher than the calculated body burden. The hepatic PCB 126 concentration in both does and kids was significantly higher than the concentration in fat, in contrast to PCB 153, where the highest concentrations were found in fat. A significant difference in body burden between the does at delivery, the newborn kids, and the kids at four weeks of age, did not influence the plasma concentration of PCB 153 on a fat weight basis, which showed no difference with sampling time. Our results suggest that PCB 126 and PCB 153 have different pharmacokinetic properties. The higher levels of PCB 126 in liver tissue compared to fat tissue confirm the concept of hepatic sequestration. The similar blood concentration of PCB 153 in the does at delivery and their newborn kids despite the considerable

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  3. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salice, Christopher J.; Rowe, Christopher L.; Eisenreich, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  4. Release and attenuation of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congeners: Measurement of desorption kinetics and equilibrium sorption partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, D.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Scott, A.J.; Zipperer, J.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used widely in electrical equipment such as capacitors and transformers because of their coolant-insulation properties. However, their use has been discontinued because of their perceived toxicity to humans and other organisms in conjunction with their environmental persistence. This report provides information on the desorption or release rates of individual PCB congeners from four utility substation soils contaminated with Aroclor mixtures when these soils are in contact with water and the distribution of these congeners between the rapidly and the slowly released fractions of the total congeners bound to the soils. In addition to this kinetic information, experimental equilibrium sorption (partition) coefficients for individual PCB congeners have been measured for a series of eight soils differing in their organic carbon and clay mineral contents, from various locations throughout the United States. From these coefficients, a predictive relationship was derived for estimating partitioning coefficients for soils and congeners for which no sorption data are available. 49 refs., 9 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  6. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  7. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Paige Lawrence, B.; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Sonneborn, Dean; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2010-01-01

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  8. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  9. Unraveling the estrogen receptor (er) genes in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reveals expression differences between the two adult life stages but little impact from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoleris, Lina; Hansson, Maria C

    2015-01-15

    Estrogen receptors (ers) not only are activated by hormones but also interact with many human-derived environmental contaminants. Here, we present evidence for four expressed er genes in Atlantic salmon cDNA - two more ers (erα2 and erβ2) than previously published. To determine if er gene expression differs between two adult life-stages we sampled 20 adult salmon from the feeding phase in the Baltic Sea and during migration in the River Mörrum, Sweden. Results show that all four er genes are present in the investigated tissues, except for erα2 not appearing in the spleen. Overall, a profile analysis reveals the erα1 gene to be the most highly expressed er gene in both female and male Baltic Sea salmon tissues, and also in female River Mörrum salmon. In contrast, this gene has the lowest gene expression level of the four er genes in male salmon from the River Mörrum. The erα2 gene is expressed at the lowest levels in both female/male Baltic Sea salmon and in female River Mörrum salmon. Statistical analyses indicate a significant and complex interaction where both sex and adult life stage can impact er gene expression. Regression analyses did not demonstrate any significant relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden and er gene expression level, suggesting that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea may be deactivated inside the salmon's lipid tissues and have limited impact on er activity. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of four er gene expression levels in two wild salmon populations from two different adult life stages where information about PCB load is also available. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  11. The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls in yellow pigment products in China with emphasis on 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hongtao; Li, Yingming; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-03-01

    A non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has recently attracted wide concerns because of its environmental ubiquity and specific sources potentially associated with yellow pigment production. In order to investigate PCB 11 and other PCBs in the yellow pigment products, 24 yellow pigment samples were collected from three different manufacturing plants in China. ∑20PCBs and PCB 11 were in the range of 50.7-9.19×10(5) ng g(-1) and 41.7-9.18×10(5) ng g(-1), respectively, which was much higher than those reported in previous study. The corresponding TEQ values ranged between 0.16 and 4.21×10(3) ng WHO2005-TEQ kg(-1). The contribution of PCB 11 to ∑20PCBs reached up to 85.5% (median value) followed by PCB 28, PCB 77, and PCB 52 with contributions of 10.5%, 6.70%, and 5.40%, respectively. Significant differences were observed for PCB 11 concentrations among the different types of yellow pigment from the same plant and among the same sample types from different plants. The PCB 11 concentrations in diarylide yellow pigments produced from 3,3'-dichlorbenzidine were the highest in all the samples. It demonstrates that yellow pigment is a significant source not only for the widespread pollution of PCB 11 but also for other PCBs, especially for the lower chlorinated congeners. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of maternal ingestion of Aroclor 1254[reg sign] (PCB) or FireMaster BP-6[reg sign] (PBB) on unstimulated and stimulated corticosterone levels in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meserve, L.A.; Murray, B.A.; Landis, J.A. (Bowling Green State Univ., Bowling Green, OH (United States))

    1992-05-01

    The organohalides polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) remain troublesome environmental pollutants. For example, the percentage of the population in which PCB is detectable in adipose tissue remains high. These compounds are of particular interest to residents of the North Central United States, especially in regions surrounding the Great Lakes where contaminated fish may be a regular component of the diet. Additionally, PBB was mistakenly fed to cattle and chickens in Michigan during the early 1970s, products of which were ingested by humans. Among the physiological effects of ingestion of PCB or PBB is the depression of thyroid status, which has been reported in adult humans, in adult experimental animals, and in the offspring of these animals. In adult rats, circulating levels of thyroid hormones are inversely proportional to dose of PCB or PBB in the diet. On the other hand, reports of effects of these organohalides on adrenocortical function remain equivocal, describing both PCB- and PBB-induced depression, and absence of effect in rats and monkeys. Despite the possible consequences of maternal ingestion of PCB or PBB on future generations, little work has been done previously to determine whether consumption of these materials by pregnant and lactating animals confers hypothyroidism on their offspring, and/or influences other mechanisms of endocrine control in the young. Since early studies showed that hypothyroidism induced by feeding pregnant rats the goitrogen thiouracil altered the functional capabilities in their young of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as revealed by circulating corticosterone levels, the present study was done to determine whether ingestion of either PCB (Aroclor 1254[reg sign]) or PBB (FireMaster BP-6[reg sign]) by pregnant and lactating rats resulted in depressed thyroid status and/or modified HPA axis function in their 15 day old young. 19 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (pegg yolks from different regions of collection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1). Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Africa: a review of environmental levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Akindele, Abidemi James; Adebusoye, Sunday Adekunle; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Buekens, Alfons; Sasco, Annie J

    2014-05-01

    Several studies have shown an increase in PCB sources in Africa due to leakage and wrongly disposed transformers, continuing import of e-waste from countries of the North, shipwreck, and biomass burning. Techniques used in the recycling of waste such as melting and open burning to recover precious metals make PCBs contained in waste and other semivolatile organic substances prone to volatilization, which has resulted in an increase of PCB levels in air, blood, breast milk, and fish in several regions of Africa. Consequences for workers performing these activities without adequate measures of protection could result in adverse human health effects. Recent biodegradation studies in Africa have revealed the existence of exotic bacterial strains exhibiting unique and unusual PCB metabolic capability in terms of array of congeners that can serve as carbon source and diversity of congeners attacked, marking considerable progress in the development of effective bioremediation strategies for PCB-contaminated matrices such as sediments and soils in tropical regions. Action must be taken to find and deal with the major African sources of these pollutants. The precise sources of the PCB plume should be pinned down and used to complete the pollutant inventories of African countries. These nations must then be helped to safely dispose of the potentially dangerous chemicals.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB congener concentrations in aquatic birds. Case study: Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDO PACHECO FERREIRA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Livers from 108 birds found prostrate or dead in Ilha Grande Bay between 2005 and 2010 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180. The species analyzed were Egretta caerulea (Linnaeus 1758, Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus 1758, Egretta thula (Molina 1782, and Ardea cocoi (Linnaeus 1766. The analysis were performed using Origin software (7.5, 2004 with a significant level of p<0.05. Data were checked for adherence to the standard assumptions of parametric tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality and the Levene's test for homogeneity of variances. This has revealed differences in concentration for some congeners. Results indicate relatively low PCBs contamination in aquatic birds, but it is implied the close relationship of environmental contamination, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  16. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include, or did include in the past, their use as electrical transformer and capacitor fluids, heat... percentage of paper food-packaging material contains PCB's which can migrate to the packaged food. The origin of PCB's in such material is not fully understood. Reclaimed fibers containing carbonless copy paper...

  17. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... include, or did include in the past, their use as electrical transformer and capacitor fluids, heat... percentage of paper food-packaging material contains PCB's which can migrate to the packaged food. The origin of PCB's in such material is not fully understood. Reclaimed fibers containing carbonless copy paper...

  18. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB-mixtures in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, T.H.M.; Kamstra, J.H.; Cenijn, P.H.; Palkova, L.; Simeckova, P.; Vondracek, J.; Andersson, P.L.; Stenberg, M.; Machala, M.

    2011-01-01

    The toxic equivalency concept used for the risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of coplanar dioxin-like (DL) PCBs. Most PCBs in the environment, however, are non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs that cannot adopt a coplanar

  19. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies for predicting activation of the ryanodine receptor type 1 channel complex (RyR1) by polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed to predict the congener specific ryanodine receptor type RyR1 activity of all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A three-variable QSAR equation was obtained via stepwise forward linear regression on an unsupervised forward selection reduced data set from an initial database. Application of the QSAR towards predicting EC(2x) values for all 209 PCB congeners indicated good agreement in substitution pattern trends between the experimental and estimated data sets. The QSAR model predicts a less than two-fold increase in maximal potency among all congeners outside the experimental database, and it appears that no high-potency PCB congeners with EC(2x) values much less than 0.2 microM exist. Increasing RyR1-neuro toxicity equivalents with increasing homologue number and Aroclor chlorination likely reflect indirect molecular controls on toxicity, since congeners with multiple ortho substituents-the primary structural feature controlling a lack of coplanarity and resulting neurotoxicity-are more likely to be found in higher homologues.

  20. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ingelsson, Erik [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  1. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  2. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  3. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2016-08-01

    All 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast (Jeddah region) of Saudi Arabia were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The upper-bound total PCBPCB) levels in nine commonly consumed fish species from three areas were 0.2–82.5 ng/g wet weight (17–8450 ng/g lipid weight), which were at the lower end of reported global range and far below international tolerance limits (500–3000 ng/g ww). Dioxin-like congeners contributed up to 12.8% (mean 6.5%) to ΣPCB in tissue samples, with the total PCB toxic equivalencies (TEQs) at a tolerable range (0.05–2.6 pg TEQ/g ww or 2–238 pg TEQ/g lw) for all species. PCB profiles were dominated by moderately chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due to fresh inputs. The top congeners based on dominance by both occurrence and abundance were identified as potential markers of ΣPCB in fish tissue, which can be used for future selective biomonitoring in case of reasonable constraints on full congener approach.

  4. Binding properties of halogenated biphenyls to cells and macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) with serum proteins may help explain the cellular incorporation of PCB as the effect of PCB on thyroid hormone function. PCB reduces serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine levels in rats; the mechanism for this effect is unknown. The initial distribution of PCB from blood to tissue is rapid and depends on blood perfusion and tissue affinity; however, the translocation of unmetabolized PCB from its initial storage sites to adipose tissue may depend on serum and cellular protein interactions. Therefore, the ability of PCB to displace triiodothyronine binding to albumin and antibodies, as well as the effect of binding to serum proteins as a mechanism for cellular incorporation was measured. PCB binding to albumin showed both high and low affinity binding sites. This binding was able to prevent triiodothyronine binding to albumin. The distribution of PCB inserum showed that lipoproteins contained 94% of the total 14 C PCB added, while 5% of the 14 C PCB was bound to albumin. The in vitro binding of 14 C PCB to serum obtained from rats pretreated with PCB in their diets for 6 months showed a significant decrease (p 14 C PCB was higher (p < 0.05) in liver, adrenal and adipose cells than pituitary and thyroid cells

  5. Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the northern Spain (Cantabria region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Ángel

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in PM(10) and PM(2.5), at one rural and three urban sites in the Cantabria region (northern Spain). From all of these pollutants, benzo(a)pyrene is regulated by the EU air quality directives; its target value (1 ng/m(3)) was not exceeded. The concentration values of the studied organic pollutants at the studied sites are in the range of those obtained at other European sites. A comparison between the rural-urban stations was developed: (a) PAH concentration values were lower in the rural site (except for fluorene). Therefore, the contribution of local sources to the urban levels of PAHs seems relevant. Results from the coefficient of divergence show that the urban PAH levels are influenced by different local emission sources. (b) PCB rural concentration values were higher than those found at urban sites. Because no local sources of PCBs were identified in the rural site, the contribution of more distant emission sources (about 40 km) to the PCB levels is considered to be the most important; the long-range transport of PCBs does not seem to be significant. Additionally, local PAH tracers were identified by a triangular diagram: higher molecular weight PAHs in Reinosa, naphthalene in Santander and anthracene/pyrene in Castro Urdiales. A preliminary PAH source apportionment study in the urban sites was conducted by means of diagnostic ratios. The ratios are similar to those reported in areas affected by traffic emissions; they also suggest an industrial emission source at Reinosa.

  6. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  7. The measurement of polychlorinated biphenyl level in breast milk after delivery, and its association with breast milk fat and mother\\'s BMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human breast milk contains high levels of fat and toxins. These substances which exist in our country based on many reports. This study aimed to evaluate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in the mother’s milk during the first postnatal week. Methods: This study was accomplished on 50 mothers who gave birth to a healthy infant at Vali-e-Asr University Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from 2014 through 2015. Within the first postnatal week a 20 cc sample of mother’s breast milk was obtained and was sent for laboratory analysis to measure PCB levels via GC-Mass method. Except of PCBs, triglycerides (TG, high-density cholesterol in breast milk was also measured. Also the relation between fat and polychlorinated bi phenyl was assessed. The association between PCBs and body mass index of mothers was investigated. Results: Mean age of mothers was 29.41±6.14 year. PCB180 was significantly correlated with TG values, while this correlation was not observed for other types of PCBs. There was no correlation between cholesterol and fat high-density with PCBs. Other PCB isomers 138, 153, 180 and 101, had not correlation with triglyceride, cholesterol and high density fat. There was a significant correlation between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101, and PCB180 concentrations. It was also observed between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101 (P=0.033, r=0.293 and concentrations of PCB180 (P=0.034, r=0.428, there was a significant correlation. In our study PCB101, (r=0.278, P=0.048 and PCb28 (r=0.328, P=0.021 were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI. Conclusion: The present study showed a higher than normal concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in breast milk. And therefore these compounds will be transferred to the baby. Due to the damaging effects of these toxins, it is recommended additional studies on larger groups and other types of samples

  8. Levels and patterns of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in municipal waste incinerator bottom ash in Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Yao, Jun; Shi, Dezhi; Fang, Jie; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Cheema, Sardar Alam; Chen, Yingxu

    2010-07-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in bottom ash from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in six cities in Zhejiang province, where one-fourth of the MSW incinerators of China are located. Total PAH contents varied from 2222.53 to 6883.91 microg/kg. The patterns of PAHs were found to be very similar in all the samples, dominated by three-ring and four-ring PAHs. Total PCB concentrations in bottom ash ranged from 1.00 to 1.31 microg/kg, while the coplanar PCBs in the bottom ash were in the range of 0.08-0.52 microg/kg. Among PCB congeners, low chlorinated PCBs contributed to the majority of total PCBs. Generally, PAH concentrations in cities with fluidized bed incinerator were less than those in cities with grate furnace incinerator. PAH and PCB levels were affected by both plastic content in MSW incinerator feed and combustion efficiency. However, further study is required to investigate the effect of these two variables deeply, as well as other influencing factors. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  10. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no author on report

    2014-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  11. 2,2′,3,5′,6-PENTACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 95) AND ITS HYDROXYLATED METABOLITES ARE ENANTIOMERICALLY ENRICHED IN FEMALE MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Barnhart, Christopher D.; Stamou, Marianna; Truong, Kim M.; El-Komy, Mohammed H.M.E.; Lein, Pamela J.; Veng-Pedersen, Peter; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological and laboratory studies link polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several neurotoxic PCB congeners are chiral and undergo enantiomeric enrichment in mammalian species, which may modulate PCB developmental neurotoxicity. This study measures levels and enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 and its hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in adult female C57Bl/6 mice following subchronic exposure to racemic PCB 95. Tissue levels of PCB 95 and OH-PCBs increased with increasing dose. Dose-dependent enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 95 was observed in brain and other tissues. OH-PCBs also displayed enantiomeric enrichment in blood and liver, but were not detected in adipose and brain. In light of data suggesting enantioselective effects of chiral PCBs on molecular targets linked to PCB developmental neurotoxicity, our observations highlight the importance of accounting for PCB and OH-PCB enantiomeric enrichment in the assessment of PCB developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:22974126

  12. Levels and trends of PCB 28, PCB 153 and DDE in breast milk from primiparae women in Uppsala County, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, P.O.; Lignell, S.; Atuma, S.; Aune, M.; Glynn, A. [National Food Administration, Uppsala (Sweden); Cnattingius, S. [Dept. of Epidemiology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Since 1996, the Swedish NFA has made recurrent measurements of levels of selected POPs, chiefly PCBs, dioxins and persistent pesticides (e.g. DDTs), in human breast milk. The analyses were made on individual basis, which offer possibility to adjust the time trends in POP levels for differences among the participating women in life-style or other factors that could affect the levels in breast milk. The ambition with the NFA sampling is to follow changes in the levels of these environmental contaminants in human breast milk and to continue the Swedish time trend measurements that was started in the 1970s. The measured levels will be used as base for evaluation of possible health risks for the mother and in particular for the breastfed infant. This report presents breast milk results from 1996 to 2003, concentrating on the selected PCB congeners (PCB 28 and 153) and p,p'-DDE. The reason for selecting these compounds are the data showing differences in e.g. sources and persistence, which could make them interesting type substances for larger groups of compounds.

  13. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the exposure to a broad-spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) from the indoor environment through bio-monitoring of people working in a building with PCB-containing materials and elevated PCB levels in the indoor air. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing...

  14. Persistent alterations in regional brain glial fibrillary acidic protein and synaptophysin levels following pre- and postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.; Plug, A.; Wesseling, W.; Berg, K.J. van den; Brouwer, A.

    1996-01-01

    Pregnant Wistar WU rats were exposed to 0, 5, and 25 mg of the commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 per kilogram of body weight on Days 10 to 16 of gestation. Pregnant rats were sacrificed on Gestation Day 20 to observe effects on fetal body and brain weights. Male and

  15. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and three organochlorine pesticides in fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hardell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate.This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p'-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight, while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight. Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight. Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p'-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight. The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits.The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health and cultural benefits from eating

  16. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  17. Effects of hydroxy-polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB) congeners on the xenobiotic biotransformation gene expression patterns in primary culture of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Braathen, Marte; Sandvik, Morten; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-11-01

    Hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs [OH-PCBs] represent new health and environmental concern because they have been shown to have agonist or antagonist interactions with hormone receptors (HRs) or hormone-receptor mediated responses. The present study was designed to investigate the estrogenic potency based on anti-AhR signalling effect of three 4-OH substituted PCB congeners (#107, #146 and #187), one 3-OH substituted congener (#138), and the pharmaceutical synthetic estrogen, ethynylestradiol (EE2) in fish in vitro system using primary culture of Atlantic salmon hepatocytes. The effects were studied by quantifying changes in transcripts with gene-sequence primer pairs for a suite of gene responses (AhRalpha, ARNT, CYP1A1, CYP3A, UGT and GST) belonging to the xenobiotic biotransformation system. Our data show that OH-PCB congeners and EE2, decreased AhRalpha and ARNT transcript levels, and CYP1A1, UGT and GST gene expressions, together with CYP3A gene expression. The decreased expression of transcripts for xenobiotic biotransformation system is related to the concentration of individual OH-PCB congener and these responses are typical of reported estrogenic and estrogen-like effects on the CYP system. Modulation of biotransformation pathways by OH-PCBs may alter xenobiotic metabolism leading to the production of toxic reactive molecules, altering pharmacokinetics and diminishing the clearance rate of individual chemicals from the organism.

  18. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  19. Modeling the global levels and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in air under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Lara; Von Waldow, Harald; Macleod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-08-01

    We used the multimedia chemical fate model BETR Global to evaluate changes in the global distribution of two polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB 28 and PCB 153, under the influence of climate change. This was achieved by defining two climate scenarios based on results from a general circulation model, one scenario representing the last twenty years of the 20th century (20CE scenario) and another representing the global climate under the assumption of strong future greenhouse gas emissions (A2 scenario). The two climate scenarios are defined by four groups of environmental parameters: (1) temperature in the planetary boundary layer and the free atmosphere, (2) wind speeds and directions in the atmosphere, (3) current velocities and directions in the surface mixed layer of the oceans, and (4) rate and geographical pattern of precipitation. As a fifth parameter in our scenarios, we considerthe effect of temperature on primary volatilization emissions of PCBs. Comparison of dynamic model results using environmental parameters from the 20CE scenario against historical long-term monitoring data of concentrations of PCB 28 and PCB 153 in air from 16 different sites shows satisfactory agreement between modeled and measured PCBs concentrations. The 20CE scenario and A2 scenario were compared using steady-state calculations and assuming the same source characteristics of PCBs. Temperature differences between the two scenarios is the dominant factor that determines the difference in PCB concentrations in air. The higher temperatures in the A2 scenario drive increased primary and secondary volatilization emissions of PCBs, and enhance transport from temperate regions to the Arctic. The largest relative increase in concentrations of both PCB congeners in air under the A2 scenario occurs in the high Arctic and the remote Pacific Ocean. Generally, higher wind speeds under the A2 scenario result in more efficient intercontinental transport of PCB 28 and PCB 153 compared to the 20CE

  20. Dioxin, furan and PCB serum levels in a South African Tswana population: comparing the polluting effects of using different cooking and heating fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Rialet; Focant, Jean-François

    2014-05-01

    In South Africa, 26-50% of households use solid fuel for cooking food and heating houses. When used as fuel, wood and chlorinated waste are known sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Here, we compare PCDD/F, dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB), and non-DL-PCB (NDL-PCB) levels in serum of 693 Tswana individuals in the North West province, who either burn solid biofuels or have access to electricity, gas, and paraffin. This is the first South African study on dioxin levels in humans with more than 100 participants. Serum was pooled according to fuel use, as well as to confounding factors such as gender and age. Solid-phase extraction was used to remove the target analytes from serum, after which the extracts were further refined automatically using a combination of multilayer sorbents. Compound concentrations were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometry after high-resolution gas chromatography. Mean serum lipid content was determined enzymatically to be 5.91 ± 0.42 g/L. The PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels were similar to global concentrations reported for non-exposed adults. The mean of the total Toxic Equivalencies (ΣTEQ) was 6.9 ± 3.3 pg/g lipid and the mean NDL-PCB was 70.1 ± 42.8 ng/g lipid. The mean concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs and the corresponding World Health Organization-TEQ (WHO-TEQ) of the population using electricity, gas, and paraffin were greater than of those reliant on solid biomass (p = 0), whereas the DL-PCBs, their corresponding WHO-TEQ, and NDL-PCBs were greater for the population who use biofuels but not significantly so. The females had higher serum levels of the PCDDs (p = 0) and PCDFs (not significant) whereas the PCBs were higher for the males (p = 0). Breastfeeding women presented lower levels of all compound classes than their non-breastfeeding counterparts (p=0) and older subjects manifested greater pollutant loads than the younger generation (p = 0

  1. Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Grimm, Volker; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause endocrine disruption, cancer, immunosuppression, or reproductive failure in animals. We used an individual-based model to explore whether and how PCB-associated reproductive failure could affect the dynamics of a hypothetical polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population exposed to PCBs to the same degree as the East Greenland subpopulation. Dose-response data from experimental studies on a surrogate species, the mink (Mustela vision), were used in the absence of similar data for polar bears. Two alternative types of reproductive failure in relation to maternal sum-PCB concentrations were considered: increased abortion rate and increased cub mortality. We found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved. Critical potencies of the dose-response relationship for decreasing the population growth rate were established for both modeled types of reproductive failure. Comparing the model predictions of the age-dependent trend of sum-PCBs concentrations in females with actual field measurements from East Greenland indicated that it was unlikely that PCB exposure caused a high incidence of abortions in the subpopulation. However, on the basis of this analysis, it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality. Our results highlight the necessity for further research on the possible influence of PCBs on polar bear reproduction regarding their physiological pathway. This includes determining the exact cause of reproductive failure, i.e., in utero exposure versus lactational exposure of offspring; the timing of offspring death; and establishing the most relevant reference metrics for the dose-response relationship.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  5. Levels Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Residues In Warri River, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of PCB were compared with ecotoxicological benchmarks and regulatory guidelines to determine potential concern for effects on aquatic life and human health. Measured mean concentrations in surface water and sediments samples from Crawford creek station indicated concern for environmental and ...

  6. Toward the Next Level of PCB Usage in Power Electronic Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, E.C.W.; Ferreira, B.J.A.; Bauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    A means for power electronics to exploit the level of 3-D packaging already being implemented in compact consumer products, such as digital cameras, is investigated in order to increase its power density. The increase in functionality and usage of printed circuit board (PCB) in power electronic

  7. Levels of Lambda-Cyhalothrin and polychlorinated biphenyls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the presence and concentration of chloride, phosphate, lambda-cyhalothrin and polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method to discern contamination of selected herbal remedies. Sampling was carefully carried out in Northwest Nigeria. The chloride and the ...

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, Elena A; Mamontov, Alexander A; Tarasova, Eugenia N; Kuzmin, Mikhail I; Ganchimeg, Darmaa; Khomutova, Marina Yu; Gombosuren, Odontuya; Ganjuurjav, Erdenebayasgalan

    2013-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g −1  lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g −1  lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  10. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreiem, Anne; Rykken, Sidsel; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Robertson, Larry W.; Fonnum, Frode

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  11. Dioxin and PCB levels in human samples from the Greek population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leondiadis, L.; Vassiliadou, I.; Costopoulou, D.; Papadopoulos, A. [Mass Spectrometry and Dioxin Analysis Lab. - NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are commercial chemical substances produced in a large scale since 1930, with a wide range of applications in industry, such as for coolant fluids in transformers and dielectric fluids in capacitors. After their health effects became apparent, PCB production was banned in the late 1970s. However, humans are still exposed through PCB leakage of old capacitors and transformers and disposal of contaminated materials. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)), are formed as undesirable by-products mainly during the production of chlorinated chemicals and during the combustion of municipal and hazardous waste. Due to potential health hazard (dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive effects, teratogenicity, endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity), their monitoring in humans is of high general concern. Enough information on POP presence in human tissues from industrialized countries is available to suggest that the concentration of these compounds has decreased during the last 10 years. Monitoring of human exposure to PCBs and dioxins, contaminants that accumulate in lipid tissue, is most conveniently performed by analysis of blood plasma or blood serum. Monitoring of dioxins in human milk is of also great importance, since it is especially feared that lactational exposure to dioxins and related compounds may adversely affect brain development and the immune system of infants and children. The present study includes the analyses of non-ortho, mono-ortho, indicator PCBs, and PCDD/Fs in human blood and human milk samples collected between November 2002 and February 2004 and is the first study of this kind to be undertaken in Greece.

  12. Assessment of questionnaire-based PCB exposure focused on food frequency in birth cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Otake, Masae; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Todaka, Emiko; Mori, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the relationship between food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) responses and serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels of mothers and fathers recruited from the Chiba Regional Center, which is one of the 15 regional centers of the Japan Environment and Children's Study (mothers: n = 1477, fathers: n = 219). The expected PCB values were estimated from the participants' FFQ answers and medical records (age, body mass index and number of deliveries). Based on the stepwise forward selection results of Bayesian regression models, age and fish and egg consumption were positively associated with PCB concentrations and a number of deliveries were negatively associated with PCB concentrations in mothers, whereas only age was positively associated with PCB concentrations in fathers.These findings indicated that the estimation of daily dietary intake may be useful for the prediction of PCB concentration for mothers.

  13. Effects of urbanization on gaseous and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in a coastal city, China: levels, sources, and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Youwei; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Zhang, Han; Xu, Lingling; Yin, Liqian; Chen, Yanting

    2015-10-01

    Gas/particle distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in Xiamen from May 2009 to March 2010 to evaluate the impacts of urbanization on the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the atmospheric environment. In a newly developing area (NDA), the concentrations of 16 PAHs (gas + particle) were significantly higher than that a historically urbanized area (HUA) (p value <0.05), while the trend of 28 PCBs was reversed. Diagnostic ratios and principle component analysis (PCA) implied that atmospheric PAHs in the NDA were mainly derived from petrogenic combustion, including mixed sources of vehicle emissions, biomass burning and oil combustion, while pyrogenic combustion (e.g., traffic and coal combustion) was considered the major source of PAHs in the HUA. Atmospheric PCBs in both HUA and NDA were dominated by TriCBs and PeCBs related to the use of commercial mixtures (Aroclors 1242 and 1254). Based on the toxicological equivalent factor (TEF) approach, total benzo[a]pyrene equivalent values in the HUA and NDA were 1.12 and 2.02 ng m(-3), respectively, exceeding the standard threshold values (1.0 ng m(-3)) of China and WHO. Average daily intake of dioxin-like compounds was 0.2 pg kg(-1) day(-1) in the HUA, which are below the WHO tolerable daily intake level. The results showed that the contribution to the toxic equivalency (TEQ) was dominated by PCB169, PCB105, and PCB81.

  14. Diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP{sub 4}A) levels in muscle tissue as a potential biomarker of PCB and TCDD exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordone, A. [Consultox Ltd., Damariscotta, ME (United States)]|[Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Toxicology; Grant, T.; Saranko, C.; Pivorun, E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1995-12-31

    During the past two decades a group of purine nucleotides, the diadenosine polyphosphates, have gained increasing attention. One of these compounds, diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP{sub 4}A), has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cellular events, including intracellular signaling during adaptive responses to cellular stress. The authors have recently demonstrated that changes in AP{sub 4}A levels in venous and arterial blood are related to periods of major trauma during corrective spinal surgery. Using Deermice (Peromyscus maniculatus) they investigated whether changes in the concentration of AP{sub 4}A in muscle tissue could be used as a biomarker of chemically induced stress. Using intraperitoneal administration, animals were exposed to either a mixture of PCB congeners (Aroclor 1254), a coplanar PCB (PCB 169), a noncoplanar PCB (PCB 153) or TCDD for a period of 11 days. The coplanar PCB and TCDD decreased AP{sub 4}A concentrations in dose-dependent manner, whereas the noncoplanar PCB increased concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Aroclor 1254 reduced AP{sub 4}A concentration to a similar level at all doses. These results indicate that PCBs and TCDD modulate AP{sub 4}A concentrations in muscle tissue in a manner that is both dose and structure dependent. It is possible that AP{sub 4}A could be used as a marker of the level of exposure to PCBs and dioxin and as an indicator of the congeners involved.

