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Sample records for biphenyl pcb induction

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6β-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6β-OHC/FC) ratio. POP exposures were assessed by measuring their concentrations in serum lipid. The results showed a unimodal distribution of the 6β-OHC/FC ratio with values ranging from 0.58 to 27.38. Women had a slightly higher 6β-OHC/FC ratio than men (p = 0.07). Confounder-adjusted multiple regression analysis showed significant associations between 6β-OHC/FC ratios and ΣPCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per;

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1......,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3......A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta...

  3. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  5. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  6. Effects of liver damage induced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on cadmium metabolism in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were added to the diets of mice at different concentrations. Mice fed these diets were given a sc or oral doses of 109Cd. The uptake and excretion of Cd was followed by whole-body counting. The gastrointestinal absorption of Cd after an oral dose of 109Cd was less in animals fed on 66 ppm PCB diet, compared with a control group, and the body elimination of Cd was faster. In the liver, the amount of Cd was reduced by dietary PCB exposure, after both oral and sc administration of 109Cd, and the data suggest a faster transport of Cd from liver to kidneys in PCB-exposed animals than in controls. The mobilized liver Cd was not quantitatively recovered in the kidneys, thus increased urinary excretion due to PCB exposure may have taken place. Histological examination of the livers revealed a dose-dependent induction of liver changes characterized by centrilobular enlargement of liver cells and centrilobular focal necroses. In four of eight livers from animals fed 200 ppm PCB for 32 weeks there were five liver cell tumors with cytological signs of malignancy. In the control group and in groups fed lower doses of PCB (10-100 ppm) no such tumors were found among 28 animals. The results support observations made with agents inducing acute liver damage, that liver damage increases the rate of redistribution of cadmium from the liver to the kidney

  7. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm2, allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, October 1984 and 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during October 1984 and 1985. Atlantic Ritchfield...

  9. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Beriro, Darren J.; Cave, Mark R.; Knights, Katherine; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Nathanail, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface soils from a 19 km2 area in east London, UK were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (n = 76). ∑16 PAH ranged from 4 to 67 mg/kg (mean, 18 mg/kg) and ∑50 PAH ranged from 6 to 88 mg/kg (mean, 25 mg/kg). ∑7 PCB ranged from 1 to 750 μg/kg (mean, 22 μg/kg) and ∑tri-hepta PCB ranged 9 to 2600 μg/kg (mean, 120 μg/kg). Compared to other international cities concentrations were similar for PAH but higher for PCB. Normal background concentrat...

  11. Intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the Finnish diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of seven single PCB indicator congeners were measured in 99 food samples. These concentrations were converted into a total PCB content and used for estimating total PCB intake among Finns. The average intake from food is 15 μg/day or 0,25 μ/kg body weight per day, which showed no change during the late 1980s. Approximately half of the intake comes from fish. The composition of the PCB mixture varies a lot in different sample types, which emphasizes the importance of single compound determination. (orig.)

  12. Stimulatory effects of a microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on rat uterine contraction in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneta, Taeko; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Quensen, John F.; Boyd, Stephen A.; Hanna, Mona; Grindatti, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Microbially mediated reductive dechlorination has been advocated as the first part of a two-stage (anaerobic/aerobic) biotreatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, and is generally viewed as a detoxication process. However, previous studies suggest that microbial dechlorination increases ability to stimulate uterine contractions compared with the original PCB mixtures. Here, we investigate the composition and uterotonic activity of the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor ...

  13. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded...... in three phases combining a literature review, laboratory experiments and measurements in buildings potentially containing PCBs in indoor air. The laboratory experiments showed a strong influence of air velocity on the PCB partitioning between air and the passive sampler. Based on the results of the first...... two phases and comments from experts in the field of PCB containing construction materials, a kinetic sampler (petri dish with silicone) and a potential equilibrium sampler (silicone-coated paper) were tested in buildings. Calibration and validation were based on conventional active sampling, for both...

  14. Transcriptomics identifies differences between ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like PCB126 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain ubiquitously present in human lipids despite the ban on their production and use. Their presence can be chemically monitored in peripheral blood samples of the general population. We tested whether in vitro exposure to different PCB congeners induced different gene expression profiles in peripheral blood cells. We have isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from whole blood of 8 healthy individuals and exposed these cells in vitro to individual non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCB congeners (PCB52, 138 or 180; 10 μM) or dioxin-like (DL)-PCB congener PCB126 (1 μM) during 18 h. Differential gene expression response was measured using Agilent whole-human genome microarrays. Two-way ANOVA analysis of the data showed that both gender and PCB exposure are important factors influencing gene expression responses in blood cells. Hierarchical cluster analysis of genes influenced by PCB exposure, revealed that DL-PCB126 induced a different gene expression response compared to the NDL-PCBs. Biological interpretation of the results revealed that exposure to PCB126 induced the AhR signaling pathway, whereas the induction of nuclear receptor pathways by the NDL-PCBs was limited in blood cells. Nevertheless, molecular responses of blood cells to individual PCB congeners revealed significantly expressed genes that play a role in biological functions and processes known to be affected by PCB exposure in vivo. Observed gene expression changes in this in vitro model were found to be related to hepatotoxicity, immune and inflammatory response and disturbance of lipid and cholesterol homeostasis.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdo...

  16. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  17. Photochemistry treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in dielectric fluid; Tratamiento fotoquimico de bifenilos policlorados en fluidos dielectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this work a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) photodegradation in dielectric fluid have been done. The experiments has been carried out in a pilot scale photo rector with an ultraviolet light source. The results obtained showed a 92% elimination of PCB following a first kinetic order. In addition the photo reaction products have been identified. (Author) 6 refs.

  18. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  19. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)); Storr-Hansen, E. (National Environmental Research Inst., Soeborg (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil by cocktail PCB ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M.; Fujimoto, S. [Japan EnviroChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Centre; Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a novel cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a simple pretreatment method for the determination of PCBs in insulating oils. Oil samples were treated with hexane and dimethyl sufloxide (DMSO) and mixed. Hexane layers were then removed, and freshly prepared hexane was added. The DMSO layer was then diluted with an aqueous solution and extracted with hexane. After being dehydrated, the hexane layer was sulfonated with a sulfuric reagent and washed. Standard or pretreated PCBs were then dissolved and diluted in 100 per cent DMSO and added to distilled water prior to the ELISA assay. A horseradish peroxidase conjugate and an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles were added for the assay. A magnetic rack was used to separate the reaction mixture. A colouring reagent was then added. A total of 26 insulating oils contaminated with PCBs were determined using the new cocktail method and compared with data obtained from traditional gas chromatograph electron capture detector (GC-ECD) data. Results showed that the values of both the cocktail and general PCB ELISA were well correlated with the CG-ECD data. It was concluded that combining cocktail PCB ELISA with the developed pretreatment method provided accurate results. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer liability elimination: Carcass destruct vs. the alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarel fluid filled transformers are still in service extensively throughout the United States. Owners of these tranformers have three choices: continue to operate the equipment, managing the risk while keeping the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in place; attempt to retrofill and reclassify the tranformers to non-PCB status; or remove the transformers from service and dispose of them. Total destruction of transformer carcasses and recycling of metals offers two important benefits: an end to the transformer is defined, as well as an end to the owner's liability, and the process is environmentally acceptable. Landfill of transformer carcasses fails to end liability, and is likely to lead to leakage and ground contamination for which the owner will be held partly liable. Retrofill of transformers is not a cost effective method for reducing liability, for the following reasons. High PCB concentrations can remain in components of the tranformer, and reclassification can take 15-24 months. Some 30% of processor method units and 60% of retrofill units leach back to 50 ppM PCB, frequently within one year. High levels of PCB are often contained in paper and wood inside the transformer. The cleaning fluid (perchloroethylene) presents environmental and health hazards, and may be incompatible with electrical equipment. Continued operation of units poses occupational, exposure, regulatory and environmental risks. 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of the immunotoxicity of low-level PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) exposure in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smialowicz, R.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Riddle, M.M.; Rogers, R.R.; Luebke, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were exposed daily by gastric intubation for up to 15 weeks to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 at 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg body weight. At 5, 10 and 15 weeks groups of rats were killed and immune functions were evaluated. The immune parameters examined included the following: body and lymphoid organ weights, mitogen stimulated lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. After 10 and 15 weeks of dosing body weights were reduced in rats receiving 25 mg/kg PCB while thymus weights were decreased in rats receiving 10 and 25 mg/kg. NK cell activity was reduced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 10 and 25 mg/kg. The LP response to phytohemagglutinin was enhanced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 25 mg/kg PCB. Exposure of rats to PCB did not affect the MLR or CTL responses. Other groups of rats were exposed to cyclophosphamide (CY) and served as positive controls for the immune assays employed. CY induced alterations in all of the immune parameters measured, indicating that this is a sensitive battery of immune function tests which is capable of detecting immune alterations in the rat.

  3. Investigation of wall and ceiling coatings with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in the WAK processing building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing plant WAK shut down in 1991. The operative deconstruction started in 1995. The wall and ceiling coatings of the buildings were investigated with respect to polychlorinated biphenyls. PCB was used in technical facilities due to their thermal and chemical resistance and low conductivity. During the construction of WAK PCB containing coatings were used. Waste materials with PCB contents above a limit of 50 mg/kg are hazardous materials. For the waste disposal the wastes have to be tested with respect to the PCB content. Scrape tests have shown that 67% of the samples have PCB contents above the limit. Core hole drilling samples showed that the PCB content decreases with depth. Further depth profile analyses are necessary to determine the coating thickness to be removed.

  4. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  5. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm responses to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-06-01

    (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the metabolic profile of D(2)O-buffer extracted tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms exposed for 2 days to an artificial soil spiked with sub-lethal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254). Univariate statistical analysis of the identified metabolites revealed a significant increase in ATP concentration in earthworms exposed to the highest soil PCB concentration, but detected no significant changes in other metabolites. However, a multivariate approach which considers alterations in multiple metabolites simultaneously, identified a significant linear relationship between earthworm metabolic profiles and PCB concentration (cross-validated PLS-regression with 7 components, R(2)X = 0.99, R(2)Y = 0.77, Q(2)Y = 0.45, P earthworms (r = 0.22, P = 0.54), but were positively correlated in earthworms from the 25 mg/kg treatment (r = 0.87, P = 0.001). Overall, the observed metabolic responses suggest that PCBs disrupted both carbohydrate (energy) metabolism and membrane (osmolytic) function in E. fetida. The ability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to detect these responses suggests that this method offers significant potential for direct assessment of sub-lethal PCB toxicity in soil. PMID:21424327

  6. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  7. Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places,such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and possible strategies to stimulate these processes. The degradation of the other POPs would be reviewed in additional texts.

  8. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: mattace@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: meli@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  11. Use of RIA determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in prevention of their penetration into the food chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiomimmunological determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in milk can serve in the screening of milk cows and condemnation of contaminated individuals. The source of PCB contamination can be ascertained by checking the routes the milk is passing. The RIA method was also employed to examine bioptically taken cow fat. The method was also applied to human milk in a maternity hospital in Brno; out of 55 samples, none exhibited a PCB concentration higher than 1.4 mg/kg. (M.D.). 3 tabs., 4 figs

  12. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  13. A cohort study of in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposures in relation to secondary sex ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Jean A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that persist in the environment and in human fatty tissue. PCBs are related to a class of compounds known as dioxins, specifically 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin, which has been implicated as a cause of altered sex ratio, especially in relation to paternal exposures. Methods In the 1960's, serum specimens were collected from pregnant women participating in the Child Health and Development Study in the San Francisco Bay Area. The women were interviewed and their serum samples stored at -20°C. For this study, samples were thawed and a total of eleven PCBs were determined in 399 specimens. Secondary sex ratio, or sex ratio at birth, was evaluated as a function of maternal serum concentrations using log-binomial and logistic regression, controlling for hormonally active medications taken during pregnancy. Results The relative risk of a male birth decreased by 33% comparing women at the 90th percentile of total PCBs with women at the 10th percentile (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.94; p = 0.02, or by approximately 7% for each 1 μg/L increase in total PCB concentration. Although some congener-specific associations with sex ratio were only marginally statistically significant, all nine PCB congeners with Conclusion Maternal exposure to PCBs may be detrimental to the success of male sperm or to the survival of male embryos. Findings could be due to contaminants, metabolites or PCBs themselves.

  14. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure assessment by multivariate statistical analysis of serum congener profiles in an adult Native American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCaprio, Anthony P; Johnson, Glenn W; Tarbell, Alice M; Carpenter, David O; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R; Morse, Gayle S; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Schymura, Maria J

    2005-07-01

    The major determinants of human polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden include the source and route of exposure and the toxicokinetic processes occurring after uptake. However, the relative importance of each factor for individual subjects cannot currently be determined. The present study characterizes levels and patterns of PCB congeners in a large cohort of adult Akwesasne Mohawks with historical PCB exposure. Total serum PCB ranged from 0.29 to 48.32 ng/g and was higher in adult men than in women (median of 3.81 vs. 2.94 ng/g). The mean serum congener profile for the full cohort was dominated by persistent penta- to hepta-chlorinated biphenyls; several labile congeners were also prominent. In order to provide additional information on individual body burden determinants, multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were applied to the congener-specific serum PCB data. A self-training receptor model, polytopic vector analysis (PVA), was employed to determine the number, composition, and relative proportions of independent congener patterns that contributed to the overall serum PCB profile for each Mohawk subject. PVA identified five such patterns, each of which was characterized by a unique mix of congeners. One pattern observed in a limited number of Mohawks was similar to those reported for air sampled near contaminated sediment deposits at Akwesasne and for volatilized Aroclor 1248 and is hypothesized to reflect recent inhalation exposure in these subjects. A second pattern was consistent with unaltered Aroclor 1254. A third pattern, resembling Aroclor 1262 but without labile congeners, was correlated with age and is interpreted as representing a lifetime PCB accumulation profile. The final two patterns were dominated by subsets of major persistent congeners and are hypothesized to reflect intermediate bioaccumulation profiles and/or differences in individual toxicokinetics. The results confirm the utility of a multivariate exploratory analysis

  16. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  17. Radioactive and non-radioactive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) management at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conformance to all state and federal regulations is the goal of Rockwell in the management of both radioactive and non-radioactive PCB's at Hanford. A continuing effort is being made to locate, remove, and properly dispose of all PCB's. As improved methods of management are developed, consideration will be given to them for their adaptation into the Hanford Site PCB Management Plan

  18. Milk transfer and neonatal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selective accumulation of 3,3'4,3'-tetrachlorobiphenyl metabolites in late gestational foetal blood and soft tissues in mice as a result of administration of different coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, is reported elsewhere. The situation in the nursing neonate after maternal exposure to the same congeners is now studied: The 14C-labelled congeners 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-126), 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-169) (all three non-ortho congeners) and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-105) (mono-ortho congener) were injected intravenously in lactating mice at day 11 post partum. One day and four days later, milk and neonatal/maternal tissues and plasma radioactivity was monitored by liquid scintillation counting (dose: 2.0 μmol (20-50 μCi)/kg body weight). In milk, CB-126, -169 and -105 showed higher levels (1450-2520 pmol/ml; one day after administration) than did CB-77 (580 pmol/ml), and in neonates, the relative whole-body levels of radioactivity (CB-169 and -105 highest) were related to the levels seen in milk (probably the consequences of their metabolic persistence). The comparably high 14C-concentration found in neonatal liver (about 15,000 pmol/kg) after CB-126 administration and in plasma (880 pmol/ml) after CB-77 administration could be explained by binding to specific proteins. In general, neonatal mice had two to seven times higher plasma levels than those of their mothers. These results indicate that CB-126, -169 and -105 are transferred via milk to neonates in considerable quantity and are deposited mainly in neonatal liver, whereas CB-77 is transferred in a comparably lower amount and accumulated in neonatal plasma. The lower 14C-levels in the NMRI mothers and offspring (about half of C57BL values in maternal and neonatal plasma), could possibly be explained by a differentiated metabolism of CB-77 in these two strains. (au

  19. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL Tolerances for Unavoidable Poisonous or Deleterious Substances § 509...-packaging materials contain PCB's which may migrate to the packaged food. The source of PCB's in paper food... parts per million in paper food-packaging material intended for or used with finished animal feed......

  20. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls in residents of 91 PCB-contaminated and 108 non-contaminated dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Göen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings.......In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings....

  1. Mast cells in the intestine and gills of the sea bream, Sparus aurata, exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl, PCB 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Calò, Margherita; Silvestri, Giuseppa; Zaccone, Daniele; Pergolizzi, Simona; Lo Cascio, Patrizia

    2012-02-01

    The presence of mast cells has been reported in all classes of vertebrates, including many teleost fish families. The mast cells of teleosts, both morphologically and functionally, show a close similarity to the mast cells of mammals. Mast cells of teleosts, localized in the vicinity of blood vessels of the intestine, gills and skin, may play an important role in the mechanisms of inflammatory response, because they express a number of functional proteins, including piscidins, which are antimicrobical peptides that act against a broad-spectrum of pathogens. An increase in the number of mast cells in various tissues and organs of teleosts seems to be linked to a wide range of stressful conditions, such as exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead and mercury), exposure to herbicides and parasitic infections. This study analyzed the morphological localization and abundance of mast cells in the intestine and gills of sea bream, Sparus aurata, after a 12, 24 or 72 h exposure to PCB 126, a polychlorinated biphenyl, which is a potent immunotoxic agent. In the organs of fish exposed to PCB 126, it was observed that in addition to congestion of blood vessels, there was extravasation of red blood cells, infiltration of lymphocytes, and a progressive increase in numbers of mast cells. These data confirm the immunotoxic action of PCB, and the involvement of mast cells in the inflammatory response. PMID:21565388

  2. Decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in a radio-frequency glow discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on the decomposition of PCB's in a radio-frequency glow discharge plasma. When PCB's were decomposed in a plasma of oxygen at a few Torr, they were completely decomposed to gaseous products: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen chloride, chlorine, and chlorine dioxide. Hazardous compounds such as phosgene and vinyl chloride were not detected by a GC-MS analysis. (author)

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load, lipid reserves and biotransformation activity in migrating Atlantic salmon from River Moerrum, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlantic salmon accumulate high levels of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in their lipids during the adult growth phase spent at sea. The lipids are later utilized during migration for swimming and biological adaptations. We hypothesize that migrating salmons' biotransformation processes are affected by the high levels of built-up PCBs compared to salmon that in a pre-migrational stage. For these analyses we sampled adult Atlantic salmon during migration in the Swedish River Moerrum and measured the 21 most common PCB congeners (ΣPCB) and lipid levels in muscle tissue, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR2) and cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) transcript levels as well as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver. We also determined which AHR2 genotypes the salmon carried. We show that EROD activity is correlated to CYP1A1 level but not to ΣPCB concentration. ΣPCB concentration does not predict levels of neither the AHR2 nor CYP1A1 genes. We find no associations between specific AHR2 transcription levels and AHR2 genotypes or a correlation between AHR2 and CYP1A1 transcription levels, which is in direct contrast to pre-migrational adult salmon from the Baltic Sea. When we compare River Moerrum to salmon we have previously sampled in the Baltic Sea we show that migrating salmon have significantly lower lipid levels in their muscles; higher muscle concentrations of ΣPCB on a lipid basis; and significantly lower CYP1A1 and EROD levels compared to salmon from the Baltic Sea. Also, transcript levels of three out of four AHR2 genes are significantly different. In conclusion, migrating Swedish Atlantic salmon carry higher concentrations of PCBs in their lipids compared to salmon in the Baltic Sea, but have lower activation of biotransformation genes and enzymes. Our results indicate that accumulated pollutants from the Baltic Sea are deactivated inside the migrating salmon's lipid tissues and increase in concentration when migration is initiated

  4. Long-time measurements of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and biphenyls (PCB) in deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls from one and the same sample were first separated by chromatography, then determined by mass spectroscopy. Sampling was in accordance with VDI method No. 2119, sheet 2, for the measurement of particulate precipitations. The annual means of PCDD/PCDF deposition ranged from 10 to 83 pg TE/(m2.d). The annual means of the deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (tri and decachlorobiphenyls combined) varied between 23 and 257 ng/(m2.d). The annual mean for coplanar PCBs No. 77, 126 and 169 was less than 1 ng/(m2.d). (orig./DG)

  5. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  6. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  7. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  8. Rhizospere Redox Cycling and Implications for Rhizosphere Biotransformation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, sequential cycles of dechlorination followed by aerobic bio-oxidation are desirable to achieve complete degradation of a mixture of higher and lower chlorinated PCBs. In this research, soil was artificially contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mixture and as single congeners, aged, and planted with two different plant species. Alternating redox cycles were created in the root zone of plants by flooding and draining the soil. Over 32 weeks, switchgrass (Panicum ...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) anaerobic degradation in marine sediments: microcosm study and role of autochthonous microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, Bruna; Ubaldi, Carla; Grenni, Paola; Caracciolo, Anna Barra; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was followed for 1 year in microcosms containing marine sediments collected from Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy) chronically contaminated by this class of hazardous compounds. The microcosms were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions with or without the addition of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, the main microorganism known to degrade PCBs through the anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Thirty PCB congeners were monitored during the experiments revealing that the biodegradation occurred in all microcosms with a decrease in hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and a parallel increase in low chlorinated PCBs (tri-CBs and tetra-CBs). The concentrations of the most representative congeners detected in the original sediment, such as 245-245-CB and 2345-245-CB, and of the mixture 2356-34-CB+234-245-CB, decreased by 32.5, 23.8, and 46.7 %, respectively, after only 70 days of anaerobic incubation without any bioaugmentation treatment. Additionally, the structure and population dynamics of the microbial key players involved in the biodegradative process and of the entire mixed microbial community were accurately defined by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) in both the original sediment and during the operation of the microcosm. The reductive dehalogenase genes of D. mccartyi, specifically involved in PCB dechlorination, were also quantified using real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results demonstrated that the autochthonous microbial community living in the marine sediment, including D. mccartyi (6.32E+06 16S rRNA gene copy numbers g(-1) sediment), was able to efficiently sustain the biodegradation of PCBs when controlled anaerobic conditions were imposed. PMID:26162439

  10. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  11. EGCG protects endothelial cells against PCB 126-induced inflammation through inhibition of AhR and induction of Nrf2-regulated genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Sung Gu [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Seong-Su [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Toborek, Michal [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard, E-mail: bhennig@uky.edu [Superfund Research Program, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Tea flavonoids such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) protect against vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis via their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Persistent and widespread environmental pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), can induce oxidative stress and inflammation in vascular endothelial cells. Even though PCBs are no longer produced, they are still detected in human blood and tissues and thus considered a risk for vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that EGCG can protect endothelial cells against PCB-induced cell damage via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. To test this hypothesis, primary vascular endothelial cells were pretreated with EGCG, followed by exposure to the coplanar PCB 126. Exposure to PCB 126 significantly increased cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1A1) mRNA and protein expression and superoxide production, events which were significantly attenuated following pretreatment with EGCG. Similarly, EGCG also reduced DNA binding of NF-κB and downstream expression of inflammatory markers such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) after PCB exposure. Furthermore, EGCG decreased endogenous or base-line levels of Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells. Most of all, treatment of EGCG upregulated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-controlled antioxidant genes, including glutathione S transferase (GST) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, silencing of Nrf2 increased Cyp1A1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and decreased GST and NQO1 expression, respectively. These data suggest that EGCG can inhibit AhR regulated genes and induce Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes, thus providing protection against PCB-induced inflammatory responses in endothelial cells. -- Highlights: ► PCBs cause endothelial inflammation and subsequent atherosclerosis. ► Nutrition can modulate toxicity by environmental pollutants. ► We

  12. Oxidative stress and apoptosis of Carassius auratus lymphocytes induced by nonplanar (PCB153) and coplanar (PCB169) polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; ZHANG Hang-jun; NI Wan-min

    2009-01-01

    and the coplanar congener was more cytotoxic than nonplanar congener. This study suggests that cytotoxicity mechanisms of the PCB congeners on fish lymphocytes depend on their planarity and chemical structures.

  13. Estimation of the health risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations found onboard older U.S. Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, K R; Arfsten, D P; Jederberg, W W; Kane, L V; Larcom, B J

    2003-10-01

    PCBs have been identified on surfaces and in component materials and equipment from inactive U.S. Navy nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970. Health risks associated with PCBs present onboard submarines were estimated for hypothetical crew members and shipyard workers. Median non-cancer hazard quotients for shipyard workers and submarine crew ranged between 0.4-54.6, with the highest quotients estimated for unprotected shipyard workers. Median cancer risk estimates ranged from 7.3 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-3) with the highest estimated risk calculated for unprotected shipyard workers. Our findings suggest that PCB surface concentrations found onboard inactive nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970 may be high enough to constitute a possible risk to the health of persons involved in dismantling of Navy submarines if PCB exposure is not minimized. Potential sources of uncertainty in our risk assessment include the correlation between PCB contamination levels on inactive versus active nuclear submarine vessels, the relationship between wipe sample concentrations and human exposure, dermal contact frequency with PCB-contaminated surfaces, carcinogenicity of PCBs in humans, and uncertainties inherent with the PCB cancer slope factor and oral RfD. Our findings support Navy policy that shipyard workers should wear personal protective equipment when PCB contamination is suspected or has been identified and that IH surveys should continue to identify sources of PCB contamination onboard vessels and reduce PCB contamination to concentrations that are reasonably achievable.

  14. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat... machinery in food-packaging manufacturing establishments. Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB... materials: (1) New equipment or machinery for manufacturing food-packaging materials shall not contain...

  15. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). These accidents in turn caused the contamination of food products intended for human consumption (meat... machinery in food packaging manufacturing establishments. Since PCB's are toxic chemicals, the PCB... materials: (1) New equipment or machinery for manufacturing food-packaging materials shall not contain...

  16. Promotion of thyroid tumors in rats by pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansell, Nichole R; Muppidi, Jagan R; Habeebu, Sultan M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2004-09-01

    Pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and Aroclor 1254 (PCB) both reduce serum thyroid hormone levels in rats, but only PCN consistently produces an increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH). PCN-mediated increases in TSH result in increased thyroid follicular cell proliferation and hyperplasia, which may represent early events on a morphological continuum leading to neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether PCN, a compound that increases serum TSH, and PCB, which does not increase TSH, promote thyroid tumors in a two-stage carcinogenesis model. Male SD rats were administered the thyroid tumor initiator diisopropanolnitrosamine (2.5 g/kg, sc), and after seven days were fed control diet, diet containing 1000 ppm PCN, or diet containing 100 ppm PCB for 19 weeks. Body weights were unaffected by PCN treatment, but were reduced 21% after 19 weeks of PCB treatment compared to control. PCN treatment significantly reduced serum T4 through week 3 before returning to control concentrations, whereas T4 levels following PCB treatment fell below detection limits by week 3 and remained drastically reduced through week 19. TSH concentrations in PCN-treated rats increased three-fold at week 2, then declined to near control values at week 19. After one week of PCB treatment, TSH concentrations reached nearly twice that of controls, and were sustained until week 6. The incidence of thyroid follicular cell proliferative lesions, including cystic and follicular hyperplasia, cystic and follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma, was significantly increased following PCN treatment, but not following PCB treatment. PCB treatment caused an increase in thyroid carcinomas (4 of 22 rats) not associated with the proliferative-type lesions produced by PCN, despite an increase in TSH serum concentrations. In conclusion, PCN appears to promote thyroid tumors in a manner consistent with known effects of excessive TSH stimulation. However, thyroid carcinomas stemming from PCB

  17. Role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR in induction of cytochromes P450 by non-dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most ubiquitously detectable ‘persistent organic pollutants’. In contrast to ‘dioxinlike’ (DL) PCBs, less is known about the molecular mode of action of the larger group of the ‘non-dioxinlike’ (NDL) PCBs. Owing to the life-long exposure of the human population, a carcinogenic, i.e., tumor-promoting potency of NDL-PCBs has to be considered in human risk assessment. A major problem in risk assessment of NDL-PCBs is dioxin-like impurities that can occur in commercially available NDL-PCB standards. In the present study, we analyzed the induction of CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 in primary rat hepatocytes using a number of highly purified NDL-PCBs with various degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Induction of these enzymes is mediated by the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR (Constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (Pregnane X receptor). For CYP2B1 induction, concentration–response analysis revealed a very narrow window of EC50 estimates, being in the range of 1–4 μM for PCBs 28 and 52, and between 0.4 and 1 μM for PCBs 101, 138, 153 and 180. CYP3A1 induction was less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, the most pronounced induction being achieved at 100 μM with the higher chlorinated congeners. Using okadaic acid and small interfering RNAs targeting CAR and PXR, we could demonstrate that CAR plays a major role and PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs, both effects showing no stringent structure–activity relationship. As the only obvious relevant determinant, the degree of chlorination was found to be positively correlated with the inducing potency of the congeners. - Highlights: • We analyzed six highly purified NDL-PCBs for CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 expression. • CAR plays a major, PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs. • The degree of chlorination seems to be the major parameter for the inducing potency. • There exists a competition between CAR and PXR. • Activated PXR may

  18. Role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR in induction of cytochromes P450 by non-dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in cultured rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gährs, Maike; Roos, Robert [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Andersson, Patrik L. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Linnaeus väg 6, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Schrenk, Dieter, E-mail: schrenk@rhrk.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most ubiquitously detectable ‘persistent organic pollutants’. In contrast to ‘dioxinlike’ (DL) PCBs, less is known about the molecular mode of action of the larger group of the ‘non-dioxinlike’ (NDL) PCBs. Owing to the life-long exposure of the human population, a carcinogenic, i.e., tumor-promoting potency of NDL-PCBs has to be considered in human risk assessment. A major problem in risk assessment of NDL-PCBs is dioxin-like impurities that can occur in commercially available NDL-PCB standards. In the present study, we analyzed the induction of CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 in primary rat hepatocytes using a number of highly purified NDL-PCBs with various degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Induction of these enzymes is mediated by the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR (Constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (Pregnane X receptor). For CYP2B1 induction, concentration–response analysis revealed a very narrow window of EC{sub 50} estimates, being in the range of 1–4 μM for PCBs 28 and 52, and between 0.4 and 1 μM for PCBs 101, 138, 153 and 180. CYP3A1 induction was less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, the most pronounced induction being achieved at 100 μM with the higher chlorinated congeners. Using okadaic acid and small interfering RNAs targeting CAR and PXR, we could demonstrate that CAR plays a major role and PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs, both effects showing no stringent structure–activity relationship. As the only obvious relevant determinant, the degree of chlorination was found to be positively correlated with the inducing potency of the congeners. - Highlights: • We analyzed six highly purified NDL-PCBs for CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 expression. • CAR plays a major, PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs. • The degree of chlorination seems to be the major parameter for the inducing potency. • There exists a competition between CAR and PXR. • Activated PXR

  19. Estimation of Aqueous Solubility (-lgSw) of All Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners by Density Functional Theory and Position of Cl Substitution (NPCS) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-Yan; GE Zhi-Gang; WANG Zun-Yao; XU Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Optimization calculations of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. It was found that there is significant correlation between the Cl substitution position and some structural parameters. Consequently, Cl substitution positions were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish a novel QSPR model for predicting -lgSw of all PCB congeners. The model achieved in this work contains four variables, of which r2 = 0.9527, q2 = 0.9490 and SD = 0.25 with large t values. In addition, the variation inflation factors (VIFs) of variables in this model are all less than 5.0, suggesting high accuracy of the -lgSw predicting model. And the results of cross-validation test and method validation also show that the model exhibits optimum stability and better predictive capability than that from the AM1 method.