  15. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  16. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was

  17. Studies on air and water pollution. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls and benzopyrene status report July 1977 - June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, F.L.; Cunanan, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical methodology developed for trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in water was described. The water sample was extracted with hexane and the extract passes through a florisil column. The cleaned extract was concentrated and then analyzed by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. The methodology has an efficiency of 85% recovery for PCB spiked at a concentration level of 1 ppm. Minimum detection limit obtained was 0.5 ppm PCB in water. A total of 27 water samples were collected and analyzed during the period January - June 1978. No PCB's were detected in the samples. (author)

  18. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Modelling exposure of oceanic higher trophic-level consumers to polychlorinated biphenyls: pollution 'hotspots' in relation to mass mortality events of marine mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoh, Itsuki C; Kawai, Toru

    2014-08-30

    Marine mammals in the past mass mortality events may have been susceptible to infection because their immune systems were suppressed through the bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We compiled mortality event data sets of 33 marine mammal species, and employed a Finely-Advanced Transboundary Environmental model (FATE) to model the exposure of the global fish community to PCB congeners, in order to define critical exposure levels (CELs) of PCBs above which mass mortality events are likely to occur. Our modelling approach enabled us to describe the mass mortality events in the context of exposure of higher-trophic consumers to PCBs and to identify marine pollution 'hotspots' such as the Mediterranean Sea and north-western European coasts. We demonstrated that the CELs can be applied to quantify a chemical pollution Planetary Boundary, under which a safe operating space for marine mammals and humanity can exist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Background Contamination by Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in Trace Level High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) Analytical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  3. association breast milk fat and BMI with levels of pollutantsPCB (polyclorinatedbiphenilin milk of nursing mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vafa ghorban sabagh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human breast milk contains high levels of fat, toxins, these substances which exist in our country based on many reports.this study aimed to evaluate the concentration of PCBs in the mother’s milk during the first postnatal week. Methods: this study was conducted on 50 mothers who gave birth to a healthy infant at Vali-Asr teaching hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, from 2014 through 2015. Within the first postnatal week a 20 cc sample of mother’s breast milk was obtained and was sent for laboratory analysis to measure PCB levels via GCMassmethod.Using the CHi-Square test and Man whitney relationship between the mother's milk fat and PBCs was evaluated. Results:Mean age of mothers were 29.41 ± 6.14 year.PCB180 was significantly correlated with TG values, while this correlation was not observed for other types of PCBs. There was a significant correlation between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101, and PCB180 concentrations. It was also observed between increasing weight and the concentration of PCB101 (p = 0.033, r = 0.293 and concentrations of PCB180 (p = 0.034, r = 0.428, there was a significant correlation. In our studyPCB101(p=0.048 ,r=0.278 and PCB28(p=0.021, r=0.328 were significantly correlated with BMI.  Conclusions:The present study showed a higher-than-normal concentration of PCBs in breast milk. And therefore these compounds will be transferred to the baby. Due to the damaging effects of these toxins, it is recommended measures be taken to solve this problem.

  4. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB mixtures in humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Cenijn, P.H.; Pěnčíková, K.; Palková, L.; Šimečková, P.; Vondráček, Jan; Andersson, P.L.; Stenberg, M.; Machala, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 1 (2011), s. 88-100 ISSN 1096-6080 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : NDL- PCB s * endocrine disruption * relative toxic potencies Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.652, year: 2011

  5. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  6. Long-term experiment on digestibility, accumulation and metabolisation of low-level dietary polychlorinated biphenyls in laying hens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, S. De; Schrijver, R. De [Catholic Univ., Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-09-15

    With regard to their bioaccumulation and toxicity, scientifically based standards concerning acceptable concentrations of PCBs in animal feeds and products should be determined. Therefore, insight in the accumulation of PCBs in the food chain is required. Until now, the maximally admitted PCB content in Belgian animal feeds and products, based on the sum of 7 reference PCB congeners, amounts to 200 ng/g fat. The present study with laying hens was designed to examine the long-term effects of low level dietary PCB contents on animal performance, egg quality, apparent PCB digestibility, PCB retention and PCB incorporation in egg yolk, abdominal adipose tissue, thigh and breast muscle tissues. Moreover, the effect of low dietary amounts of added fat, varying between 1.5% and 4.5%, on PCB digestibility and incorporation in laying hens was investigated. Also we addressed the question whether PCB incorporation in egg yolk as well as in adipose and muscle tissue would meet the current standard of 200 ng/g fat.

  7. PCB exposure and cochlear function at age 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Moleti, Arturo; Sisto, Renata; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Tihányi, Juraj; Jurečková, Dana; Kováč, Ján; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Drobná, Beata; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have documented adverse associations between exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and otological outcomes. Previously, we documented decreased distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) levels in children exposed to PCBs, up to the age of 45 months, amongst a cohort of children in eastern Slovakia. The objective of the present study is to evaluate cochlear dysfunction at 72 months of age in 214 children from this same cohort and to compare the otoacoustic test sensitivity to that of pure tone audiometry (PTA). The association between DPOAE, PTA, and PCBs was estimated by means of multivariate ANOVA (MANOVA) and linear regression models. ROC curves were computed to estimate the DPOAE-test power in children. The DPOAE level at 72 months was related to PCB-153 serum levels. The DPOAE Input/Output function test at mid-frequency (2kHz) has shown instead nonmonotonic dependence on PCB exposure, for the left ears of children, over the whole growth curve. No significant association was found between PTA hearing levels and PCB-153 concentration. High diagnostic power of the DPOAE-test was found in children, similar to that found by the same authors in adults. In conclusions the DPOAE-PCB correlation obtained at 72 months is similar to that at 45 months suggesting a permanent and stable ototoxic effect of the PCB exposure. The lack of statistical significance of the PCB-PTA correlation suggests that DPOAEs are sensitive biomarkers of cochlear damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. PCB138, but not PCB153 and PCB180, acts as a weak antiandrogen in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2000-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a group of persistent environmental chemicals including 209 possible congeners exhibiting a variety of chlorine substitution patterns. Due to their lipophilic nature and resistance toward biotransformation, PCBs accumulate in the food chain and all...... environmental matrixes including human adipose tissue, blood and milk. In most biological extracts PCB#138 (2,2',3,4,4',5-hexaCB), PCB#153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB), and PCB#180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptaCB) are the dominating components. Depending on the position and number of chlorine substitutions, different...

  9. Alterations in geometry, biomechanics, and mineral composition of juvenile rat femur induced by nonplanar PCB-155 and/or planar PCB-169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovič, Jana; Jovanovski, Sašo; Jevnikar, Peter; Hofmeister, Alexander; Reininger-Gutmann, Birgit; Jan, Janja; Grošelj, Maja; Osredkar, Joško; Uršič, Matjaž; Fazarinc, Gregor; Pogačnik, Azra; Vrecl, Milka

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to widespread lipophilic and bioaccumulative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces diverse biochemical and toxicological responses in various organs, including the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in growth rate, geometry, serum, and bone biochemical parameters and biomechanics of juvenile rat femur induced by lactational exposure to nonplanar PCB-155 and planar PCB-169 individually and in combination. Fifteen lactating Wistar rats were divided into four groups (PCB-169, PCB-155, PCB-155+169, and control), and PCBs were administered intraperitoneally at different time points after delivery. Femurs from 22-day-old offspring were analyzed by microCT, three-point bending test and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to obtain data on bone geometry, biomechanics and mineral composition. The serum levels of calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. Lactational exposure to planar PCB-169 resulted in shorter and thinner femurs, reduced endosteal and periosteal perimeters, smaller total cross-sectional and medullary areas, and lowered serum bone marker levels and calcium levels in the bone, while femur mechanical properties were not significantly altered. The changes observed in the combination exposure (PCB-155+169) group were similar to those observed in the PCB-169 group but were less pronounced. In summary, our results demonstrate that alterations in lactationally exposed offspring were primarily induced by planar PCB-169. The milder outcome in the combined group suggested that the PCB-169-mediated toxic effects on the bone might be reduced by a nonplanar PCB-155 congener. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1135-1146, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl profiles in ringed seals (Pusa Hispida) reveal historical contamination by a military radar station in Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2014-03-01

    Significant amounts of soil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered at a military radar station in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, in 1996. Subsequent work showed elevated PCB concentrations in local marine sediments, in the benthic-associated food web, and in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida). The benthic-associated food web clearly reflected local PCB contamination, but the high PCB concentrations found in some ringed seals remained unexplained. In the present study, the authors assess the extent to which this local PCB source at Saglek Bay is contributing to the contamination of ringed seals in northern Labrador. Among 63 ringed seals sampled along the northern Labrador coast, 5 (8%) had PCB levels that were higher than recorded anywhere else in the Canadian Arctic. In addition, compared with seals exhibiting a long-range signal, 45% and 60% of subadults and adult males, respectively, exhibited heavier PCB congener profiles as characterized by principal components analysis, >1.6-fold higher PCB/organochlorine pesticides ratios, and higher PCB concentration-weighted average log octanol-water partition coefficient values, consistent with a local source. Despite the spatially confined nature of contaminated sediments in Saglek Bay, the influence of this PCB source is not inconsequential; PCB concentrations in locally contaminated adult males are 2-fold higher than concentrations in those exposed only to long-range PCB sources and exceed an established threshold of 1.3 mg/kg for adverse health effects in seals. © 2013 SETAC.

  11. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Mesnier

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB, PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB, or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  12. The Transcriptional Effects of PCB118 and PCB153 on the Liver, Adipose Tissue, Muscle and Colon of Mice: Highlighting of Glut4 and Lipin1 as Main Target Genes for PCB Induced Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnier, Aurélia; Champion, Serge; Louis, Laurence; Sauzet, Christophe; May, Phealay; Portugal, Henri; Benbrahim, Karim; Abraldes, Joelle; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Josephe; Peiretti, Franck; Piccerelle, Philippe; Nalbone, Gilles; Villard, Pierre-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes; however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved in the metabolic side-effects of PCB. Our study evaluated the transcriptional effects of a subchronic exposure (gavage at Day 0 and Day 15 with 10 or 100 μmol/Kg bw) to PCB118 (dioxin-like PCB), PCB153 (non-dioxin-like PCB), or an equimolar mixture of PCB118 and PCB153 on various tissues (liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle, and colon) in mice. Our results showed that a short-term exposure to PCB118 and/or PCB153 enhanced circulating triglyceride levels but did not affect glycemia. Among the studied tissues, we did not observe any modification of the expression of inflammation-related genes, such as cytokines or chemokines. The main transcriptional effects were observed in visceral adipose and liver tissues. We found a downregulation of lipin1 and glut4 expression in these two target organs. In adipose tissue, we also showed a downregulation of Agpat2, Slc25a1, and Fasn. All of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. In muscles, we observed an induction of CnR1 and Foxo3 expression, which may be partly involved in PCB metabolic effects. In summary, our results suggest that lipin1 and glut4, notably in adipose tissue, are the main targeted genes in PCB-induced metabolic disorders, however, further studies are required to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  13. Prenatal exposure to PCB-153, p,p'-DDE and birth outcomes in 9000 mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Martínez, David

    2014-01-01

    Low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) can impair fetal growth; however, the exposure-response relationship and effect modifiers of such association are not well established. This study is an extension of an earlier European me...

  14. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  15. PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy's, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period

  16. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Avima M.; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n=24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n=410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker’s measured serum PCB levels and the same worker’s cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14–24 % of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22–39 % for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB. PMID:23475397

  17. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salice, Christopher J; Rowe, Christopher L; Eisenreich, Karen M

    2014-01-01

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geographic variation of PCB congeners in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard east to the Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, M.; Lie, E.; Derocher, A.E.; Belikov, S.E.; Bernhoft, A.; Boltunov, Andrei N.; Garner, G.W.; Skaare, J.U.; Wiig, Øystein

    2001-01-01

    We present data on geographic variation in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Blood samples from 90 free-living polar bears were collected in 1987–1995. Six PCB congeners, penta to octa chlorinated (PCB-99, -118, -153, -156, -180, -194), were selected for this study. Differences between areas were found in PCB levels and congener patterns. Bears from Franz Josef Land (11,194 ng/g lipid weight) and the Kara Sea (9,412 ng/g lw) had similar ΣPCB levels and were higher than all other populations (Svalbard 5,043 ng/g lw, East Siberian Sea 3,564 ng/g lw, Chukchi Sea 2,465 ng/g lw). Svalbard PCB levels were higher than those from the Chukchi Sea. Our results, combined with earlier findings, indicate that polar bears from Franz Josef Land and the Kara Sea have the highest PCB levels in the Arctic. Decreasing trends were seen eastwards and westwards from this region. Of the congeners investigated in the present study, the lower chlorinated PCBs are increasing and the high chlorinated PCBs are decreasing from Svalbard eastward to the Chukchi Sea. Different pollution sources, compound transport patterns and regional prey differences could explain the variation in PCB congener levels and patterns between regions.

  19. Interacting influence of potassium and polychlorinated biphenyl on cortisol and aldosterone biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Lin, Tsu-Chun Emma

    2007-01-01

    Giving human adrenocortical H295R cells 14 mM KCl for 24 h significantly induced not only aldosterone biosynthesis but also cortisol biosynthesis. Pre-treating the cells with polychlorinated biphenyl 126 (PCB126) further increased potassium-induced aldosterone and cortisol productions in a dose-dependent manner, but all examined concentrations of PCB126 had little effect on the yields of precursor steroids progesterone and 17-OH-progesterone. Subsequent examinations revealed that CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes, responsible for the respective final steps of the cortisol and aldosterone biosynthetic pathways, exhibited increased responsiveness to PCB126 under high potassium. While 10 -5 M PCB126 was needed to induce a significant increase in the basal mRNA abundance of either gene, PCB126 could enhance potassium-induced mRNA expression of CYP11B1 at 10 -7 M and CYP11B2 at 10 -9 M. Actually, potassium and PCB126 synergistically upregulated mRNA expression of both genes. Potassium raised the transcriptional rates of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 probably through a conserved Ad5 cis-element, whereas PCB126 appeared to regulate these two genes at the post-transcriptional level. Positive potassium-PCB126 synergism was also detected in CYP11B2 enzyme activity estimated by aldosterone/progesterone ratio. In contrast, potassium and PCB126 increased CYP11B1 enzyme activity or cortisol/17-OH-progesterone ratio additively. Moreover, potassium improved the time effect of PCB126 on gene expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B2, but not the PCB126 time response of CYP11B1. These data demonstrated that potassium differentially enhanced the potency of PCB126 to induce CYP11B1- and CYP11B2-mediated steroidogenesis

  20. Distributions of PCB congeners and homologues in white sucker and coho salmon from Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Edwards, William; McIntyre, Peter B.

    2018-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of the proportion of higher chlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners increasing with increasing trophic level by comparing the respective PCB homologue distributions in an omnivore, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and a top predator, coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), from Lake Michigan. Adult females had the same congener and homologue proportions of total PCB concentration (ΣPCB) as adult males in both species. Hexachlorinated congeners comprised the largest proportion (32%) found in white sucker, followed by heptachlorinated (21%) and octochlorinated (18%) congeners. In contrast, pentachlorinated congeners comprised the largest proportion (33%) of ΣPCB found in coho salmon, followed by hexachlorinated (26%) and tetrachlorinated (24%) congeners. Coho salmon contained significantly higher proportions of tri-, tetra-, and pentachlorinated congeners, whereas white sucker contained significantly higher proportions of hexa- through decachlorinated congeners. Our results were opposite of the hypothesis of greater degree of PCB chlorination with increasing trophic level, and supported the contention that the PCB congener proportions in fish depends mainly on diet, and does not necessarily reflect the trophic level of the fish. Our results also supported the contention that diets do not vary between the sexes in most fish populations.

  1. Transient spectral hole burning observed on the single-molecule level in terrylene-doped biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pärs, M.; Palm, V.; Kikas, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use the method of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to analyze the single-molecule (SM) spectroscopy data earlier recorded for a special type of terrylene SM impurity center (referred as “spectrally confined unstable molecule”, SCM) in an incommensurate single crystal of biphenyl. The SCM's SM line seems to be chaotically jumping around within a broad “spectral envelope” and was first considered being subject to a peculiar spectral diffusion behavior. However, our correlation analysis reveals that all the features observed for SCM at 1.8 K are consistent with an assumption that this SM center participates in a process of reversible (transient) spectral hole burning (THB) earlier observed for terrylene-doped polycrystalline biphenyl. No observations of THB processes on SM level have been so far reported for this impurity system, partially due to a low concentration of relevant impurity centers. Another reason making searching for such centers experimentally challenging is an unusual SM line behavior: the photoinduced transition to a metastable “dark state” leads to the SM line saturational broadening, which is much stronger than the triplet broadening. Hence required prolonged observation is often prevented by an SM act of persistent spectral hole burning. - Highlights: • SCM—special type of terrylene single-molecule center in incommensurate biphenyl. • An unusually stable SCM was investigated during several hours at T=1.8 K. • SCM undergoes photoinduced transitions to an unknown metastable “dark state” (DS). • The long DS lifetime causes strong saturational broadening of SCM spectral line. • SCM participates in an earlier observed process of transient hole burning

  2. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in placentas from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mariana F; Parera, Jordi; Arrebola, Juan P; Marina, Loreto Santa; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina; Abalos, Manoli; Tardon, Adonina; Castaño, Argelia; Abad, Esteban; Olea, Nicolas

    2012-12-15

    Because fetuses are considered significantly more sensitive to various environment toxicants, there is a need for continuous biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs (DL-PCBs) to assess their impact on this susceptible population. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in placenta samples from women participating in the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) birth cohort study and to evaluate whether maternal and child characteristics predict placenta concentrations of these pollutants. The presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was investigated in 50 placenta samples selected at random in the recruitment period 2000-2008. Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of 30.7 years (18.0-38.0 years), pre-pregnancy BMI of 23.3 kg/m² (18.0-40.2 kg/m²), and 31% were smokers. Median total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 6.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid and 2.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations. The congener distribution pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCB congeners were similar to previous reports in placenta. PCDD/F and DL-PCB exposure was related to the age of the mother and the year of the delivery. Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury levels in soil and biological samples from San Felipe, Nuevo Mercurio, Zacatecas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Rocha-Amador, Diana; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván Nelinho

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in soil, and to assess exposure level to both contaminants in children living in San Felipe, Nuevo Mercurio, Zacatecas, Mexico. We found soil levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls ranging from non detectable (nd) to 190 μg/kg. Mercury soil levels ranged from 8.9 to 10215.0 mg/kg. Exposure levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls assessed in blood and urinary mercury in children living in the studied community were 1,600 ± 8,800 ng/g lipid and 4.2 ± 7.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively.

  4. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...... tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln...... temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where...

  5. PCB level in fish of Zadar area, Croatia and estimation its intake by critical population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, T.; Picer, M.; Picer, N.; Kobasic, V.H. [Rudjer Boskovic Inst., Zagreb (Croatia)

    2004-09-15

    In Croatian karst area encompassed by warfare, several cases show reasonable doubt resulting with underground water contamination. Beside roads, airports, waste landfills or large industrial plant which are typical possible contamination sources for underground waters in karst, whose damage or destruction during warfare increases contamination hazard, it is necessary to exclude damaged transformer stations, and the use of nonsanitary waste landfills. Furthermore it is necessary to give notice that inappropriate waste or contaminated soil disposal, for example in karst valley (which happens occasionally in contamination remediation purposes), may multiply underground water contamination hazard in karst terrain. Taking into account location of destroyed Zadar Electrical Transformer Stations, there is some speculation regarding the potential hazard from organohalogenated toxicants to the coastal sea around the Zadar. DDT levels in coastal sediment of the investigated area during 1997 are mostly lower, compared with results obtained in Mediterranean, the Adriatic, and Rijeka bay. However, PCB levels are significantly higher compared to DDT, and it could be said they are comparable with more contaminated areas of the Mediterranean, such as coast of Spain and France, Italy and Greece. Epibenthic fish, and even more benthic fish, do not move through wide areas, so their contamination can better indicate the level of contaminants in some narrow area. On the other hand, contaminants in those fish do not depend much on relatively small distances from a dotted source of contamination (as is the case with mussels and sediment), thus better ''integrating'' contamination status of a site. This paper shows data on PCBs detected in fish of the territorial sea ecosystem in the area of Zadar, Croatia.

  6. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  7. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  8. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  9. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1-/- mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1-/- endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1-/- endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Decrease in prosaposin in spermatozoon is associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia-Li; Sun, Ling-Bin; Guo, Zhi-Zhun; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Zheng, Guan-Chao; Qiu, Hui-Ling; Sha, Ai-Guo; Wang, Chong-Gang; Ren, Jian-Zhi; Zuo, Zheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants and they have been associated with declining male fertility. In the present study, we aimed to determine the responsiveness of prosaposin (Psap) expression to PCB exposure. Male C57 mice were exposed to PCB mixture (Aroclor 1254) of environmental related doses by oral gavage. After exposure for 50 days, the expression of Psap was significantly decreased by PCB exposure in epididymides and epydidymal spermatozoa, but not in testis. The Psap abundance in sperm was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Benchmark dose modeling revealed the 95% lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL) and Benchmark Dose (BMD) for Psap reduction were 1.25 and 8.89 μg/kg Aroclor 1254, and for sperm motility reduction were 11.85 and 61.9 μg/kg Aroclor 1254. The depressed Psap level also showed a significant correlation (P<0.01, r=-0.531) with PCB accumulation in liver. In men with detectable PCB exposure in semen, Psap expression in sperm was significantly decreased whereas the semen parameters were unaffected. Linear regression showed that a negative association between total PCB level in seminal plasma and Psap level in ejaculated spermatozoa (P<0.05, r=-0.396). In conclusion, our data suggested that the abundance of Psap in sperm sample may be a sensitive endpoint to predict PCB exposure.

  11. Rapid detection of polychlorinated biphenyls at trace levels in real environmental samples by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10(-6) mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  12. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  13. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Caroline; Tinant, Gilles; Mignolet, Eric; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Debier, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i) the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii) the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release from adipocytes.

  14. [Levels of selected organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances in blood--Polish WWF study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struciński, Paweł; Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Ludwicki, Jan K; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Korcz, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    In June 2004, blood samples of fifteen volunteers were analyzed for presence of selected groups of chemical contaminants. The aim of this survey organized by WWF Poland (World Wildlife Fund) was highlighting the problem of man-made, persistent and bioaccumulative chemicals constantly present in surrounding environment and in our tissues. It was a part of European WWF "Detox" campaign supporting proposal of a new EU regulation that should lead to the identification and phasing out of the most harmful chemicals (known as REACH). Three laboratories in Czech Republic, Sweden and Belgium have analyzed blood samples for presence of the following groups of contaminants: organochlorine compounds (pesticides and polychlorinated pesticides), phthalates and perfluorinated aliphatic substances. The total number of single chemicals found in the blood samples was 25, that represents 64% of the 39 chemicals looked for. The average number of compounds found in the samples was 21 (from 19 to 22). Among organochlorine compounds analyzed, the predominant chemical found in the highest concentration was p,p'-DDE (range from 130 to 1310 ng/g of fat), which similarly like p,p'-DDT, beta-HCH, and HCB (concentrations ranging from 6,4 to 46 ng/g of fat) was present in every person's blood. Among analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls, in all samples the following congeners have been present: PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, and PCB-180 (concentrations ranging from 3,7 to 61 ng/g of fat). The two predominant phtalates from total eight analyzed present in all samples were di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) (concentration range from 49 to 293 ng/g of blood) and diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) (concentration range from 10 to 63 ng/g of blood). Among fifteen perfluorinated aliphatic substances analyzed, six have been present in each single sample (perfluorohexanesulfonic acid - PFHxS, perfluorooctanoic acid - PFOA, perfluorooctane-sulfonic acid - PFOS, perfluorooctanesulfonylamide - PFOSA, perfluorononanoic

  15. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  16. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ( 3 H, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, 241 Am, 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of 3 H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the 3 H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of 241 Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for 238 Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for 239,240 Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of 3 H in three soil samples and 241 Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 (micro)g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element concentrations in soils collected along a transect from Area G to the

  17. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  18. Effects of thiol antioxidants on the atropselective oxidation of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0-10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol), and 4,5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136, and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo.

  19. Prenatal and postnatal serum PCB concentrations and cochlear function in children at 45 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A; Sisto, Renata; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Moleti, Arturo; Wimmerová, Sonˇa; Lancz, Kinga; Tihányi, Juraj; Sovčiková, Eva; Drobná, Beata; Palkovičová, L'ubica; Jurečková, Dana; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Verner, Marc-André; Sonneborn, Dean; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2014-11-01

    Some experimental and human data suggest that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may induce ototoxicity, though results of previous epidemiologic studies are mixed and generally focus on either prenatal or postnatal PCB concentrations exclusively. Our aim was to evaluate the association between pre- and postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to cochlear status, assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), and to further clarify the critical periods in development where cochlear status may be most susceptible to PCBs. A total of 351 children from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia underwent otoacoustic testing at 45 months of age. Maternal pregnancy, cord, and child 6-, 16-, and 45-month blood samples were collected and analyzed for PCB concentrations. At 45 months of age, DPOAEs were assessed at 11 frequencies in both ears. Multivariate, generalized linear models were used to estimate the associations between PCB concentrations at different ages and DPOAEs, adjusting for potential confounders. Maternal and cord PCB-153 concentrations were not associated with DPOAEs at 45 months. Higher postnatal PCB concentrations at 6-, 16-, and 45-months of age were associated with lower (poorer) DPOAE amplitudes. When all postnatal PCB exposures were considered as an area-under-the-curve metric, an increase in PCB-153 concentration from the 25th to the 75th percentile was associated with a 1.6-dB SPL (sound pressure level) decrease in DPOAE amplitude (95% CI: -2.6, -0.5; p = 0.003). In this study, postnatal rather than maternal or cord PCB concentrations were associated with poorer performance on otoacoustic tests at age 45 months.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    2012-01-01

    . The PCB(tot) levels in the air of the contaminated section were 168-3843 ng m(-3) (mean: 1030 ng m(-3)), while the mean levels in the reference apartments were 6.03 ng m(-3). The sum of the 24 measured PCB congeners in sealants from the contaminated section was 187-221680 mg kg(-1). Principal component......Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...... analysis revealed four groups among the sealant samples with different congener compositions, only two of which were clearly similar to known PCB mixtures, while two were not. Significant correlations and intercorrelations were observed between the lower chlorinated congeners in air and sealant, e...

  1. Metabolism of 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) Atropisomers in Tissue Slices from Phenobarbital or Dexamethasone-Induced Rats is Sex-Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J.; Duffel, Michael; Lein, Pamela J.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB 136 enantioselectively sensitize the ryanodine receptor (RyR). In light of recent evidence that PCBs cause developmental neurotoxicity via RyR-dependent mechanisms, this suggests that enantioselective PCB metabolism may influence the developmental neurotoxicity of chiral PCBs. However, enantioselective disposition of PCBs has not been fully characterized.The effect of sex and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction on the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 136 was studied using liver tissue slices prepared from naïve control (CTL), phenobarbital (PB; CYP2B inducer) or dexamethasone (DEX; CYP3A inducer) pretreated adult Sprague-Dawley rats. PCB 136 metabolism was also examined in hippocampal slices derived from untreated rat pups.In liver tissue slices, hydroxylated PCB (OH-PCB) profiles depended on sex and inducer pretreatment, and OH-PCB levels followed the rank orders male > female and PB > DEX > CTL. In contrast, the enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 136 and its metabolites was independent of sex and inducer pretreatment. Only small amounts of PCB 136 partitioned into hippocampal tissue slices and no OH-PCB metabolites were detected.Our results suggest that enantioselective metabolism, sex and induction status of P450 enzymes in the liver may modulate the neurotoxic outcomes of developmental exposure to chiral PCBs. PMID:23581876

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  3. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  4. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  5. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  6. Temporal and spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl chiral signatures of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and its arctic marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Zhe; Fisk, Aaron T.; Kovacs, Kit M.; Lydersen, Christian; McKinney, Melissa A.; Tomy, Gregg T.; Rosenburg, Bruno; McMeans, Bailey C.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Wong, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chiral signatures were measured in Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and their potential prey in arctic marine food webs from Canada (Cumberland Sound) and Europe (Svalbard) to assess temporal and spatial variation in PCB contamination at the stereoisomer level. Marine mammals had species-specific enantiomer fractions (EFs), likely due to a combination of in vivo biotransformation and direct trophic transfer. Greenland sharks from Cumberland Sound in 2007–2008 had similar EFs to those sharks collected a decade ago in the same location (PCBs 91, 136 and 149) and also similar to their conspecifics from Svalbard for some PCB congeners (PCBs 95, 136 and 149). However, other PCB EFs in the sharks varied temporally (PCB 91) or spatially (PCB 95), suggesting a possible spatiotemporal variation in their diets, since biotransformation capacity was unlikely to have varied within this species from region to region or over the time frame studied. -- Highlights: • Chiral PCB signatures were measured in Greenland sharks and their prey. • Marine mammals accumulated non-racemic PCBs from biotransformation and their diet. • Chiral PCB signatures were similar in sharks at two different arctic locations. • Some changes in chiral PCB signatures in sharks over a decade. -- PCB chiral signatures in Greenland sharks shift over time and space, likely in parallel with dietary variation

  7. PCBs levels and indicator congeners in children's and adolescents' hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Baocui; Liu, Xinhui; Hou, Jing; Liang, Gang; Gong, Wenwen; Xu, Diandou; Zhang, Li

    2014-01-01

    Thirty polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in the hair samples collected from children (4–12) and adolescents (13–18) of Changchun city, Northeastern China. The mean concentrations of total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the adolescents' hair samples were 161.0 ng g −1 and 61.7 ng g −1 , which were relatively higher than 43.7 ng g −1 and 14.6 ng g −1 in the children's ones. Considering gender difference, the mean concentrations in the girls' hair samples were approximately two times higher than those in the boys' ones for most PCB congeners. The pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue. It was found that the levels of total PCBs and dl-PCBs were highly correlated with PCB 118 level in the children's hair samples, and with PCB 114 level in the adolescents' ones. The result demonstrated that the two PCB congeners could be applied as the indicators to evaluate the concentrations of total PCBs and dl-PCBs in children's and adolescents' hair, respectively. -- Highlights: • PCBs levels for most congeners were higher in the adolescents' hair samples. • The mean PCBs were approximately 2 times higher for girls except few congeners. • Pentachlorinated biphenyl was the dominant homologue in the both hair samples. • PCB 118 and PCB 114 were the indicators for total PCBs and total dl-PCBs. -- The PCBs levels can be predicted conveniently by the congener-specific analysis

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffal, A.; Givaudan, N.; Betoulle, S.; Terreau, A.; Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S.; Beall, E.; Roche, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49 o S, 70 o E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g -1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g -1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  9. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D and D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste and PCB low-level

  10. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  11. In vitro assay shows that PCB metabolites completely saturate thyroid hormone transport capacity in blood of wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutleb, A.C.; Cenijn, P.H.; van Velzen, P.; Lie, E.; Ropstad, E.; Skaare, J.U.; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, A.; Gabrielsen, G. W.; Legler, J.

    2010-01-01

    Persistent chemicals accumulate in the arctic environment due to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the most concentrated pollutant class in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Metabolism of PCB and polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE)

  12. Local contamination, and not feeding preferences, explains elevated PCB concentrations in Labrador ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Iverson, Sara J; Fisk, Aaron T; Macdonald, Robie W; Helbing, Caren C; Reimer, Ken J

    2015-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in high trophic level species typically reflect the contributions of myriad sources, such that source apportionment is rarely possible. The release of PCBs by a military radar station into Saglek Bay, Labrador contaminated the local marine food web. For instance, while heavier (higher chlorinated) PCB profiles in some ringed seals (Pusa hispida) were previously attributed to this local source, differences in feeding preferences among seals could not be ruled out as a contributing factor. Herein, similar fatty acid profiles between those seals with 'local' PCB profiles and those with 'long-range' or background profiles indicate little support for the possibility that differential feeding ecologies underlay the divergent PCB profiles. Ringed seals appeared to feed predominantly on zooplankton (Mysis oculata and Themisto libellula), followed by the dusky snailfish (Liparis gibbus), arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), and shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Principal components analysis (PCA) and PCB homolog profiles illustrated the extent of contamination of the Saglek food web, which had very different (and much heavier) PCB profiles than those food web members contaminated by 'long-range' sources. Locally contaminated prey had PCB levels that were higher (2- to 544-fold) than prey contaminated by 'long-range' sources and exceeded wildlife consumption guidelines for PCBs. The application of multivariate analyses to two distinct datasets, including PCB congeners (n=50) and fatty acids (n=65), afforded the opportunity to clearly distinguish the contribution of locally-released PCBs to a ringed seal food web from those delivered via long-ranged transport. Results from the present study strongly suggest that habitat use rather than differences in prey selection is the primary mechanism explaining the divergent PCB patterns in Labrador ringed seals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dietary Selenium as a Modulator of PCB 126–Induced Hepatotoxicity in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian K.; Chai, Yingtao; Simmons, Donald; Watson, Walter H.; Tan, Rommel; Haschek, Wanda M.; Wang, Kai; Wang, Bingxuan; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2011-01-01

    Homeostasis of selenium (Se), a critical antioxidant incorporated into amino acids and enzymes, is disrupted by exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Here we examined the importance of dietary Se in preventing the toxicity of the most toxic polychlorinated biphenyl congener, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a potent AhR agonist. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a modified AIN-93 diet with differing dietary Se levels (0.02, 0.2, and 2 ppm). Following 3 weeks of acclimatization, rats from each dietary group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (vehicle), 0.2, 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB 126, followed 2 weeks later by euthanasia. PCB exposure caused dose-dependent increases in liver weight and at the highest PCB 126 dose decreases in whole body weight gains. Hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A1) activity was significantly increased even at the lowest dose of PCB 126, indicating potent AhR activation. PCB exposure diminished hepatic Se levels in a dose-dependent manner, and this was accompanied by diminished Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity. Both these effects were partially mitigated by Se supplementation. Conversely, thioredoxin (Trx) reductase activity and Trx oxidation state, although significantly diminished in the lowest dietary Se groups, were not affected by PCB exposure. In addition, PCB 126–induced changes in hepatic copper, iron, manganese, and zinc were observed. These results demonstrate that supplemental dietary Se was not able to completely prevent the toxicity caused by PCB 126 but was able to increase moderately the levels of several key antioxidants, thereby maintaining them roughly at normal levels. PMID:21865291

  14. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Conturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.E.; Kennedy, S.W.; Lorenzen, A. [National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), known to be PCB sensitive. In both studies, Aroclor 1254 residues accumulated in tissues of both species, but there was no significant relationship between residue levels and effects. In conclusion, adult American kestrels were relatively insensitive to the effects of PCBs, from both acute and chronic exposure, on hepatic and renal porphyrin levels. Although concentrations of a CYP1A-like protein were increased in some kestrels given PCBs, EROD activity was only marginally increased, suggesting that catalytic activity of this protein differed among the two species. 52 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  16. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  17. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naert, C; Van Peteghem, C; Kupper, J; Jenni, L; Naegeli, H

    2007-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the structurally related polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been associated with chronic neurotoxicity involving reduced motor activity and impaired attentiveness. Such neurobehavioral effects indicate that the central nervous system may represent an important target organ for the action of these persistent contaminants in wildlife. As a consequence, the brain of different terrestrial and aquatic birds collected in Switzerland was analysed for PCBs and PBDEs. In parallel, the same contaminants were examined in the accompanying adipose tissue. After clean-up by means of glass columns containing acidified silica, deactivated alumina and anhydrous sodium sulphate, the samples were analysed by high resolution gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS/MS). Median PCB concentrations in the brain (sum of PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) ranged between 13 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww) in blackbirds (Turdus merula) and 428 ng g(-1) ww in sparrow hawks (Accipiter nisus). Median PBDE concentrations in the brain (sum of BDE 28, BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 100, BDE 153, BDE 154 and BDE 183) ranged from below the decision limit in buzzards (Buteo buteo) and blackbirds, to 14 ng g(-1) ww in sparrow hawks. After correction for the respective lipid content, higher PCB or PBDE concentrations in brain compared to adipose tissue, were found in three sparrow hawks, four buzzards and in all investigated blackbirds. These results suggest that a deficit in the neuroprotective function of the blood-brain barrier may cause unexpected levels of PCBs and PBDEs in the central nervous system.

  18. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in the serum of e-waste dismantling workers from eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengtao; Ren, Guofa; Zeng, Xiangying; Yu, Zhiqiang; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2017-05-05

    A number of studies have reported on the exposure of e-waste dismantling workers to significantly high concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Such exposure can have adverse health effects. However, little information on the metabolites of these contaminants exists. In this study, we investigated PCBs levels and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCB) in the serum of e-waste workers in Taizhou in eastern China. Our results indicate elevated PCB and OH-PCB levels in the serum of the workers, with medians of 443.7 and 133.9 ng/g lw, respectively. Tri- to hexachlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant homologue groups in all of the samples. 4-OH-CB107 was the predominant homologue among the hydroxylated metabolites, accounting for 88.9% of the total OH-PCB concentrations. While dietary sources (e.g., fish) appear to be an important route for PCB accumulation in non-occupational exposure groups, exposure via ingestion of house dust and inhalation of pollutants derived from the recycling of PCB-containing e-wastes may primarily contribute to the high body burden observed in the occupational groups. Since we found concentrations of metabolites higher than those of their parent compounds, further studies need to pay more attention to their bioaccumulation and toxicity.

  20. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pprocesses were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  2. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T 4 and T 3 ) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) decrease the placental syncytiotrophoblast volume and increase Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) in the placenta of normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, M; Aiko, Y; Kawamoto, T; T Hachisuga; Kooriyama, C; Myoga, M; Tomonaga, C; Matsumura, F; Anan, A; Tanaka, M; Yu, H S; Fujisawa, Y; Suga, R; Shibata, E

    2013-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of biologically active, highly stable compounds. Exposure risks include consumption of fatty fish, meat, dairy products and human breast milk, as well as environmental and occupational settings. Numerous reports have described PCB-dependent adverse effects on human fetal growth, including increased risk for IUGR, changes in endocrine function and hormone metabolism, and immunosuppressive and neurological deficits. Here we test the prediction that in utero PCB exposure adversely effects placental morphology, potentially leading to placental insufficiency en route to fetal growth restriction. PCB homologs (10) were measured in the maternal and fetal blood of a small cohort of normotensive pregnancies (22) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB levels were compared with angiogenesis associated proteins Placental Growth Factor (PlGF) and sFlt-1, determined by ELISA, and the total estimated syncytiotrophoblast (ST) volume. Significant associations between PCB exposure and both PlGF and ST volume were identified. PCB effects on placenta morphology and predicted function are discussed. These results demonstrate that the human placenta, including ST, is a target of PCB toxicity, and that current environmental PCB exposure levels are a risk to reproductive health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in Orogodo River sediments Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edjere Oghenekohwiroro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs concentration in Orogodo River Sediments at Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. Sixteen sediment samples at different sample point were collected and analyzed; obtained concentrations were compared with exiting standards. Sediment samples were extracted using a mixture of hexane and acetone (1:1, sonicated in an ultrasonic bath (15 min and placed on a shaker for two hours. Chromatographic analysis was done after solvent exchange, was carried out on the final extract using n-hexane (1000 μl and injected (1 μl into a gas chromatographic system coupled with an electron capture detector (ECD. Results from this study revealed that the concentration of PCBs in all the sediment samples under investigation was highest with 0.198 μg/kg in the Agric yard Agbor 2 sample point and lowest with 0.026 μg/kg in the Behind Prison - Agbor 1. The concentration of PCBs for all the sediment samples analyzed ranged in the order: Agric Yard Agbor 2 < Slaugther Agbor 2 < River Ama 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 1 < Behind Prison Agbor 2 < River Ama 2 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 2 < River Ama 4 < Agric Yard Agbor 1 < Mr. Biggs Agbor 4 < SlaugtherAgbor 1 < River Ama 3 < Under Bridge Agbor 2 < Behind Prison Agbor 1. The obtained results in this study suggest the urgent need to establish a program for monitoring organochlorine pollutants in our rivers and sediment in other to curb any elevation in concentration of pollutants over the environmental quality standards and appropriate actions taken.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  6. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  7. Microbial ecology of bacterially mediated PCB biodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, C.A. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The roles of plasmid mediated and consortia mediated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) biodegradation by bacterial populations isolated from PCB contaminated freshwater sediments were investigated. PCB degrading bacteria were isolated by DNA:DNA colony hybridization, batch enrichments, and chemostat enrichment. Analysis of substrate removal and metabolite production were done using chlorinated biphenyl spray plates, reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, Cl - detection, and 14 C-labeled substrate mineralization methods. A bacterial consortium, designated LPS10, involved in a concerted metabolic attack on chlorinated biphenyls, was shown to mineralize 4-chlorobiphenyl (4CB) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4' CB). The LPS10 consortium was isolated by both batch and chemostat enrichment using 4CB and biphenyl (BP) as sole carbon source and was found to have tree bacterial isolates that predominated; these included: Pseudomonas, testosteroni LPS10A which mediated the breakdown of 4CB and 4,4' CB to the putative meta-cleavage product and subsequently to 4-chlorobenzoic acid (4CBA), an isolate tentatively identified as an Arthrobacter sp. LPS10B which mediated 4CBA degradation, and Pseudomonas putida by A LPS10C whose role in the consortium has not been determined

  8. EFFECTS OF THIOL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE ATROPSELECTIVE OXIDATION OF 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 136) BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0–10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) and 4,5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136 and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo. PMID:26155892

  9. PCB eksponering i Farum Midtpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik

    I marts og april 2011 blev i alt 104 lejligheder og 289 beboere fra Farum Midtpunkt undersøgt for niveauer af PolyChlorerede Biphenyler (PCB) i henholdsvis fuger og indeluft i lejligheder-ne, og i blodplasma. Til analyserne i denne rapport indgik 273 beboere, 139 fra PCB-forurenede lejligheder og...... 134 fra ikke-forurenede lejligheder. Der blev indsamlet luftprøver fra 83 forure-nede og 21 ikke-forurenede lejligheder og fugeprøver fra 20 forurenede lejligheder. Ni ud af 24 målte PCB-kongenere var under detektionsgrænsen i luften, inkl. de to mest toksiske kongenere nr. 126 og 169. For de...... forurenede lejlig-heder, undtagen for nr. 183 og 190, samt for nr. 182 som alle lå under detektionsgrænsen. For ni ud af tolv dioxin-lignende PCB-forbindelser var alle, eller næsten alle prøver under detektions-grænsen. For nr. 105 og 118 sås signifikant højere niveau blandt eksponerede. Mænd havde et lidt...

  10. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms in an apartm......The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...

  11. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD/F) and biphenyls (PCB) in fish, beef, and fowl purchased in food markets in Northern California USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksemburg, W.; Maier, M.; Patterson, A. [Alta Analytical Laboratory, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wenning, R.; Braithwaite, S. [ENVIRON International, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Food basket surveys and exposure studies conducted over the past decade suggest that one of the main routes of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) is likely through the consumption of food products such as eggs, meats, fish, and dairy products. More recently, studies of human milk, blood, and adipose tissues also demonstrate human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The contamination of Belgium store-bought chicken products in 1999 and, more recently, concerns regarding farmraised fish products in the U.S., Ireland, and elsewhere by PCDD/Fs and PCBs has heightened concerns about the occurrence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PBDEs, in consumer food products. In the U.S., for example, recent studies have shown the edible portions of farm-raised fish containing higher levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs than in wild fish. In this study, fillets from several species of freshwater and ocean fish (both farm-raised and wild), as well as ground beef, ground deer, and meat from several species of fowl (chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pheasant), were purchased from food markets in the cities of Sacramento and El Dorado Hills, California USA. Foods were tested for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs and the results used to evaluate human exposure through the consumption of store-bought consumer food products.

  12. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution and concentrations of 6 indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, were determined in surface sediments from the North End Lake in Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Forty-two surficial sediment samples were collected from different locations covering the region that ...

  13. PCB and PAH release from power stations and waste incineration processes in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyke, Patrick H. [PD Consulting, Magdalen, Brobury, HR3 6DX (United Kingdom); Foan, Colin [The Environment Agency, National Centre for Risk Analysis and Options Appraisal, Kings Meadow House, Kings Meadow Road, Reading, (United Kingdom); Fiedler, Heidelore [United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Chemicals, 11-13, chemin des Anemones, CH-1219, Chatelaine (Switzerland)

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from incineration and power generation processes. Increased concern over human exposure to both classes of compounds has meant that environmental regulators need to assess the contribution made by emissions from regulated processes to human exposure. In the first part of an assessment in the UK we reviewed literature data on emissions of PCB, focusing on the dioxin-like PCB assigned toxic equivalency factors by the World Health Organization, and PAH. The literature study was supplemented by a series of plant tests to gather initial real plant data. Literature data were limited and the lack of standard protocols for measurement and reporting of both PCB and PAH meant that few data sets were comparable. Levels of dioxin-like PCB reported in the literature and measured in UK plant tests showed that well-controlled modern combustion plants with comprehensive pollution controls gave low emissions, typically about 5-10% of the toxic equivalent of the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at the same plants and below the widely used standard of 0.1 ng TEQ/N m{sup 3}. (Author)

  14. Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T M; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Leslie, Heather A; Hamers, Timo; Hamscher, Gerd; Al-Anati, Lauy; Stenius, Ulla; Dervola, Kine-Susann; Bogen, Inger-Lise; Fonnum, Frode; Andersson, Patrik L; Schrenk, Dieter; Halldin, Krister; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological

  15. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Łukasz Roszko

    Full Text Available Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1. Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution. Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%, # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19% and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%. CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%. Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  16. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  17. Radionuclides, Heavy Metals, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soils Collected Around the Perimeter of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area G during 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. R. Fresquez

    2007-02-28

    Twenty-one soil surface samples were collected in March around the perimeter of Area G, the primary disposal facility for low-level radioactive solid waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Three more samples were collected in October around the northwest corner after elevated tritium levels were detected on an AIRNET station located north of pit 38 in May. Also, four soil samples were collected along a transect at various distances (48, 154, 244, and 282 m) from Area G, starting from the northeast corner and extending to the Pueblo de San Ildefonso fence line in a northeasterly direction (this is the main wind direction). Most samples were analyzed for radionuclides ({sup 3}H, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U), inorganic elements (Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, K, Na, V, Hg, Zn, Sb, As, Cd, Pb, Se, Ag, and Tl) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations. As in previous years, the highest levels of {sup 3}H in soils (690 pCi/mL) were detected along the south portion of Area G near the {sup 3}H shafts; whereas, the highest concentrations of {sup 241}Am (1.2 pCi/g dry) and the Pu isotopes (1.9 pCi/g dry for {sup 238}Pu and 5 pCi/g dry for {sup 239,240}Pu) were detected along the northeastern portions near the transuranic waste pads. Concentrations of {sup 3}H in three soil samples and {sup 241}Am and Pu isotopes in one soil sample collected around the northwest corner in October increased over concentrations found in soils collected at the same locations earlier in the year. Almost all of the heavy metals, with the exception of Zn and Sb in one sample each, in soils around the perimeter of Area G were below regional statistical reference levels (mean plus three standard deviations) (RSRLs). Similarly, only one soil sample collected on the west side contained PCB concentrations--67 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1254 and 94 {micro}g/kg dry of aroclor-1260. Radionuclide and inorganic element

  18. Detection of Surface-Linked Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindzevicius, Tomas; Barten, Jan; Vorobiev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved procedure for analytical detection of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrate was utilized to concentrate PCB molecules within an area of high electromagnetic fields through...... formation of microsized nanopillar clusters, and consequently, so-called “hot spots” can be formed. In order to improve PCB detection limit, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) compounds were chemically modified with a – SCH3 (PCB77-SCH3) group. Experimental and numerical analysis of vibrational modes...... showed only minor differences between standard PCB77 and PCB77-SCH3. Consequently, we observe significantly increased SERS signals for –SCH3 modified PCB77 while retaining most vibrational modes that characterize standard PCB77. Results point towards more efficient path for detecting different PCB...

  19. Developmental PCB Exposure Increases Audiogenic Seizures and Decreases Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase in the Inferior Colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, Suren B; Eubig, Paul A; Sadowski, Renee N; Schantz, Susan L

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we observed that developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure resulted in an increase in audiogenic seizures (AGSs) in rats. However, the rats were exposed to loud noise in adulthood, and were not tested for AGS until after 1 year of age, either of which could have interacted with early PCB exposure to increase AGS susceptibility. This study assessed susceptibility to AGS in young adult rats following developmental PCB exposure alone (without loud noise exposure) and investigated whether there was a decrease in GABA inhibitory neurotransmission in the inferior colliculus (IC) that could potentially explain this effect. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed orally with 0 or 6 mg/kg/day of an environmentally relevant PCB mixture from 28 days prior to breeding until the pups were weaned at postnatal day 21. One male-female pair from each litter was retained for the AGS study whilst another was retained for Western blot analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and GABAAα1 receptor in the IC, the site in the auditory midbrain where AGS are initiated. There was a significant increase in the number and severity of AGSs in the PCB groups, with females somewhat more affected than males. GAD65 was decreased but there was no change in GAD67 or GABAAα1 in the IC indicating decreased inhibitory regulation in the PCB group. These results confirm that developmental PCB exposure alone is sufficient to increase susceptibility to AGS, and provide the first evidence for a possible mechanism of action at the level of the IC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of the structure of polychlorinated biphenyls on their hydroxylation, oxidation, and glutathionyl conjugation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Er Qun; Ma, Xiao Yan; Tian, Xing Guo; Liu, Jing; Liu, Li Chao; Dong, Hui; Song, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To compare the nature of the metabolites formed from the phase I metabolism (hydroxylation and oxidation) and phase II metabolism (glutathionyl conjugation) of PCBs that have different chlorine substitution patterns. To discuss the structure-activity relationships and metabolic mechanisms of PCBs. 4-Cl-biphenyl (PCB3), 4,4'-Cl-biphenyl (PCB15), 3,4,3',4'-Cl-biphenyl (PCB77) were used for in vitro metabolic study. LC/MS and UV-Vis studies were performed for metabolites identification. The cytochrome P-450 catalyzed hydroxylation rate decreased as the number of chlorine substitutions increased. In this reaction, PCB3 was fully metabolized, approximately half of the PCB15 was metabolized and PCB77 was not metabolized at all. The oxidation rate of PCB15-HQ was higher than that of PCB3-HQ under various oxidation conditions. The LC/MS and UV-Vis data suggest that in the conjugation reaction of PCB15-Q and GSH, the Michael addition reaction occurs preferentially over the displacement reaction. The metabolic profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are dramatically affected by chlorine substitution patterns. It is suggested that the metabolic profiles of PCBs are related to their chlorine substitution patterns, which may have implications for the toxicity of PCB exposure. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  2. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  3. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  4. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos.

  5. Maternal and early postnatal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in relation to total serum immunoglobulin concentrations in 6-month-old infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Lawrence, B. Paige; Palkovicova, Lubica; Nemessanyi, Tomas; Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton; Jahnova, Eva; Kavanagh, Terrance J.; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-01-01

    Animal data indicate that developmental tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure alters immune function; however, the potential immunotoxicity of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the developing infant is an understudied area. The aim of the current study is to examine the association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations in relation to total infant serum immunoglobulin concentrations determined at 6-months-of-age. We selected 384 mother-infant pairs participating in a birth cohort study in Eastern Slovakia. PCB concentrations of several congeners were determined in maternal and cord serum samples and in infant serum samples collected at 6-months-of-age using gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Total immunoglobulin (Ig) G, A, and M concentrations were determined by nephelometry, and IgE concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay. Linear regression models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to estimate the associations between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and total serum immunoglobulins. The median maternal serum concentration of PCB-153 was 140 ng/g lipid, ≈10-fold higher than concentrations in childbearing-age women in the United States during the same period. Maternal, cord, or 6-month infant PCB concentrations were not associated with total serum immunoglobulin levels at 6 months, regardless of the timing of PCB exposure, PCB congener, or specific immunoglobulin. In this population, which has high PCB concentrations relative to most populations in the world today, we did not observe any association between maternal and early postnatal PCB concentrations and total immunoglobulin measures of IgG, IgA, IgM, or IgE. PMID:21299357

  6. Cord blood levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls, lead and cadmium) in the areas of Prague (Czech Republic) and Katowice (Poland). Comparison with reference values in The Netherlands. The Czech/Polish/Dutch/German Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, V; Krijt, J; Malbohan, M; Cibula, D; Lukas, W; Zejda, J E; Lammers, W; Huisman, M; Boersma, E R; van der Paauw, C G

    1994-12-01

    In a preliminary study the levels of four non-planar polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180), and of the toxic metals lead and cadmium, and their antagonist selenium and zinc were measured in cord blood from apparently healthy neonates from the region of Prague and Upper Silezia (Katowice). These "background" levels were compared with similar values from neonates in the Netherlands. It was found that the levels of three PCB congeners (138, 153 and 180) were significantly higher in the Prague samples than in the Netherlands; but in the Katowice group they were significantly lower. In Upper Silezia (Katowice) the values of the metals lead and cadmium, and in Prague those of cadmium and selenium were significantly higher than in the Netherlands. The importance of these findings is discussed. It is argued that neurotoxic effects of perinatal exposure can be expected to be more prominent in Central Europe than in Western European countries. A more thorough study is indicated and will be undertaken by a joint Czech/Polish/Dutch/German research group.

  7. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  8. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell specific effects of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbone receptors in follicular cells of porcine ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Dept. of Animal Physiology, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) like other endocrine disrupters could interfere with natural hormones by binding to their receptors and thus mimicking the cellular response to them. They are known to possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties. In our previous papers we demonstrated that PCBs are able to disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis. We found that the coplanar PCB 126 caused the decrease in estradiol secretion in whole cultured pig ovarian follicles. PCB 126 congener is structurally related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Since TCDD effects are known to be mediated by aryl hydrocarbone receptors (AhRs), we decided to determine if PCB 126 affects signal transduction pathway activated by these receptors. It has been reported that the functional AhR is present in ovary including oocytes, granulosa and theca cells of rat, mouse, rhesus monkey and human ovary. Moreover, the expression of AhR in the rat ovary appeared to be estrous cycle-dependent, thus suggesting that AhR expression may be regulated by fluctuating hormone levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the non-ortho-substituted 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on the AhR activation, localization and protein level in pig ovarian follicle cells.

  10. Developmental toxicity of in ovo exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls: II. Effects of maternal or paternal exposure on second-generation nestling american kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim; Bortolotti, Gary; Drouillard, Ken; Smits, Judit; Marchant, Tracy

    2003-11-01

    The development of second-generation nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) was altered by in ovo exposure of only one parent to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Polychlorinated biphenyls appear to alter nestling development through both maternally and paternally mediated effects. In 1998, F0 parent kestrels consumed approximately 5 to 7 microg total PCBs/g bird/d (Aroclors 1248:1254: 1260) for approximately 100 d prior to eggs hatching; these eggs, containing total PCB concentrations of 34.1 microg/g, produced 13 F1 offspring, which were then paired in 1999 with unexposed kestrels to examine developmental effects of maternal or paternal in ovo PCB exposure. Using a toxicokinetics model, eggs from the maternally exposed group had predicted PCB levels of 0.03 to 0.34 microg/g, with enriched higher chlorinated congeners. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in eggs of all generations have recently been found in eggs and nestlings of free-ranging eagles. Consistent with the first generation, maternally exposed F2 females generally were larger, had altered growth rates, and delayed maximal growth and fledging compared with control females. Maternally exposed F2 males were heavier but had shorter bones, grew more quickly and earlier, and fledged 2 d later than control males. In the maternally exposed group, concentrations of plasma triiodothyronine were elevated in F2 females but suppressed in F2 males. Paternally exposed F2 hatchlings of both sexes were comparable in size to controls with the exception of having longer tarsi bones, but subsequently showed slower, delayed growth (both sexes) and fledging (females) and lower thyroxine concentrations (males). The alterations in thyroid hormones in the F2 generation are discussed in light of the enrichment of higher chlorinated PCB congeners and hydroxylated PCB congeners. The developmental changes in the kestrel nestlings are likely a function of several possible mechanisms involving maternal PCB deposition

  11. Mass-selective Detection of Persistent Organic Pollutants by GC/MS Isolation, Concentration, Identification and Determination of Isomeric Spesific Composition of PCB in Natural and Drinking Waters of Dnieper River Basin in Kiev Region

    OpenAIRE

    Milyukin, Mikhail V.

    2002-01-01

    In concentrates of natural and drinking waters of Dnieper river basin in Kiev region with enrichment factor of 2,0⋅105–4,0⋅105 PCB (PCB524, PCB664, PCB1015, PCB1185, PCB1055, PCB1536, PCB1386, PCB1807, PCB2008) have been identified and their isomeric-specific composition (tetrachloro- – heptachloroisomers) has been determined at MDL level as low as 10–400 pg/L

  12. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  13. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with integrated sulphuric acid clean up and soxhlet extraction for determination of PCDD/PCDF, dioxin-like PCB and indicator PCB in feeding stuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernsmann, T.; Fuerst, P. [Chemical and Veterinary Control Laboratory, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Currently there is increasing public awareness of food and feeding stuff quality. The crisis in Belgium once again put focus on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as a result of contamination of feeding stuffs. In order to handle such crises, rapid and reliable methods must be available to instantly give relevant information for justifying administrative action. The determination of PCDD/PCDF and PCB at trace levels is a challenge that requires complicated and very time-consuming sample extraction and clean up procedures. The most frequently methods used for the determination of PCDD/PCDF and PCB in feeding stuffs combines Soxhlet extraction with clean up steps using different column chromatographies, such as silica gel coated with sulphuric acid, florisil, alumina and actived carbon. The final confirmative analysis is generally performed with capillary gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. This paper describes a faster and simple liquid extraction method for the determination of PCDD/PCDF, dioxin-like PCB and indicator PCB in feeding stuffs matrices and compares its results with those of a classical soxhlet method.

  14. Lead and PCB's in canvasback ducks: Relationship between enzyme levels and residues in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, M.P.; Perry, M.C.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Blood samples were taken for two successive years from canvasback ducks trapped in the Chesapeake Bay. The first winter (1972?1973) five plasma enzymes known to respond to organochlorine poisoning were examined. Abnormal enzyme elevations suggested that 20% of the population sampled (23/115 ducks) might contain organochlorine contaminants, but no residue analyses were performed. The second winter (1974) two of the same enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a third enzyme known to be specifically inhibited by lead, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, were assayed in 95 blood samples. Blood residues of organochlorine compounds and of lead were determined in representative samples, and the correlations between residue levels and enzyme changes were examined. The enzyme bioassays in 1974 indicated that lead was a more prevalent environmental contaminant than organochlorine compounds in canvasback ducks; 17% of the blood samples had less than one-half of the normal delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity, but only 11% exhibited abnormal aspartate aminotransferase or lactate dehydrogenase activities. These findings were confirmed by residue analyses that demonstrated lead concentrations four times higher than background levels, but only relatively low organochlorine concentrations. There was a highly significant inverse correlation between delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity and blood lead concentrations (Pheme synthesis and is regarded as detrimental in humans.