  20. Diabetes Prevalence in Relation to Serum Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congener Groups and Three Chlorinated Pesticides in a Native American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Rej, Robert; Schymura, Maria J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; DeCaprio, Anthony; Carpenter, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is known to increase risk of diabetes. Objective: To determine which POPs are most associated with prevalence of diabetes in 601 Akwesasne Native Americans. Methods: Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between quartiles of concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners, congener groups and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex] with diabetes. In Model 1, the relationship between quartiles of exposure and diabetes were adjusted only for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and total serum lipids. Model 2 included additional adjustment for either total PCBs or total pesticides. Results: Total serum PCB and pesticide concentrations were each significantly associated with prevalence of diabetes when adjusted only for covariates (Model 1), but neither showed a significant OR for highest to lowest quartiles after additional adjustment for the other (Model 2). When applying Model 2 to PCB congener groups and individual pesticides, there were significant omnibus differences between the four quartiles (all ps pesticides in a Native American population. Environ Health Perspect 124:1376–1383; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509902 PMID:27035469

  1. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) levels in transformer oils from selected transformers in sensitive areas in the Greater Accra Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of PCBs and the adverse effects on humans and the environment have been assessed among Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) staff members, Volta River Authority (VRA) staff members and the general public. Evidence obtained shows that, Staff members of the technical departments of ECG/VRA (71.4 %) as well as a few welders (16.7 %) have come in contact with the transformer oil that may possibly contain PCBs. About fifty six percent (55.6 %) of the ECG/VRA staff members do not wear any protective gears when working on these transformers thus exposing themselves to PCBs. About twenty seven percent (27.3 %) of the management staff members of ECG/VRA are not aware of the adverse health effects caused by PCBs. Using PCB test kits (CLOR-N-OIL) developed by Dexsil Company of USA, 17 out of the 80 transformers screened for PCB contaminated oils, tested positive as containing PCBs levels greater than 50 ppm. Neutron Activation Analysis and gamma ray spectroscopy using Canberra HPGe detector coupled to MAESTRO 32 software has been used to determine the total chlorine content in 22 of the transformer oil samples screened using the test kits, including the 17 samples that tested positive using the test kits. The total chlorine content measured in the transformer oils that tested positive by the test kit was in the range of 71.34 ± 8.63 with 6 - 7.5 % accuracy. This being deduced that using NAA, total chlorine greater than 71.34 ppm is an indication of PCB contamination. NAA thus provides a faster and efficient way of analyzing transformer oil samples for possible PCB contamination

  3. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  4. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no author on report

    2014-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  5. [Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls in the rat. III - PCB distribution, storage and elimination relation time (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbonne, J F; Gillet, G; Daubeze, M

    1978-07-01

    The study of accumulation and elimination of Phenoclor DP6 (a commercial PCB mixture) was carried out in three experiments : 1) Rats were fed diet containing 100 ppm of DP6 and were sacrificed after 1, 3, 8, 15 and 30 days. 2) Rats fed DP6 diet during 15 days were subsequently fed with a control diet and sacrificed 8, 15, 52 and 78 days after removal DP6 diet. 3) Bile was collected from surgically treated rats fed DP6 diet during 15 days. Polychlorobiphenyls were spotted in fat carcasses, liver, brain, kidney, muscle, feces and urine to determine absorption, distribution in the animal organism and the clearence rates in urine and feces. We found a very hight DP6 absorption and retention. The low excretion and metabolisation of DP6 result in low decrease after removal DP6 diet. PMID:105428

  6. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs: I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible

  7. Cytochrome P4501A induction in avian hepatocyte cultures exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls: Comparisons with AHR1-mediated reporter gene activity and in ovo toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Mundy, Lukas J., E-mail: lukas.mundy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jones, Stephanie P., E-mail: stephanie.jones@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Chiu, Suzanne, E-mail: suzanne.chiu@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Klein, Jeff, E-mail: jeffery@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Konstantinov, Alex, E-mail: alex@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Potter, Dave, E-mail: dpotter@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3chsM5 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Avian-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were developed by the World Health Organization to simplify environmental risk assessments of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), but TEFs do not account for differences in the toxic and biochemical potencies of DLCs among species of birds. Such variability may be due to differences in species sensitivity to individual DLCs. The sensitivity of avian species to DLCs was recently associated with the identity of amino acids 324 and 380 in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay, measuring AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 (CYP1A5) reporter gene, in combination with a species' AHR1 ligand binding domain sequence, were also shown to predict avian species sensitivity to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB relative potency in a given species. The goals of the present study were to (1) characterize the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on induction of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA in chicken, ring-necked pheasant and Japanese quail embryo hepatocytes and (2) compare these in vitro results to those previously generated by the LRG assay and in ovo toxicity studies. EROD activity and CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression data support and complement the findings of the LRG assay. CYP1A enzyme activity and mRNA expression were significantly correlated both with luciferase activity and in ovo toxicity induced by PCBs. Relative potency values were generally similar between the LRG and EROD assays and indicate that the relative potency of some PCBs may differ among species. -- Highlights: ► The chicken isn't the most sensitive species to CYP1A induction by PCB 105 and 118. ► The relative potency of PCBs differs between avian species. ► EROD activity was correlated with luciferase activity from the LRG assay. ► EROD activity was a better predictor of

  8. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  10. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was d

  11. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. van Noort; J.J.H. Haftka; J.R. Parsons

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was d

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed; Hesham Dahshan; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall; Mariam Hassan Elbana; Ehab Nabawy; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB cong...

  13. Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S.; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and al...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations and congener composition in masu salmon from Japan: A study of all 209 PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two subspecies of masu salmon collected from central to northern Japan were examined. • All 209 PCB congeners in the fish were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS with δ15N and δ13C determinations. • ∑ PCBs was highest in fish that had upstreamed from Ise Bay, which is close to a heavy industrial area. • However, TEQdl-PCBs values were highest in fish from southern part of the Sea of Japan. - Abstract: We collected two subspecies of masu salmon: Oncorhynchus masou masou from four localities (southern Sea of Japan northward to Hokkaido) and O. masou ishikawae from upstream from Ise Bay close to a heavy industrial area. All 209 PCB congeners were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS. PCA ordination of congener concentrations divided data into three groups: (i) ssp. masou from Hokkaido, (ii) ssp. masou from the other regions and (iii) ssp. ishikawae. The highest ∑ PCB concentration (40.39 ng/wet wt) was in ssp. ishikawae followed by ssp. masou from southern waters; however the TEQdioxin-like PCBs was highest in ssp. masou from southern water (1.96 pg-TEQdioxin-like PCBs/g wet wt.) due to the high proportion of congener #126 in its complement (#126 has the highest toxic equivalency factor among congeners). There is likely a contamination source offshore in the southern Sea of Japan and/or along the migratory route of ssp. masou

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) in oil shale and fly ash from oil shale-fired power plant in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estonian thermal power plants are the world largest thermal power plants burning low-grade local oil shale. During the European Dioxin project the concentration of dioxins was determined at Baltic Power Plant in oil shale and fly ash taken from electrostatic precipitators. The study of PCB and dioxin was carried out by Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfahlen, Germany. Based on the analyses of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in oil shale and fly ash it was concluded that the power plants are probably not the major sources of dioxins

  16. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  17. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  19. PCB138, but not PCB153 and PCB180, acts as a weak antiandrogen in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2000-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a group of persistent environmental chemicals including 209 possible congeners exhibiting a variety of chlorine substitution patterns. Due to their lipophilic nature and resistance toward biotransformation, PCBs accumulate in the food chain and all...... environmental matrixes including human adipose tissue, blood and milk. In most biological extracts PCB#138 (2,2',3,4,4',5-hexaCB), PCB#153 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaCB), and PCB#180 (2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptaCB) are the dominating components. Depending on the position and number of chlorine substitutions, different...... classes of PCB congeners elicit a complex spectrum of biological and toxic responses in in vivo and in vitro models. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah receptor) giving rise to health risk such as organ toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although reports...

  20. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a) Specialized definitions. (1) PCB Manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who...

  1. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION AND CAPACITOR AND TRANSFORMER FILLING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described are methods to measure the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from the stacks of municipal waste, industrial waste, and sewage sludge incinerators and from capacitor and transformer filling plants. The PCB emissions from the incineration plants are collected by im...

  2. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes, as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetr...

  3. PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, J.M.; Rickert, D.A.; Siegel, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  5. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are generally disposed of by incineration, an expensive and hazardous method. Moreover, in cases where the PCBs are a minor component of a nontoxic fluid, such as a dielectric fluid, incineration causes loss of the nontoxic fluid as well as the PCB. An alternative method for destroying PCBs is disclosed which is not only capable of detoxification of PCB-contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments, but can also remove PCBs from solution in a wide range of concentrations, permitting full recovery of the bulk of the solution free of PCBs. The process of the invention may be operated in a batch, continuous, or semicontinuous mode, and is advantageously used to detoxify organic liquids such as transformer oils. According to the invention, PCBs are chemically degraded by contact with a Lewis acid catalyst in a nonaqueous liquid medium, in the presence of a cation which combines with the chlorine on the PCB to form a solid chloride of the cation which will precipitate out from the liquid medium. Preferred Lewis acids are metal halides, particularly a combination of aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, and the preferred cation is potassium in the form of KOH. The Lewis acids may be supplied to the process by the adventitious corrosion of a vessel containing the PCB-contaminated matter. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 3 figs

  6. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  7. Radiochemical decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) decomposition are analyzed with the aim of determining whether polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or dibenzafurans (PCDF) are formed during radition-chemical decomposition. It is shown that under irradiation of PCB Arochlor 1260 mixture with 10-2 mass % concentration decomposition degree equals 90.4 % at radiaion dose more than 6 Mrad. As the result of irradiation the content of relatively light PCB in the mixture increases and the content of irradiated mixture becomes close to the content of Arochlor 1242 mixture. Neitgher PCDD nor PCDE is detected on the products of PCB decomposition

  8. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring

  9. NADPH oxidase and lipid raft-associated redox signaling are required for PCB153-induced upregulation of cell adhesion molecules in human brain endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS.

  10. Different effects of PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153 alone or mixed in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Sonia; Chiesara, Enzo; Fucile, Serena; Marabini, Laura

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous, persistent environmental contaminants that can be a potential health hazard. In the present study we analyzed the potential estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells of four biologically relevant PCB congeners, alone or in mixtures, present in dairy products, vegetable oil and fish: PCB101, PCB118, PCB138 and PCB153. The mixture of four PCB was tested at seven different concentrations. We investigated the ability of these PCBs, alone or mixed, to induce cell proliferation, and the level of estrogen-regulated protein pS2, in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells. PCB153 (35 microM) stimulated cell proliferation from 48 h up to day 6, PCB118 (40 microM) only at 48 h, but PCB101 (45 microM) and PCB138 (15 microM) applied to the cells for 6 days had no effect. In contrast, the various concentrations of mixtures significantly reduced cell proliferation at different times. No change in pS2 levels was seen after treatment with the PCBs alone or mixed. In exploring the mechanism of these events, we found that PCB153 induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) ERK1/2 at 4, 8 and 12 h, while the antiproliferative effect seemed to be related to an apoptotic action beginning at 12 h and ending at 48 h. These findings indicate that these PCBs alone or mixed have no estrogenic effect in MCF-7 cells, although PCB153 induce an ERK1/2-mediated mitogenic effect. On the contrary the mixture of PCBs induces an antiproliferative effect, ascribable to an apoptotic action. PMID:18508174

  11. BIOCHEMICAL AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL/LACTATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PCB'S WITH RESPECT TO ENDOGENOUS SEX STEROIDS AND THE PROESTROGEN, METHOXYCHLOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) bioaccumulate in the food chain of humans and many wildlife species, can be readily transferred transplacentally and lactationally to offspring, and have caused reproductive toxicity. PCB's are potent inducers in juveniles and adults of ...

  12. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  13. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and ...

  14. Exposure in utero to 2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) impairs sperm function and alters testicular apoptosis-related gene expression in rat offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicity of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depends on their molecular structure. Mechanisms by prenatal exposure to a non-dioxin-like PCB, 2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 132) that may act on reproductive pathways in male offspring are relatively unknown. The purpose was to determine whether epididymal sperm function and expression of apoptosis-related genes were induced or inhibited by prenatal exposure to PCB 132. Pregnant rats were treated with a single dose of PCB 132 at 1 or 10 mg/kg on gestational day 15. Male offspring were killed and the epididymal sperm counts, motility, velocity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, sperm-oocyte penetration rate (SOPR), testicular histopathology, apoptosis-related gene expression and caspase activation were assessed on postnatal day 84. Prenatal exposure to PCB 132 with a single dose of 1 or 10 mg/kg decreased cauda epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count and motile epididymal sperm count in adult offspring. The spermatozoa of PCB 132-exposed offspring produced significantly higher levels of ROS than the controls; ROS induction and SOPR reduction were dose-related. In the low-dose PCB 132 group, p53 was significantly induced and caspase-3 was inhibited. In the high-dose group, activation of caspase-3 and -9 was significantly increased, while the expressions of Fas, Bax, bcl-2, and p53 genes were significantly decreased. Gene expression and caspase activation data may provide insight into the mechanisms by which exposure to low-dose or high-dose PCB 132 affects reproduction in male offspring in rats. Because the doses of PCB 132 administered to the dams were approximately 625-fold in low-dose group and 6250-fold higher in high-dose group than the concentration in human tissue levels, the concentrations are not biologically or environmentally relevant. Further studies using environmentally relevant doses are needed for hazard identification

  15. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  16. PCB eksponering i Farum Midtpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    I marts og april 2011 blev i alt 104 lejligheder og 289 beboere fra Farum Midtpunkt undersøgt for niveauer af PolyChlorerede Biphenyler (PCB) i henholdsvis fuger og indeluft i lejligheder-ne, og i blodplasma. Til analyserne i denne rapport indgik 273 beboere, 139 fra PCB-forurenede lejligheder og...... 134 fra ikke-forurenede lejligheder. Der blev indsamlet luftprøver fra 83 forure-nede og 21 ikke-forurenede lejligheder og fugeprøver fra 20 forurenede lejligheder. Ni ud af 24 målte PCB-kongenere var under detektionsgrænsen i luften, inkl. de to mest toksiske kongenere nr. 126 og 169. For de...... forurenede lejlig-heder, undtagen for nr. 183 og 190, samt for nr. 182 som alle lå under detektionsgrænsen. For ni ud af tolv dioxin-lignende PCB-forbindelser var alle, eller næsten alle prøver under detektions-grænsen. For nr. 105 og 118 sås signifikant højere niveau blandt eksponerede. Mænd havde et lidt...

  17. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  18. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  19. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  20. Phase I enzyme induction in Girardinichthys viviparus, an endangered goodeid fish, exposed to water from native localities enriched with polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-López, Armando; Jiménez-Orozco, F Alejandro; Jiménez-Zamudio, Luís A; García-Latorre, Ethel; Domínguez-López, M Lilia

    2009-10-01

    The present study examines the induction of mixed-function oxidase (MFO) enzymes, including CYP content CYP1A (EROD) activity and alcohol dehydrogenase activity (ADH), in an endemic Mexican fish species, the black-fin goodeid Girardinichthys viviparus, exposed to the water of two localities, Lake Texcoco (LTX) and Lake Zumpango, and to the same matrices enriched in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to simulate the potential toxic effects of sublethal increases in these xenobiotics. Fishes of both sexes born in the laboratory were exposed for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days. Water from the two types of localities of the black-fin goodeid contains MFO inducers. Of the two, the most contaminated is LTX water, which also contains PCBs. EROD activity was higher in all treatments with female compared with male fish. This suggests greater metabolic compromise in female fish as a response to damage caused by these xenobiotics. In this species, CYP induction displayed two patterns that were not always concurrent with higher CYP1A activity. In the enriched matrix system, biotransformation processes were notably altered. Increased ADH may indicate that this enzyme is involved in the biotransformation of PCBs and their metabolites, particularly in male fish, and provides at least a part of reductive power required by the MFO enzymes; however, specific studies are needed to clarify this point.