  15. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  16. Protective effects of vitamin E against 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) induced toxicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yi-Rang; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baek, Min-Won; Lee, Hui-Young; Kim, Dong-Jae; Park, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Park, Jae-Hak

    2009-03-01

    3,3',4,4',5-Pentachlorinated biphenyls 126 (PCB126) is a global environmental contaminant that can induce cellular oxidative stress. We investigated whether vitamin E can protect against toxicity from PCB126 during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 100nM PCB126 and compared with a second group that was co-exposed with 100muM vitamin E until 5 days post fertilization. PCB126 induced pericardial sac edema, yolk sac edema, and growth retardation in zebrafish embyos. In contrast, vitamin E co-exposure group did not show any gross changes. Real-time PCR results showed that vitamin E co-exposure group were restored to control group for the expression levels of heat shock protein 70 Cognate, aryl hydrocarbon receptor type-2, cytochrome P450 1A, and superoxide dismutase-1. These data give insights into the use of vitamin E to reduce PCB126-mediated toxicity and into the use of zebrafish embryos for exploring mechanisms underlying the oxidative potential of AHR agonists.

  17. Construction of a rhizosphere pseudomonad with potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls and detection of bph gene expression in the rhizosphere.

    OpenAIRE

    Brazil, G M; Kenefick, L; Callanan, M; Haro, A; de Lorenzo, V; Dowling, D N; O'Gara, F

    1995-01-01

    The genetically engineered transposon TnPCB, contains genes (bph) encoding the biphenyl degradative pathway. TnPCB was stably inserted into the chromosome of two different rhizosphere pseudomonads. One genetically modified strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens F113pcb, was characterized in detail and found to be unaltered in important parameters such as growth rate and production of secondary metabolites. The expression of the heterologous bph genes in F113pcb was confirmed by the ability of the ge...

  18. Tuning biphenyl dioxygenase for extended substrate specificity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruehlmann, F.; Chen, W. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

    1999-06-05

    Highly substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be very resistant to aerobic biodegradation, particularly the initial attack by biphenyl dioxygenase. Functional evolution of the substrate specificity of biphenyl dioxygenase was demonstrated by DNA shuffling and staggered extension process (StEP) of the bphA gene coding for the large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase. Several variants with an extended substrate range for PCBs were selected. In contrast to the parental biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia cepacia LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707, which preferentially recognize either ortho-(LB400) or para-(KF707) substituted PCBs, several variants degraded both congeners to about the same extent. These variants also exhibited superior degradation capabilities toward several tetra- and pentachlorinated PCBs as well as commercial PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 or Aroclor 1254. Sequence analysis confirmed that most variants contained at least four to six template switches. All desired variants contained the Thr335Ala and Phe336lle substitutions confirming the importance of this critical region in substrate specificity. These results suggest that the block-exchange nature of gene shuffling between a diverse class of dioxygenases may be the most useful approach for breeding novel dioxygenases for PCB degradation in the desired direction.

  19. Effects of estrogen supplementation on PCB 126-induced effects on vertebral bone, vitamin D and thyroxin levels in serum of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Monica Lind [Karolinska Inst., Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyberg, I.; Oerberg, J. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Environmental Toxicology (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Own and others experimental studies in rat have demonstrated that high affinity Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the dioxin-like PCB congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), impair normal bone metabolism and result in increased bone fragility. No experimental study have, up to now, investigated effects of POCs on vertebra in bone-toxicological studies. Recently a Swedish epidemiological study showed that Swedish east-coast fishermen's wives have a significantly increased incidence for hospitalized vertebral fractures when compared with west-coast fishermen's wives7. The results give some indirect support for the notion that a high dietary intake of POCs through fatty fish might be a risk factor for vertebral fractures. The levels of POCs are much higher in the fish from the Baltic Sea compared with fish from the sea on the Swedish West coast. Vertebral bone consists to a larger extent than e.g. the long bones of trabecular bone which compared with cortical bone has a much higher metabolism and a more rapid bone turnover. It is therefore more likely to find more obvious effects of endocrine disruption in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. As an extension of our previous work, the goals of this study are therefore to (1) investigate interactive effects between PCB126 exposure, estrogen depletion (OVX) and estrogen supplementation (2) investigate the effects of PCB126 exposure of the trabecular rich vertebral bone (3) analyse serum levels 25OH- vitamin D and thyroxin as these are both important for bone tissue homeostasis and as biomarkers for organochlorines exposure.

  20. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2′,3,4,4′,5,5′-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Leslie, Heather A.; Hamers, Timo; Hamscher, Gerd; Al-Anati, Lauy; Stenius, Ulla; Dervola, Kine-Susann; Bogen, Inger-Lise; Fonnum, Frode; Andersson, Patrik L.; Schrenk, Dieter; Halldin, Krister; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological

  1. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  2. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected ofcarcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute...

  3. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  4. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  5. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui; Xing, Ying; Wang, Dongshen; Zhao, Xingru; Gao, Lirong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Key laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences

    2004-09-15

    The chemical 1,4-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB), also called paramoth, is one of the chemicals commonly used to make mothballs. For the more than 20 years, p-DCB has been used principally (35-55% of all uses) as a space deodorant for toilets and refuse containers, and as a fumigant for control of moths, molds, and mildews. The process of production of p-DCB currently used by industry is direct chlorination of benzene or chlorobenzene in the presence of a Friedel-Crafts catalyst (typically FeCl{sub 3}), and the pure products of p-DCB are obtained by distillation and crystallization from the mixture of polychlorinated benzenes. This process is similar to that of production of PCBs which were manufactured commercially by the progressive chlorination of biphenyl in the presence of a suitable catalyst, e.g., iron chloride. However, few studies on the formation of PCBs from chlorobenzenes have been published. Buser reported significant quantities of PCDFs and a small amount of PCDDs, PCBs, and chlorophenols were formed in the pyrolysis of chlorobenzenes at 620 C. Peng-Yan Liu et al. revealed that lower chlorinated benzenes produce more PCBs than higher ones. Nevertheless, prior to this study, no reports on PCBs in p-DCB and the restriction of PCBs in p-DCB products have been found. In this paper, the occurrence and distribution of dioxin-like PCBs and total PCBs in some commercial p-DCB mothballs are investigated. Except of the toxic of p-DCB, the low concentration of PCBs in p-DCB mothballs should not be negligible.

  6. Migration and opportunistic feeding increase PCB accumulation in Arctic seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, J M; Janssen, C R; Borgå, K; De Laender, F

    2013-10-15

    It is widely accepted that body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) tend to increase with trophic level (TL). Yet, little attention has been paid to the causes in the underlying differences in POP body concentrations between species occupying similar TLs. In this paper we use two modeling approaches to quantify the importance of migration and opportunistic feeding, relative to that of trophic level, in explaining interspecific differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body concentrations between 6 Arctic seabird species breeding in the Barents Sea: Little Auk (Alle alle), Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle), Brünnich's Guillemot (Uria lomvia), Common Eider (Somateria mollissima), Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), and Glaucous Gull (Larus hyperboreus). As a first approach, we use additive models to analyze two independent data sets (n = 470 and n = 726). We demonstrate that migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL significantly (p < 0.001) increase PCB body concentrations by a factor 3.61-4.10, 2.66-20.95, and 2.38-2.41, respectively. Our second approach, using a mechanistic bioaccumulation model, confirmed these positive effects on the body burdens but suggested lower effects of migration, opportunistic feeding, and TL (1.55, 2.39, and 2.38) than did our statistical analysis. These two independent approaches demonstrate that the effects of migration and opportunistic feeding on seabird body burdens can be similar to that of an increase of one TL and should therefore be accounted for in future analyses.

  7. Influence of a combination of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners (PCB 47; PCB 77) on thyroid status, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and short- and long-term memory in 30-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Douglas A.; Dougherty, Edward J.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of thyroid hormones in growth and development, maintenance of body temperature, digestion, cardiac function, and normal brain development can be disrupted by environmental contaminants like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Polychlorinated biphenyls are environmental contaminants that are widespread, persistent, lipophilic, and bioaccumulate through food webs, concentrating in adipose tissue. Placental and lactational PCB exposure of offspring causes metabolic and endocrine disruptions including hypothyroxinemia, spatial learning and memory deficits, neurochemical and neurobehavioral alterations, and reproductive problems. Previous studies in our lab using the individual congeners PCB 47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, ortho-substituted) and PCB 77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, non-ortho-substituted) have demonstrated alterations in thyroid hormone levels, alterations in brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, and spatial learning deficits. In the present study, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet with or without a mixture of PCB 47/77 at 1.25 ppm, 12.5 ppm or 25.0 ppm (w/w). Rat pups were swum in the Morris water maze four times a day on days 21-29 in order for the animals to learn the position of a submerged fixed platform. A probe test was run on day 24 (30 min after last swim) for short-term memory, and on day 29 (24 h after the last swim) for long-term memory after removal of the platform. Time spent in the quadrant previously containing the platform was recorded. Rats were decapitated on day 30, serum collected and frozen at -20 deg. ChAT activity was measured radiometrically in basal forebrain and hippocampus. All PCB-treated animals experienced a depression in both triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ). The present study found that all doses of PCB depressed ChAT activity in hippocampus with no significant alteration in the basal forebrain. In PCB-treated animals, short-term memory showed a trend toward

  8. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelutti, Neal, E-mail: nm37@queensu.c [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Liu, Huijun [Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou (China); Smol, John P. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Kimpe, Lynda E. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Keatley, Bronwyn E. [Paleoecological Environmental Assessment and Research Laboratory (PEARL), Department of Biology, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Mallory, Mark [Environment Canada, Iqaluit, NU (Canada); Macdonald, Robie W. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC V8L 4B2 (Canada); Douglas, Marianne S.V. [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3 (Canada); Blais, Jules M. [Program for Chemical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were approx5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary delta{sup 15}N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  9. Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, and Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Tissues of White-Backed Vulture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dhananjayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the current status of contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs in the tissues of endangered White-backed Vulture Gyps bengalensis in India. Chemical analyses revealed detectable amounts of PAHs, PCBs, and OCPs. Concentration ranges of ∑PAHs, ∑PCBs, and ∑OCPs in tissues were 60–2037 ng/g, 30–5790 ng/g, and 3.2–5836 ng/g wet weight, respectively. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethylene (p,p′-DDE concentrations ranged from below detectable level to 599 ng/g wet weight, representing more than 90% of the total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. Among the various OCPs analyzed, p,p′-DDE was detected most frequently. All the contaminants recorded show higher accumulation in liver than other tissues. Levels of contaminants measured in the tissues of vulture are comparable with the levels documented in a number of avian species and are lower than those reported to have caused deleterious effects. Although no threat is expected from the current level of contamination, the presence of varying levels of contaminants and their additive or synergistic toxicity is a cause of concern to vultures. Values reported in this study can serve as guideline for future research.

  10. Method and means for filtering polychlorinated biphenyls from a gas stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowinski, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method of filtering, adjacent to an end user-customer's residence or business in which at least a single gas appliance is located, a natural gas stream in which polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) and degraded PCB products have been concentrated at sufficient levels to be a health threat in a natural gas gathering and distributing network. It comprises: introducing the natural gas stream to a filter selected from a group that includes impingement, absorbing and adsorbing media whereby PCB's and degraded PCB products concentrated in the gas stream at sufficient levels to be a health threat by a periodic loading of the natural gas within the gathering and distributing network, are filtered from the gas stream and captured irrespective of mode of transport, passing the filtered natural gas stream to the customer's gas appliance wherein safe use of the energy associated with the stream occurs; periodically and safely removing the filter, inserting a new filter in place of the removed filter

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodoo, D.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Essumang, D.K., E-mail: kofiessumang@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana); Jonathan, J.W.A.; Bentum, J.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast (Ghana)

    2012-10-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with {sup 65}Ni electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 {mu}g/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 {mu}g/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  12. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Ava K; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 h post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish, water and sediment from Shing Mun River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui, V.W.; Lam-Leung, S.Y.; Chan, T.C. (Department of Bioogy, Hong Kong Baptist College, Kowloon (Hong Kong))

    1991-12-01

    The level and pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters), sediment, and water from the Shing Mun River. The range of total PCBs was 12.9 ng/g to 181.6 ng/g wet weight in tilapia, 12.7 ng/g to 46.0 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and 3.8 ng/L to 13.6 ng/L in water. The effect of biomagnification was also observed, PCB concentrations increased from water to sediment to tilapia. PCB congeners occurred in such a way that lower chlorinated PCBs comprised a higher fraction of the total PCBs in water, sediment, and tilapia muscle, whereas higher chlorinated PCBs were more commonly found only in tilapia.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina

    2009-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  15. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  17. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  18. [Levels and distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the air, pine needles, and human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozul, Darija; Romanić, Snjezana Herceg

    2010-09-01

    This review presents the findings on the distribution and levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) all over the world, based on measurements in samples of air, human milk and pine needles. The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health has been conducting research in all three matrices for many years, and this review summarises its results too. Significant decrease in concentrations of organochlorine compounds has been seen after the legal ban of their use, but that decresing trend has been slowed down and they are still found in all samples. In general, higher PCB levels are found in samples from urban locations, pesticides levels are higher in samples from locations where has been their probable usage in agriculture, while HCB levels are usually indicator of industrial activity.γ-HCH has been found in the highest concentration in air and pine needles samples, while in humans DDE and β-HCH are the most abundant compounds. Indicator PCB congeners are also differently present in environment and humans: in air and pine needles lower-chlorinated, more volatile PCB congeners have higher concentrations while in humans that goes for more persistent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners. Among toxic ortho-substituted PCB congeners in human and environmental samples the most abundant is PCB-118 while three non-ortho substituted congeners (PCB-77, PCB-126 and PCB-169) that are the most toxic ones are rarely detected. From organochlorine pesticides, DDD is found in lowest concentrations in all samples.

  19. Assessing effects of PCB exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance in Portland Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxon, Matt; Toll, John; Hanson, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an integrated analysis using a Monte Carlo exposure model, dose–response effects model and habitat,and population dynamics models, all of which allow us to quantitatively estimate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)exposure on American mink (Mustela vison) abundance at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site (Site), and the associated uncertainties. The Site extends from river mile 1.9 of the Lower Willamette River, near its confluence with the Columbia River, to river mile 11.8, just downstream of downtown Portland, Oregon. The potential effects of PCBs on the American mink population were evaluated in the Baseline Ecological Risk Assessment (BERA) due to the historical presence of mink in the are a and because mink are known to be highly sensitive to the effects of PCBs. Hazard quotients (HQs) calculated in the BERA indicated that PCB concentrations measured in Portland Harbor fish were above levels known to cause reproductive effects in mink. Further analysis was needed to evaluate the potential magnitude of effects on the Site mink population. The integrated analysis presented herein demonstrates that if an effect of PCB exposure is a less than 30% reduction in kit production, then PCB remediation is not expected to have any effect on mink abundance. This is a Site‐specific conclusion that depends on the quality, abundance, and distribution of mink habitat in Portland Harbor. The PCB dose associated with a 30% reduction in kit production was calculated as 101 mg/kg bw/d (90% CI ¼ 69–146 mg/kg bw/d). The mink PCB dose estimates from the Portland Harbor BERA indicate that if mink are present, their baseline exposure levels probably exceed 101 mg/kg bw/d. Therefore, some level of reduction in PCB exposure could be beneficial to the species if the study area provides sufficient habitat to support a mink population. This analysis demonstrates that risk analysis for population‐level assessment endpoints benefits from analyses

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Ross, Peter S; Costa, Daniel; Salazar, Sandie; Aurioles-gamboa, David; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Only traces of PBDEs were detected in one male pup, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were not detected in any sample. The total concentration of PCBs (ΣPCB) in the pups averaged 104 μg/kg lipid (range, 49-384 μg/kg). No statistically significant differences in ΣPCB were observed among the four study sites in the Galapagos Islands. Concentrations of PCB congeners in Galapagos sea lion pups were dominated by low-molecular-weight congeners. These results suggest that global transport is the main source for PCBs in Galapagos sea lions. The ΣPCB levels were below immunotoxic and endocrine-disruption thresholds in pinnipeds, suggesting a limited risk of adverse health effects. The present study indicates that Galapagos sea lions can serve as a useful sentinel of pollutants with a long-range transport capacity and that Galapagos Islands are not exempt from the threats of global pollutants despite its remote locale.

  1. Indicator polychlorinated biphenyl residues in muscle tissue of fish from Black Sea coast of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Georgieva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are characterized by high lipophilicity and persistence in the environment and will therefore bioaccumulate and biomagnify in the food chain. PCBs were determined in muscle tissue of four fish species: goby (Neogobius melanostomus, horse mackerel (Trachurus Mediterraneus ponticus, shad (Alosa pontica pontica and turbot (Psetta maxima maeotica. Samples were collected from Bulgarian Black Sea coast during 2007 – 2011. The PCBs were analyzed in order to examine the time trends of PCB concentrations in fish from Black Sea. The six individual PCBs congeners were determined by capillary gas chromatography system with mass spectrometry detection. PCBs were found in all fish species at concentrations ranging between 2.32 ng/g ww (wet weight and 32.87 ng/g ww in goby and shad, respectively. PCB profiles have been found to be similar in all the fish species tested. The most abundant PCB congeners in fish species were hexa- and heptachlorinated PCBs 138, 153 and 180. PCB 153 was the dominant congener in all fish studied and were found in the range from 0.95 ng/g ww (horse mackerel 2011 to 11.67 ng/g ww (shad 2010. The sum of six indicator PCBs in all fish species did not exceed the European maximum limit of 75 ng/g ww. The levels of PCBs in fish from Bulgarian Black Sea coast were found lower than in fish species from other seas – the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.

  2. Pure non-dioxin-like PCB congeners suppress induction of the AhR-dependent endpoints in rat liver cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenerová, J.; Hamers, T.; Kamstra, J.H.; Vondráček, J.; Strapáčová, S.; Andersson, P.L.; Machala, M.

    2016-01-01

    The relative potencies of non-ortho-substituted coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and to cause the AhR-dependent toxic events are essential for their risk assessment. Since some studies suggested that abundant non-dioxin-like PCB

  3. Exploration of potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure in maternal and cord serum: A pilot birth cohort study in Chiba, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Sakurai, Kenichi; Watanabe, Masahiro; Mori, Chisato

    2017-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been associated with adverse human reproductive and fetal developmental measures or outcomes because of their endocrine-disrupting effects; however, the biological mechanisms of adverse effects of PCB exposure in humans are not currently well established. In this study, we aimed to identify the biological pathways and potential biomarkers of PCB exposure in maternal and umbilical cord serum using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) metabolomics platform. The median concentration of total PCBs in maternal (n=93) and cord serum (n=93) were 350 and 70pgg -1 wet wt, respectively. PCB levels in maternal and fetal serum from the Chiba Study of Mother and Children's Health (C-MACH) cohort are comparable to those of earlier cohort studies conducted in Japan, the USA, and European countries. We used the random forest model with the metabolome profile to predict exposure levels of PCB (first quartile [Q1] and fourth quartile [Q4]) for pregnant women and fetuses. In the prediction model for classification of Q1 versus Q4 (area-under-curve [AUC]: pregnant women=0.812 and fetuses=0.919), citraconic acid level in maternal serum and ethanolamine, p-hydroxybenzoate, and purine levels in cord serum had >0.70 AUC values. These candidate biomarkers and metabolite included in composited models were related to glutathione and amino acid metabolism in maternal serum and the amino acid metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis in cord serum (FDR PCB exposure in pregnant women and fetuses. These results showed that metabolome analysis might be useful to explore potential biomarkers and related biological pathways for PCB exposure. Thus, more detailed studies are needed to verify sensitivity of the biomarkers and clarify the biochemical changes resulting from PCB exposure. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Assem O; Khairy, Mohammed A; Mahmoud, Mahmoud R

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels, distribution and toxicological potential of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sewage sludge samples from several WWTPs in the Alexandria area, Egypt. The POPs of interest were 26 PCBs and 16 OCPs. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometric detection in the selected ion monitoring mode (GC-MS-SIM) using deuterated organochlorines as internal standards. Total concentrations of OCPs and Σ7 PCBs (ICES) in sludge ranged from 44.2 to 489 μg/kg dw. and 5,600 to 11,000 μg/kg dw., respectively. The highest concentration levels were found for PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, and HCB, in this order. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by penta- and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls. Seasonal variations were observed for OCPs with higher levels in summer, which reflects more usage in warmer climates. Composite profiles of OCP metabolites indicated new inputs of lindane and technical endosulfan and earlier usage of DDT and technical chlordane. Contamination levels of OCPs and PCBs for Egyptian sludge can be categorized as moderate to high compared to other countries worldwide. The OCP content in none of the samples exceeded limits set by the European Commission for use of sludge in agriculture; while all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were higher by one order of magnitude than the upper limit for land application.

  6. Prenatal PBDE and PCB Exposures and Reading, Cognition, and Externalizing Behavior in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yolton, Kimberly; Webster, Glenys M; Sjödin, Andreas; Calafat, Antonia M; Dietrich, Kim N; Xu, Yingying; Xie, Changchun; Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Chen, Aimin

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposures may influence children's neurodevelopment. We examined the association of prenatal PBDE and PCB exposures with children's reading skills at ages 5 and 8 years, Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), and externalizing behavior problems at age 8 years. From 239 mother-child pairs recruited (2003-2006) in Cincinnati, Ohio, we measured maternal serum PBDE and PCB concentrations, assessed child's reading skills using the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement III (WJ-III) at age 5 years and the Wide Range Achievement Test-4 (WRAT-4) at age 8 years, tested FSIQ using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV), and externalizing behavior problems using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at age 8 years. We used multiple linear regression to examine the association of prenatal PBDE and PCB concentrations and reading, FSIQ, and externalizing behavior problems after adjusting for covariates. An increase of Sum 4 PBDEs (BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, and BDE-153) by 10 times was not significantly associated with reading scores at age 5 years at the p = 0.05 level but was inversely associated with Reading Composite scores (β: -6.2, 95% CI: -11.7, -0.6) and FSIQ (β: -5.3, 95% CI: -10.6, -0.02) at age 8 years; it was positively associated with the score for externalizing behavior problems (β: 3.5, 95% CI: -0.1, 7.2) at age 8 years. Prenatal Sum 4 PCBs (PCB-118, -153, -138-158, and -180) was not significantly associated with a child's reading skills, FSIQ, and externalizing behavior problems. Prenatal PBDE concentration was inversely associated with reading skills and FSIQ and positively associated with externalizing behavior problems at age 8 years. No significant associations were found in prenatal PCB concentration.

  7. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls – toxicity and risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kmetič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic organochlorine compounds differing by their physico-chemical and toxicological properties and tend to bioaccumulate and biomagnificate in the environment and within the food chain. Consequently, humans may be exposed through contaminated drinking water and food, mainly fish, meat and dairy products. Production and usage of PCBs are restricted according to legislation and preventive measures in most of EU countries. In the Republic of Croatia the risk is still present due to military activities during the Patriotic War (1991-1995 when the industrial, electric power and other facilities were largely damaged resulting in leakage of PCBs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop and implement further strategies for identifying contaminated sites and for their remediation in an environmentally sound manner. Additionally, there is a need for safe disposal of PCBs sources including stepwise monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs level in accordance with Croatian national plan for implementation of the Stockholm Convention. So far, numerous researches indicate a variety of adverse effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and genotoxicity. Many of these compounds are potential endocrine disrupters causing reproductive dysfunctions. Toxic properties and potencies of PCB congeners generally depend upon the presence of chlorine atom in ortho position, whereas planar non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted PCB congeners are considered to be more toxic. Structural similarities between planar congeners and dioxins explain their mechanism of action mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, while non-planar PCBs appear to be weak antagonists of AhR. Some of PCBs' toxic effects are not resulting from the AhR activation, e.g. ortho-substituted PCBs can cause toxicity by other mechanisms. Influence of PCBs on human health and on health of certain members of the populations

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl in fish samples from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Several fish samples from the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish species analyzed include Tilapia zilli (red belly Tilapia), Ethmalosa fimbriata. (Bonga shad) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish). Eight PCB congeners were identified and.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl in fish samples from Lagos Lagoon, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several fish samples from the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish species analyzed include Tilapia zilli (red belly Tilapia), Ethmalosa fimbriata (Bonga shad) and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (catfish). Eight PCB congeners were identified and quantified in ...

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in settled dust from informal electronic waste recycling workshops and nearby highways in urban centers and suburban industrial roadsides of Chennai city, India: Levels, congener profiles and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Prithiviraj, Balasubramanian; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Kumar, Bhupander

    2016-12-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in settled dust collected from informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling workshops and nearby highways in the urban centers and roadside dust from the suburban industrial belt of Chennai city in India. Further dust samples were subjected to a high resolution field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX) to characterize the shape, size and elemental composition of the dust particles. Geomean of total PCB concentration followed the following order: informal e-waste metal recovery workshops (53ngg -1 )>e-waste dismantling sites (3.6ngg -1 )>nearby highways (1.7ngg -1 )>suburban industrial roadsides (1.6ngg -1 ). In e-waste workshops, tetra, penta and hexa-PCB homologs contributed two third of Σ 26 PCB concentration. Informal e-waste recycling workshops contributed more than 80% concentration of all the PCB congeners loaded in the first principal component. Predominance of dioxin like PCBs, PCB-l14, -118 and -126 in the e-waste metal recovery sites were presumably due to combustion and pyrolytic processes performed during recycling of electrical components. According to the morphology and elemental composition, settled dust from e-waste workshops were irregular particles heavily embedded with toxic metals and industrial roadside dust were distinct angular particles. FESEM revealed that average particle size (in Ferret diameter) increased in the following order: e-waste recycling workshops (0.5μm)waste recycling workshops engaged in metal recovery were found with maximum toxicity equivalents (TEQs) for dl-PCBs and potential cancer risk (10 -6 -10 -4 ) for both adult and children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  13. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  14. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research.

  15. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  16. Relationships between Atmospheric Transport Regimes and PCB Concentrations in the Air at Zeppelin, Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-09-05

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent hazardous chemicals that are still detected in the atmosphere and other environmental media, although their production has been banned for several decades. At the long-term monitoring site, Zeppelin at Spitsbergen, different PCB congeners have been continuously measured for more than a decade. However, it is not clear what factors determine the seasonal and interannual variability of different (lighter versus heavier) PCB congeners. To investigate the influence of atmospheric transport patterns on PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations at Zeppelin, we applied the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART and calculated "footprints" that indicate the potential source regions of air arriving at Zeppelin. By means of a cluster analysis, we assigned groups of similar footprints to different transport regimes and analyzed the PCB concentrations according to the transport regimes. The concentrations of both PCB congeners are affected by the different transport regimes. For PCB-101, the origin of air masses from the European continent is primarily related to high concentrations; elevated PCB-101 concentrations in winter can be explained by the high frequency of this transport regime in winter, whereas PCB-101 concentrations are low when air is arriving from the oceans. For PCB-28, in contrast, concentrations are high during summer when air is mainly arriving from the oceans but low when air is arriving from the continents. The most likely explanation of this finding is that local emissions of PCB-28 mask the effect of long-range transport and determine the concentrations measured at Zeppelin.

  17. PCB dechlorination hotspots and reductive dehalogenase genes in sediments from a contaminated wastewater lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Timothy E; Ewald, Jessica M; Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Awad, Andrew; Richards, Patrick; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2017-08-12

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are distributed worldwide. Although industrial PCB production has stopped, legacy contamination can be traced to several different commercial mixtures (e.g., Aroclors in the USA). Despite their persistence, PCBs are subject to naturally occurring biodegradation processes, although the microbes and enzymes involved are poorly understood. The biodegradation potential of PCB-contaminated sediments in a wastewater lagoon located in Virginia (USA) was studied. Total PCB concentrations in sediments ranged from 6.34 to 12,700 mg/kg. PCB congener profiles in sediment sample were similar to Aroclor 1248; however, PCB congener profiles at several locations showed evidence of dechlorination. The sediment microbial community structure varied among samples but was dominated by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The relative abundance of putative dechlorinating Chloroflexi (including Dehalococcoides sp.) was 0.01-0.19% among the sediment samples, with Dehalococcoides sp. representing 0.6-14.8% of this group. Other possible PCB dechlorinators present included the Clostridia and the Geobacteraceae. A PCR survey for potential PCB reductive dehalogenase genes (RDases) yielded 11 sequences related to RDase genes in PCB-respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain CG5 and PCB-dechlorinating D. mccartyi strain CBDB1. This is the first study to retrieve potential PCB RDase genes from unenriched PCB-contaminated sediments.

  18. Olive tree, Olea europaea L., leaves as a bioindicator of atmospheric PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofuoglu, Sait C; Yayla, Burak; Kavcar, Pınar; Ates, Duygu; Turgut, Cafer; Sofuoglu, Aysun

    2013-09-01

    Olive tree leaf samples were collected to investigate their possible use for biomonitoring of lipophilic toxic substances. The samples were analyzed for 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) congeners. Twelve congeners were detected in the samples. PCB-60, 77, 81, 89, 105, 114, and 153 were the most frequently detected congeners ranging from 32 % for PCB-52 to 97 % for PCB-81. Σ12PCBs concentration varied from below detection limit to 248 ng/g wet weight in the sampling area, while the mean congener concentrations ranged from 0.06 ng/g (PCB-128 + 167) to 64.2 ng/g wet weight (PCB-60). Constructed concentration maps showed that olive tree leaves can be employed for the estimation of spatial distrubution of these congeners.

  19. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  20. Sedimentary profile of polychlorinated biphenyls in the East China Sea: implications for the recent rising emissions from the unintentionally industrial productions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Guo, Z.

    2017-12-01

    As industrially synthesized chemicals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with their predominant anthropogenic origins are effective proxies for the processes of industrialization and urbanization. In this study, sedimentary profiles extracted from locations in the coastal and offshore area of the East China Sea (core C0803: 27°38'N, 121°39'E; core FFJ103: 31°40'N, 125°52'E) were chosen to indicate the chronological distribution of PCB pollutions in China. The concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) were 0.17-1.21 ng g-1 and 0.19-0.71 ng g-1 respectively in core 0803 and FFj103, the range of which was in the low end of that detected in regions with long PCB application history. The timeline of PCB residues in sediments coincides with the production and use of PCB products in China. PCB concentrations leveled off at the bottoms of the both core sediments and exhibited an obvious peak in periods of 60s-70s. This period corresponds to approximately the time PCBs were first manufactured commercially since 1965 in China. A small dip of ΣPCBs was followed in the early 1980s reflecting the effect of banning on PCB usage in China, after which an exponential escalation at the surface layers was found in these cores. The time-dependent PCB input flux resembles that of PCB concentrations, suggesting a relatively stable depositional environment. As compared to the other studies at most locations, a noticeable increase of ΣPCBs fluxes was consistent with the fact that the significantly rising contributions of unintentionally produced PCBs (UP-PCB) over that made by intentionally produced emissions. Based on the compilation of UP-PCB emissions in China, the UP-PCB emissions started to increase quickly in the early 90s due to the fast and continuously developing cement and steel industries in China. This discrepancy of time pattern in PCB sedimentary profiles is a result of difference in evolution of anthropic activity pressure and economic development.

  1. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Plastic Resin Pellets from Six Beaches on the Accra-Tema Coastline, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene A. Agbo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions. The concentrations of four detected PCB congeners (28, 52, 101 and 156 were significantly higher than the World Health Organization (WHO allowable daily intake of 6 ng/g food per day for PCBs. A more efficient industrial and domestic waste disposal system is advocated for Ghana. Competing Interests. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

  2. Negative association between plasma levels of adiponectin and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 in obese women under non-energy-restrictive regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mullerová, D.; Kopecký, Jan; Matějková, D.; Muller, L.; Rosmus, J.; Racek, J.; Šefrna, F.; Opatrná, S.; Kuda, Ondřej; Matejovic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2008), s. 1875-1878 ISSN 0307-0565 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : POPs * adiponectin * PCB 153 Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 3.640, year: 2008

  3. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  4. Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in ranid frogs and northern water snakes from a hazardous waste site and a contaminated watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, L W; Noble, G P; Akins, J M; Stephens, M D; Cobb, G P

    2000-04-01

    Livers of bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated watershed and hazardous waste site located in Pickens County, South Carolina, contained significantly higher concentrations of PCBs (2.33 and 2.26 ppm, respectively) than those from a reference site (0.05 ppm). Green frogs (R. clamitans) from the two contaminated sites also accumulated higher levels of PCBs (2.37 and 3.88 ppm, respectively) than those from the reference site (0.02 ppm). No temporal variation was observed in PCB concentrations of bullfrogs or green frogs from the contaminated sites between 1992 and 1993. Levels of PCBs in the livers of northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) were significantly higher in snakes from the contaminated watershed (13.70 ppm) than in those from the waste site (2.29 ppm) and two reference sites (2.50 and 1.23 ppm). When compared to frogs, significantly higher bioaccumulation occurred in water snakes from the contaminated watershed. No significant differences in PCB levels were found with respect to sex or body size (snout-vent length (SVL) or body mass) for frogs or snakes. PCBs were detected also in eggs of both frogs and snakes. Results of this study provide baseline data and document the bioaccumulation of PCB residues in frog and snake tissues; however, the significance of these tissue residues to reproduction, survival, growth/development, and population dynamics in contaminated habitats is unknown.

  5. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjiang [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Key Lab of Birth Defects and Reproductive Health of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Chongqing Population and Family Planning Science and Technology Research Institute, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yang, Jixin [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yang, Kedi, E-mail: yangkd@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  6. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rhizosphere of rape, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javorská, Hana; Tlustos, Pavel; Kaliszová, Regina

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the rhizosphere effect of rape plants on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) dissipation in soils spiked with seven indicator congeners. Depletion of PCB in the rhizosphere was significantly higher in the soil with lower organic matter content. While in the Chernozem soil, 87% of PCB related to bulk soil were found in the 1st mm from roots, only 62%-69% were found in the Fluvisol soil with no significant influence of increased initial PCB concentration. Further from the roots, the concentration of lower chlorinated congeners decreased, which indicates their greater biodegradation in comparison with more chlorinated ones.

  7. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  8. Reproductive and thyroid effects of low-level polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, L.E.; Ostby, J.; Marshall, R.; Andrews, J.

    1993-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of subchronic administration of Aroclor 1254 on testicular gamete production and endocrine function. The thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), which is critical for reproduction and development, was also measured because of the well-documented effects of PCBs on this hormone. Weanling (31-day-old) male Fischer rats were administered 0, 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg/day Aroclor 1254 by gavage for 5, 10, or 15 weeks and necropsied. In the high-dose group, body, seminal vesicle, cauda epididymal, and pituitary weights were depressed at 10 and 15 weeks and cauda epididymal sperm numbers were reduced after 15 weeks of dosing. In contrast, testes weights, testicular sperm numbers, sperm motility, and serum and testicular testosterone levels were unaffected, even in the highest dose group (25 mg/kg/day). Aroclor 1254 administration produced histological alterations in the liver and kidney at doses of 1.0 mg/kg/day and above. These results indicate that the testis of the rat is not a specific target organ for Aroclor 1254.

  9. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S.; Borga, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-01-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 o N-82 o N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 o N-62 o N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB] org ; pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C w ; pg/L). The BAF Arctic :BAF Temperate ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF Arcti :BAF Temperate ) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  10. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S. [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius Vaeg 8c, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Borga, Katrine [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Asplund, Lillemor [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius Vaeg 8c, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin [Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, 75236 Sweden (Sweden); Polder, Anuschka [Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, POB 8146, 0033 Oslo (Norway); Gustafsson, Orjan, E-mail: orjan.gustafsson@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, Svante Arrhenius Vaeg 8c, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 {sup o}N-82 {sup o}N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 {sup o}N-62 {sup o}N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB]{sub org}; pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C{sub w}; pg/L). The BAF{sub Arctic}:BAF{sub Temperate} ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF{sub Arcti}:BAF{sub Temperate}) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  11. A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, Anna; McLachlan, Michael S; Borgå, Katrine; Asplund, Lillemor; Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin; Polder, Anuschka; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2010-06-01

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared. Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton, fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF). BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C(w); pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperate) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-13.8) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal. The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arcti):BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2.0. We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea. This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions, e.g. by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Spatial Distribution of PCB Dechlorinating Bacteria and Activities in Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birthe V. Kjellerup

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil samples contaminated with Aroclor 1260 were analyzed for microbial PCB dechlorination potential, which is the rate-limiting step for complete PCB degradation. The average chlorines per biphenyl varied throughout the site suggesting that different rates of in situ dechlorination had occurred over time. Analysis of PCB transforming (aerobic and anaerobic microbial communities and dechlorinating potential revealed spatial heterogeneity of both putative PCB transforming phylotypes and dechlorination activity. Some soil samples inhibited PCB dechlorination in active sediment from Baltimore Harbor indicating that metal or organic cocontaminants might cause the observed heterogeneity of in situ dechlorination. Bioaugmentation of soil samples contaminated with PCBs ranging from 4.6 to 265 ppm with a pure culture of the PCB dechlorinating bacterium Dehalobium chlorocoercia DF-1 also yielded heterologous results with significant dechlorination of weathered PCBs observed in one location. The detection of indigenous PCB dehalorespiring activity combined with the detection of putative dechlorinating bacteria and biphenyl dioxygenase genes in the soil aggregates suggests that the potential exists for complete mineralization of PCBs in soils. However, in contrast to sediments, the heterologous distribution of microorganisms, PCBs, and inhibitory cocontaminants is a significant challenge for the development of in situ microbial treatment of PCB impacted soils.

  13. Effects of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls on urinary metabolites of neurotransmitters: A cross-sectional and longitudinal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putschögl, Franziska Maria; Gaum, Petra Maria; Schettgen, Thomas; Kraus, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Lang, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chemicals which were used for industrial purposes and are known to induce various adverse health effects. They are also known to be neurotoxic and numerous targets within the central nervous system have been identified in previous studies. Specifically, the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) are influenced by PCBs as indicated in studies involving animals. However, limited evidence has been published documenting PCB induced changes in the neurotransmitter system in humans. In the present study, we examined the association between a higher PCB body burden following occupational exposure and possible changes in human neurotransmitter metabolites. Within a medical surveillance programme called HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) that monitors adverse health effects of occupational PCB exposure, urine samples were obtained (n(T1) = 166; n(T2) = 177 and n(T3) = 141). The urinary concentrations of the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA; for DA) and vanillylmandelic acid (VMA; for NE) were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained by vena puncture in order to determine the internal exposure to PCBs with human biomonitoring. A cross-sectional analysis indicated a significant negative effect of PCB exposure on HVA and VMA. Longitudinally, an initially higher exposure to higher chlorinated PCBs was followed by constant reduced HVA level over three consecutive years. Exploratory analyses show different long-term effects for different PCBs according to their chlorination degree. A higher exposure with lower chlorinated PCBs leads to an increase of VMA and HVA. Conversely, a higher exposure to all PCBs results in a reduction of HVA. This study, to our knowledge, is the first to document changes in neurotransmitter metabolites after occupational PCB exposure in humans. This finding advances evidence obtained from past research, and identifies one potential pathomechanism in the central dopaminergic system of

  14. Interim Basis for PCB Sampling and Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BANNING, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    This document was developed as an interim basis for sampling and analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and will be used until a formal data quality objective (DQO) document is prepared and approved. On August 31, 2000, the Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste was signed by the US. Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) (Ecology et al. 2000). This agreement outlines the management of double shell tank (DST) waste as Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) PCB remediation waste based on a risk-based disposal approval option per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations 761.61 (c). The agreement calls for ''Quantification of PCBs in DSTs, single shell tanks (SSTs), and incoming waste to ensure that the vitrification plant and other ancillary facilities PCB waste acceptance limits and the requirements of the anticipated risk-based disposal approval are met.'' Waste samples will be analyzed for PCBs to satisfy this requirement. This document describes the DQO process undertaken to assure appropriate data will be collected to support management of PCBs and is presented in a DQO format. The DQO process was implemented in accordance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency EPA QAlG4, Guidance for the Data Quality Objectives Process (EPA 1994) and the Data Quality Objectives for Sampling and Analyses, HNF-IP-0842/Rev.1 A, Vol. IV, Section 4.16 (Banning 1999)

  15. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  16. Influential Factors and Dry Deposition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs in Atmospheric Particles at an Isolated Island (Pingtan Island in Fujian Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Lao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To explore the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB pollution characteristics of atmospheric particles, influential factors, and dry deposition fluxes, 28 PCB congeners were examined over a 2-year period in the environment of an isolated island in Fujian Province. In 2006 and 2007, PCB concentrations ranged from 1.12 to 87.32 pg m−3 and ND (not detected to 44.93 pg m−3, respectively, and were predominantly highly-chlorinated PCBs. The levels were much lower than those from industrial, urban, and rural areas, but slightly higher than those found in coastal areas of Europe and in the ocean. Obvious seasonal variations were found in the PCB levels, with high levels appearing in the winter, whereas low levels appeared in the summer, which indicated a significant positive correlation with the atmospheric particle mass level. The distribution pattern of the PCB concentration was largely affected by the meteorological conditions and total organic carbon (TOC levels. Moreover, air mass originating from Northern China may be responsible for the higher PCB levels over Pingtan Island during the winter, and tracing the source of atmospheric particles by the stable carbon isotope suggested that the PBC levels may be influenced by coal combustion during the “heating season” of Northern China. The total dry deposition flux of the 28 PCBs on Pingtan Island was 3.94 ng m−2 d−1 and 2.94 ng m−2 d−1 in 2006 and 2007, respectively, and the average yearly input to the adjacent waters was 7531.2 g y−1.

  17. Dynamic Transgenerational Fate of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dioxins/Furans in Lactating Cows and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdal, Christian; Züst, Selina; Schmid, Peter; Gyalpo, Tenzing; Zeberli, Anicia; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Zennegg, Markus

    2017-09-19

    We report on two farms in Switzerland heavily contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (PCDD/Fs), occurring in the first case from diffuse sources and in the second case from PCB-containing wall paint. Extensive measurements of PCBs and PCDD/Fs on site (soil, forage, and paint) and in cattle (blood, fat, and milk) allowed validation of our novel dynamic toxicokinetic model, which includes the transfer of contaminants from the mother cows to their suckling calf and the uptake of soil by grazing cattle. We show that for calves, the mother milk is the main uptake route of contaminants. For both cows and calves, ingestion of contaminated soil, although often overlooked, is an appreciable uptake path. The remediation of the contaminated stable lead to a 2-3 fold reduction of the PCB levels in animals within one year. The transfer of animals to an uncontaminated mountain site during summer proved to be an effective decontamination procedure with up to 50% reduction of the levels within three months. Our study calls for a rapid removal of PCB-containing materials in animal husbandry farms and shows that the diffuse contamination of soils will remain a source for PCBs and PCDD/Fs in our food chain for decades to come.

  18. High-pressure extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from soils and other fine-grained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowz, G.

    1996-12-01

    Four doped and three really contaminated samples were subjected to high-pressure PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) extraction in a laboratory-scale experimental plant using CO 2 (carbon dioxide) as solvent. The PCB levels (sum out of the six key substances) of the real samples were 2.6, 6.8, and 139 mg/kg. The success of the cleaning process was determined by measuring the residual PCB levels in the soil after the extraction. Parameters were varied and samples were taken selectively from various points in the bed (length 270 mm, diameter 14 mm, weighed - in soil 50-60 g) in order to gain an idea of the effects of upscaling. The following parameters were varied: extraction temperature 40-90 C; extraction pressure 200-300 bar; CO 2 flow rate 3.6-14.6 g/min; CO 2 quantity 0-328 g; degree of contamination (doped samples) 12-60 mg/kg; soil moisture 0-15%; particle size 0-2000 μm; entraining agent methanol, ethanol, acetone; proportion of entraining agent 0-7.5% by weight. Furthermore the influence of moisture at the time of doping on extraction was examined. (orig./ABI) [de

  19. Topsoil dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and sources along an urban-rural gradient in the Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjun; Chen, Aiping; Li, Jianyong; Liu, Qing; Yang, Hongjun; Wu, Tao; Lu, Zhaohua

    2012-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of soil dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) residues, topsoil samples (0-15 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. The total concentrations of six DDT homologues were within 3.3-3819 microg/kg, with a mean concentration of 191 microg/kg, showing significant increase along urban-rural gradient. Soil concentrations of seven indicator PCBs in the area ranged from non-detectable to 87.0 microg/kg, dominated by heavily chlorinated PCBs (PCB-101 and -118). Soil PCBs concentrations were significantly greater in urban than suburban and rural areas. Principal component and multiple linear regression analysis suggest that 86.4% of soil DDTs originate from past DDT usage, and 13.6% originate from dicofol application. Soil PCBs most likely originate from the petrochemical industry (77.1%), municipal solid waste disposal (16.5%), local commercial PCB homologues usage (5.2%), and long-range atmospheric deposition (1.2%). In general, soil DDTs pollution was classified as low level, and mean PCBs concentrations were below the severe contamination classification range. Because PCB-118 is a dioxin-like congener, monitoring and remediation is advised to assess and reduce negative environmental and human health effects from soil DDTs and dioxin-like congeners in the study area.

  20. Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  2. Interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on expression of CYP1A and its potential regulators in Atlantic croaker liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Saydur; Thomas, Peter

    2018-04-01

    Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A. Croaker were exposed to hypoxia (1.7 mg/L dissolved oxygen), 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77, dose: 2 and 8 µg/g body weight), and Aroclor 1254 (a common PCB mixture, dose: 0.5 and 1 µg/g body weight), alone and in combination for 4 weeks. PCB 77 exposure markedly increased hepatic CYP1A mRNA and protein expression, and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD, an indicator of CYP1A enzyme) activity and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression. PCB 77 treatment also increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β, a cytokine) mRNA levels and protein carbonyl (PC, an indicator of reactive oxygen species, ROS) contents. These marked PCB 77- and Aroclor 1254-induced increases in CYP1A mRNA levels and EROD activity were significantly attenuated by co-exposure to hypoxia, whereas the increases in hepatic eNOS protein and IL-1β mRNA expression, and PC contents were augmented by hypoxia co-exposure. The results suggest that biotransformation of organic xenobiotics by CYP1A is reduced in fish during co-exposure to hypoxia and is accompanied by alterations in eNOS, ROS, and IL-1β levels. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a river ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremle, G.

    1997-03-01

    In the Emaan River, in southeast Sweden, contaminated sediment was a source of PCB, the largest deposits of it being found in a small lake connected to the river: lake Jaernsjoen, the sediment of which contained about 400 kg of PCB. The concentration of PCB in the water and in the fish was more elevated downstream from the lake than at upstream sites. Lake Jaernsjoen was cleaned up by dredging during 1993 and 1994. The dredged sediment, estimated to contain over 95% of the PCB in the lake, was deposited in a landfill. During the cleanup action, the concentration of PCB downstream from the lake did not become higher than before. The PCB concentration in the air around the landfill increased in the vicinity and during construction of the landfill. After closure of the landfill by a layer placed on top of it, the PCB concentration in the air fell to background levels. No increase in the PCB concentration in the ground water around the landfill as a result of the remedial action could be detected. In the summer of 1996, nearly two years after remediation had been completed, an investigation of the PCB concentration in the fish of the river system was conducted. This investigation was a repetition of one made in 1991, prior to remediation. It showed that after remediation the concentration of PCB in one-year old fish in Lake Jaernsjoen was halved. The concentration of PCB in fish upstream was also lower, probably because of the decrease in overall background contamination. 155 refs, 13 figs

  4. PCB management at Manitoba Hydro's Waverley Service Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempel, R.G.; Engstrom, T.

    1996-01-01

    Manitoba Hydro was the first Canadian utility to initiate a program to decontaminate insulating oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's recovery, reuse and recycling program, operated out of the utility's Waverley Service Centre (WSC). The WSC is a central facility serving to phase out and and destroy PCBs which remain in Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Several hundred thousand litres of PCB-contaminated insulating oil are decontaminated annually at the WSC. The decontaminated oil is then reconditioned for reuse within the system operations. A PCBX unit was purchased from Sun Ohio for the decontamination of insulating oils containing PCBs. PCB decontamination is achieved through a chemical dechlorination treatment process. The PCBX treatment unit and the PCB storage building were described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  5. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Anzilotti, Serenella; Secondo, Agnese; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M.T.; Formisano, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our results revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. - Highlights: • Resveratrol via SIRT1/c-Jun downregulates REST mRNA and protein in SH-SY5Y cells. • Non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 is cytotoxic to

  6. SIMPLE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONCENTRATIONS ON SOILS AND SEDIMENTS USING SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH SOLID-PHASE MICROEXTRACTION. (R825368)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rapid method for estimating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in contaminated soils and sediments has been developed by coupling static subcritical water extraction with solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Soil, water, and internal standards are placed in a seale...

  7. Comparative toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica) and American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J E; Kennedy, S W; Lorenzen, A

    1997-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related halogenated hydrocarbons bioaccumulate to high concentrations in top predators, such as raptorial birds, yet little is known of PCB toxicity to such species. This study explored several aspects of both the acute and chronic response of American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to three purified PCB congeners and a commercial mixture, Aroclor 1254, and compared the response to that of the Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica), a more studied species known to be PCB sensitive. In one experiment, adult female birds were given single oral doses of either Aroclor 1254, 3,3',4,4'-TCB (PCB 77, IUPAC nomenclature), 3,3',4,4',5-PCB (PCB 126) or 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HCB (PCB 153) and sacrificed after 5 d. In kestrels, neither the pure compounds nor the mixture affected hepatic or renal porphyrin levels. There was slight but significant hepatic and renal ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction in birds dosed with PCBs 77 and 126. A cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was detected in liver and kidney of kestrels given PCBs 77 and 126, but not in Aroclor 1254-dosed birds. In quail, an acute dose of Aroclor 1254 caused significant liver weight increases, hepatic and renal EROD and aminopyrine n-demethylase (APND) induction, and dose-related hepatic and renal porphyria. Quail treated with PCB 126 developed hepatic and renal porphyria; EROD and APND were also induced. Administration of PCB 77 caused only slight induction of hepatic EROD activity. PCB 153 caused some hepatic and renal porphyria and induced EROD to the same degree as PCB 126. A hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein was induced about 200-fold in all individual quail that exhibited significant EROD induction and was also induced in kidney of 1 quail given Aroclor 1254. A second experiment examined chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254 by feeding adult females of both species a daily dose of 7 mg/kg/d for 4-, 8-, and 12-wk periods. There were no effects on hepatic

  8. Resveratrol via sirtuin-1 downregulates RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression preventing PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Anzilotti, Serenella; Secondo, Agnese; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2015-11-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) (RSV), a polyphenol widely present in plants, exerts a neuroprotective function in several neurological conditions; it is an activator of class III histone deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a crucial regulator in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. By contrast, the RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) is involved in the neurotoxic effects following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture A1254. The present study investigated the effects of RSV-induced activation of SIRT1 on REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells. Further, we investigated the possible relationship between the non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCB-95 and REST through SIRT1 to regulate neuronal death in rat cortical neurons. Our results revealed that RSV significantly decreased REST gene and protein levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of SIRT1 reduced REST expression, whereas EX-527, an inhibitor of SIRT1, increased REST expression and blocked RSV-induced REST downregulation. These results suggest that RSV downregulates REST through SIRT1. In addition, RSV enhanced activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Jun expression and its binding to the REST promoter gene. Indeed, c-Jun knockdown reverted RSV-induced REST downregulation. Intriguingly, in SH-SY5Y cells and rat cortical neurons the NDL PCB-95 induced necrotic cell death in a concentration-dependent manner by increasing REST mRNA and protein expression. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown blocked RSV-induced neuroprotection in rat cortical neurons treated with PCB-95. Collectively, these results indicate that RSV via SIRT1 activates c-Jun, thereby reducing REST expression in SH-SY5Y cells under physiological conditions and blocks PCB-95-induced neuronal cell death by activating the same SIRT1/c-Jun/REST pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A preliminary investigation of the environmental impact of a thermal power plant in relation to PCB contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedik, Kadir; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2011-07-01

    The most significant application of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is in transformers and capacitors. Therefore, power plants are important suspected sources for entry of PCBs into the environment. In this context, the levels and distribution of PCBs in sediment, soil, ash, and sludge samples were investigated around Seyitömer thermal power plant, Kütahya, Turkey. Moreover, identity and contribution of PCB mixtures were predicted using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. United States Environmental Protection Agency methods were applied during sample preparation, extraction (3540C), cleanup (3660B, 3665A, 3630C), and analysis (8082A). ΣPCB concentrations in the region ranged from not detected to 385 ng/g dry weight, with relatively higher contamination in sediments in comparison to soil, sludge, and ash samples collected from around the power plant. Congener profiles of the sediment and soil samples show penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorobiphenyls as the major homolog groups. The results from the CMB model indicate that PCB contamination is largely due to Clophen A60/A40 and Aroclor 1254/1254(late)/1260 release into the sediment and sludge samples around the thermal power plant. Since there are no other sources of PCBs in the region and the identity of PCB sources estimated by the CMB model mirrors PCB mixtures contained in transformers formerly used in the plant, the environmental contamination observed especially in sediments is attributed to the power plant. Release of PCBs over time, as indicated by the significant concentrations observed even in surface samples, emphasizes the importance of the need for better environmental management.

  10. Growth in Inuit children exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and lead during fetal development and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Renée; Dewailly, Éric; Ayotte, Pierre; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L; Muckle, Gina

    2014-10-01

    Because of their geographical location and traditional lifestyle, Canadian Inuit children are highly exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lead (Pb), environmental contaminants that are thought to affect fetal and child growth. We examined the associations of these exposures with the fetal and postnatal growth of Inuit children. We conducted a prospective cohort study among Inuit from Nunavik (Arctic Québec). Mothers were recruited at their first prenatal visit; children (n=290) were evaluated at birth and at 8-14 years of age. Concentrations of PCB 153 and Pb were determined in umbilical cord and child blood. Weight, height and head circumference were measured at birth and during childhood. Cord blood PCB 153 concentrations were not associated with anthropometric measurements at birth or school age, but child blood PCB 153 concentrations were associated with reduced weight, height and head circumference during childhood. There was no association between cord Pb levels and anthropometric outcomes at birth, but cord blood Pb was related to smaller height and shows a tendency of a smaller head circumference during childhood. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to PCBs during childhood is negatively associated with skeletal growth and weight, while prenatal Pb exposure is related to reduced growth during childhood. This study is the first to link prenatal Pb exposure to poorer growth in school-age children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics and potential sources of polychlorinated biphenyl pollution in a suburban area of Guangzhou, southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qilu; Wang, Yan; Luo, Chunling; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    In this study, 52 paired gas and particle samples were collected from a suburban field in Guangzhou in 2012 using a high-volume active air sampler; they were then analysed for 30 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners via gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 97.4 to 853 pg m-3. This was a moderate level compared with other cities, undeveloped areas, and electronic waste disposal sites. Atmospheric concentrations of PCBs did not exhibit notable diurnal or seasonal variations, except for a few high measurement. Tetra- and tri-CBs were the predominant PCB compounds, with an average combined contribution of 81.9%. CB-77 was the dominant congener in the particle phase due to a few samples with extremely high mass fraction of CB-77 and relatively low concentrations of other PCBs. Based on measurements of pollution characteristics including diurnal and seasonal variations, we used correlation analysis, principal component analysis and back trajectory modeling to deduce that electronic manufacturing and recycling activities, pigment/paint production, and waste incineration plants are possible sources of PCBs in Guangzhou. Of these sources, the high observed contributions of CB-77 originated mainly from the pigment/paint industry.

  12. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  13. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  14. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  15. Persistent organic pollutants in atmospheric deposition and biomonitoring with Tillandsia usneoides (L.) in an industrialized area in Rio de Janeiro state, southeast Brazil--Part II: PCB and PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Márcia; Heitmann, Dieter; Reifenhäuser, Werner; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Santos, Luciana Silva; Torres, João Paulo M; Malm, Olaf; Körner, Wolfgang

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring of immission of persistent organic pollutants in the industrialized area of Volta Redonda (V.R.) and in the National Park of Itatiaia (PNI) in southeast Brazil was performed using an endemic bromeliad species as biomonitor and measuring bulk deposition rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). For the sum of PCB, overall deposition rates were between 17 and 314 ng/(m2 day) in winter and between 43 and 81 ng/(m2 day) in summer, respectively. Deposition rates of dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.14 to 2.8 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in winter and from 0.90 to 4.3 pg WHO-TEQ/(m2 day) in summer. PCB deposition rates (total PCB and WHO-TEQ) were in the same range in winter in V.R. and PNI. In summer, contamination levels in V.R. were 6-10-folds higher than in PNI. PCB concentrations in biomonitor samples from V.R. and PNI were in the same range in summer and in winter. Concentrations of total PCB ranged from 14 to 95 microg/kg dry matter (d.m.) in winter and from 18 to 27 microg/kg d.m. in summer, respectively. The TEQ values were between 1.7 and 4.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in winter and between 1.9 and 2.9 ng WHO-TEQ/kg d.m. in summer. PCB concentrations of di-ortho PCB but not of non-ortho PCB were a factor of 2-4 lower in summer in both areas. PCB congener profiles resembled those from technical formulations. The profiles shifted to the higher chlorinated congeners in summer, probable due to revolatilisation of the lighter components at higher temperatures. PCB profiles in biomonitor resembled those from deposition samples and the shift to the heavier congeners in summer was even more pronounced. PAH deposition rates were in a similar range in both areas (131-2415 ng/(m2 day)). PAH levels in biomonitor samples from V.R. were about one order of magnitude higher than in samples from PNI indicating the impact of local sources. PAH profiles revealed stationary thermal processes as main source of contamination in V.R. whereas in PNI

  16. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  17. Absolute configuration of 2,2',3,3',6-pentachlorinatedbiphenyl (PCB 84) atropisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean R; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-05-23

    Nineteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as 2,2',3,3',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 84), display axial chirality because they form stable rotational isomers, or atropisomers, that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. Although chiral PCBs undergo atropselective biotransformation and atropselectively alter biological processes, the absolute structure of only a few PCB atropisomers has been determined experimentally. To help close this knowledge gap, pure PCB 84 atropisomers were obtained by semi-preparative liquid chromatography with two serially connected Nucleodex β-PM columns. The absolute configuration of both atropisomers was determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The PCB 84 atropisomer eluting first and second on the Nucleodex β-PM column correspond to (aR)-(-)-PCB 84 and (aS)-(+)-PCB 84, respectively. Enantioselective gas chromatographic analysis with the β-cyclodextrin-based CP-Chirasil-Dex CB gas chromatography column showed the same elution order as the Nucleodex β-PM column. Based on earlier reports, the atropisomers eluting first and second on the BGB-172 gas chromatography column are (aR)-(-)-PCB 84 and (aS)-(+)-PCB 84, respectively. An inversion of the elution order is observed on the Cyclosil-B gas chromatography and Cellulose-3 liquid chromatography columns. These results advance the interpretation of environmental and human biomonitoring as well as toxicological studies.

  18. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... induction of enzyme, hepatotoxicity, endocrine effects, neurotoxicity ..... Similarly, a field of plants may serve as a direct, visual bioassay .... increases the plant tolerance to organics and massive biomass accumulation (Gogoi et al., 2002). They work by preventing stress ethylene synthesis and providing.

  19. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Director shall advise the person making the proposal of the reasons for the Center's disapproval within 90... Applied Nutrition (HFS-308), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740.... 28, 1994; 61 FR 14480, Apr. 2, 1996; 66 FR 56035, Nov. 6, 2001] Effective Date Note: At 38 FR 22794...

  20. Biological remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environment is suffering severe contamination as a result of various uncontrolled activities of man and chemicals in the biosphere. This widespread contamination of air, soil and water by metals, chemicals and metalloids causes environmental concerns, which if left unchecked will be detrimental to man and other ...

  1. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded in ...

  2. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by lipid droplet enlargement through Fsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Young; Kwon, Woo Young; Kim, Yeon A; Oh, Yoo Jin; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Mi Hwa; Bae, Ju Yong; Kim, Jong-Min; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2017-06-01

    Although epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) lead to insulin resistance, the mechanism underlying PCBs-induced insulin resistance has remained unsolved. In this study, we examined in vitro and in vivo effects of PCB-118 (dioxin-like PCB) and PCB-138 (non-dioxin-like PCB) on adipocyte differentiation, lipid droplet growth, and insulin action. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with PCB-118 or PCB-138 during adipocyte differentiation. For in vivo studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered PCB-118 or PCB-138 (37.5 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection and we examined adiposity and whole-body insulin action. PCB-118 and PCB-138 significantly promoted adipocyte differentiation and increased the lipid droplet (LD) size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In mice, both PCBs increased adipose mass and adipocyte size. Furthermore, both PCBs induced insulin resistance in vitro and in vivo. Expression of fat-specific protein 27 (Fsp27), which is localized to LD contact sites, was increased in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and mice. Depletion of Fsp27 by siRNA resulted in the inhibition of LD enlargement and attenuation of insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. An anti-diabetic drug, metformin, attenuated insulin resistance in PCB-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the reduced expression of Fsp27 protein and LD size. This study suggests that PCB exposure-induced insulin resistance is mediated by LD enlargement through Fsp27.