  1. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH.The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes...... exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular dynamics in lambs and modulate the responsiveness of the pituitary gland to GnRH....

  2. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A.; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily...

  3. Effects of Chinese domestic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhou, Jing-Ming; Chu, Shao-Gang; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) influence gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis, tadpoles were exposed to two Chinese domestic PCBs (PCB3 and PCB5 from Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 46/47 to complete metamorphosis. Gonads were characterized using a dissecting microscope. The control X. laevis had normal ovaries or testes in gross morphology, whereas obviously abnormal testes including ovotestes were found in PCB3- and PCB5-exposed groups. Ovotestes were characterized by ...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces endoplasmic reticulum stress, unfolded protein response, and calcium release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Song, Xiufang; Shi, Qiong; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-06-15

    Organisms are able to respond to environmental insult to maintain cellular homeostasis, which include the activation of a wide range of cellular adaptive responses with tightly controlled mechanisms. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle responsible for protein folding and calcium storage. ER stress leads to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER lumen. To be against or respond to this effect, cells have a comprehensive signaling system, called unfolded protein response (UPR), to restore homeostasis and normal ER function or activate the cell death program. Therefore, it is critical to understand how environmental insult regulates the ingredients of ER stress and UPR signalings. Previously, we have demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone caused oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Here, we investigated the role of a PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ on ER stress, UPR, and calcium release. PCB29-pQ markedly increased the hallmark genes of ER stress, namely, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), GRP94, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) on both protein and mRNA levels in HepG2 cells. We also confirmed PCB29-pQ induced ER morphological defects by using transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, PCB29-pQ induced intracellular calcium accumulation and calpain activity, which were significantly inhibited by the pretreatment of BAPTA-AM (Ca(2+) chelator). These results were correlated with the outcome that PCB29-pQ induces ER stress-related apoptosis through caspase family gene 12, while salubrinal and Z-ATAD-FMK (a specific inhibitor of caspase 12) partially ameliorated this effect, respectively. N-Acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) scavenged ROS formation and consequently alleviated PCB29-pQ-induced expression of ER stress-related genes. In conclusion, our result demonstrated for the first time that PCB quinone leads to ROS-dependent induction of ER stress, and UPR and calcium release in HepG2 cells, and the

  5. PCB decomposition and formation in thermal treatment plant equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yukari; Noma, Yukio; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Yoshihito; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2007-04-01

    In this study we investigated both the decomposition and unintentional formation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners during combustion experiments of refuse-derived fuel (RDF) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) at several stages in thermal treatment plant equipment composed of a primary combustion chamber, a secondary combustion chamber, and other equipments for flue gas treatment. In both experiments, the unintentional formation of PCB occurred in the primary combustion chamber at the same time as the decomposition of PCB in input samples. By combusting RDF, non-ortho-PCB predominantly formed, whereas ortho-PCB and symmetric chlorinated biphenyls (e.g., #52/69, #87/108, and #151) tended to be decomposed. ASR formed the higher chlorinated biphenyls more than RDF. These by-products from ASR had no structural relation with ortho-chlorine. Lower chlorinated biphenyls appeared as predominant homologues at the final exit site, while all congeners from lower to higher chlorinated PCB were unintentionally formed as by-products in the primary combustion chamber. This result showed that the flue gas treatment equipments effectively removed higher chlorinated PCB. Input marker congeners of RDF were #11, #39, and #68, while those for ASR were #11, #101, #110/120, and #118. Otherwise, combustion marker congeners of RDF were #13/12, #35, #77, and #126, while those for ASR were #170, #194, #206, and #209. While the concentration of PCB increased significantly in the primary combustion chamber, the value of toxicity equivalency quantity for dioxin-like PCB decreased in the secondary combustion chamber and the flue gas treatment equipments. PMID:17134732

  6. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  7. Estrogenicity and androgenicity screening of PCB sulfate monoesters in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flor, Susanne; He, Xianran; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Recent studies identified polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) sulfate esters as a major product of PCB metabolism. Since hydroxy-PCBs (HO-PCBs), the immediate precursors of PCB sulfates and important contributors to PCB toxicity, were shown to have estrogenic activity, we investigated the estrogenicity/androgenicty of a series of PCB sulfate metabolites. We synthesized the five possible structural sulfate monoester metabolites of PCB 3, a congener shown to be biotransformed to sulfates, a sulfate ester of the paint-specific congener PCB 11, and sulfate monoesters of two HO-PCBs reported to interact with sulfotransferases (PCB 39, no ortho chlorines, and PCB 53, 3 ortho chlorines). We tested these PCB sulfates and 4'-HO-PCB 3 as positive control for estrogenic, androgenic, anti-estrogenic, and anti-androgenic activity in the E- and A-screen with human breast cancer MCF7-derived cells at 100 μM-1 pM concentrations. Only 4'-HO-PCB 3 was highly cytotoxic at 100 μM. We observed structure-activity relationships: compounds with a sulfate group in the chlorine-containing ring of PCB 3 (2PCB 3 and 3PCB 3 sulfate) showed no interaction with the estrogen (ER) and androgen (AR) receptor. The 4'-HO-PCB 3 and its sulfate ester had the highest estrogenic effect, but at 100-fold different concentrations, i.e., 1 and 100 μM, respectively. Four of the PCB sulfates were estrogenic (2'PCB 3, 4'PCB 3, 4'PCB 39, and 4'PCB 53 sulfates; at 100 μM). These sulfates and 3'PCB 3 sulfate also exhibited anti-estrogenic activity, but at nM and pM concentrations. The 4'PCB 3 sulfate (para-para' substituted) had the strongest androgenic activity, followed by 3'PCB 3, 4'PCB 53, 4PCB11, and 4PCB 39 sulfates and the 4'HO-PCB 3. In contrast, anti-androgenicity was only observed with the two compounds that have the sulfate group in ortho- or meta- position in the second ring (2'PCB 3 and 3'PCB 3 sulfate). No dose-response was observed in any screen, but, with exception of estrogenic activity (only seen

  8. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Planar PCB Hazards to Fish, Wildlife, and Invertebrates: A Synoptic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Belisle, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Ecological and toxicological aspects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment are reviewed with emphasis on biologically active congeners and fish and wildlife. Subtopics include sources and uses, chemical and biochemical properties, concentrations in field collections, lethal and sublethal effects, and recommendations for the protection of sensitive resources. All production of PCBs in the United States ceased in 1977. Of the 1.2 million tons of PCBs manufactured to date, about 65% are still in use in electrical equipment and 31% in various environmental compartments, and 4% were degraded or incinerated. The 209 PCB congeners and their metabolites show wide differences in biological effects. A significant part of the toxicity associated with commercial PCB mixtures is related to the presence of about 20 planar congeners, i.e., congeners without chlorine substitution in the ortho position. Toxic planar congeners, like other PCB congeners, have been detected in virtually all analyzed samples, regardless of collection locale. Planar PCB concentrations were usually highest in samples from near urban areas and in fat and liver tissues, filter-feeding bivalve mollusks, fish-eating birds, and carnivorous marine mammals. Adverse effects of planar PCBs on growth, survival, and reproduction are highly variable because of numerous biotic and abiotic modifiers, including interaction with other chemicals. In general, embryos and juveniles were the most sensitive stages tested to planar PCBs, and the chinook salmon, domestic chicken, mink, rhesus macaque, and laboratory white rat were among the most sensitive species. for protection of natural resources, most authorities now recommend (1) analyzation of environmental samples for planar and other potentially hazardous congeners; (2) exposure studies with representative species and specific congeners, alone and in combination with other environmental contaminants; (3) clarification of existing structure-induction

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure alters the expression profile of microRNAs associated with vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Petriello, Michael C; Perkins, Jordan T; Shen, Shu; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple vascular complications including endothelial cell dysfunction and atherosclerosis. PCB-induced activation of the vasculature subsequently leads to oxidative stress and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion proteins. Gene expression of these cytokines/proteins is known to be regulated by small, endogenous oligonucleotides known as microRNAs that interact with messenger RNA. MicroRNAs are an acknowledged component of the epigenome, but the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes such as toxicant-induced changes in microRNA profiles is currently understudied. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of PCB exposure on microRNA expression profile in primary human endothelial cells using the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1260. Samples were analyzed using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 4.0 arrays for high throughput detection and selected microRNA gene expression was validated (RT-PCR). Microarray analysis identified 557 out of 6658 microRNAs that were changed with PCB exposure (p<0.05). In-silico analysis using MetaCore database identified 21 of these microRNAs to be associated with vascular diseases. Further validation showed that Aroclor 1260 increased miR-21, miR-31, miR-126, miR-221 and miR-222 expression levels. Upregulated miR-21 has been reported in cardiac injury while miR-126 and miR-31 modulate inflammation. Our results demonstrated evidence of altered microRNA expression with PCB exposure, thus providing novel insights into mechanisms of PCB toxicity. PMID:27288564

  11. Studies on the transformation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas strain LB 400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the main factors influencing the degradation of certain PCB congeners by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB 400 were characterized. The significance of the carbon source used for growth was studied by comparison of rates of PCB transformation by cells grown on biphenyl and other carbon sources. PCB transformation was studied in resting cells grown on glucose and glycerol. Supplementation of the degradation medium with biphenyl significantly decreased the rate of PCB congener transformation. The presence of glycerol or glucose did not affect PCB transformation rates. The study showed that in the treatment of contaminated soils, resting cells lose their viability and PCB transforming ability, such that, in the absence of a growth substrate, soil would have to be reinoculated to maintain PCB biodegradation. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  13. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD

  14. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A NON-MIGRATORY MARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS ACROSS A STRONG GRADIENT OF PCB CONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to contaminated sites exhibit heritable resistance to some of the toxic effects of early life-stage exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This evolved tolerance provides evidence of strong selection by PCB...

  15. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  16. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enanti...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  18. Genomic characterization of three unique Dehalococcoides that respire on persistent polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shanquan; Chng, Kern Rei; Wilm, Andreas; Zhao, Siyan; Yang, Kun-Lin; Nagarajan, Niranjan; HE, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the sediments of lakes, rivers, and harbors. Although the PCB detoxification through microbial reductive dechlorination has been extensively studied for more than 20 y, the difficulty in cultivating PCB dechlorinators in pure culture impedes further characterization, optimization, and application in in situ bioremediation. By combining traditional culture techniques with next-generation sequencing technology, ...

  19. PCB usage at the Grand Junction Area Office Facility. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development, implementation, and results of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) identification project at the Grand Junction Area Office (GJAO) are summarized. Methodology for the PCB analysis is described, and results are tabulated. Of the 51 transformers and disconnects in use at GJAO, 15 unites were determined to be PCB-contaminated or filled with PCBs. This number falls within EPA's estimate of 25 to 40 percent of all transformers in use being at least contaminated. Approximately 324 gallons of PCBs and 515 gallons of PCB-contaminated fluids are being used currently. No contaminated transformers or disconnects are in a position to contaminate food or feed products at the facility

  20. Cometabolic oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil with a surfactant-based field application vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoie, C. A.; Layton, A C; Sayler, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degradative genes, under the control of a constitutive promoter, were cloned into a broad-host-range plasmid and a transposon. These constructs were inserted into a surfactant-utilizing strain, Pseudomonas putida IPL5, to create a field application vector (FAV) in which a surfactant-degrading organism cometabolizes PCB. By utilizing a surfactant not readily available to indigenous populations and a constitutive promoter, selective growth and PCB-degradative gene...

  1. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Human occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with varying chlorine content has been reported by several investigators, using analyses of blood or adipose samples or skin wipes to evaluate levels in the body. The intensity of occupational exposure is related to both duration and intensity of exposure. The qualitative nature of occupational exposure, as well as casual environmental exposure, has been shown to consist of less readily metabolized PCB congeners. The pattern of P...

  2. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  3. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD/F) and biphenyls (PCB) in fish, beef, and fowl purchased in food markets in Northern California USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksemburg, W.; Maier, M.; Patterson, A. [Alta Analytical Laboratory, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wenning, R.; Braithwaite, S. [ENVIRON International, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Food basket surveys and exposure studies conducted over the past decade suggest that one of the main routes of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) is likely through the consumption of food products such as eggs, meats, fish, and dairy products. More recently, studies of human milk, blood, and adipose tissues also demonstrate human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The contamination of Belgium store-bought chicken products in 1999 and, more recently, concerns regarding farmraised fish products in the U.S., Ireland, and elsewhere by PCDD/Fs and PCBs has heightened concerns about the occurrence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PBDEs, in consumer food products. In the U.S., for example, recent studies have shown the edible portions of farm-raised fish containing higher levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs than in wild fish. In this study, fillets from several species of freshwater and ocean fish (both farm-raised and wild), as well as ground beef, ground deer, and meat from several species of fowl (chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pheasant), were purchased from food markets in the cities of Sacramento and El Dorado Hills, California USA. Foods were tested for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs and the results used to evaluate human exposure through the consumption of store-bought consumer food products.

  4. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,29,3,4,49,5,59- Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 ...

  5. Bacterial degradation of polychlorinted biphenyls in sludge from an industrial sewer lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. S.; Takacs, A. M.; Kuivinen, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) found in an industrial sewer sludge can be effectively degraded by mutant bacteria. The aerated sludge was inoculated daily with mutant bacteria in order to augment the existing bacteria with bacteria that were considered to be capable of degrading PCB's. The pH, nitrogen, and phosphorus levels were monitored daily to maintain an optimum growing medium for the bacteria. A gas chromatographic method was used to determine the PCB concentrations of the sludge initially and also throughout the experiment. Results and discussion of the bacterial treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls are presented.

  6. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  7. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from Sicily (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licata, Patrizia; Naccari, Francesco; Dugo, Giacomo; Fotia, Vincenzo; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potorti, Angela Giorgia; Di Bella, Giuseppa

    2012-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the concentrations and distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in intestine, liver, and muscle samples of 11 common buzzards (Buteo buteo) from Sicily used as bioindicator for monitoring pollution in environment. All samples of common buzzards were collected at the "Recovery Center of Wild Fauna" of Palermo, through the Zooprophilactic Institute. Quantitative determination of OCs and PCBs in the samples examined has been carried out using HRGC-ECD and GC-MS. The results obtained show the presence of concentrations of ∑DDT and ∑PCB in almost all samples. Regarding ∑DDT (4,4(')-DDE, 2,4(')-DDD, 4,4(')-DDD, 2,4(')-DDT, and 4,4(')-DDT), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (0.411 ± 0.050 μg/g) followed by muscle (0.130 ± 0.017 μg/g) and liver samples (0.109 ± 0.014 μg/g). As regards the ∑PCB congeners (PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-95, PCB-99, PCB-101, PCB-110, PCB-138, PCB-146, PCB-149, PCB-151, PCB-153, PCB-170, PCB-177, PCB-180, PCB-183, and PCB-187), the highest concentrations were found in intestine (1.686 ± 0.144 μg/g) followed by liver (1.064 ± 0.162 μg/g) and muscle samples (0.797 ± 0.078 μg/g). Our data deserve particular attention not only for their significance but especially because they were recorded in Sicily, a region with a very low risk of environmental pollution due to the shortage of industries. PMID:21739282

  8. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron...... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...