  4. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑PCBs and ∑PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g(-1) lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, p0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑PCBs (r=0.60, pe-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e-waste might contribute to abnormal changes in hormone levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of PCB Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal Notifications and Quarterly Membership Updates for the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Remediation Waste Under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 761.61(c)

  6. PCB transformer decontamination - standards and protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The proper management and disposal of transformers to reduce human and environmental exposure to PCBs, is the subject of this document issued by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME). The Council is committed to a policy of phasing out the use of all polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Canada. Since there are no national standards in Canada for the decontamination of PCB transformers, this handbook was issued to provide guidelines to promote uniform practices and to set national approaches for resource recovery and technological developments in this area. The guide describes methods for decontamination of transformers, and safe approaches for re-use, recycling and landfilling of electrical transformers that contain PCBs and their components. 16 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  7. NIOSH testimony on polychlorinated biphenyls before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, by A. Robbins, March 12, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-12

    The testimony concerned the efforts of NIOSH in a study of worker exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at selected General Services Administration (GSA) facilities in the area of metropolitan Washington. The GSA employees being studied were exposed to transformer fluids containing PCBs in the National Capital Region. NIOSH was to review work practices, recommend appropriate PCB handling procedures, and measure airborne levels of PCBs and certain other chemicals. An internal audit at the site had revealed that the PCB material was being improperly stored at the Switch Gear Shop; 43 employees reported various health problems such as sterility, headaches, nausea, skin rashes and loss of appetite. The health of these 43 workers will be compared with a comparison group of unexposed GSA employees. The workers will be given complete medical examinations, including special tests to determine if they suffer from infertility, liver damage, nerve damage, or impairment of lung function.

  8. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  9. The atmosphere as a source/sink of polychlorinated biphenyls to/from the Lower Duwamish Waterway Superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apell, Jennifer N; Gschwend, Philip M

    2017-08-01

    Waterbodies polluted with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may cause the air in the surrounding area to become PCB-contaminated. Conversely, when a waterbody is located in or near an urban area, the deposition of atmospheric PCBs may act as a low-level, ongoing source of PCB contamination to that water. Distinguishing these situations is necessary to be protective of human populations and to guide efforts seeking to cleanup such aquatic ecosystems. To assess the situation at the Lower Duwamish Waterway (LDW) Superfund site, low-density polyethylene passive samplers were deployed in the summer of 2015 to quantify freely dissolved water and gaseous air concentrations of PCBs thereby enabling estimates of the direction and magnitude of air-water exchange of PCB congeners. For the sum of the 27 PCB congeners, average concentrations were 220 pg/m 3 (95% C.I.: 80-610) in the air and 320 pg/L (95% C.I.: 110-960) in the water. The sum of air-water exchange fluxes of these PCB congeners was estimated to be 68 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 30-148) into the lower atmosphere, contrasting with the reported wet and dry depositional flux of only 5.5 ng/m 2 /day (95% C.I.: 1-38) from the air into the water. Therefore, the atmosphere was ultimately a sink of PCBs from the LDW Superfund site, at least under 2015 summertime conditions. However, we conclude that air-water exchange of PCBs is likely only a minor sink of PCBs from the LDW and only a minor source of contamination to the region's local atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenbart, Lars; Held, Christian; Reichert, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  11. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  12. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  13. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiwei, E-mail: pwxu@cdc.zj.cn; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng, E-mail: zjcdcwxf@gmail.com

    2014-11-15

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g{sup −1} lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g{sup −1} lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g{sup −1} lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants

  14. Association of PCB, PBDE and PCDD/F body burdens with hormone levels for children in an e-waste dismantling area of Zhejiang Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peiwei; Lou, Xiaoming; Ding, Gangqiang; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Lizhi; Chen, Zhijian; Han, Jianlong; Han, Guangen; Wang, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Increased electronic waste (e-waste) has raised public concerns regarding exposure to numerous toxic contaminants, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). In China, the body burdens of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs are associated with thyroid hormones in populations from e-waste dismantling sites; however, it is unclear whether this association occurs in children. In this study, we determined the serum levels of PCBs, PBDEs and PCDD/Fs and the endocrine hormones including free triiodothyronine (FT3), total triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxine (FT4), total thyroxine (TT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol and growth hormone (GH) in 21 children from an e-waste dismantling area and 24 children from a control area. The results showed that the mean levels of ∑ PCBs and ∑ PBDEs in the exposure group were significantly higher than in the control group (40.56 and 32.09 ng g −1 lipid vs. 20.69 and 8.43 ng g −1 lipid, respectively, p < 0.01 for each), and the mean level of ∑ PCDD/Fs in the exposure group was higher than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (206.17 vs. 160.27 pg g −1 lipid, p > 0.05). For the endocrine hormones, we did not find significant differences between the exposed and control groups, although the mean levels of FT3, TT3, TT4, ACTH, cortisol and GH were higher, whereas the mean levels of FT4 and TSH were lower in the exposed group. The mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with the mean levels of ∑ PCBs (r = 0.60, p < 0.05) and ∑ PCDD/Fs (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean level of ∑ PBDEs was positively correlated with ACTH (r = 0.61, p < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggested that exposure to e-waste dismantling environment increased the body burdens of PCBs and PBDEs in local children and that these contaminants released from the e

  15. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  16. Unexpected high PCB and total DDT levels in the breeding population of red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana National Park, south-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómara, Belén; González, María José; Baos, Raquel; Hiraldo, Fernando; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep; Jiménez, Begoña

    2008-01-01

    This study provides information on the current status of contamination by organochlorines (DDTs, PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) in the declining red kite (Milvus milvus L.) population breeding in the Doñana National Park (DNP), south-western Spain. Analyses were performed in addled eggs collected between 1999 and 2001. DDE concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 33.5 microg/g ww, representing more than 86% of the total DDTs. Of the samples studied, 50% showed DDE levels above those associated with reproductive impairment in other raptor species. Concentrations of ortho PCBs (average 36.8 microg/g ww+/-37.7) in 50% of the eggs were much higher than levels reported to cause reduced hatching success, embryo mortality, and deformities in birds (>20 microg/g ww). It is remarkable that average ortho PCB and DDE concentrations showed an increase of one order of magnitude compared to previous data for the species during the 80s. Total PCDD/Fs showed levels in the low pg/g range (7.2-42 pg/g ww), having PCDDs and PCDFs similar contributions in most samples. Total mean TEQs were 238 pg/g (ww), being the range 7.02-667 pg/g (ww). Spatial variation within DNP was observed for PCBs, DDTs, as well as for TEQs. Since some eggs exceeded the NOEL (67%) and LOEL (33%) reported for other raptor species, we would expect the red kite to experience detrimental effects to dioxin-like toxicity. Our results suggest that organochlorine contaminants should be regarded as an element of concern in the population under study, in addition to other conservation problems already reported. Further investigations should be undertaken to identify potential sources of these chemicals in DNP, and to find out if organochlorine contamination is present in other predator species in the area, as well as their potential health effects on individuals and/or populations.

  17. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E.; Tew, Kwee S.

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k u ) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K ow , and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  18. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  19. Microbial community analysis of switchgrass planted and unplanted soil microcosms displaying PCB dechlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential risks to human and environmental health because they are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative. In this study, we investigated bacterial communities in soil microcosms spiked with PCB 52, 77, and 153. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was employed to improve overall PCB removal, and redox cycling (i.e., sequential periods of flooding followed by periods of no flooding) was performed in an effort to promote PCB dechlorination. Lesser chlorinated PCB transformation products were detected in all microcosms, indicating the occurrence of PCB dechlorination. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and clone library analysis showed that PCB spiking, switchgrass planting, and redox cycling affected the microbial community structure. Putative organohalide-respiring Chloroflexi populations, which were not found in unflooded microcosms, were enriched after 2 weeks of flooding in the redox-cycled microcosms. Sequences classified as Geobacter sp. were detected in all microcosms and were most abundant in the switchgrass-planted microcosm spiked with PCB congeners. The presence of possible organohalide-respiring bacteria in these soil microcosms suggests that they play a role in PCB dechlorination therein.

  20. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  2. Cadmium(II)-based metal-organic nanotubes as solid-phase microextraction coating for ultratrace-level analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Wan-Ru; Chen, Yue; Wang, Shan-Shan; Wang, Xiao-Li; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2016-11-01

    In this study, stable cadmium(II)-based metal-organic nanotubes (Cd-MONTs) were prepared and used as a coating material for solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from environmental water samples. The as-prepared Cd-MONT SPME coating material was characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized Cd-MONTs exhibited high thermal stability (385 °C) and excellent extraction performance toward PCBs. The important conditions were optimized systematically by the response surface method. Under the optimal conditions, the new fiber achieved high enrichment factors (938-3417), low limits of detection (1.80-8.73 pg L -1 ), and wide linearity (10-5000 pg L -1 ). The method developed was used in ultratrace-level analysis of PCBs in seawater samples, with satisfactory results for each sample.

  3. Fast and parallel determination of PCB 77 and PCB 180 in plasma using ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection: A pharmacokinetic study in Swiss albino mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, N; Sivaselvakumar, M; Ramalingam, S

    2017-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and reproducible ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 77 and PCB 180 in mouse plasma. The sample preparation was performed by simple liquid-liquid extraction technique. The analytes were chromatographed on a Waters Acquity H class UPLC system using isocratic mobile phase conditions at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and Acquity UPLC BEH shield RP 18 column maintained at 35°C. Quantification was performed on a photodiode array detector set at 215 nm and PCB 101 was used as internal standard (IS). PCB 77, PCB 180, and IS retention times were 2.6, 4.7 and 2.8 min, respectively, and the total run time was 6 min. The method was validated for specificity, selectivity, recovery, linearity, accuracy, precision and sample stability. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 10-3000 ng/mL for PCB 77 and PCB 180. Intra- and inter-day precisions for PCBs 77 and 180 were found to be good with CV <4.64%, and the accuracy ranged from 98.90 to 102.33% in mouse plasma. The validated UPLC method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of PCBs 77 and 180 in mouse plasma. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on the song of two passerine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara DeLeon

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are synthetic chemical pollutants with demonstrated detrimental toxic and developmental effects on humans and wildlife. Laboratory studies suggest that PCBs influence behavior due to their effects on endocrine and neurological systems, yet little is known about the behavioral consequences of sublethal PCB exposure in the field. Additionally, specific PCB congener data (in contrast to total PCB load is necessary to understand the possible effects of PCBs in living organisms since number and position of chlorine substitution in a PCB molecule dictates the toxicity and chemical fate of individual PCB congeners. We non-lethally investigated total PCB loads, congener specific PCB profiles, and songs of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus and song sparrows (Melospiza melodia along a historical PCB gradient at the Hudson River in New York State. Our results indicate that black-capped chickadees and song sparrows have higher total blood PCBs in regions with higher historic PCB contamination. The two bird species varied substantially in their congener-specific PCB profiles; within sites, song sparrows showed a significantly higher proportion of lower chlorinated PCBs, while black-capped chickadees had higher proportions of highly chlorinated PCBs. In areas of PCB pollution, the species-specific identity signal in black-capped chickadee song varied significantly, while variation in song sparrow trill performance was best predicted by the mono-ortho PCB load. Thus, PCBs may affect song production, an important component of communication in birds. In conclusion, we suggest that the ramifications of changes in song quality for bird populations may extend the toxic effects of environmental PCB pollution.

  5. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  6. Induction of ROS formation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation, and cell death by PCB126 and PCB153 in human T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hua; Lin, Po-Hsiung

    2006-08-25

    The primary purpose of this research is to investigate whether exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. PCB153 and PCB126, is associated with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) activation, and cell death in human T47D and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Results indicated that PCB153 and PCB126 induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in cytotoxic response and ROS formation in both T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. At non-cytotoxic concentrations both PCB153 and PCB126 induced decreases in intracellular NAD(P)H and NAD+ in T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells where T47D cells were more resistant to PCB-induced reduction in intracellular NAD(P)H than MDA-MB-231 cells. Further investigation indicated that three specific PARP inhibitors completely blocked PCB-induced decreases in intracellular NAD(P)H in both T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. These results imply that decreases in intracellular NAD(P)H in PCB-treated cells may be, in part, due to depletion of intracellular NAD+ pool mediated by PARP-1 activation through formation of DNA strand breaks. Overall, the extent of cytotoxic response, ROS formation, and PARP-1 activation generated in T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells was greater for PCB153 than for PCB126. In addition, the cytotoxicity induced by PCB153 and PCB126 in both T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells was completely blocked by co-treatment of catalase, dimethylsulfoxide, cupper (I)-/iron (II)-specific chelators, and CYP1A/2B inhibitors. This evidence suggests the involvement of ROS, Cu(I), Fe(II), and CYP1A/2B enzymes in mediating the induction of cell death by PCB153 and PCB126. Further, antagonism was observed between PCB126 and PCB153 for effects on cytotoxic response and ROS formation in T47D and MDA-MB-231 cells. Antagonism was also observed between PCB153 and PCB126 in the induction of NAD(P)H depletion at lower concentration (T47D cells, but not in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusions, results from our investigation suggest

  7. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  8. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  9. Enantioseparation and identification for the rationalization of the environmental impact of 4 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fangjie; Tang, Qiaozhi; Xie, Jingqian; Zhao, Lu; Liu, Kai; Liu, Weiping

    2018-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC. The resolution was optimized with respect to n-hexane-based mobile phases, temperature, and flow rate. All pure enantiomers were recovered from semi-preparative HPLC within 15 minutes for practical purpose. Characterization of the absolute configurations were conducted with a combination of theoretical and experimental electronic circular dichroism measurements. The enantiomers of PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149 proved to be eluted as R > S, S > R, R > S, and S > R, respectively. Molecular structures (eg, substituent groups) and properties (eg, bond lengths, bond angles, and dipole moments) were quantitatively analyzed to understand the toxicity effect of PCBs. In summary, we have developed a well-established methodology of collection and configuration identification for analogous PCB derivatives. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  12. PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60 degrees F but insoluble in water above 90 degrees F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL's Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination

  13. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  14. HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCB ontogenetic transfer and magnification in bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarà, Gianluca; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-06-15

    The bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758), is biologically and economically important in the Atlantic--Mediterranean ecosystems. Bluefin tuna feed on diverse food items depending on their age, thus they occupy different trophic levels during their lifespan. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the Mediterranean basin. The relationship between stable isotopes of nitrogen (N) and the POP residue levels in tissues has recently increased knowledge on the link between the trophic levels and the contaminant accumulation. Trophic levels were estimated by using 15N/14N ratio (delta15N) and HCB, p,p'-DDE, and forty-three PCBs were quantified in bluefin tuna from the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. Results showed that changes in PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations were a function of size and trophic level, while no correlations were observed for HCB. Apart from HCB and PCB nos. 101, 207, 95, 158, and 60 + 56, which did not show any significant increase per trophic level, the other PCBs and the p,p'-DDE increased significantly. The ontogenetic magnification factor of PCBs was 6.6 +/- 0.5, which was significantly (12 times) higher (p < 0.05) than the values found for p,p'-DDE (1.4) and HCB (1.4).

  15. Perfluorinated compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticide contamination in composite food samples from Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Arnold; Colacino, Justin; Haffner, Darrah; Patel, Keyur; Opel, Matthias; Päpke, Olaf; Birnbaum, Linda

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this article is to extend our previous studies of persistent organic pollutant (POP) contamination of U.S. food by measuring perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in composite food samples. This study is part of a larger study reported in two articles, the other of which reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane brominated flame retardants in these composite foods [Schecter et al. 2010. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclodecane (HBCD) in composite U.S. food samples, Environ Health Perspect 118:357-362]. In this study we measured concentrations of 32 organochlorine pesticides, 7 PCBs, and 11 PFCs in composite samples of 31 different types of food (310 individual food samples) purchased from supermarkets in Dallas, Texas (USA), in 2009. Dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated for an average American. Contamination varied greatly among chemical and food types. The highest level of pesticide contamination was from the dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolite p,p -dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, which ranged from 0.028 ng/g wet weight (ww) in whole milk yogurt to 2.3 ng/g ww in catfish fillets. We found PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) primarily in fish, with highest levels in salmon (PCB-153, 1.2 ng/g ww; PCB-138, 0.93 ng/g ww). For PFCs, we detected perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in 17 of 31 samples, ranging from 0.07 ng/g in potatoes to 1.80 ng/g in olive oil. In terms of dietary intake, DDT and DDT metabolites, endosulfans, aldrin, PCBs, and PFOA were consumed at the highest levels. Despite product bans, we found POPs in U.S. food, and mixtures of these chemicals are consumed by the American public at varying levels. This suggests the need to expand testing of food for chemical contaminants.

  16. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...... desorption and removal from a soil sampled at a polluted site, in a two-compartment cell where the soil was stirred in a slurry with 1% surfactant, 10mL of nZVI commercial suspension, and a voltage gradient of 1Vcm(-1). The highest PCB removal was obtained with saponin. Higher chlorinated PCB congeners...... (penta, hexa, hepta and octachlorobiphenyl) showed removal percentages between 9% and 96%, and the congeners with highest removal were PCB138, PCB153 and PCB180. The use of low level direct current enhanced PCB removal, especially with saponin. Electrodechlorination of PCB with surfactants and n...

  18. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of metabolites from chloro biphenyls by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400 after growth on different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, K.A.; Ward, O.P.

    1999-01-01

    The transformation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), when exposed to microorganisms, into chlorobenzoic acid metabolites was studied. PCBs are widely used in electrical transformers and have become widely dispersed in the environment. A proposed system for clean up of PCBs involves the combined use of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated congeners followed by aerobic degradation of moderately chlorinated PCBs, mediated by oxidative ring attack. Much of this work focused on biphenyl-grown cells, in particular Pseudomonas strain LB400 grown on biphenyl, which contains a multicomponent enzyme system. It was shown that resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400, grown on glycerol or glucose, could also transform purified PCB congeners and mixtures of PCBs in Aroclors, however, transformation rates were less than those observed with biphenyl-grown cells. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Current data on the background burden to the persistent organochlorine pollutants HCB, p,p'-DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180 in plasma of the general population in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Alt, Anne; Esser, Andre; Kraus, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Despite their long-term ban, persistent organochlorine compounds like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of environmental concern. For the evaluation of potential occupational or environmental exposures to these substances, it is essential to know the current background burden of the general population. As representative and up-to-date information is missing for Germany, we have analysed a large dataset generated in studies on potential exposure to lower chlorinated PCBs to fill this gap for the levels of HCB, DDE as well as PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180. We have investigated n=2750 plasma samples of persons of the general population living in North Rhine-Westfalia and Hesse aged 6-65 years and sampled between September 2010 and March 2014. For evaluation of the age-dependent accumulation in the general population we have generated seven age groups in the collective. Our laboratory used a validated and quality controlled procedure using GC/MS for quantification of the organochlorine compounds in plasma (LOQ: 0.01μg/L). The median (95th percentile) levels for ∑ PCB 138+PCB 153+PCB 180 were 0.14 (0.73); 0.30 (0.82); 0.38 (0.88); 0.50 (1.14); 0.92; 1.58 (3.54) and 2.41 (4.82)μg/L plasma in the age groups 6-10 years (n=102), 11-17 years (n=499), 18-25 years (n=157), 26-35 years (n=710), 36-45 years (n=400), 46-55 years (n=525) and 56-65 years (n=357), respectively. Similarly, the median (95th percentile) levels of p,p'-DDE were 0.18 (1.24); 0.18 (0.74); 0.24 (0.85); 0.30 (1.20); 0.45 (1.74); 0.64 (3.25) and 0.94 (4.7)μg/L plasma. Finally, the median (95th percentile) of HCB in plasma in these age groups was 0.05 (0.10); 0.06 (0.11); 0.08 (0.15); 0.08 (0.15); 0.11 (0.22); 0.14 (0.42) and 0.20 (0.68)μg/L plasma. Our results prove an overall substantial reduction in the body burden to organochlorine compounds in Germany compared to earlier studies. However, 15% and 3.6% of the examined

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations in Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Samples: Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Croen, Lisa A; Sjödin, Andreas; Yoshida, Cathleen K; Zerbo, Ousseny; Kharrazi, Martin; Windham, Gayle C

    2017-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are neurodevelopmental toxicants, but few studies have examined associations with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We aimed to determine whether prenatal exposure to PCBs and OCPs influences offspring risk of ASD and intellectual disability without autism (ID). We conducted a population-based case-control study among Southern California births, including children with ASD ( n = 545) meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and ID ( n = 181), as well as general population (GP) controls ( n = 418). Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners and 2 OCPs measured in banked second-trimester serum samples were compared between the diagnostic groups. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for associations with ASD, and separately for ID, compared with GP controls, by quartiles of analyte concentrations in primary analyses. Geometric mean levels of several PCB congeners were higher in the ASD group than in the ID and GP groups. ASD risk was elevated for a number of PCB congeners, particularly for the highest vs. lowest quartile of PCB138/158 (AOR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.71) and PCB153 (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.02), and for highest deciles of other congeners in secondary analyses. PCB138/158 was also associated with increased ID (AOR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.91), though no trend was suggested. OCPs were not associated with increased risk of ASD in primary analyses, whereas nonmonotonic increases in risk of ID were found with p,p ´-DDE. Our results suggest higher levels of some organochlorine compounds during pregnancy are associated with ASD and ID. Citation: Lyall K, Croen LA, Sjödin A, Yoshida CK, Zerbo O, Kharrazi M, Windham GC. 2017. Polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in maternal mid-pregnancy serum samples: association with autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability

  2. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  3. Evaluation of toxic metal (Hg, Cd, Pb), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), and pesticide (DDTs) levels in aromatic herbs collected in selected areas of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena

    2014-01-01

    This study provides, for the first time, data regarding levels of toxic metals (Hg, Cd, and Pb) and organochlorine compounds (PCBs and DDTs) in various aromatic herbs as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), sage (Salvia officinalis), laurel (Laurus nobilis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) collected in some towns of the Southern Italy with different anthropogenic and population pressure. Metal and organochlorine compound concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and gas-chromatography mass spectrometer (GC/MS), respectively. Pb emerged as the most abundant element, followed by Cd and Hg, while between organochlorine compounds, PCB concentrations were higher than those of DDTs. The pollutant concentrations were found to vary depending on the different herbs. The highest Pb levels were observed in rosemary (1.66 μg g(-1) dry weight) and sage (1.41 μg g(-1) dry weight), this latter showing also the highest Cd concentrations (0.75 μg g(-1) dry weight). For PCBs, the major concentrations were found in rosemary (2.75 ng g(-1) dry weight) and oregano (2.39 ng g(-1) dry weight). The principal component analysis applied in order to evaluate possible similarities and/or differences in the contamination levels among sampling sites indicated differences area-specific contamination.

  4. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2007-01-01

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  5. The neurotoxicant PCB-95 by increasing the neuronal transcriptional repressor REST down-regulates caspase-8 and increases Ripk1, Ripk3 and MLKL expression determining necroptotic neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Natascia; Laudati, Giusy; Serani, Angelo; Mascolo, Luigi; Molinaro, Pasquale; Montuori, Paolo; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Canzoniero, Lorella M T; Formisano, Luigi

    2017-10-15

    Our previous study showed that the environmental neurotoxicant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-95 increases RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) expression, which is related to necrosis, but not apoptosis, of neurons. Meanwhile, necroptosis is a type of a programmed necrosis that is positively regulated by receptor interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) and negatively regulated by caspase-8. Here we evaluated whether necroptosis contributes to PCB-95-induced neuronal death through REST up-regulation. Our results demonstrated that in cortical neurons PCB-95 increased RIPK1, RIPK3, and MLKL expression and decreased caspase-8 at the gene and protein level. Furthermore, the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 or siRNA-mediated RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL expression knockdown significantly reduced PCB-95-induced neuronal death. Intriguingly, PCB-95-induced increases in RIPK1, RIPK3, MLKL expression and decreases in caspase-8 expression were reversed by knockdown of REST expression with a REST-specific siRNA (siREST). Notably, in silico analysis of the rat genome identified a REST consensus sequence in the caspase-8 gene promoter (Casp8-RE1), but not the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL promoters. Interestingly, in PCB-95-treated neurons, REST binding to the Casp8-RE1 sequence increased in parallel with a reduction in its promoter activity, whereas under the same experimental conditions, transfection of siREST or mutation of the Casp8-RE1 sequence blocked PCB-95-induced caspase-8 reduction. Since RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL rat genes showed no putative REST binding site, we assessed whether the transcription factor cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein (CREB), which has a consensus sequence in all three genes, affected neuronal death. In neurons treated with PCB-95, CREB protein expression decreased in parallel with a reduction in binding to the RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL gene promoter sequence. Furthermore, CREB overexpression was

  6. Chamber study of PCB emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Krebs, Kenneth A; Stinson, Rayford A; Nardin, Joshua A; Pope, Robert H; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-10-01

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from thirteen caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 different models from five manufacturers were tested in 53-L environmental chambers. The rates of PCB congener emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts were determined. Several factors that may have affected the emission rates were evaluated. The experimentally determined emission factors showed that, for a given PCB congener, there is a linear correlation between the emission factor and the concentration of the PCB congener in the source. Furthermore, the test results showed that an excellent log-linear correlation exists between the normalized emission factor and the vapor pressure (coefficient of determination, r(2)⩾0.8846). The PCB congener emissions from ballasts at or near room temperature were relatively low with or without electrical load. However, the PCB congener emission rates increased significantly as the temperature increased. The results of this research provide new data and models for ranking the primary sources of PCBs and supports the development and refinement of exposure assessment models for PCBs. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Laboratory investigation of PCB bake-out from tertiary contaminated concrete for remediation of buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Frederiksen, Marie; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been used in flexible construction products from the 1950s to the 1970s. Despite a relatively low vapour pressure, PCBs have over the years emitted to the indoor air and adsorbed to other surfaces, creating tertiary sources. While necessary to protect the environment and health of building occupants, remediation of the contaminated buildings is an expensive and difficult process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of bake-out as a method for removing PCB from contaminated indoor surfaces. Four painted and four sandblasted samples of concrete wall were kept at 50 or 65 °C for 10 or 20 days in small scale chambers, which were ventilated with clean air at area specific rates comparable to full scale rooms. The air concentrations were measured several times during the bake-out. Concentrations of PCB in paint, plaster and concrete were measured before and after the experiment. For the painted samples, PCB28 and PCB52 followed by PCB138 and PCB153 were the predominant congeners measured in air. A significant reduction of the PCB concentration was only found for more volatile congeners in paint, while no significant effects were observed in the plaster or concrete. For the most effective setting (65 °C, 20 days), the concentration of PCB ∑7 in the paint was reduced by 40%. For the sandblasted samples, the less volatile congeners PCB138 and PCB153 were predominant in the air during bake-out. No effect was observed on the initially low concentrations of the sandblasted samples, possibly due to analytical limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable ma...

  9. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  10. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Wang, P.-W.; Chang, Louis W.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis, we have performed a systematical study to characterize the corresponding steroidogenic response of human adrenocortical cell line H295R to PCB126 exposure. We found that PCB126 at high concentrations stimulated basal and inducible aldosterone production. The aldosterone induction occurred concomitantly with activation of the CYP11B2 gene. Despite the fact that PCB126 acted in synergy with both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) in activation of aldosterone synthesis, PCB126 only modestly increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in the presence of Ang II contrary to the synergistic transcriptional induction elicited by PCB126 and potassium. This implicated that PCB126 had differential interactions with the potassium and Ang II signaling systems in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. In addition, high concentrations of PCB126 elevated transcriptional expression of the type I Ang II receptor (AT 1 ) and might thus sensitize the cellular Ang II responsiveness in both basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis. SF-1 was not involved in the PCB126-induced transcriptional regulation despite its importance in steroidogenic gene activation

  13. Electron ionization mass spectral fragmentation study of sulfation derivatives of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Larry W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that can be metabolized via hydroxylated PCBs to PCB sulfate metabolites. The sensitive and selective analysis of PCB sulfate monoesters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS requires their derivatization, for example, as PCB 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE sulfate monoesters. To aid in the identification of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from biological samples, the electron impact MS fragmentation pathways of selected PCB TCE sulfate diesters were analyzed and compared to the fragmentation pathways of the corresponding methoxylated PCBs. Results The most abundant and characteristic fragment ions of PCB TCE sulfate diesters were formed by releasing CHCCl3, SO3, HCl2 and/or CCl3 from the TCE sulfate moiety and Cl2, HCl, ethyne and chloroethyne from an intermediate phenylcyclopentadienyl cation. The fragmentation pattern depended on the degree of chlorination and the position of the TCE sulfate moiety (i.e., ortho vs. meta/para to the second phenyl ring, but were independent of the chlorine substitution pattern. These fragmentation pathways are similar to the fragmentation pathways of structurally related methoxylated PCBs. Conclusion Knowledge of the fragmentation patterns of PCB TCE sulfate diesters will greatly aid in determining the position of sulfate moiety (ortho vs. meta/para of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from environmental or laboratory samples.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in alfalfa: Accumulation, sorption and speciation in different plant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Zhu, Lingjia; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2017-08-03

    The accumulation, chemical speciation and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in various parts of alfalfa. Moreover, the adsorption characteristics for PCB 28 by alfalfa and the influencing factors of the adsorption characteristics were studied. There were different degrees of PCB accumulation in alfalfa roots, root nodules and shoots. The decreasing order of the accumulation of PCBs in plant tissues was root nodules > roots > shoots, and the decreasing order of the total PCB contents was roots > shoots > root nodules, indicating that the roots were the main sink for PCB accumulation. There were three modes of PCB speciation in alfalfa roots and root nodules, comprising strong sorption (78%) and weak sorption (19%) on tissue surfaces and absorption within tissues (2%). The adsorption isotherms of PCB 28 indicate that the adsorption capacities of root nodules and shoots were both significantly higher than that of the roots. Both lipids and carbohydrates, and especially lipids, affected the PCB adsorption capacities of the tissues. These results may help in the elucidation of the mechanisms of sorption and accumulation of PCBs in the plants and their main influencing factors and thus contribute to the development of phytoremediation technologies for PCB-contaminated soils.

  15. Effects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Durell, G.S.; Koczwara, G.; Spellacy, A.M. [Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Battelle Ocean Sciences performed a study to determine the effect of cooking on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in the fillets of winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus). Broiling, pan frying, and deep frying in oil were tested on fillets from 21 fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, on February 21, 1991. The evaluation involved estimating the change in PCB concentrations using a mass-balance approach that factored the change in fillet weight resulting from cooking with the changes in PCB concentration expressed on a precooked wet-weight basis. Deep frying in oil resulted in a 47% reduction in total PCB levels in fillet tissue. Additionally, deep frying caused a 40% reduction in fillet mass. Pan frying and broiling resulted in statistically in insignificant increases in total PCB levels of 15% and 17%, respectively. Fillet mass reductions resulting from pan frying and broiling were 7% and 15%, respectively. The effects of cooking on 18 individual congeners generally paralleled the results observed for total PCB. All 18 congeners were significantly reduced by deep frying. Congener Cl{sub 2}(08) also was significantly reduced by either pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105) and Cl{sub 5}(118) showed apparent significant increases in concentrations following pan frying. Congeners Cl{sub 5}(105), Cl{sub 5}(118), and C1{sub 6}(138) showed significant increases in concentration following broiling.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  17. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor Interactions Regulate Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Inflammation in Non-alcoholic-Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Prough, Russell A; Falkner, K Cameron; Hardesty, Josiah E; Song, Ming; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro [Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@gu.se [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of Liaohe River: levels, spatial and temporal distribution, possible sources, and inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Changbo; Guo, Changsheng; Luo, Yi; Meng, Wei; Zou, Guofang; Xu, Jian

    2015-03-01

    Spatial and seasonal variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of Liaohe River were investigated in this study. A total of 29 surface sediment samples were collected in May and September in 2013. Results showed that levels of the two classes of compounds were higher in September than in May. The total concentration of PBDEs (∑8PBDEs) ranged from 0.30 to 5.09 ng g(-1) in May and from 0.17 to 13.73 ng g(-1) in September, respectively, and BDE 209 was the dominant compound. The total concentration of PCBs (∑33PCBs) was in the range of 4.92-76.86 and 11.69-179.61 ng g(-1) in May and September, respectively, with tri- and tetra-CBs dominated in the total PCBs in the sediments. According to the congener profiles and the principal component analysis, the major sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of Liaohe River were from the usage of commercial products and industrial activities, and the degradation of high brominated BDEs also contributed to the current PBDEs in the sediments. The mass inventories of PBDEs and PCBs in the sediments of Liaohe River were 1.74 and 21.96 t, respectively, indicating that Liaohe River sediments may act as the potential sources of PBDEs and PCBs to the downstream coastal areas.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in two salt marsh sediments of the Venice Lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Cristian; Giuliani, Silvia; Bellucci, Luca G; Carraro, Claudio; Favotto, Maurizio; Frignani, Mauro

    2011-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in two dated salt marsh cores of the Venice Lagoon to assess their input chronology and to evaluate the importance of atmospheric deposition as a source. Sampling sites were chosen in order to evidence the differences between areas located leeward and windward with respect to inputs originating in both the city of Venice and the industrial area. Concentrations of PCB indicators (0.13-15.6 ng g⁻¹) increased gradually from the 1930s, reached maxima from the 1950s to the late 1970s, and then decreased. PCB loadings to marshes are driven by both the atmospheric deposition and the resuspension of subtidal sediments, this latter being more important for heavier congeners. The downwind marsh recorded higher fluxes (0.06-9.72 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹) than the upwind one (0.01-0.53 ng cm⁻² year⁻¹). Recent fluxes are rather consistent with bulk deposition measurements. A higher contribution of CB-101 and CB-118 was detected in the intermediate layers of the downwind site, suggesting a different PCB source for the corresponding time interval. In the other marsh, PCBs showed a rather constant composition at all levels (mostly CB-153, CB-138 and CB-180), accounting for a regional influence. Deep layers showed an enrichment of higher chlorinated congeners at both sites, whereas recent samples conserve the patterns typical of surficial and subsurficial subtidal sediments. The scientific approach adopted in this research can be considered as a sort of methodological procedure for the determination of fluxes and pathways of PCBs through the study of marsh cores.

  2. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  3. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-26

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing (13)C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or (13)C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  4. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G − ) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R 2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R 2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G − bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  5. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (PPCB concentrations in the ovaries and the somatic tissue of the five females were 135 and 100 ng/g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3-7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A highly sensitive and selective aptamer-based colorimetric sensor for the rapid detection of PCB 77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ruojie; Liu, Siyao; Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-01-05

    A highly sensitive, specific and simple colorimetric sensor based on aptamer was established for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). The use of unmodified gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for aptamer sensors enabled the highly sensitive and selective detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). A linear range of 0.5nM to 900nM was obtained for the colorimetric assay with a minimum detection limit of 0.05nM. In addition, by the methods of circular dichroism, UV and naked eyes, we found that the 35 base fragments retained after cutting 5 bases from the 5 'end of aptamer plays the most significant role in the PCB 77 specific recognition process. We found a novel way to truncated nucleotides to optimize the detection of PCB 77, and the selected nucleotides also could achieve high affinity with PCB 77. At the same time, the efficient detection of the PCB 77 by our colorimetric sensor in the complex environmental water samples was realized, which shows a good application prospect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  8. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-01-01

    This document, the open-quotes 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratoryclose quotes was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL's PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL's PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, open-quotes Status of the PCB Management Programclose quotes, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program's policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal

  9. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-12-31

    This document, the {open_quotes}1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory{close_quotes} was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL`s PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL`s PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, {open_quotes}Status of the PCB Management Program{close_quotes}, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program`s policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal.

  10. PCB related effects thresholds as derived through gene transcript profiles in locally contaminated ringed seals (Pusa hispida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Ross, Peter S; Reimer, Ken J; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Fisk, Aaron T; Helbing, Caren C

    2014-11-04

    Causal evidence linking toxic injury to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure is typically confounded by the complexity of real-world contaminant mixtures to which aquatic wildlife are exposed. A local PCB "hotspot" on the Labrador coast provided a rare opportunity to evaluate the effects of PCBs on the health of a marine mammal as this chemical dominated their persistent organic pollutant (POP) burdens. The release of approximately 260 kg of PCBs by a military radar facility over a 30 year period (1970-2000) contaminated some local marine biota, including the ringed seal (Pusa hispida). The abundance profiles of eight health-related gene transcripts were evaluated in liver samples collected from 43 ringed seals in the affected area. The mRNA transcript levels of five gene targets, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr), interleukin-1 β (Il1b), estrogen receptor α (Esr1), insulin like growth factor receptor 1 (Igf1), and glucocorticoid receptor α (Nr3c1) correlated with increasing levels of blubber PCBs. PCB threshold values calculated using best-fit hockey-stick regression models for these five genes averaged 1,680±206 ng/g lw, with the lowest, most conservative, being 1,370 ng/g lw for Il1b. Approximately 14% of the seals in the region exceeded this threshold. The dominance of PCBs in the seals studied enabled an assessment of the effects of this chemical on gene transcripts involved in regulating the health of a highly mobile predator, something that is rarely possible in the world of complex mixtures.

  11. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, IKr and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K+ channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Kr ) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K + current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD 90 ), and 50% of repolarization (APD 50 ) (P 20 ). PCB 77 decreased APD 20 (P 90 , and APD 50 . The PCB 126 increased the I Kr in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K + current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P + current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca 2+ and decreased Ca 2+ transient amplitude (P 90 possibly by increasing I Kr , while PCB 77 decreased the APD 20 possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca 2+ . The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca 2+ , and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K + current and I Kr . ► PCB 77 decreased action potential duration and increased intracellular Ca 2+ content. ► PCBs acutely change cardiac electrophysiology and rhythmicity.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air and soil across Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Kurkova, Romana; Hovorkova, Ivana; Klánová, Jana; Halsall, Crispin

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are reported in air and surface soil in an extensive spatial survey across Azerbaijan, a country bordering the Caspian Sea with a history of OCP production and extensive use. Polyurethane foam disc passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed during October-November 2008 with soil samples collected in July 2009. Levels of Σ(7)PCB in ambient air were generally low (mean of 0.046 ng m(-3), n = 13) and comparable to concentrations reported in countries within Eastern Europe and similar to or lower than concentrations reported in urban air in the UK and other western countries. Surprisingly, PCB concentrations in rural/background soil fell below the method detection limits at most sites, although concentrations were 0.209 and 0.071 ng Σ(7)PCB g(-1) dry weight (dw) for two urban sites, again comparable to PCB levels measured at background sites in Europe. Levels of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH and p,p'-DDT/E were elevated in ambient air across Azerbaijan in comparison to PAS-derived concentrations reported elsewhere, with concentrations of α-HCH in air ranging from 0.085 to 2.699 ng m(-3) and p,p'-DDE, 0.037-2.290 ng m(-3). High concentrations of OCPs occurred at several of the urban sites and at sites in proximity to old pesticide storage facilities with concentrations in soil >0.1 μg g(-1) dw for p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT at several sites. The ratio of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE was close to unity in the soil at these sites, but elsewhere, the ratio was <1, indicating a weathered DDT pattern, which was also reflected in the air at all sites. A fugacity approach revealed the strong likelihood of net soil-to-air transfer at the majority of sites for all OCPs. The calculated annual fluxes or loading to the atmosphere from a rural/agricultural area (representing land as vineyards and cotton cultivation) were estimated to be on the order of ≈10-100 kg year(-1) for the HCH isomers (including

  13. Effect of plant age on PCB accumulation by Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jennifer E; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) uptake and translocation from soil over time in pumpkin plants (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo cv. Howden). Plants were grown in weathered soil collected from a former industrial site contaminated with Aroclor 1248 (mean [PCB](soil) = 6.5 mg kg(-1)). Plants were harvested five times over 42 d and analyzed for total PCB concentration in the root and shoot tissues. The concentration of PCBs in the root was not significantly different between harvests (mean [PCB](root) = 21.5 mg kg(-1)). The concentration of PCBs in the shoots was also relatively stable over time (mean [PCB](shoot) = 3.5 mg kg(-1)) despite increases in shoot biomass (fresh weight of 4.3 g at Day 12 to 59 g at Day 42). This suggests that PCBs were continuously accumulated throughout the growth period. The trends found in this study indicate the optimal time to harvest C. pepo ssp pepo plants to maximize PCB phytoextraction is when the plant shoot has reached its maximum biomass.

  14. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  15. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites is Associated with Neurological Functioning in 3-Month-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Sietske A.; Soechitram, Shalini D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether

  16. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guanyi; Zhao Ling; Dong Yuanhua; Zhang Qin

    2011-01-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO 2 under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO 2 is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO 2 . The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO 2 in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  17. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  18. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized.

  19. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Jonathan D.; Schuler, Lance J.; Halbrook, Richard S.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  20. Comparison of proposed frameworks for grouping polychlorinated biphenyl congener data applied to a case-control pilot study of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, Justine M.; Vial, Scott L.; Fuortes, Laurence J.; Robertson, Larry W.; Guo, Haijun; Reedy, Victoria E.; Smith, Elaine M.

    2005-01-01

    Although the commercial synthesis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been banned in the United States for several decades, they are persistent in the environment with exposure mainly being through diet. The biologic and toxic effects of PCBs and their metabolites are due in part to their ability to interact with several cellular and nuclear receptors, thereby altering signaling pathways and gene transcription. These effects include endocrine modulation and disruption. Therefore, the natural history of cancer in tissues expressing these receptors may be modulated by PCB congeners, which are known to have estrogenic, antiestrogenic, and other hormonal effects. Several frameworks for grouping PCB congeners based on these interactions have been proposed. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control pilot study of 58 prostate cancer cases and 99 controls to evaluate the association between the proposed PCB groupings and the risk of prostate cancer. Serum samples were analyzed for a total of 30 PCBs. In multivariate analyses, the odds of prostate cancer among men with the highest concentrations of moderately chlorinated PCBs or PCBs with phenobarbital-like activities (constitutively active receptor (CAR) agonists) was over two times that among men with the lowest concentrations. Increasing trends in risk across the concentration levels were also observed. These results suggest that a higher burden of PCBs that are CAR agonists may be positively associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer and they encourage further research in this area

  1. Antioxidant compounds improved PCB-degradation by Burkholderia xenovorans strain LB400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Bernardita L; Latorre, Valeria K; González, Myriam; Seeger, Michael

    2011-12-10

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent organic pollutants that are widely distributed in the environment. Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is capable of degrading aerobically an unusually wide range of PCBs. However, during PCB-degradation B. xenovorans LB400 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that affect its viability. The aim of this study was to increase the efficiency of PCB-degradation of B. xenovorans LB400 by adding antioxidant compounds that could increase tolerance to oxidative stress. The effect of antioxidant compounds on the growth, morphology and PCB-degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 was evaluated. α-Tocopherol or vitamin E (vitE) and berry extract (BE) increased slightly the growth of strain LB400 on biphenyl, whereas in presence of ascorbic acid or vitamin C (vitC) an inhibition of growth was observed. The growth of B. xenovorans LB400 in glucose was inhibited by the addition of 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CB). Interestingly, in presence of α-tocopherol the growth of strain LB400 was less affected by 4-CB. By transmission electronic microscopy it was observed that α-tocopherol preserved the cell membranes and improved cell integrity of glucose-grown LB400 cells exposed to 4-CB, suggesting a protective effect of α-tocopherol. Notably, α-tocopherol increased biphenyl and 4-CB degradation by B. xenovorans LB400 in an aqueous solution. The effect of antioxidants compounds on PCB-bioremediation was evaluated in agricultural soil spiked with 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-CB), 4-CB and 2,4'-chlorobiphenyl (2,4'-CB). For bioaugmentation, LB400 cells grown on biphenyl and subsequently incubated with pyruvate were added to the soil. Native soil microbiota was able to remove PCBs. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 increased strongly the PCB-degradation rate. Bioaugmentation with strain LB400 and biostimulation with α-tocopherol or berry extract increased further the PCB degradation. Half-life of 2,4'-CB decreased by bioaugmentation from 24 days to 4 days

  2. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 mu g kg-1 was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using...... gradient when compared with the traditional setup (B). Energy and nZVI costs for a full-scale reactor are estimated at 72 (sic) for each cubic meter of PCB contaminated soil treated on-site, making this technology competitive when compared with average off-site incineration (885 (sic) m-3) or landfilling...

  3. Spatial distribution of chlordanes and PCB congeners in soil in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Andres; Erdman, Nicholas R.; Rodenburg, Zachary L.; Eastling, Paul M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2012-01-01

    Residential soils from Cedar Rapids, Iowa, USA were collected and analyzed for chlordanes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study is one of the very few urban soil investigations in the USA. The chlordanes concentrations ranged from 0 to 7500 ng g −1 dry weight (d.w.), with a mean and standard deviation of 130 ± 920 ng g −1 d.w., which is about 1000 times larger than background levels. ΣPCB concentrations ranged from 3 to 1200 ng g −1 d.w., with a mean and standard deviation of 56 ± 160 ng g −1 d.w. and are about 10 times higher than world-wide background levels. Both groups exhibit considerable variability in chemical patterns and site-to-site concentrations. Although no measurements of dioxins were carried out, the potential toxicity due to the 12 dioxin-like PCBs found in the soil is in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Graphical Abstract: Spatial location and measured concentrations of ΣPCB (left, 64 sites) and chlordanes (right, 66 sites) (ng g −1 d.w.) in soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Samples were collected in August 2008. Estimated flood area was obtained from the Linn County Auditor's Office. Highlights: ► Chlordanes and PCBs congeners were measured in surficial soil from Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ► Measured values for both chemical groups are similar to other urban/industrial site around the world. ► This is one of the few urban soil studies in the USA. ► TEQs values are in the same order of magnitude of the provisional threshold recommended by USEPA to perform soil remediation. - Chlordane compounds (trans-, cis- and trans-nonachlor) and PCBs (164 peaks for 209 congeners) were measured in the soils of a small medium-sized American city.

  4. Long-term effects of environmentally relevant doses of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153 on neurobehavioural development, health and spontaneous behaviour in maternally exposed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heegaard Einar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread in the environment, human food and breast milk. Seafood is known to contain nutrients beneficial for the normal development and function of the brain, but also contaminants such as PCBs which are neurotoxic. Exposure to non-coplanar PCBs during brain development can disrupt spontaneous behaviour in mice and lead to hyperactive behaviour. Humans are chronically exposed to the highest relative levels of organochlorines in early childhood during brain development, though usually at doses which do not give clinical symptoms of toxicity. This study aimed to elucidate the developmental and behavioural effects of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153 in mice, mimicking human exposure during gestation and lactation. Methods Environmentally relevant doses of PCB153 were added to the experimental diets. Feed concentrations were approximately 0.5, 6.5, and 1500 μg PCB153/kg feed, representing a realistic and a worst case scenario of frequent consumption of contaminated fish. The study also investigated the effects of maternal nutrition, i.e. a standard rodent diet versus a high inclusion of salmon. Mice pups were examined for physical- and reflex development, sensorimotor function and spontaneous behaviour from five days after birth until weaning. A selection of pups were followed until 16 weeks of age and tested for open field behaviour and the acoustic startle response (ASR with prepulse inhibition (PPI. Blood thyroid hormones and liver enzymes, blood lipids and PCB153 content in fat were examined at 16 weeks. Statistical analyses modelled the three way interactions of diet, PCB exposure and litter size on behaviour, using generalized linear models (GLM and linear mixed effect models (LME. The litter was used as a random variable. Non-parametric tests were used for pair wise comparisons of biochemical analyses. Results Litter size consistently influenced pup development and behaviour

  5. Long-term effects of environmentally relevant doses of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) on neurobehavioural development, health and spontaneous behaviour in maternally exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haave, Marte; Bernhard, Annette; Jellestad, Finn K; Heegaard, Einar; Brattelid, Trond; Lundebye, Anne-Katrine

    2011-01-13

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread in the environment, human food and breast milk. Seafood is known to contain nutrients beneficial for the normal development and function of the brain, but also contaminants such as PCBs which are neurotoxic. Exposure to non-coplanar PCBs during brain development can disrupt spontaneous behaviour in mice and lead to hyperactive behaviour. Humans are chronically exposed to the highest relative levels of organochlorines in early childhood during brain development, though usually at doses which do not give clinical symptoms of toxicity. This study aimed to elucidate the developmental and behavioural effects of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) in mice, mimicking human exposure during gestation and lactation. Environmentally relevant doses of PCB153 were added to the experimental diets. Feed concentrations were approximately 0.5, 6.5, and 1500 μg PCB153/kg feed, representing a realistic and a worst case scenario of frequent consumption of contaminated fish. The study also investigated the effects of maternal nutrition, i.e. a standard rodent diet versus a high inclusion of salmon. Mice pups were examined for physical- and reflex development, sensorimotor function and spontaneous behaviour from five days after birth until weaning. A selection of pups were followed until 16 weeks of age and tested for open field behaviour and the acoustic startle response (ASR) with prepulse inhibition (PPI). Blood thyroid hormones and liver enzymes, blood lipids and PCB153 content in fat were examined at 16 weeks. Statistical analyses modelled the three way interactions of diet, PCB exposure and litter size on behaviour, using generalized linear models (GLM) and linear mixed effect models (LME). The litter was used as a random variable. Non-parametric tests were used for pair wise comparisons of biochemical analyses. Litter size consistently influenced pup development and behaviour. Few lasting PCB153 related changes were observed

  6. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R A Montgomery

    2008-01-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste

  8. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  9. Adipose tissue PCB levels and CYP1B1 and COMT genotypes in relation to breast cancer risk in postmenopausal Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Loft, Steffen; Wellejus, Anja

    2014-01-01

    these enzymes control efficiency. Our objective was to assess whether CYP1B1 and COMT gene polymorphisms modulate the effect of PCBs in breast cancer risk, among postmenopausal Danish women. Neither CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphisms nor adipose tissue PCBs were independently associated with breast cancer risk....... When assessing the independent effect of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, we observed reduced risk for breast cancer amongst hormone replacement therapy using women who were homozygous carriers of the variant allele compared with those carrying the wild-type variant (RR = 0.41; 95% CI: 0.29-0.89). We......Exposure to PCBs may be an etiologic factor for breast cancer. The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzymes are involved in estrogen metabolism and PCB metabolism, both of which may relate to breast cancer susceptibility. Polymorphisms in genes regulating...

  10. Determinations of PCB within a project to develop cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks in buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundahl, M; Sikander, E; Ek-Olausson, B; Hjorthage, A; Rosell, L; Tornevall, M

    1999-08-01

    Determinations of PCB were carried out as part of a project aimed at developing cleanup methods for PCB-containing elastic sealant used in outdoor joints between concrete blocks. The goals of the project were to develop methods, which minimise the spread of PCB to the outdoor environment and to indoor air, and which keep the PCB levels as low as reasonably possible in the workplace environment whilst removing the elastic sealant. The following PCB determinations were carried out: (1) concentration in the elastic sealant; (2) concentration in the concrete close to the sealant; (3) concentration in soil; (4) concentration in the indoor air; and (5) concentration in the air in the workplace environment. The cleanup process consisted of a number of different steps: (1) cutting the elastic sealant with an oscillating knife; (2) grinding the concrete with a mechanical machine; (3) sawing the concrete with a mechanical saw and (4) cutting the concrete with a mechanical chisel. In all these different steps a high capacity vacuum cleaner connected to the machines was used. The elastic sealant contained 4.7 to 8.1% total PCB of a technical product with a composition most similar to Clophene A40. The concrete close to the sealant (first 2 mm) contained 0.12 and 1.7% total PCB at two different places. The pattern of the PCB in the concrete resembled that of the sealant. PCB concentrations in the soil from the ground close to the building were 0.1 and 0.3 ppm at two different places before the remedial action. The source of the PCB in the soil is most likely the sealant as the PCB pattern is similar for the two materials. The PCB levels in the workplace air at the beginning of the project, when the techniques were not fully developed, were generally above the occupational exposure limit of 10 micrograms m-3 (up to 120 micrograms m-3). Later when the techniques were optimised to better take care of dust and gases produced during the cutting and grinding etc., the levels were

  11. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 μg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 μg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure. PMID:22247699

  12. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 µg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 µg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure.

  13. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  14. PCB 136 Atropselectively Alters Morphometric and Functional Parameters of Neuronal Connectivity in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons via Ryanodine Receptor-Dependent Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca2+-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (−)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (−)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca2+-sensitive dye demonstrates that (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations. Similarly, (−)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure. PMID:24385416

  15. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A.; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. - Highlights: • The monitoring system creation of the Moscow River is necessary. • The wastewater plant is the source of the river contamination with triclosan. • The Moscow River is contaminated with the low chlorinated biphenyls. • There is a background contamination of the Moscow River with phthalates. - The organic pollutants contamination levels of the Moscow River were investigated.

  16. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the

  17. A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusko, Todd A.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Lee, Sue Y.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Verner, Marc-André; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Drobná, Beata; Kočan, Anton; Fabišiková, Anna; Čonka, Kamil; Trnovec, Tomas; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reasons for the highly variable and often poor protection conferred by the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine are multifaceted and poorly understood. Objectives: We aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] reduces 6-month infant BCG vaccine response. Methods: Data came from families participating in a prospective birth cohort in eastern Slovakia. At birth, maternal and cord blood were collected for chemical analyses, and infants were immunized with BCG. Blood was collected from infants for chemical analyses and to determine 6-month BCG-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgA levels. Multivariable linear regression models were fit to examine chemical–BCG associations among approximately 500 mother–infant pairs, with adjustment for confounders. Results: The median 6-month infant concentration of the prevalent congener PCB-153 was 113 ng/g lipid [interquartile range (IQR): 37–248], and 388 ng/g lipid (IQR: 115–847) for DDE. Higher 6-month infant concentrations of PCB-153 and DDE were strongly associated with lower 6-month BCG-specific antibody levels. For instance, BCG-specific IgG levels were 37% lower for infants with PCB-153 concentrations at the 75th percentile compared to the 25th percentile (95% CI: –42, –32; p PCB–DDE additivity, where exposure to both compounds reduced anti-BCG levels more than exposure to either compound alone. Conclusions: The associations observed in this study indicate that environmental exposures may be overlooked contributors to poorer responses to BCG vaccine. The overall association between these exposures and tuberculosis incidence is unknown. Citation: Jusko TA, De Roos AJ, Lee SY, Thevenet-Morrison K, Schwartz SM, Verner MA, Palkovicova Murinova L, Drobná B, Kočan A, Fabišiková A, Čonka K, Trnovec T, Hertz-Picciotto I, Lawrence BP. 2016. A birth cohort study of maternal and infant

  18. Levels and congener pattern of polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Straits of Messina (Sicily, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, G; Licata, P; Bruzzese, A; Naccari, C; Trombetta, D; Lo Turco, V; Dugo, G; Richetti, A; Naccari, F

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the accumulation of OCs and PCBs in Thunnus thynnus and to elucidate the suitability of this species as a bioindicator for monitoring contaminations of these compounds in the marine ecosystems of the Straits of Messina. This investigation was conducted on fat, liver and muscle samples of 14 T. thynnus collected during April 2004. Quantitative determination of OCs and PCBs in the various samples examined has been carried out using GC-ECD and GC-MS. The results obtained show the presence of low concentrations of p,p'-DDE and PCB congeners (138, 153 and 180) in all fat, liver and muscle samples caught in the Straits of Messina. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE and PCB congeners (138, 153 and 180) in all the samples examined were below MRLs (CE n. 97/41, 1999/65 and 1999/71).

  19. Temporal and spatial variation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in environmental compartments of highly polluted area in Central Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Natalia; Mazlova, Elena A

    2017-10-01

    This study highlights the fact that serious contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still exists in Serpukhov City (Russia). The research help to determine the temporal (16- and 24-year periods) and spatial PCBs distribution in the environmental compartments of the studied region. Samples of soil, sediments, water and plants were analysed in order to establish their contamination levels. The most recent data on the Serpukhov City's soil contamination showed that the PCBs concentrations varies from 0.0009 to 1169 mg/kg depending on the sampling point and the distance from the pollution source. The temporal trends of the contamination distribution with the soil depth showed contamination migration in the upper soil layers of the highly polluted site. The high level of water pollution (11.5 μg/L) in the proximity to the contamination source and the sediments contamination (0.098-119 mg/kg) were determined, as well as the water migration pathways of the PCBs that were prevalent in the studied region. The PCB congener group (by the level of chlorination) analysis showed that heptachlorinated biphenyls were only found in the soils in close proximity to the contamination place, while biphenyls with Cl ≤ 6 were found in the soil samples downstream of the condenser plant and with Cl ≤ 5 in the soil samples upstream of the plant. The plant uptake of PCBs, even on the extremely contaminated site, was shown. In turn, this research present new knowledge necessary for the development of a contaminated territory remediation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  1. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  2. Parasite communities in the red mullet, Mullus barbatus L., respond to small-scale variation in the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Western Mediterranean

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carreras-Aubets, M.; Montero, F. E.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrasson, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 9 (2012), s. 1853-1860 ISSN 0025-326X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Mullus barbatus * Parasite communities * Abundance * Similarity * Western Mediterranean * Polychlorinated biphenyls Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.531, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0025326X1200269X#

  3. Biological treatment processes for PCB contaminated soil at a site in Newfoundland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punt, M.; Cooper, D.; Velicogna, D.; Mohn, W.; Reimer, K.; Parsons, D.; Patel, T.; Daugulis, A.

    2002-01-01

    SAIC Canada is conducting a study under the direction of a joint research and development contract between Public Works and Government Services Canada and Environment Canada to examine the biological options for treating PCB contaminated soil found at a containment cell at a former U.S. Military Base near Stephenville, Newfoundland. In particular, the study examines the feasibility of using indigenous microbes for the degradation of PCBs. The first phase of the study involved the testing of the microbes in a bioreactor. The second phase, currently underway, involves a complete evaluation of possible microbes for PCB degradation. It also involves further study into the biological process options for the site. Suitable indigenous and non-indigenous microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation are being identified and evaluated. In addition, the effectiveness and economics of microbial treatment in a conventional bioreactor is being evaluated. The conventional bioreactor used in this study is the two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) using a biopile process. Results thus far will be used to help Public Works and Government Services Canada to choose the most appropriate remedial technology. Preliminary results suggest that the use of soil classification could reduce the volume of soil requiring treatment. The soil in the containment cell contains microorganisms that could grow in isolation on biphenyl, naphthalene and potentially Aroclor 1254. Isolated native microbes were inoculated in the TPPB for growth. The TPPB was also run successfully under anaerobic conditions. Future work will involve lab-scale evaluation of microbes for PCB dechlorination and biphenyl degradation using both indigenous and non-indigenous microbes. The next phase of study may also involve field-scale demonstration of treatment methods. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  4. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun, E-mail: suhyunjo@kangwon.ac.kr

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}.