  9. Effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on cognitive abilities in Dutch children at 42 months of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PGH; Boersma, ER; Sauer, PJJ; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study possible adverse effects of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and dioxins on cognitive functioning in young children. Methods: In a follow-up of the Dutch PCB/Dioxin study, cognitive abilities were assessed with the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

  10. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  11. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  12. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  13. Congenital PCB poisoning: a reevaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.W.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the literature reveals a need to clarify the pathologic physiology of congenital polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning, which is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, brown staining of the skin and mucous membranes as in Addison's disease, natal teeth, widely open fontanelles and sagittal suture and apparent overgrowth of the gingiva. The skull abnormalities may represent irregular calcification, with natal teeth appearing because the bone of the mandible is penetrated more easily than usual. Some fetuses were poisoned at the time the mothers ingested the oil; others were affected in the subsequent years from residual contamination in the mothers' bodies. The misadventure in Japan was repeated in Taiwan in 1979. The seven congenital cases in Taiwan reported thus far seem to differ from those in Japan. In Taiwan the noses were somewhat black, two of the infants did not have low birth weight and the osseous abnormalities of the skull and gingival hyperplasia were not observed. Systematic followup studies should be made in Taiwan of the children born within 2 years of maternal poisoning with PCBs. Special attention should be given to age at first dentition and skull-X-rays for spotty calcification, among other measures of physical, neurologic and intellectual development.

  14. PCB management at Manitoba Hydro's Waverley Service Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manitoba Hydro was the first Canadian utility to initiate a program to decontaminate insulating oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This paper describes Manitoba Hydro's recovery, reuse and recycling program, operated out of the utility's Waverley Service Centre (WSC). The WSC is a central facility serving to phase out and and destroy PCBs which remain in Manitoba Hydro's electrical system. Several hundred thousand litres of PCB-contaminated insulating oil are decontaminated annually at the WSC. The decontaminated oil is then reconditioned for reuse within the system operations. A PCBX unit was purchased from Sun Ohio for the decontamination of insulating oils containing PCBs. PCB decontamination is achieved through a chemical dechlorination treatment process. The PCBX treatment unit and the PCB storage building were described. 18 refs., 8 figs

  15. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  17. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates.

  18. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  19. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  20. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...... achieved from the intervention was 30% and in one of the bedrooms 45%. Emissions of PCB rose dramatically during periods of increased ventilation as the drop in concentration did not match the increased ACH. When ventilation in the bedrooms was increased incrementally from 0.5 to 2.2, 4.5, and 6.6 /h...

  1. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  2. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  3. PCB resistance within phytoplankton populations in polluted and unpolluted marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosper, E.M.; Wurster, C.F.; Rowland, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison between clones of two species of diatoms, Asterionella japonica and Ditylum brightwellii, isolated from Sandy Hook, New Jersey (polluted site) and Montauk, New York (unpolluted site) indicated that some of the clones from Sandy Hook were more resistant to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). A japonica was less sensitive to PCB than D. brightwellii since seven clones of A. japonica from both sites were tolerant of 25 micro-g/liter PCB whereas no clones from either site of D. brightwellii showed such resistance. Growth under high light intensity increased the sensitivity to PCB in all clones except one super-resistant clone from Sandy Hook which was not affected even by additions of 50 micro-g/liter to the growth medium. This interactive effect of light on PCB sensitivity may relate to the photo-adaptive characteristics of each clone. 60 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  4. Induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sprogøe, Jonas; Elkjaer, Bente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning.......The purpose of this paper is to explore how induction of newcomers can be understood as both organizational renewal and the maintenance of status quo, and to develop ways of describing this in terms of learning....

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  7. Determination of Atmospheric PCB Level Variations in Continuously Collected Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ahmet Egemen; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in ambient air samples (n = 48) that were collected for a 2- to 3-day period in each season (winter, spring, summer, fall) of 2013. The samples were collected on the Campus of Uludag University, which is in a semirural region. The samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler. The gas and particle phase concentrations of 87 PCB congeners (Σ87PCB) were measured in these samples. The average gas and particle phase concentrations of the Σ87PCB were calculated to be 293 ± 257 and 52 ± 56 ng/m(3), respectively. However, the results of short-term measurements showed that the variation among the measurements in the gas phase was up to 39-fold and up to 84-fold in the particle phase. These results demonstrated that the ambient air PCB concentrations were not stable and changed dramatically on a daily basis. Therefore, it was clear that a small number of samples could not be representative of the entire region. Furthermore, the obtained concentrations showed differences that depended on the meteorological conditions and long distance transportation. The sampling indicated that PCB homologues with 3 or 4 chlorines were dominant. PMID:27290669

  8. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  9. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  10. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND... are transmitted to the food portion (meat, milk, and eggs) of food-producing animals ingesting...

  11. Effect of Chemical Structure on the Isobaric and Isochoric Fragility in Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, C. M.; Casalini, R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature data, along with dielectric relaxation measurements, are reported for a series of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), differing in the number of chlorine atoms on their phenyl rings. Analysis of the results reveals that with increasing chlorine content, the relaxation times of the PCB become governed to a greater degree by density, rho, relative to the effect of temperature, T. This result is consistent with the respective magnitudes of the scaling exponent, gamma, yi...

  12. Characterization of Extreme Acidophile Bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans) Bioleaching Copper from Flexible PCB by ICP-AES

    OpenAIRE

    Weihua Gu; Jianfeng Bai; Jue Dai; Chenglong Zhang; Wenyi Yuan; Jingwei Wang; Pengcheng Wang; Xin Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve copper leaching efficiency from the flexible printed circuit board (PCB) by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the bacteria bioleaching copper under extreme acidic condition from flexible PCB. The inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) is a very accurate way to analyze metals in solution; this paper investigated the optimal conditions for copper bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from flexible PCB...

  13. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirinck, Eveline; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites. PMID:27089353

  14. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Dirinck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxin (fT4, 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites.

  15. Studies on air and water pollution. I. Polychlorinated biphenyls and benzopyrene status report July 1977 - June 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical methodology developed for trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in water was described. The water sample was extracted with hexane and the extract passes through a florisil column. The cleaned extract was concentrated and then analyzed by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. The methodology has an efficiency of 85% recovery for PCB spiked at a concentration level of 1 ppm. Minimum detection limit obtained was 0.5 ppm PCB in water. A total of 27 water samples were collected and analyzed during the period January - June 1978. No PCB's were detected in the samples. (author)

  16. Reproductive hormone profile and pubertal development in 14-year-old boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Grønlund, Ciea; Kjær, Ina M;

    2012-01-01

    Because polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause endocrine disruption, we examined 438 adolescent boys from a birth cohort in the Faroe Islands, where PCB exposures are elevated. We measured PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cord blood and in serum from clinical...... examination at age 14. Higher prenatal PCB exposure was associated with lower serum concentrations of both luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. In addition, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) was positively associated with both prenatal and concurrent PCB exposures. The PCB-SHBG association was robust...

  17. Level of polychlorinated biphenyls in the lower troposphere of the North-and South-Atlantic Ocean. Studies of global baseline pollution. Pt. 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were quantified in air samples of the tropospheric boundary layer of the Atlantic Ocean. The samples were taken on the German research vessel 'Polarstern' during north-south cruises across the Atlantic Ocean (1990, 1991), and on the Capo Verde islands in the North Atlantic Ocean (1992). Values for the sum of PCB were between 48 pg/m3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [ in pg/m3]: PCB 28: 1.3; PCB 52: 5.0; PCB 101: 3.0; PCB 118: ≤0.5; PCB 138: 1; PCB 153: 1; PCB 180: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m3]: PCB 28: 2.3; PCB 52: 3.4; PCB 101: ≤0.5; PCB 118: 3 (values for the seven indicator congeners were [in pg/m3]: PCB 28: 2.6; PCB 52: 11.7; PCB 101: 28.4; PCB 118: 9; PCB 138: 21; PCB 153: 18; PCB 180: 5.5) were measured of the coast of South Patagonia. A difference depending on latitude and on terrestrial influenced air masses between the lower and the higher chlorinated congeners was observed. The levels of three- and tetrachlorinated congeners were highest in the Trade Wind regions. The contents of the higher chlorinated congeners had maxima in samples influenced by continental air masses. A correlation of the levels of the lower chlorinated congeners in air over the South Atlantic with the surface water temperature and thus with the temperature dependent gas/water partition coefficient Kgw was observed. (orig.)

  18. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Louis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  20. The effects of PCB126 on intra-hepatic mechanisms associated with non alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Marie-Pier; Lefebvre, Caroline; Chapados, Natalie Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from alteration in lipid synthesis and elimination mechanisms such as very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and de novo lipogenesis. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that were mostly used historically as pesticides, solvents, flame retardant, and other applications. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been recognized to be of environmental and potential toxicologic concerns. Specifically, PCB1...

  1. PCB remediation in schools: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen W; Minegishi, Taeko; Cummiskey, Cynthia Campisano; Fragala, Matt A; Hartman, Ross; MacIntosh, David L

    2016-02-01

    Growing awareness of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in legacy caulk and other construction materials of schools has created a need for information on best practices to control human exposures and comply with applicable regulations. A concise review of approaches and techniques for management of building-related PCBs is the focus of this paper. Engineering and administrative controls that block pathways of PCB transport, dilute concentrations of PCBs in indoor air or other exposure media, or establish uses of building space that mitigate exposure can be effective initial responses to identification of PCBs in a building. Mitigation measures also provide time for school officials to plan a longer-term remediation strategy and to secure the necessary resources. These longer-term strategies typically involve removal of caulk or other primary sources of PCBs as well as nearby masonry or other materials contaminated with PCBs by the primary sources. The costs of managing PCB-containing building materials from assessment through ultimate disposal can be substantial. Optimizing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of remediation programs requires aligning a thorough understanding of sources and exposure pathways with the most appropriate mitigation and abatement methods. PMID:25994266

  2. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium▿

    OpenAIRE

    May, Harold D.; Miller, Greg S.; Birthe V. Kjellerup; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlorinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor 1260 in contaminated soil. The isolate requires Desulfovibrio spp. in...

  3. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  4. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  5. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (‑)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (‑)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (‑)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  7. Evidence for unique and ubiquitous environmental sources of 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Guo, Jia; Du, Songyan; Cavallo, Gregory J

    2010-04-15

    The non-Aroclor congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has been recently detected in air, water, biota, sediment, and suspended sediment. Although it has been known since at least the 1970s that this congener is produced inadvertently during the production of diarylide yellow pigments, this work presents the first evidence that the use of these pigments in consumer goods results in the dispersion of PCB 11 throughout the environment at levels that are problematic in terms of achieving water quality standards for the sum of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this work, PCB 11 is measured at ppb levels in consumer goods that are likely to be discarded in ways that allow them to enter wastewater treatment plants and combined sewer overflows, including newspapers, magazines, cardboard boxes used for food packaging, and plastic bags. Also, using data sets acquired for the purpose of calculating total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for PCBs, PCB 11 loads to the New York/New Jersey Harbor and Delaware River are calculated. Despite the fact that there are no known manufacturers of diarylide yellow pigments in the Delaware River watershed, the loads of PCB 11 to the Delaware River exceed the TMDL for the sum of PCBs by nearly a factor of 2. The ratio of PCB 11 to a characteristic dechlorination end product, PCB 4 (2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl), in these data sets indicates that dechlorination is not a significant source of PCB 11 in these systems. In the upper Hudson River, where extensive dechlorination of heavy PCB congeners occurs, the ratio is just 0.012. In contrast, downstream in the NY/NJ Harbor as well as in the Delaware River the ratio is much higher and more variable. Pigment use therefore appears to be the main source of PCB 11 in these systems, and this congener is likely to present a significant obstacle to achieving PCB water quality standards throughout the United States. PMID:20384375

  8. Construction and applications of DNA probes for detection of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading genotypes in toxic organic-contaminated soil environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several DNA probes for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading genotypes were constructed from PCB-degrading bacteria. These laboratory-engineered DNA probes were used for the detection, enumeration, and isolation of specific bacteria degrading PCBs. Dot blot analysis of purified DNA from toxic organic chemical-contaminated soil bacterial communities showed positive DNA-DNA hybridization with a 32P-labeled DNA probe (pAW6194, cbpABCD). Less than 1% of bacterial colonies isolated from garden topsoil and greater than 80% of bacteria isolated from PCB-contaminated soils showed DNA homologies with 32P-labeled DNA probes. Some of the PCB-degrading bacterial isolates detected by the DNA probe method did not show biphenyl clearance. The DNA probe method was found to detect additional organisms with greater genetic potential to degrade PCBs than the biphenyl clearance method did. Results from this study demonstrate the usefulness of DNA probes in detecting specific PCB-degrading bacteria, abundance of PCB-degrading genotypes, and genotypic diversity among PCB-degrading bacteria in toxic chemical-polluted soil environments. We suggest that the DNA probe should be used with caution for accurate assessment of PCB-degradative capacity within soils and further recommend that a combination of DNA probe and biodegradation assay be used to determine the abundance of PCB-degrading bacteria in the soil bacterial community

  9. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  10. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  11. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  12. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.;

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... different amounts of iron nanoparticles in both setups A and B. A PCB removal of 83% was obtained in setup A compared with 58% of setup B. Setup A also showed additional advantages, such as a higher PCB dechlorination, in a shorter time, with lower nZVI consumption, and with the use of half of the voltage...... gradient when compared with the traditional setup (B). Energy and nZVI costs for a full-scale reactor are estimated at 72 (sic) for each cubic meter of PCB contaminated soil treated on-site, making this technology competitive when compared with average off-site incineration (885 (sic) m-3) or landfilling...

  13. Toxicological Profile of Ultrapure 2,2 ',3,4,4 ',5,5 '-Heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Matti Viluksela; Päivi Heikkinen; van der Ven, Leo T. M.; Filip Rendel; Robert Roos; Javier Esteban; Merja Korkalainen; Sanna Lensu; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Kari Savolainen; Satu Sankari; Hellmuth Lilienthal; Annika Adamsson; Jorma Toppari; Maria Herlin

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total...

  14. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  15. Primary source regions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Burkhart, John F.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the source regions of the three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) 28, 101, and 180 measured at the Arctic stations Alert and Zeppelin, and at Birkenes, which is located in southern Norway. Although the Arctic is remote from the main use areas of these chemicals, PCBs have been found in Arctic air, seawater and biota, which has caused concerns for human and environmental health. We used 20-day backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART to identify the origin of air masses associated with the 20% highest and lowest measured PCB concentrations. At Birkenes, high concentrations are clearly associated with air masses arriving from known source regions (primarily in Europe and Russia), whereas low concentrations are correlated with atmospheric transport from regions with low primary emissions. At Zeppelin, the influence from known source regions is also enhanced when high PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations were measured. At Alert, in contrast, there is no clear link between high/low PCB concentrations and atmospheric transport from source/non-source regions. Additionally, we combined the atmospheric transport patterns with PCB emission data to identify important source regions and their seasonal variability. For the Arctic stations, Western Russia is the dominant source region for PCB-28 and PCB-101. Central Europe is the most important source region for PCB-180, but sources in the US contribute up to 15% to PCB-180 measured at Alert.

  16. Differential potency of atropisomers of polychlorinated biphenyls on cytochrome P450 induction and uroporphyrin accumulation in the chick embryo hepatocyte culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, L E; Shedlofsky, S I; Mannschreck, A; Püttmann, M; Swim, A T; Robertson, L W

    The atropisomers of 2,2',3,4,6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB), 2,2',3,4,4',6-hexachlorobiphenyl (HeCB), and 2,2',3,3',4,4',6,6'-octachlorobiphenyl (OCB) were studied in the chick embryo hepatocyte culture to determine if chirality plays a role in the recognition events associated with the induction of cytochromes P450 and the accumulation of uroporphyrin (URO). Concentration-related induction of cytochrome P450 content, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzphetamine N-demethylase (BPDM) activities were measured. The rank order of potency for total cytochrome P450 induction was HeCB greater than OCB greater than or equal to PeCB. The (+)- and (-)-enantiomers of PeCB and OCB were of equal potencies as inducers of cytochromes P450, whereas the (+)-HeCB was greater than the (-)-HeCB. HeCB was a much more potent inducer of EROD activity than was either PeCB or OCB. EROD activity was induced to a much greater extent by the (+)-enantiomers of all compounds, with the (-)-enantiomers of PeCB and OCB being inactive. BPDM activity was induced by all three compounds in the order of OCB greater than or equal to HeCB greater than PeCB. The (-)-enantiomers were more potent inducers of BPDM activities than were the (+)-enantiomers, except for HeCB, in which the (+)- was more potent than the (-)-enantiomer. Analysis of porphyrin accumulation in cultures treated with delta-aminolevulinic acid revealed that (+)-HeCB caused the greatest percent URO accumulation, which also correlated with the greatest increase in EROD activity. All other enantiomers caused up to 47% URO accumulation, which did not correlate with an increase in EROD activity.

  17. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  18. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  19. Loss of PCB and OCB during leaching tests; Verlies aan polychloorbifenylen (pcb) en organochloorbestrijdingsmiddelen (ocb) tijdens uitloogproeven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rood, G.A.; Broekman, M.H.; Aalbers, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of the Target Plan for the normalization commission 39011 on `Leaching characteristics of building and waste materials`, the RIVM has developed a set of leaching tests for various organic compounds. These tests are based on the leaching tests for inorganic compounds. The leaching behavior of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) was first investigated by means of a column and a serial batch test, resulting in draft protocols. The specific objective of the research presented in this report was to examine these protocols on applicability for the determination of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and exractable organohalogen compounds (EOX) leaching. The losses of these compounds during the leaching tests due to absorption, filtration, volatilization and light were evaluated. In general, the adsorptions of PCB and pesticides on materials made of glass, like the prefilter, glasswool and the bottle were lower than on those made of Teflon, like the rings, gauze and the tubing.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Glucose Metabolism in 9-Year-Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K.; Timmermann, Amalie G.; Rossing, Laura I.;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings and part...

  1. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentra

  2. Dermal toxicity studies of technical polychlorinated biphenyls and fractions thereof in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Beems, R.B.

    1971-01-01

    A significant difference in toxicity between 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations was found in a prior study: Clophen A 60 and Phenoclor DP6 showing the highest, Aroclor 1260 the lowest, toxicity (Vos and Koeman, 1970). A subsequent study revealed the presence of tetra- and pentachlorodiben

  3. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six ...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos. 118

  5. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum

  6. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  7. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wei, Dongfeng [Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Xie, Xiaoyun [College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiaohua [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Fei, Dongqing [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: zhaochy07@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum.

  8. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  9. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined i

  10. Prenatal exposure to PCB-153, p,p'-DDE and birth outcomes in 9000 mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Martínez, David;

    2014-01-01

    Low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) can impair fetal growth; however, the exposure-response relationship and effect modifiers of such association are not well established. This study is an extension of an earlier European me...

  11. In vivo and in vitro exposure to PCB 153 reduces long-term potentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, R J; Gyori, J; DeCaprio, A P; Carpenter, D O

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of gestational and lactational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153 (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexaCB) on the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) observed in the CA1 region of hippocampal brain slices prepared from rats at 30 days of age. We compared these actions to those observed when PCB 153 is dissolved in normal Krebs-Ringer solution and perfused on slices from control rats of the same age. In vivo exposure was at three dose levels (1. 25, 5, and 20 mg/kg/day...

  12. Production of metabolites from chloro biphenyls by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400 after growth on different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), when exposed to microorganisms, into chlorobenzoic acid metabolites was studied. PCBs are widely used in electrical transformers and have become widely dispersed in the environment. A proposed system for clean up of PCBs involves the combined use of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated congeners followed by aerobic degradation of moderately chlorinated PCBs, mediated by oxidative ring attack. Much of this work focused on biphenyl-grown cells, in particular Pseudomonas strain LB400 grown on biphenyl, which contains a multicomponent enzyme system. It was shown that resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400, grown on glycerol or glucose, could also transform purified PCB congeners and mixtures of PCBs in Aroclors, however, transformation rates were less than those observed with biphenyl-grown cells. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  13. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxu Jiang; Guorui Liu; Mei Wang; Minghui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involve...

  14. Subchronic Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) Exposure Produces Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Death of Ventral Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna W.; Notter, Sarah A.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Dever, Daniel P.; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Opanashuk, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between organochlorine and pesticide exposure to an enhanced risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A common biological phenomenon underlying cell injury associated with both polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and dopaminergic neurodegeneration during aging is oxidative stress (OS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oral PCB exposure, via food ingestion, impairs dopamine systems in the adult ...

  15. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  16. Acute hepatotoxicity of ethylene and halogenated ethylenes after PCB pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly, R B; Jaeger, R J

    1977-12-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that ethylene, vinyl fluoride monomer (VFM), vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), and vinyl bromide monomer (VBM) are all acutely hepatotoxic in rats pretreated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB). The time course of hepatic injury development after exposure and several parameters, environmental and chemical, affecting this toxicity were evaluated in the work reported here. Liver injury, as measured by serum alanine-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase (SAKT) or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), develops progressively over a 24-hr period following a 4-hr inhalation exposure of PCB-pretreated rats to ethylene or VCM. Environmental temperature during exposure to VCM does not affect hepatotoxicity or mortality below 30.3 degrees C. At 33.8 degrees C, however, mortality and SAKT are dramatically increased. Overnight fasting, which depletes hepatic glutathione (GSH) of PCB-pretreated rats before exposure to ethylene or VCM, significantly increases the hepatotoxicity of these compounds as measured by SDH. The combined effects of fasting and of trichloropropane epoxide (TCPE), an inhibitor of epoxide hydrase (EH), were also examined. TCPE treatment of fasted PCB-pretreated rats immediately before exposure was synergistic in increasing the acute toxicity of ethylene and VCM. TCPE increased mortality in fed or fasted rats exposed to VFM, but there was no effect of fasting alone. Both fasting and TCPE increased the sensitivity of PCB-pretreated rats to VBM, but there was not a clearly synergistic effect of fasting plus TCPE. These data suggest that the acute toxicity of these compounds is mediated through epoxide intermediates. PMID:417916

  17. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  18. Electron ionization mass spectral fragmentation study of sulfation derivatives of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Larry W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that can be metabolized via hydroxylated PCBs to PCB sulfate metabolites. The sensitive and selective analysis of PCB sulfate monoesters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS requires their derivatization, for example, as PCB 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE sulfate monoesters. To aid in the identification of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from biological samples, the electron impact MS fragmentation pathways of selected PCB TCE sulfate diesters were analyzed and compared to the fragmentation pathways of the corresponding methoxylated PCBs. Results The most abundant and characteristic fragment ions of PCB TCE sulfate diesters were formed by releasing CHCCl3, SO3, HCl2 and/or CCl3 from the TCE sulfate moiety and Cl2, HCl, ethyne and chloroethyne from an intermediate phenylcyclopentadienyl cation. The fragmentation pattern depended on the degree of chlorination and the position of the TCE sulfate moiety (i.e., ortho vs. meta/para to the second phenyl ring, but were independent of the chlorine substitution pattern. These fragmentation pathways are similar to the fragmentation pathways of structurally related methoxylated PCBs. Conclusion Knowledge of the fragmentation patterns of PCB TCE sulfate diesters will greatly aid in determining the position of sulfate moiety (ortho vs. meta/para of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from environmental or laboratory samples.

  19. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  20. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  1. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P g, respectively. Based on these PCB determinations for the ovaries and somatic tissue, we concluded that release of eggs by females at previous spawnings was not a contributing factor to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and corticosterone levels in seven polar seabird species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on exposure-related endocrine effects has been poorly investigated in wild birds. This is the case for stress hormones including corticosterone (CORT). Some studies have suggested that environmental exposure to PCBs and altered CORT secretion might be associated. Here we investigated the relationships between blood PCB concentrations and circulating CORT levels in seven free-ranging polar seabird species occupying different trophic positions, and hence covering a wide range of PCB exposure. Blood ∑7PCB concentrations (range: 61–115,632 ng/g lw) were positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT levels in three species and negatively associated to stress-induced CORT levels in one species. Global analysis suggests that in males, baseline CORT levels generally increase with increasing blood ∑7PCB concentrations, whereas stress-induced CORT levels decrease when reaching high blood ∑7PCB concentrations. This study suggests that the nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - Highlights: • Relationships between PCBs and stress hormones (CORT) are not well known in birds. • We measured blood PCBs, baseline and stress-induced CORT in seven seabird species. • ∑PCB was positively associated to baseline or stress-induced CORT in three species. • ∑PCBs was negatively linked to stress-induced CORT in the most contaminated species. • The nature of the PCB-CORT relationships may depend on the level of PCB exposure. - In polar seabird species, the relationship between PCB and CORT concentrations may be related to the levels of contamination

  3. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document, the open-quotes 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratoryclose quotes was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL's PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL's PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, open-quotes Status of the PCB Management Programclose quotes, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program's policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal

  4. Absorption of PCB126 by upper airways impairs G protein-coupled receptor-mediated immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ana Lúcia B.; Cruz, Wesley S.; Loiola, Rodrigo A.; Drewes, Carine C.; Dörr, Fabiane; Figueiredo, Natália G.; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra H. P.

    2015-10-01

    PCB126 is a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) environmental pollutant with a significant impact on human health, as it bioaccumulates and causes severe toxicity. PCB126-induced immune toxicity has been described, although the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. In this study, an in vivo protocol of PCB126 intoxication into male Wistar rats by intranasal route was used, which has not yet been described. The intoxication was characterised by PCB126 accumulation in the lungs and liver, and enhanced aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression in the liver, lungs, kidneys, and adipose tissues. Moreover, an innate immune deficiency was characterised by impairment of adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes and by reduced blood neutrophil locomotion and oxidative burst activation elicited by ex vivo G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. Specificity of PCB126 actions on the GPCR pathway was shown by normal burst oxidative activation evoked by Toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C direct activation. Moreover, in vivo PCB180 intoxication did not alter adhesion receptors on blood leukocytes either blood neutrophil locomotion, and only partially reduced the GPCR-induced burst oxidative activation on neutrophils. Therefore, a novel mechanism of in vivo PCB126 toxicity is described which impairs a pivotal inflammatory pathway to the host defence against infections.

  5. The Relationship between Prenatal PCB Exposure and Intelligence (IQ) in 9-Year-Old Children

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Paul W.; Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline; Pagano, James; Gump, Brooks B.; Darvill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated relationships between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and modest cognitive impairments in infancy and early childhood. However, few studies have followed cohorts of exposed children long enough to examine the possible impact of prenatal PCB exposure on psychometric intelligence in later childhood. Of the few studies that have done so, one in the Great Lakes region of the United States reported impaired IQ in chil...

  6. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment ...

  7. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...... examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken...... at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. RESULTS: A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0...

  8. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  9. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%–42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G−) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R2 = 0.719, p − bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R2 = 0.590, p − bacteria contributed significantly to soil PCB dissipation. • Fungi have a great potential in the dissipation of high chlorinated biphenyls. -- Cucurbita associated fungi and G− bacteria have important influence on soil PCB dissipation rate and congener profile

  10. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2015-01-01

    nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used......Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron...

  11. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S;

    2015-01-01

    increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure......Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which...... is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic...

  12. Prenatal Exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and Respiratory Health in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascon, Mireia; Sunyer, Jordi; Casas, Maribel;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children...... occurrences of the outcomes on the estimates of cord-serum concentrations of PCB 153 and DDE as continuous variables (per doubling exposure) and as cohort-specific tertiles. Summary estimates were obtained through random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The risk of bronchitis or wheeze (combined variable......) assessed before 18 months of age increased with increasing DDE exposure (relative risk [RR] per doubling exposure = 1.03 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.07]). When these outcomes were analyzed separately, associations appeared stronger for bronchitis. We also found an association between increasing PCB...

  13. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further......, the chamber was used for determining emissions from PCB-containing building materials in the field as well as remediated walls. The measurements showed that sorption of PCBs to chamber walls was insignificant after 2-4 days of exposure to the source. Over a period of two weeks emission rates did not change...

  14. Advances in PCB decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 several million kilograms of PCB equipment and millions of litres of PCB contaminated oil have been processed in Canada for reduction of PCB concentrations below government guidelines. Advances in extraction and metal recovery from electrical equipment, chemical dechlorination and distillation of PCB-contaminated oils were the significant technological options utilized. For example, using the Decontaksolv technology owners of PCB equipment in Canada have decontaminated three million kilograms of electrical equipment, which resulted in the reintegration of 2.7 million kilograms of useful metals (steel, copper, aluminium) into the economic circuit. The equipment decontaminated included transformers, electromagnets, relays, radiators, circuit breakers, tanks, pipes, valves, and drums. The most recent advances in this technology include improvements that makes the economical processing of capacitors, possible. Chemical dechlorination has virtually eliminated PCB-contaminated oils which are normally present in large transformers, to the point where some service companies have curtailed or discontinued their oil decontamination activities in Canada. Recent advances in this technology center around techniques for the decontamination of waste hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent, dielectric fluids. Two example projects to illustrate recent advances have been briefly described

  15. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  16. Relative bioavailability of soil-bound polychlorinated biphenyls in lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feidt, Cyril; Ounnas, Fayçal; Julien-David, Diane; Jurjanz, Stefan; Toussaint, Hervé; Jondreville, Catherine; Rychen, Guido

    2013-06-01

    Livestock may be exposed to organic pollutants via ingestion of contaminated matrices such as fodder or soil. The question on contribution of soil-bound polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) to livestock exposure was not yet considered. The aim of this study was to assess the relative bioavailability of soil-bound PCB by assessing milk excretion of indicator PCB (I-PCB) after ingestion by goats of graded levels of PCB (mainly PCB forms 153, 180, and 138) in soil-contaminated feeds or in oil-contaminated feeds. Eight multiparous Alpine goats were grouped in 4 pairs on the basis of body weight and milk yield. In each pair, one goat was assigned to the soil feeds and the other one to the oil feeds. The experiment consisted of a 7-d adaptation period, followed by a 96-d exposure period. The exposure period was divided into 3 successive 32-d periods during which each goat received either 3 soil feeds or 3 oil feeds, distributed in increasing rank of contamination. During the last week of each 32-d period, milk from each goat was collected during 3 successive 24-h periods, stored at -20°C, and freeze dried before analysis (extraction by accelerated solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis). Bioavailability of I-PCB from soil or spiked oil feeds was estimated by means of the slope-ratio method from I-PCB concentration in milk in response to ingested I-PCB. Relative bioavailability was found to vary from 36 to 50% for PCB 118, 138, and 153 and it was 73% for PCB 180. When considered globally, the response obtained with the I-PCB was estimated to 51%. Relative bioavailability was not established for PCB 52 and 101, compounds known to be readily cleared and showing low concentrations in milk. For PCB 28, no significant interaction was found between matrix and dose. This experiment reveals that PCB bound to soil are potentially liberated from soil during the digestive process and may undergo absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion

  17. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U

    1999-03-01

    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  18. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Preda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directly proportional to the adsorption of PCBs in soil. PCBs are very insoluble in water, so they tend to accumulate in the lipids. This is the reason why polychlorinated biphenyls are more strongly adsorbed in soils with higher organic matter content. To obtain the adsorption isotherm were used standard solutions of PCB 101with initial concentrations: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/ml. The adsorption constants were in order: 3072 ml/g for chernozem, 2943 mg/l for chromic luvisol, 998 mg/l for aluviosol and 1443 mg/l for anthrosol. The values of adsorption constants depend on the organic matter and clay content.

  19. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  20. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO2) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO2 under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO2 is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO2. The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO2 in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  1. Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; ZHANG Bing; XIAO Ke; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHENG Minghui

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been measured in sewage sludge samples from 8 urban wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The PCB congeners were analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 65.6 to 157 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 101 ng/g dw. The dioxin-like PCB WHO-TEQs (World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalents) of the sludge were lower than 1 pg /g dw. Consequently, all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were below the upper limit for land application according to the Chinese legislation law for agriculture use. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by tri-CBs and tetra-CBs. Similar distributions have been found in one of the Chinese PCB commercial products. The patterns of dioxin-like and indicator congeners observed in this study were quite similar in all samples. The predominant congener for dioxin-like and indicator PCBs were PCB-118 and PCB-28, respectively, while PCB-126 had the highest TEQ value.

  2. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2013-03-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of "fresh" polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low K(OW) congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs. PMID:23258773

  3. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  4. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  5. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, S.; Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M. [Japan EnvironChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a newly developed cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a pretreatment method for determining levels of PCBs in insulating oils. Standard and pretreated PCBs were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed. The diluted mixture was then combined with a horseradish peroxidase conjugate combined with an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles. A comparison of the method with standard ELISA processes indicated that the cocktail showed that cross reactivity patterns were improved. Twenty-six insulating oil samples contaminated with PCBs were then analyzed using the method. Values obtained using the cocktail method correlated with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) analyses conducted on the same samples. It was concluded that the cocktail ELISA technique is a reliable and simple analytical method for determining PCBs in insulating oils. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Fluorescence characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in cyclodextrin media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femia, R.A.; Scypinski, S.; Love, L.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin (CD) are discussed and contrasted. The steric hindrance of PCBs imposed by the positions of the chlorine atoms on the rings determines the overall stability of the resulting inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin which is reflected in the fluorescence intensities. Less substituted homologues include into the CD cavity equally well in both cyclodextrins, but very heavily substituted molecules show drastic differences between their fluorescence intensities in the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin solutions. This behavior can be employed as a method for spectral fractionation of PCB isomers. Spectral separation is demonstrated here for two variably substituted molecules, and the photophysical limitations of this approach are discussed.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...

  8. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pprocesses were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  10. Theoretical Modeling and Implementation of Traveling Wave Sensor Based on PCB Coils

    OpenAIRE

    Zewen Li; Tuofu Deng; Xiangjun Zeng; Feng Deng; Lei Shu

    2015-01-01

    Based on analyzing characteristics of Rogowski coil, a new type of PCB traveling wave sensor with simple structure, high linearity, and anti-interference ability is proposed. The sensor has fine physical structure, which can effectively resist external electromagnetic interference by anti-interference measurement. In addition, it can greatly improve mutual inductance based on simple combinations. Simulations show that the new PCB traveling wave sensor can validly extract and deliver traveling...

  11. Sonochemical Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is a kind of persistent and dangerous environmental pollutants. This paper presented the research result of sonochemical degradation of 2-chloro- biphenyl (2-CBP), 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CBP) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4'-CBP)in water. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics of 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficients are 3.69×10-2, 3.19×10-2 and 2.06×10-2 at 25±1°C for 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP respectively. The influence of initial concentrations, reaction temperature on the ultrasonic decomposition of 2-CBP were also investigated.

  12. Prediction of the Aqueous Solubilities of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shen LIU; Shi Hai CUI; Lian Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    Using the molecular electronegativity distance vector descriptors derived directly from the molecular topological structures, the aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)were predicted. A three-variable regression equation with correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the root mean square errors of 0.26 was developed. The descriptors included in the equation represent three interactions between three pairs of atomic types,I.e.,atom-C=and>C=,-C=and-Cl,and-Cland-Cl.It has been proved that the aqueous solubilities of 137 PCB congeners can be accurately predicted as long as there are more than 65 calibration compounds.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  14. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  15. PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory EPA Identification Number - TN 1890090003, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Finger, J.M.; Walker, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons used extensively prior to 1979 as dielectric fluids in electrical equipment, heat transfer systems, fire retardants, and plasticizers. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). ORNL operates research laboratories at the main ORNL/X-10 site and at the DOE/Y-12 Plant. ORNL manages PCBs and PCB-contaminated wastes that are generated at these sites in a manner that complies with state and federal regulations, as well as DOE and Energy Systems procedures. These wastes are stored on-site at ORNL prior to their treatment and disposal at EPA-approved facilities. In addition, PCB articles, PCB containers, and PCB-contaminated electrical equipment are in use at ORNL. The following report list the PCB transformers, PCB contaminated transformers, PCB capacitors, and miscellaneous equipment containing PCBs above 50 ppm.

  16. Risk assessment in a federal regulatory agency: an assessment of risk associated with the human consumption of some species of fish contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Cordle, F.; Locke, R; Springer, J

    1982-01-01

    The problem of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) became a national concern in 1971 when several accidental contaminations of foods were reported. Extensive efforts were undertaken by FDA to reduce the residues of PCBs in food. However, the PCB levels in several species of fresh-water fish have raised concern about the PCB residues from environmental contamination, and it is this concern which has prompted a reassessment of the human risk involved from consumption of such fish. The human epidem...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in harbor seal () livers from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Stranded four pup and ten adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) livers were collected from San Francisco Bay and the Gulf of Maine and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. ?28PCB concentrati...

  18. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  19. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, Katsunori, E-mail: anezaki@hro.or.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research Department, Institute of Environmental Sciences, N19W12, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakano, Takeshi [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.

  20. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources. PMID:26983809

  1. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  2. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources.

  3. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD50 of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R2 ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect their relative

  4. A luciferase reporter gene assay and aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 genotype predict the LD{sub 50} of polychlorinated biphenyls in avian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, Gillian E., E-mail: gmann017@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Farmahin, Reza, E-mail: mfarm070@uottawa.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Crump, Doug, E-mail: doug.crump@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Jones, Stephanie P., E-mail: stephanie.jones@ec.gc.ca [Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada); Klein, Jeff, E-mail: jeffery@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Konstantinov, Alex, E-mail: alex@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Potter, Dave, E-mail: dpotter@well-labs.com [Wellington Laboratories Inc., Research Division, Guelph, ON, Canada N1G 3M5 (Canada); Kennedy, Sean W., E-mail: sean.kennedy@ec.gc.ca [Centre for Advanced Research in Environmental Genomics, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0H3 (Canada)

    2012-09-15

    Birds differ in sensitivity to the embryotoxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which complicates environmental risk assessments for these chemicals. Recent research has shown that the identities of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the avian aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) ligand binding domain (LBD) are primarily responsible for differences in avian species sensitivity to selected dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans. A luciferase reporter gene (LRG) assay was developed in our laboratory to measure AHR1-mediated induction of a cytochrome P450 1A5 reporter gene in COS-7 cells transfected with different avian AHR1 constructs. In the present study, the LRG assay was used to measure the concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and PCBs 126, 77, 105 and 118 on luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with AHR1 constructs representative of 86 avian species in order to predict their sensitivity to PCB-induced embryolethality and the relative potency of PCBs in these species. The results of the LRG assay indicate that the identity of amino acid residues 324 and 380 in the AHR1 LBD are the major determinants of avian species sensitivity to PCBs. The relative potency of PCBs did not differ greatly among AHR1 constructs. Luciferase activity was significantly correlated with embryolethality data obtained from the literature (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.87, p < 0.0001). Thus, the LRG assay in combination with the knowledge of a species' AHR1 LBD sequence can be used to predict PCB-induced embryolethality in potentially any avian species of interest without the use of lethal methods on a large number of individuals. -- Highlights: ► PCB embryolethality in birds can be predicted from a species' AHR1 genotype. ► The reporter gene assay is useful for predicting species sensitivity to PCBs. ► The relative potency of PCBs does not appear to differ between AHR1 genotypes. ► Contamination of PCB 105 and PCB 118 did not affect

  5. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  6. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes.

  7. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Helena I; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero valent iron particles in a two-compartment cell is tested and compared to a more conventional combination of electrokinetic remediation and nZVI in a three-compartment cell. In the new two-compartment cell, the soil is suspended and stirred simultaneously with the addition of zero valent iron nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively. The highest removal with Soil 2 were 58% and 45%, in the two-compartment and the three-compartment cell, respectively, in the experiments without direct current. The pH of the soil suspension in the two-compartment treatment appears to be a determining factor for the PCB dechlorination, and this cell allowed a uniform distribution of the nanoparticles in the soil, while there was iron accumulation in the injection reservoir in the three-compartment cell. PMID:25841071

  8. Contrasting PCB bioaccumulation patterns among Lake Huron lake trout reflect basin-specific ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gordon; Ryder, Mark; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This study collected multiple age classes of lake trout from Lake Huron's Main Basin, Georgian Bay, and North Channel regions to compare and contrast top predator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation patterns in separate compartments of the same ecosystem. Sum PCB concentrations were highest for Main Basin (260 ± 24.9 ng g(-1) wet wt) fish, followed by Georgian Bay (74.6 ± 16.2 ng g(-1) ) and North Channel (42.0 ± 3.3 ng g(-1)) fish. Discriminant functions analysis of lake trout PCB profiles and stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values clearly distinguished fish by location, indicating high degrees of basin fidelity throughout their lifetimes in addition to highly contrasting PCB bioaccumulation profiles. These unique profiles were not attributable to significant differences in lake trout lipid contents (p = 0.856) or trophic position (δ(15)N; p = 0.334), with rainbow smelt representing the primary prey across the basins. Furthermore, significant differences were observed among the basins for the relationships between PCB biomagnification factors and hydrophobicity. An empirical model for predicting PCB biomagnification in Lake Huron lake trout indicated that basin-specific population growth rates and prey abundances were significant for explaining these contrasting patterns of PCB bioaccumulation. The results of the present study are fundamental for understanding the role of ecology in legacy persistent organic pollutant (POP) bioaccumulation. Specifically, ecosystem characteristics such as prey abundances, foraging ecology, and ultimately consumer growth can regulate the variability of legacy POP bioaccumulation as observed within and among a wide range of freshwater ecosystems.

  9. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  10. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-77 Induces Adipocyte Differentiation and Proinflammatory Adipokines and Promotes Obesity and Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan I; King, Victoria; Swanson, Hollie; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity, an inflammatory condition linked to cardiovascular disease, is associated with expansion of adipose tissue. Highly prevalent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) accumulate in adipose tissue because of their lipophilicity and increase with obesity. However, the effects of PCBs on adipocytes, obesity, and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease are unknown. Objectives In this study we examined in vitro and in vivo effect...

  12. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation incl...

  13. Plasma Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohles, Sean S.; Freeman, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons that have extensively polluted the environment and bioaccumulated in the food chain. PCBs have been deemed to be probable carcinogens by the Environmental Protection Agency, and exposure to high levels of PCBs has been consistently linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In the present article we present a forensic epidemiologic evaluation of the causal relationship between NHL and elevated PCB levels via ...

  14. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Park Hye-Youn; Hertz-Picciotto Irva; Sovcikova Eva; Kocan Anton; Drobna Beata; Trnovec Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal ex...

  15. Effects of Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and/or Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on Cochlear Function

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Emily; Powers, Brian E.; McAlonan, Ruth M.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes hearing loss that may be due to reduced thyroxine during cochlear development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are structurally similar to PCBs and reduce thyroxine. This study utilized an environmental PCB mixture and a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71, that represents the PBDEs found in humans to assess the potential for additive effects of PCBs and PBDEs on cochlear function. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed with corn ...

  16. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Eveline Dirinck; Dirtu, Alin C.; Govindan Malarvannan; Adrian Covaci; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and ...

  17. Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with lon...

  18. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and environmental biotransformation products on aquatic nitrification.

    OpenAIRE

    Sayler, G S; Shiaris, M. P.; Beck, W.; Held, S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on nitrification were examined for pure cultures and natural reservoir samples. PCBs at concentrations greater than 10 microgram liter-1 inhibited nitrification, principally ammonium oxidation, in one of two natural reservoir environments. However, this inhibition could not be reproduced in pure high-cell-density cultures or in previously contaminated reservoir waters. A PCB environmental biotransformation product, p-chlorophenylglyoxylic acid, ...

  19. Field-derived Henry's law constants for polychlorinated biphenyls in oceanic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Dachs, Jordi; Lohmann, Rainer; Jones, Kevin C.; Nizzeto, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants (Kaw) is very important for fate and transport studies of organic chemicals. Here field-derived Kaw values for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCBs 28, 49, 52, 118, 138, 149, and 153) were determined in the open Atlantic Ocean, at locations where air and seawater were assumed to be at equilibrium. Field-based Kaw values were derived from air and seawater samples simultaneously collected at these locations, and their relationship with tempe...

  20. Chlororganische Pestizide, polychlorierte Biphenyle und potentiell toxische Schwermetalle in Organproben von Seeadlern und Habichten

    OpenAIRE

    Kenntner, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined organs of 145 white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany and 5 specimen from Austria, as well as 62 northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from different regions of Germany for their organ concentrations of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and potentially toxic heavy metals. We proved a significant decline of DDT concentrations in livers of 127 white-tailed eagles (WTE) collected between 1990 and 2001. Considering the final...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49oS, 70oE) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g-1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g-1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  2. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  4. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  5. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in 1,4-dichlorobenzene mothballs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-bin; ZHENG Ming-hui; XING Ying; WANG Dong-sheng; ZHAO Xing-ru; GAO Li-rong

    2005-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are globally recognized pollutant, an understanding of their resources as by-products in chemical industry is poorly investigated. This paper presents data from a study that was conducted in order to determine the extent of PCBs in 1,4-dichlorobenzene(p-DCB) mothballs. Total PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were detected in five mothball samples. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 328 ng/g to 1798 ng/g, while the levels of WHO-TEQ were between 0.16 pg/g and 13 pg/g. Mean concentrations of total PCBs and WHO-TEQ in the samples were 724 ng/g and 3.2 pg/g, respectively. The highest level of PCB congeners was that of trichlorinated biphenyls(537 ng/g), which maybe due to the relatively low chlorination in the process of p-DCB production. A mechanism of the formation of PCBs from polychlorinated benzene in the presence of chlorine is also suggested. The results suggested that re-estimation on the risk of p-DCB products, especially the products for daily use such as mothballs, is expected.

  6. Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age, and gender: Implications for epidemiology studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Different PCB congeners and different mixtures of congeners have been demonstrated to have different biological actions. More complete characterization of congener profiles in exposure sources may assist in predicting health outcomes. Methods: Thirty-six (36) polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured by gas chromatography isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) in 314 serum samples from Native Americans in Wisconsin, Michigan and Minnesota. Five dietary groups were established based on the quantity and species of fish consumed and the waters from which the fish were caught. Multivariate statistical methods were able to resolve gender and dietary differences in PCB homologue and PCB congener patterns. Results: Females had higher proportions of lower chlorinated homologues, including a consistently higher proportion of pentaCB 118. The relative presence of the very labile and volatile PCB 18, above 1% of the total PCB in females from the minimal fish consumption and 'other' groups, suggests possible exposure to PCBs in the atmosphere. The dietary group consuming predatory fishes from Lakes Michigan and Superior had the highest serum concentrations of total PCB (mean of 3.1 ng/ml) and the most distinct congener profile. The two dietary groups least dependent on fishing or fishing mostly from inland lakes (non-Great Lakes) had the lowest total PCB concentrations, both with means of 1.4 ng/ml. Conclusions: These serum PCB concentrations were less than those found in earlier studies of fish consumers in the Great Lakes region and may reflect the decrease in PCBs in these lakes

  7. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  8. Absorption and tissue distribution of radioactivity in mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) exposed to low concentrations of 14C-polychlorinated biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) were exposed for 144 h to an isomeric 14C polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture at an initial concentration of 4.6 μg l-1. Animals were sampled after 6, 12, 24, 72 and 144 h of exposure for sex differences in PCB tissue distribution. PCB was readily absorbed within 12 h and then slowly eliminated from the body with a biological half-time of 209 h. No sexual differences were observed except with mussels sampled at 12 h, where 14C activity was significantly higher (P14C activity measured in gills appeared to be related to the PCB water concentration. 14 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  9. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (Pthyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (Pdisruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept. PMID:24167152

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  11. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  12. 多氯联苯(PCBl254)对栉孔扇贝消化盲囊和鳃丝EROD、GST酶活力的影响%Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls 1254(PCB1254) on two enzyme activity of biotransformation in digestive gland and gills of scallop Chlamys ferrari

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任加云; 李树峰

    2008-01-01

    研究了4种质量浓度(O.5μg/L、1μg/L、10μg/L、50μg/L)PCB1254暴露下,栉孔扇贝(Chlamys ferrari)消化盲囊和鳃丝7-乙氧基-3-异吩唑酮-脱乙基酶(EROD)、谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)活力的变化.于实验开始后0、0.5d、1 d、3d、6d、9d、15d、21d、30d取样测定,结果显示,除鳃丝EROD活力在低质量浓度(0.5μg/L和1.0μg/L)随时间变化不明显(P>0.05)外,其他各处理组PCB1254对栉孔扇贝消化盲囊和鳃丝的EROD都具有明显的激活作用,而且具有明显的剂量-效应关系.低浓度(0.5μg/L、1.0μg/L)处理下,消化盲囊和鳃丝的GST活力都呈现激活的趋势,而高浓度(10μg/L、50μg/L)下,GST活力都呈现先上升后下降的趋势,且鳃丝GST活力变化幅度较为明显.结果表明,EROD和GST活力的变化在一定程度上能够反应PCBs对栉孔扇贝影响的规律性,是合适的毒理学指标,栉孔扇贝是比较好的评价多氯联苯污染的指示生物,本研究也对栉孔扇贝对多氯联苯的生物转化机制作了初步的探讨.

  13. PCB, PCDD/F and PBDE levels and profiles in crustaceans from the coastal waters of Brittany and Normandy (France)

    OpenAIRE

    Bodin, Nathalie; Abarnou, A.; Fraisse, D.; Defour, S.; Loizeau, V.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Philippon, X.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analysed in the muscle of various edible marine crustaceans (spider crab, edible crab, velvet swimming crab and Norway lobster) from the Brittany and Normandy coasts (France). The highest concentrations were measured in species collected from Antifer (Seine Bay). PCB and PBDE patterns in crustacean muscles were similar and independent of the geographi...

  14. Occurrence and congeners specific of polychlorinated biphenyls in agricultural soils from Southern Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-ying; QIU Li-min; HE Jia; LIAO Yuan; LUO Yong-ming

    2007-01-01

    A total of 198 agricultural soil samples were collected from Zhangjiagang and Changshu in Southern Jiangsu for analysis of 13 polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)in order to assess the levels of pollution,sources,area distribution,and potential risk for the environment.All methods were rigorously tested and an adequate quality control was ensured.Only one site had no PCBs residues,and the highest total PCBs concentration in the surface soils was 32.83 ng/g.The average concentration in all the soil samples was 4.13ng/g.signaling low-level pollution.Tetra-,penta-,and hexa-chlorinated biphenyls were dominant speoes in soil samples,accounnng for more than 75%of ΣPCBs in the soil samples.PCB118 was the most abundant congener in all the samples.The PCB118 Was about 20%of ΣPCBs.The soil organic matter content showed only a weak correlation with the levels of all PCB congeners,in which a better correlation was noted for the more volatile lighter PCB congeners than for the heavier homologues.To a certain extent,the sources and land use seemed to influence the levels of PCBs.

  15. Enhanced desorption of PCB and trace metal elements (Pb and Cu) from contaminated soils by saponin and EDDS mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the simultaneous desorption of trace metal elements and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from mixed contaminated soil with a novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and biodegradable chelant S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS). Results showed significant promotion and synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS. The maximal desorption of Pb, Cu and PCB were achieved 99.8%, 85.7% and 45.7%, respectively, by addition of 10 mM EDDS and 3000 mg L−1 saponin. The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. The sorption of EDDS and saponin on soil was inhibited by each other. EDDS could enhance the complexation of metals with the saponin micelles and the solubilization capabilities of saponin micelles for PCB. Our study suggests the combination of saponin and EDDS would be a promising alternative for remediation of co-contaminated soils caused by hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) and metals. -- Highlights: ► A novel combination of biosurfactant saponin and EDDS was used to simultaneously remove mixed contaminations from soil. ► Significant synergy on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with EDDS/saponin. ► The marked interaction between EDDS and saponin contributed to the synergy performance. -- Significant synergistic effect on Pb, Cu and PCB desorption were achieved with the mixed solution of saponin and EDDS

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  17. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  18. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  19. Characterization of Extreme Acidophile Bacteria (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans Bioleaching Copper from Flexible PCB by ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve copper leaching efficiency from the flexible printed circuit board (PCB by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, it is necessary to quantitatively measure the bacteria bioleaching copper under extreme acidic condition from flexible PCB. The inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES is a very accurate way to analyze metals in solution; this paper investigated the optimal conditions for copper bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from flexible PCB through ICP-AES. The conditions included particle size of flexible PCB powder, quantity of flexible PCB powder, initial pH of culture medium, bacteria inoculation, bacteria activation time, and quantity of FeSO4·7H2O. Prior to ICP-AES measurement, culture solution was digested by aqua regia. The experimental results demonstrated that flexible PCB contained one main metal (copper; this was associated with the structure of flexible PCB. The optimization conditions were in 50 mL medium, flexible PCB 10 g/L, particle size of flexible PCB 0.42~0.84 mm, culture medium initial pH 2.5, bacteria inoculation 5%, bacteria activation time 5 d, and quantity of FeSO4·7H2O 30 g/L. Under the optimization condition, the leaching rate of copper was 90.10%, which was 42.4% higher than the blank group. For the ICP-AES determination, it reached a conclusion that the best corresponding wavelength (nm of copper will be 224.7 (nm.

  20. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Fung-Chi, E-mail: ko@nmmba.gov.tw [National Dong Hwa University, Institute of Marine Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China); Baker, Joel E. [The Center for Urban Waters, University of Washington, Tacoma, WA 98402 (United States); Tew, Kwee S. [National Dong Hwa University, Institute of Marine Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Taiwan, ROC (China); National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k{sub u}) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K{sub ow}, and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  1. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Fung-Chi; Baker, Joel E; Tew, Kwee S

    2012-02-01

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (k(u)) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by K(ow), and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  2. Temporal and spatial variation in polychlorinated biphenyl chiral signatures of the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) and its arctic marine food web

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) chiral signatures were measured in Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) and their potential prey in arctic marine food webs from Canada (Cumberland Sound) and Europe (Svalbard) to assess temporal and spatial variation in PCB contamination at the stereoisomer level. Marine mammals had species-specific enantiomer fractions (EFs), likely due to a combination of in vivo biotransformation and direct trophic transfer. Greenland sharks from Cumberland Sound in 2007–2008 had similar EFs to those sharks collected a decade ago in the same location (PCBs 91, 136 and 149) and also similar to their conspecifics from Svalbard for some PCB congeners (PCBs 95, 136 and 149). However, other PCB EFs in the sharks varied temporally (PCB 91) or spatially (PCB 95), suggesting a possible spatiotemporal variation in their diets, since biotransformation capacity was unlikely to have varied within this species from region to region or over the time frame studied. -- Highlights: • Chiral PCB signatures were measured in Greenland sharks and their prey. • Marine mammals accumulated non-racemic PCBs from biotransformation and their diet. • Chiral PCB signatures were similar in sharks at two different arctic locations. • Some changes in chiral PCB signatures in sharks over a decade. -- PCB chiral signatures in Greenland sharks shift over time and space, likely in parallel with dietary variation

  3. Reproductive abnormalities, teratogenicity, and developmental problems in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, Kim; Bortolotti, Gary; Smits, Judit

    2003-11-28

    This study found abnormalities in multiple reproductive stages in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) when exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through dietary and in ovo exposure. American kestrels laid eggs with environmentally relevant total PCB levels (34.1 micrograms/g whole egg wet weight) when consuming PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (5-7 micrograms/g body weight per day) for 100 d only in 1998. In 1999, the same adults laid eggs with estimated total PCBs of 23 micrograms/g. Effects of maternal (only female exposed) and paternal (only male exposed) in ovo PCB exposure were investigated. Maternal F1 eggs contained predicted total PCB concentrations of 0.34 microgram/g. Specific abnormalities occurred more frequently during dietary F0 exposure, particularly aggressive courtship interactions, clutch abandonment, occurrences of cracked eggs, and developmental effects. Multiple developmental effects were more pronounced during than after dietary PCB exposure of adults, and although these effects were limited, nevertheless they occurred in the F1 maternal and F1 paternal pairs. However, the incidence of multiple deformities throughout the breeding season increased dramatically from 1998 (13%) to 1999 (56%) in F0 PCB-exposed pairs. Developmental abnormalities were unlikely to be attributed to the extrinsic factors of disease, genetics, or nutritional (vitamin D3) deficiencies, but rather to adverse changes in parental behavior and intrinsic factors involving altered genetic material and PCB exposure. Readily cleared PCB congeners may induce specific types of behavioral and developmental abnormalities, but persistent congeners and metabolites are likely producing (1) odd laying patterns, (2) odd laying patterns, (2) developmental effects including embryonic underdevelopment and edema, and (3) increased incidences of multiple deformities within a clutch. PMID:14710594

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl serum levels in subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma as compared with the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been recognized as human carcinogens and cause liver cancer in animal experimental studies. However, no study investigated their association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC so far.  This study aimed to evaluate the serum PCB concentration in HCC patients and in healthy subjects of the general population living in Brescia, North Italy, a highly industrialized area with heavy PCB environmental pollution due to the presence of a PCB producing factory. Methods. Lipid-adjusted PCB concentrations, computed as the sum of 24 congeners, were measured in the serum of 101 HCC patients and in 101 healthy subjects of the same age and gender.Results. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and history of heavy alcohol intake were found, alone and combined, in 87% of HCC patients. No difference was found in PCB serum concentration of HCC patients with and without, and according to, the major risk factors for liver disease. No significant difference was observed in serum total PCB concentration between HCC patients (median: 1081; range: 287.0-3182.0 ng/g lipid and healthy subjects (median: 1199.3; range: 225.7-22825 ng/g lipid. PCB congeners 118, 138, 153, 156, 180 and 194 were the only ones found over the detection limit in at least 30% of HCC patients. The serum level of PCB 118, but not that of other congeners, was higher in HCC patients than in healthy subjects.Conclusion. These findings  do not support the hypothesis that PCBs play an important role in HCC development, although a contribution by some specific congeners cannot be ruled out. 

  5. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage and repair responses: The activations of NHEJ, BER and NER via ATM-p53 signaling axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Hui; Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Hu, Lihua; Xu, Demei; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang, E-mail: songyangwenrong@hotmail.com

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) quinone induced oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. To promote genomic integrity, DNA damage response (DDR) coordinates cell-cycle transitions, DNA repair and apoptosis. PCB quinone-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis have been documented, however, whether PCB quinone insult induce DNA repair signaling is still unknown. In this study, we identified the activation of DDR and corresponding signaling events in HepG2 cells upon the exposure to a synthetic PCB quinone, PCB29-pQ. Our data illustrated that PCB29-pQ induces the phosphorylation of p53, which was mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein kinase. The observed phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci and the elevation of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicated that DDR was stimulated by PCB29-pQ treatment. Additionally, we found PCB29-pQ activates non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) signalings. However, these repair pathways are not error-free processes and aberrant repair of DNA damage may cause the potential risk of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis. - Highlights: • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone induces oxidative DNA damage in HepG2 cells. • The elevation of γ-H2AX and 8-OHdG indicates the activation of DNA damage response. • ATM-p53 signaling acts as the DNA damage sensor and effector. • Polychlorinated biphenyl quinone activates NHEJ, BER and NER signalings.

  8. Dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls in striped bass from the Hudson river. III. tissue disposition and routes for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striped bass were exposed to 14C-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in single-dose and multiple-dose experiments. Samples were analyzed to determine rate constants for PCB elimination from individual tissues, PCB concentration in tissues, the proportion of the PCB burden retained and the proportion of the cumulative dose retained by each tissue at various times after exposure. An experiment was also conducted to determine both the potential for secondary PCB uptake in dietary exposure studies and the relative tissue disposition of PCBs assimilated from dietary sources as compared to direct water uptake. PCBs were present in the tissues of striped bass within 6 h after administration of a single dose. Certain tissue compartments, such as the liver/gall bladder, accumulated PCBs over a period of 48 h even though the whole-body burden had decreased between 24 and 48 h. Except for the gills, elimination rate constants for all tissues were similar and were to the whole body elimination rate constant. Elimination during the first few hours following exposure to PCBs may be due to equilibrium partitioning from the gill to the environment. The multiple-dose study showed that PCB burdens in striped bass continued to increase with dosing. However, tissue-specific rate constants for PCB elimination led to an increased flux of PCB out of tissues, and an overall decline in the percent of the cumulative dose remaining in the body 48 h after administration of each dose. The most likely route for PCB elimination from striped bass was from tissues to the liver and thence to the intestine via the bile. These were no differences in the tissue disposition of PCB related to route of exposure

  9. Analysis of water, sediment and fish to detect contaminations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PVB) in the profile of the river Inde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water, sediment and fish samples of the river Inde in the course from source to mouth were analysed for their contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (6 indicator-congeners). Analysis of the water samples showed no contents of PCB (detection limit: 10 ng/l). The resulting PCB concentration profile of the sediment showed at the upper part of the Inde uniform PCB values of 18 μg/kg dry weight sediment. In the middle part, after the tributary of an industrial influenced brook, the Vicht, the contents of PCB increased precipitously to about 110 μg/kg dry weight. In the further course - downstream near the mouth into the river Rur - the PCB contents in the sediment decreased steplike along a distance of about 20 km resulting in a level of 34 μg/kg dry weight. From the analysed fishes the brook trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) also showed PCB contents dependent on the position in the river where they were cought. In relation to muscle lipid content the averange values at the upper part of the river amounted to 6 mg/kg, in the middle part to ca 38 mg/kg and downstream to ca 8 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. Because of absence at some sampling points for the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) an analogues correlation could not be found. This fishes showed concentrations of PCB ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. (orig.)

  10. Effects of maternal ingestion of aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the development pattern of oxygen consumption and body temperature in neonatal rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B.W.; Meserve, L.A. [Bowling Green State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an environmental pollutant that has been implicated in depression of reproductive success in Great Lakes gulls, production of congenital deformities in humans, and increased incidence of carcinogenesis in laboratory mice. PCB has also been shown to be a thyrotoxin in both adult and developing animals. Most recently, the hypothyroid effects of PCB exposure have been reported to elicit effects similar to those of hypothyroidism caused by other methods. This study was done to determine the effects of PCB ingestion in pregnant and lactating rats on the development of thermoregulation in neonatal animals. Body temperature and rate of oxygen consumption was evaluated in rat puts on days 4 through 14 after birth. Because the major thermomregulatory hormones are thyroid hormones, thyroid hormone status and thyroid weights were evaluated at the end of the study on postnatal day 15. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  12. BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION BY COPLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN TRACE LEVEL HIGH RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (HRGC/HRMS) ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  13. Lipid and PCB compositions in water-striders from contaminated streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napolitano, G.E.; Richmond, J.E.; Klasson, K.T.; Hill, W.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In a study of hydrophobic substances in stream surface-waters, the authors investigated lipids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of water-striders (Gerris remiges). Lipid class, fatty acid, and PCB congener compositions were analyzed in insects from four streams located downstream of the Department of Energy`s facilities near the city of Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Total lipid contents of water-striders varied seasonally, showing maximum concentrations in summer and fall ({approximately} 9.0% of wet weight), and minimum concentrations in winter and spring. Total PCB concentrations of water-striders varied between streams and appeared to parallel PCB concentrations reported for the aquatic fauna of each site. Fatty acids were used as chemical markers to detect differences in the food resources of water-striders. The triacylglycerol fatty acid composition was remarkably similar in all the streams and reflected to a large extent, that of a terrestrial insect. The PCB congener composition of water-striders varied significantly between streams, showing a relative enrichment of the less chlorinated congeners in the less contaminated samples. There was also a positive correlation between