  5. Exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of exposure to coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other dioxin-like chemicals on developing vertebrates involve many organ systems, including the skeletal and cardiovascular systems. Apex predators, including those from the class Chondrichthyes (sharks, skates, and rays), accumulate high body burdens of PCBs through biomagnification of chemicals moving through food webs. There are no published reports of the effects of dioxin-like chemicals on the development of sharks, skates, or rays. A study was undertaken to assess developmental effects of 3, 3’, 4, 4’, 5 pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) exposure in little skate, Leucoraja erinacea, a model for oviparous elasmobranchs. Skate embryos cultured outside of their egg cases were exposed to 0.02 - 20 ng/ml PCB 126 for 6 days and then grown in clean seawater for up to 29 days. Gas chromatography was used to measure PCB 126 in the exposures water and quantify its accumulation in the embryo. Digital still and video imaging was performed to assess growth, identify developmental abnormalities, and cardiovascular function. Embryos accumulated approximately 50% of PCB 126 exposure mass in the embryonic tissues and yolk sac. All embryos in the control and 0.02 ng/ml treatment survived; mortality rates were 14, 52, and 40% of embryos exposed to 0.2, 2.0, and 20.0 ng/ml, respectively. PCB 126 exposure induced yolk sac edema, deformities of the jaw, cranium, and fins, and cardiovascular system failure in

  6. Evaluation of serum markers of blood redox homeostasis and inflammation in PCB naturally contaminated heifers undergoing decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigliano, Luisa; Nebbia, Carlo; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril; Girolami, Flavia; Rossetti, Cristina; Spagnuolo, Maria Stefania

    2016-01-15

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely spread and long persistent contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate physiological changes associated with the decontamination of animals previously exposed to environmental pollutants. Eight Limousine heifers were removed from a polluted area and fed a standard ration for six months. The extent of contamination was defined by measuring total toxic equivalents (TEQ) values of dioxin like-PCBs (DL-PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and NDL-PCBs amount in pericaudal fat two weeks after the removal from the contaminated area (day 0) and then bimonthly for six months during the decontamination (days 59, 125, and 188). The concentrations of both DL-PCBs + PCDD/Fs and NDL-PCBs at the start of decontamination (day 0) were higher than those legally admitted, and they were strongly decreased at the end of the experimental period. Specific indices of blood redox homeostasis and inflammation were also measured at each time. Serum concentrations of Retinol, Tocopherol and Ascorbate, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were lower at day 0 than after 59, 125 or 188 days of decontamination. Protein-bound carbonyls (PC), nitro-tyrosine (N-Tyr), and lipid hydroperoxides concentrations were higher at day 0 than during decontamination. In addition, TAC, PC and N-Tyr levels correlated with both DL-PCB and NDL-PCB concentrations only at day 0. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha and Haptoglobin were higher in samples collected at day 0 than in those obtained during decontamination. As Haptoglobin and TNF-alpha levels correlated with both DL-PCB and NDL-PCB concentrations at day 0 and at day 59 (when these concentrations are still over legal limit), they might represent easily measurable parameters for assessing acute exposure to pollutants. Further both N-Tyr and TNF-alpha concentrations could be

  7. Combined effect of microwave and activated carbon on the remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xitao; Yu, Gang

    2006-04-01

    The application of microwave and activated carbon for the treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soil was explored in this study with a model compound of 2,4,5-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB29). PCB-contaminated soil was treated in a quartz reactor by microwave irradiation at 2450MHz with the addition of granular activated carbon (GAC). In this procedure, GAC acted as microwave absorbent for reaching high temperature and reductant for dechlorination. A sheltered type-K thermocouple was applied to record the temperature rising courses. It was shown that the addition of GAC could effectively promote the temperature rising courses. The determination of PCB residues in soil by gas chromatography (GC) revealed that rates of PCB removal were highly dependent on microwave power, soil moisture content, and the amount of GAC added. GC with mass spectrum (MS) detector and ion chromatography were employed for the analysis of degradation intermediates and chlorine ions, respectively. It was suggested that microwave irradiation with the assistance of activated carbon might be a potential technology for the remediation of PCB-contaminated soil.

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  10. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute to this difference. To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977). PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years and 143 mothers living in an urban and a rural area in Denmark and participating in the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). In Denmark, PCBs were used in construction in the period 1950-1977, and year of construction or renovation of the homes and schools was used as a proxy for indoor PCB exposure. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between potential PCB exposure from building materials and lipid adjusted concentrations of PCB 28 in plasma, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Among the 116 children and 143 mothers, we were able to specify home construction period in all but 4 children and 5 mothers leaving 111 children and 138 mothers for our analyses. The median lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentration was 3 (range: 1-28) ng/g lipid in the children and 2 (range: 1-8) ng/g lipid in the mothers. Children living in homes built in the PCB period had significantly higher lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentrations compared to children living in homes built before or after the PCB period. Following adjustment for covariates, PCB 28 concentrations in children were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB

  11. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  12. The use of biomonitoring equivalents for interpreting blood concentrations in population studies: a case for polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of exposure guideline values for environmental contaminants are established by various agencies for risk assessment purposes. Biomonitoring equivalents are conversions of external guideline values to internal doses, against which biomonitoring data can be directly compared. Several biomonitoring equivalents have been developed for the interpretation of blood concentrations of environmental contaminants, but none has yet been developed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. In this paper, we describe information needed to develop biomonitoring equivalents for PCBs and discuss anticipated challenges. We provide a broad overview of PCB absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, PCB guideline values, and PCB pharmacokinetic modeling efforts in animals and humans. We also provide strategies to address anticipated challenges in deriving biomonitoring equivalents for this complex contaminant. Biomonitoring equivalents will be useful for the interpretation of the PCB biomonitoring data that is currently available for populations around the globe through national surveys and research of specific populations.

  13. Evaluation of PCB sources and releases for identifying priorities to reduce PCBs in Washington State (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Holly; Delistraty, Damon

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously distributed in the environment and produce multiple adverse effects in humans and wildlife. As a result, the purpose of our study was to characterize PCB sources in anthropogenic materials and releases to the environment in Washington State (USA) in order to formulate recommendations to reduce PCB exposures. Methods included review of relevant publications (e.g., open literature, industry studies and reports, federal and state government databases), scaling of PCB sources from national or county estimates to state estimates, and communication with industry associations and private and public utilities. Recognizing high associated uncertainty due to incomplete data, we strived to provide central tendency estimates for PCB sources. In terms of mass (high to low), PCB sources include lamp ballasts, caulk, small capacitors, large capacitors, and transformers. For perspective, these sources (200,000-500,000 kg) overwhelm PCBs estimated to reside in the Puget Sound ecosystem (1500 kg). Annual releases of PCBs to the environment (high to low) are attributed to lamp ballasts (400-1500 kg), inadvertent generation by industrial processes (900 kg), caulk (160 kg), small capacitors (3-150 kg), large capacitors (10-80 kg), pigments and dyes (0.02-31 kg), and transformers (PCB distribution and decrease exposures include assessment of PCBs in buildings (e.g., schools) and replacement of these materials, development of Best Management Practices (BMPs) to contain PCBs, reduction of inadvertent generation of PCBs in consumer products, expansion of environmental monitoring and public education, and research to identify specific PCB congener profiles in human tissues.

  14. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems. © 2015 SETAC.

  15. Intestinal exposure to PCB 153 induces inflammation via the ATM/NEMO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Dheer, Rishu; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Davies, Julie M; Burgueño, Juan; Lang, Jessica K; Toborek, Michal; Abreu, Maria T

    2018-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that adversely affect human health. PCBs bio-accumulate in organisms important for human consumption. PCBs accumulation in the body leads to activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, a major driver of inflammation. Despite dietary exposure being one of the main routes of exposure to PCBs, the gut has been widely ignored when studying the effects of PCBs. We investigated the effects of PCB 153 on the intestine and addressed whether PCB 153 affected intestinal permeability or inflammation and the mechanism by which this occurred. Mice were orally exposed to PCB 153 and gut permeability was assessed. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) were collected and evaluated for evidence of genotoxicity and inflammation. A human IEC line (SW480) was used to examine the direct effects of PCB 153 on epithelial function. NF-кB activation was measured using a reporter assay, DNA damage was assessed, and cytokine expression was ascertained with real-time PCR. Mice orally exposed to PCB 153 had an increase in intestinal permeability and inflammatory cytokine expression in their IECs; inhibition of NF-кB ameliorated both these effects. This inflammation was associated with genotoxic damage and NF-кB activation. Exposure of SW480 cells to PCB 153 led to similar effects as seen in vivo. We found that activation of the ATM/NEMO pathway by genotoxic stress was upstream of NF-kB activation. These results demonstrate that oral exposure to PCB 153 is genotoxic to IECs and induces downstream inflammation and barrier dysfunction in the intestinal epithelium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentrations, loads, and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls, Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary, eastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to contaminate the Neponset River, which flows through parts of Boston, Massachusetts, and empties into the Neponset River Estuary, an important fish-spawning area. The river is dammed and impassable to fish. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, Division of Ecological Restoration, Riverways Program, collected, analyzed, and interpreted PCB data from bottom-sediment, water, and (or) fish-tissue samples in 2002, 2004-2006. Samples from the Neponset River and Neponset River Estuary were analyzed for 209 PCB congeners, PCB homologs, and Aroclors. In order to better assess the overall health quality of river-bottom sediments, sediment samples were also tested for concentrations of 31 elements. PCB concentrations measured in the top layers of bottom sediment ranged from 28 nanograms per gram (ng/g) just upstream of the Mother Brook confluence to 24,900 ng/g measured in Mother Brook. Concentrations of elements in bottom sediment were generally higher than background concentrations and higher than levels considered toxic to benthic organisms according to freshwater sediment-quality guidelines defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of dissolved PCBs in water samples collected from the Neponset River (May 13, 2005 to April 28, 2006) averaged about 9.2 nanograms per liter (ng/L) (annual average of monthly values); however, during the months of August (about 16.5 ng/L) and September (about 15.6 ng/L), dissolved PCB concentrations were greater than 14 ng/L, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's freshwater continuous chronic criterion for aquatic organisms. Concentrations of PCBs in white sucker (fillets and whole fish) were all greater than 2,000 ng/g wet wt, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's guideline for safe consumption of fish: PCB concentrations measured in fish-tissue samples collected from the Tileston and Hollingsworth and

  19. Assessment of dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in infant formulae available on the EU market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandelova, M; Piccinelli, R; Kasham, S; Henkelmann, B; Leclercq, C; Schramm, K-W

    2010-11-01

    In infant period, human milk and infant formulae are the major sources of exposure to dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Since in many parts of Europe the mothers are increasingly reluctant to breastfeed their babies, the main objective of the present study is to assess the level of exposure of non-breast-fed infants during their early development. Consequently, the concentration levels of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB were determined in industrial infant formulae including "starting" (aged 0-4months) and "follow-on" (after 4months) products of milk formula, soy formula and hypoallergenic infant formula, available on the EU market. Furthermore, dietary exposure to dioxin of exclusively formula-fed infants was assessed at each month from 0 to 9months. The results suggest that dietary exposure to dioxins via formulae is higher when consuming "starting" than "follow-on" infant formulae on a body-weight basis. Estimated dietary exposure after 4months of age was always below the lowest range of the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 1pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwd(-1) and Provisional Tolerable Monthly Intake (PTMI) of 70pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1). The highest estimated cumulative dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB was obtained considering infants of 0-1months fed with the "starting" hypoallergenic infant formula (2.8pg WHO-TEQkg(-1)bwd(-1) and 84pg WHO-TQkg(-1)bwmonth(-1)). However, these elevated levels are much lower than those observed in some studies in breast-fed infants. The study can be used for further risk assessments in regard to infant exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  1. Construction of a rhizosphere pseudomonad with potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls and detection of bph gene expression in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, G M; Kenefick, L; Callanan, M; Haro, A; de Lorenzo, V; Dowling, D N; O'Gara, F

    1995-05-01

    The genetically engineered transposon TnPCB, contains genes (bph) encoding the biphenyl degradative pathway. TnPCB was stably inserted into the chromosome of two different rhizosphere pseudomonads. One genetically modified strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens F113pcb, was characterized in detail and found to be unaltered in important parameters such as growth rate and production of secondary metabolites. The expression of the heterologous bph genes in F113pcb was confirmed by the ability of the genetically modified microorganism to utilize biphenyl as a sole carbon source. The introduced trait remained stable in laboratory experiments, and no bph-negative isolates were found after extensive subculture in nonselective media. The bph trait was also stable in nonselective rhizosphere microcosms. Rhizosphere competence of the modified F113pcb was assessed in colonization experiments in nonsterile soil microcosms on sugar beet seedling roots. F113pcb was able to colonize as efficiently as a marked wild-type strain, and no decrease in competitiveness was observed. In situ expression of the bph genes in F113pcb was found when F113pcb bearing a bph'lacZ reporter fusion was inoculated onto sugar beet seeds. This indicates that the bph gene products may also be present under in situ conditions. These experiments demonstrated that rhizosphere-adapted microbes can be genetically manipulated to metabolize novel compounds without affecting their ecological competence. Expression of the introduced genes can be detected in the rhizosphere, indicating considerable potential for the manipulation of the rhizosphere as a self-sustaining biofilm for the bioremediation of pollutants in soil. Rhizosphere bacteria such as fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. are ecologically adapted to colonize and compete in the rhizosphere environment. Expanding the metabolic functions of such pseudomonads to degrade pollutants may prove to be a useful strategy for bioremediation.

  2. Experimental feeding of DDE and PCB to female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Prouty, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-two female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) were collected in a house attic in Montgomery County, Maryland. Seventeen were fed mealworms (Tenebrio molitor larvae) that contained 166 ppm DDE; the other five were fed uncontaminated mealworms. After 54 days of feeding, six dosed bats were frozen and the remaining 16 were starved to death. In a second experiment, 21 female big brown bats were collected in a house attic in Prince Georges County, Maryland. Sixteen were fed mealworms that contained 9.4 ppm Aroclor 1254 (PCB). After 37 days, two bats had died, four dosed bats were frozen, and the remaining 15 were starved to death. Starvation caused mobilization of stored residues. After the feeding periods, average weights of all four groups (DDE-dosed, DDE control, PCB-dosed, PCB control) had increased. However, weights of DDE-dosed bats had increased significantly more than those of their contols, whereas weights of PCB-dosed bats had increased significantly less than those of their controls. During starvation, PCB-dosed bats lost weight significantly more slowly than controls. Because PCB levels in dosed bats resembled levels found in some free-living big brown bats, PCBs may be slowing metabolic rates of some free-living bats. It is not known how various common organochlorine residues may affect metabolism in hibernating bats. DDE and PCB increased in brains of starving bats as carcass fat was metabolized. Because the tremors and/or convulsions characteristic of neurotoxicity were not observed, we think even the maximum brain levels attained (132 ppm DDE, 20 ppm PCB) were sublethal. However, extrapolation of our DDE data predicted lethal brain levels when fat reserves declined sufficiently. PCB-dosed bats were probably in no danger of neurotoxic poisoning. However, PCB can kill by a nonneurotoxic mode, and this could explain the deaths of two bats on PCB dosage.

  3. PCB concentrations in Pere Marquette River and Muskegon River watersheds, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) are a class of209 individual compounds (known as congeners) for which there are no known natural sources. PCBs are carcinogenic and bioaccumulative compounds. For over 40 years, PCBs were manufactured in the United States. The flame resistant property of PCBs made them ideal chemicals for use as flame-retardants, and as coolants and lubricants in transformers and other electrical equipment. PCBs were also used in heating coils, carbonless paper, degreasers, varnishes, lacquers, waterproofing material, and cereal boxes. In addition, they were frequently used in the manufacturing of plastics, adhesives, and paints.During the manufacturing period of PCBs, these chemicals entered the environment though atmospheric release during manufacturing and burning of PCB products, leaks and spills, and improper disposal. Although PCB manufacturing was banned over 20 years ago, PCBs still enter the environment from hazardous waste sites, improper disposals of PCB-containing products, weathering of asphalt and other substances containing PCBs, burning of PCB containing products, leakage from old equipment, leaching from landfills, and release from contaminated sediments. PCBs do not readily break down in the environment, thus remain there for long periods of time. A small amount may remain dissolved in water but most adhere to organic particles and bottom sediments.In sufficient concentrations, PCBs affect human, wildlife, and aquatic health. PCBs accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and fish and are passed on to those that eat them. PCBs are animal teratogens and potentially carcinogenic. They can cause death of animals, fish, and birds; death or low growth rate of plants; shortened lifespan; reproductive problems; and lower fertility. Women who are exposed to high levels of PCBs may have babies with slightly lower birth weights and transfer the PCBs through the breast milk, which may affect the immune system and motor development of

  4. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, David J.; Dellinger, John A.; Needham, Larry L.; Hansen, Larry G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  5. Association between serum organochlorines and global methylation level of leukocyte DNA among Japanese women: a cross-sectional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Hiroaki [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Iwasaki, Motoki, E-mail: moiwasak@ncc.go.jp [Epidemiology Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Kasuga, Yoshio [Department of Surgery, Nagano Matsushiro General Hospital, 183 Matsushiro, Matsushiro-cho, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–1231 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Shiro; Onuma, Hiroshi [Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Nagano Red Cross Hospital, 5-22-1 Wakasato, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 380–8582 Japan (Japan); Nishimura, Hideki [Department of Respiratory Surgery and Breast Surgery, Nagano Municipal Hospital, 1333–1 Tomitake, Nagano City, Nagano Prefecture 381–8551 Japan (Japan); Kusama, Ritsu [Department of Surgery, Hokushin General Hospital, 1-5-63 Nishi, Nakano City, Nagano Prefecture 383–8505 Japan (Japan); Yoshida, Teruhiko [Division of Genetics, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Kazuhito [Department of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Juntendo University Faculty of Medicine, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113–8421 Japan (Japan); Tsugane, Shoichiro [Dierctor Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104–0045 Japan (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    While the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA may be a suitable biomarker for cancer risk, the level may be influenced by multiple factors, both environmental and host-related, one of which is exposure to environmental pollutants. To date, three epidemiologic studies have examined associations between serum organochlorine levels and global DNA methylation level, but their findings are not fully consistent, and the associations thus require confirmation in other well-characterized populations. We tested the association between organochlorine exposure and the global DNA methylation level of leukocytes in Japanese women. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the control group of a breast cancer case–control study in Japan. Subjects were 403 Japanese women who provided blood samples. Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine pesticide-related organochlorines were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. Further, global methylation level of peripheral leukocyte DNA among 399 women was measured by luminometric methylation assay. Linear trends in the association between methylation and quartile levels of organochlorines were evaluated by regression coefficients in a multivariable linear regression model. We found significant inverse associations between the global methylation level in leukocyte DNA and many of the organochlorine levels measured. Global methylation level was significantly decreased by 0.33–0.83% per quartile category for serum o,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p′-DDT), p,p′-DDT, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, hexachlorobenzene, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, PCB17, PCB52/69, PCB74, PCB114, and PCB183. Serum organochlorine levels were inversely associated with the global methylation level of leukocyte DNA in a relatively large sample of Japanese women. - Highlights: • Many serum organochlorine pesticides were inversely associated with the global

  6. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  7. Paddy field – A natural sequential anaerobic–aerobic bioreactor for polychlorinated biphenyls transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chen; Yu, Chunna; Shen, Chaofeng; Tang, Xianjin; Qin, Zhihui; Yang, Kai; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Huang, Ronglang; Shi, Huixiang

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution and health risks caused by the improper disposal of electric and electronic waste (e-waste) have become urgent issues for the developing countries. One of the typical pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is commonly found in farmland in Taizhou, a major hotspot of e-waste recycling in China. This study investigated the amount of PCB residue in local farmlands. Biotransformation of PCBs was further studied under different water management conditions in paddy field with or without rice cultivation, with a special focus on the alternating flooded and drying processes. It was found that paddy field improved the attenuation of PCBs, especially for highly chlorinated congeners. In the microcosm experiment, 40% or more of the initial total PCBs was removed after sequential flood–drying treatments, compared to less than 10% in the sterilized control and 20% in the constant-drying system. Variation in the quantity of PCBs degrading and dechlorinating bacterial groups were closely related to the alteration of anaerobic–aerobic conditions. These results suggested that alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs, which provided a favorable environment for natural PCB attenuation. - Highlights: • Paddy fields hold significantly lower level of PCBs than drylands, especially highly-chlorinated PCBs. • Microbial dechlorination of PCBs is favored under flooded conditions in paddy field. • Aerobic biodegradation of PCBs is benefited under dry conditions in paddy field. • PCBs dechlorination rate is accelerated in rice planted paddy field compared to the unplanted one. • Alternating anoxic–oxic environment in paddy field led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs. - Alternating anoxic–oxic environment led to the sequential aerobic–anaerobic transformation of PCBs in paddy field, which could act as a natural sequential anaerobic

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  9. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  10. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood: A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and long-term exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Patandin (Svati); P.C. Dagnelie (Pieter); E.L.M. Op de Coul (Eline); J.E. van der Veen; N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractFood is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next

  11. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins from infancy until adulthood : A comparison between breast-feeding, toddler, and longterm exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Dagnelie, PC; Mulder, PGH; de Coul, EO; van der Veen, JE; Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Sauer, PJJ

    Food is the major source for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin accumulation in the human body. Therefore, investigating food habits from early ages until reproductive age (25 years) is important in order to assess exposure risk for the next generation. The objective of this study was to

  12. Measurement and modeling of polychlorinated biphenyl bioaccumulation from sediment for the marine polychaete neanthes arenaceodentata and response to sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.-L.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2010-01-01

    Bioaccumulation rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the marine polychaete Neanthes arenaceodentata were characterized, including PCB uptake rates from water and sediment, and the effect of sorbent amendment to the sediment on PCB bioavailability, organism growth, and lipid content. Physiological parameters were incorporated into a biodynamic model to predict contaminant uptake. The results indicate rapid PCB uptake from contaminated sediment and significant organism growth dilution during time-series exposure studies. PCB uptake from the aqueous phase accounted for less than 3% of the total uptake for this deposit-feeder. Proportional increase of gut residence time and assimilation efficiency as a consequence of the organism's growth was assessed by PCB uptake and a reactor theory model of gut architecture. Pulse-chase feeding and multilabeled stable isotope tracing techniques proved high sediment ingestion rates (i.e., 6?10 times of dry body weight per day) indicating that such deposit-feeders are promising biological indicators for sediment risk assessment. Activated carbon amendment reduced PCB uptake by 95% in laboratory experiments with no observed adverse growth effects on the marine polychaete. Biodynamic modeling explained the observed PCB body burdens for N. arenaceodentata, with and without sorbent amendment. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  13. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Menghua; Hu, Yuan; Sun, Qian; Wang, Linling; Chen, Jing; Lu, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L −1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  14. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  15. Blarina brevicauda as a biological monitor of polychlorinated biphenyls: Evaluation of hepatic cytochrome p450 induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Woolf, A.; French, J.B.; Melancon, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the value of short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) as a possible biomonitor for polychlorinated biphenyl pollution through measurement of the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 and associated enzyme activities. First, we checked the inducibility of four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [BROD], ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [EROD], methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [MROD], and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase [PROD]) by measuring the activity of these enzymes in hepatic microsomes prepared from shrews injected with $-naphthoflavone ($NF) or phenobarbital (PB), typical inducers of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) and CYP2B enzyme families, respectively. Enzyme activity was induced in shrews that received $NF but not in shrews that received PB; PROD was not induced by either exposure. Later, shrews were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1242:1254, in 1:2 ratio) at 0.6, 9.6, and 150 ppm in food, for 31 d. Induction in these shrews was measured by specific enzyme activity (BROD, EROD, and MROD) in hepatic microsomes, by western blotting of solubilized microsomes against antibodies to CYP1A or CYP2B, and by duration of sodium pentobarbital-induced sleep. These three CYP enzymes were induced in shrews by PCBs at similar levels of exposure as in cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus). Neither sleep time nor the amount of CYP2B family protein were affected by PCB exposure. Blarina brevicauda can be a useful biomonitor of PCBs that induce CYP1A, especially in habitats where they are the abundant small mammal.

  16. Procurement and execution of PCB analyses: Customer-analyst interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    The practical application of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) analyses begins with a request for the analysis and concludes with provision of the requested analysis. The key to successful execution of this iteration is timely, professional communication between the requester and the analyst. Often PCB analyses are not satisfactorily executed, either because the requester failed to give adequate instructions or because the analyst simply ''did what he/she was told.'' The request for and conduct of a PCB analysis represents a contract for the procurement of a product (information about the sample); if both parties recognize and abide by this contractual relationship, the process generally proceeds smoothly. Requesters may be corporate purchasing agents working from a scope of work, a sample management office, a field team leader, a project manager, a physician's office, or the analyst himself. The analyst with whom the requester communicates may be a laboratory supervisor, a sample-receiving department, a salesperson for the laboratory, or the analyst himself. The analyst conducting the analysis is often a team, with custody of the sample being passed from sample receiving to the extraction laboratory, to the cleanup laboratory, to the gas chromatography (GC) laboratory, to the data reduction person, to the package preparation person, to the quality control (QC) department for verification, to shipping. Where a team of analysts is involved, the requester needs a central point of contact to minimize confusion and frustration. For the requester-analyst interface to work smoothly, it must function as if it is a one-to-one interaction. This article addresses the pitfalls of the requester-analyst interaction and provides suggestions for improving the quality of the analytical product through the requester-analyst interface

  17. In vitro assay shows that PCB metabolites completely saturate thyroid hormone transport capacity in blood of wild polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutleb, Arno C; Cenijn, Peter; Velzen, Martin van; Lie, Elisabeth; Ropstad, Erik; Skaare, Janneche Utne; Malmberg, Tina; Bergman, Ake; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Legler, Juliette

    2010-04-15

    Persistent chemicals accumulate in the arctic environment due to their chemical reactivity and physicochemical properties and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the most concentrated pollutant class in polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Metabolism of PCB and polybrominated biphenyl ether (PBDE) flame-retardants alter their toxicological properties and these metabolites are known to interfere with the binding of thyroid hormone (TH) to transthyretin (TTR) in rodents and humans. In polar bear plasma samples no binding of [125I]-T(4) to TTR was observed after incubation and PAGE separation. Incubation of the plasma samples with [14C]-4-OH-CB107, a compound with a higher binding affinity to TTR than the endogenous ligand T(4) resulted in competitive binding as proven by the appearance of a radio labeled TTR peak in the gel. Plasma incubation with T(4) up to 1 mM, a concentration that is not physiologically relevant anymore did not result in any visible competition. These results give evidence that the binding sites on TTR for T(4) in wild living polar bears are completely saturated. Such saturation of binding sites can explain observed lowered levels of THs and could lead to contaminant transport into the developing fetus.

  18. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the “Land of Fires” Area of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Esposito

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-concentrations dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs (PCDD/Fs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known “Land of Fires” area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011–2.26 ng g−1 for the six “indicator” non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, and 0.0009–0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ g−1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a “sentinel” of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  19. Occurrence of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fruit and Vegetables from the "Land of Fires" Area of Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Mauro; De Roma, Antonella; Cavallo, Stefania; Diletti, Gianfranco; Baldi, Loredana; Scortichini, Giampiero

    2017-11-10

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo- p -concentrations dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fruit and vegetables collected in farms located in the well-known "Land of Fires" area of Southern Italy, in an effort to learn more about the environmental pollution of this high-risk area due to illegal waste dumping and uncontrolled burning near cultivated fields. Concentrations were in the range 0.011-2.26 ng g -1 for the six "indicator" non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), and 0.0009-0.096 pg WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) g -1 for the sum of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and PCDD/Fs. Lacking maximum limits for these contaminants in fruit and vegetables, the concentration values found were compared with the action levels set out in the EU Recommendations. These levels were never exceeded in the examined samples. In the present study, the highest mean value for PCDD/Fs + DL-PCB corresponded to apricots, olives, and nuts, while the lowest values were observed in endive and green beans. The results showed also that NDL-PCB levels in apricots were much higher than in any other food, suggesting that they can accumulate PCBs: this fruit might be proposed as a "sentinel" of the presence of these contaminants in the environment.

  20. Hepatic metabolism affects the atropselective disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Barnhart, Christopher; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-06

    To understand the role of hepatic vs extrahepatic metabolism in the disposition of chiral PCBs, we studied the disposition of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) and its hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) in mice with defective hepatic metabolism due to the liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (KO mice). Female KO and congenic wild type (WT) mice were treated with racemic PCB 136, and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and HO-PCBs were determined in tissues and excreta 3 days after PCB administration. PCB 136 tissue levels were higher in KO compared to WT mice. Feces was a major route of PCB metabolite excretion, with 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol being the major metabolite recovered from feces. (+)-PCB 136, the second eluting PCB 136 atropisomers, was enriched in all tissues and excreta. The second eluting atropisomers of the HO-PCBs metabolites were enriched in blood and liver; 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol in blood was an exception and displayed an enrichment of the first eluting atropisomers. Fecal HO-PCB levels and chiral signatures changed with time and differed between KO and WT mice, with larger HO-PCB enantiomeric fractions in WT compared to KO mice. Our results demonstrate that hepatic and, possibly, extrahepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a role in the disposition of PCBs.

  1. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  3. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A; Keith Miles, A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Bodkin, James L; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  4. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  5. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A. [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Birth Weight and Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE): A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet; Ballester, Ferran; Bloemen, Karolien; de Boer, Michiel; Chevrier, Cécile; Eggesbø, Merete; Guxens, Mònica; Krämer, Ursula; Legler, Juliette; Martínez, David; Palkovicova, Lubica; Patelarou, Evridiki; Ranft, Ulrich; Rautio, Arja; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Slama, Rémy; Stigum, Hein; Toft, Gunnar; Trnovec, Tomas; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Weihe, Pál; Kuperus, Nynke Weisglas; Wilhelm, Michael; Wittsiepe, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight. Methods: We used maternal and cord blood and breast milk samples of 7,990 women enrolled in 15 study populations from 12 European birth cohorts from 1990 through 2008. Using identical variable definitions, we performed for each cohort linear regression of birth weight on estimates of cord serum concentration of PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE adjusted for gestational age and a priori selected covariates. We obtained summary estimates by meta-analysis and performed analyses of interactions. Results: The median concentration of cord serum PCB-153 was 140 ng/L (range of cohort medians 20–484 ng/L) and that of p,p´-DDE was 528 ng/L (range of cohort medians 50–1,208 ng/L). Birth weight decreased with increasing cord serum concentration of PCB-153 after adjustment for potential confounders in 12 of 15 study populations. The meta-analysis including all cohorts indicated a birth weight decline of 150 g [95% confidence interval (CI): –250, –50 g] per 1-µg/L increase in PCB-153, an exposure contrast that is close to the range of exposures across the cohorts. A 1-µg/L increase in p,p´-DDE was associated with a 7-g decrease in birth weight (95% CI: –18, 4 g). Conclusions: The findings suggest that low-level exposure to PCB (or correlated exposures) impairs fetal growth, but that exposure to p,p´-DDE does not. The study

  7. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous Arctic Char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserv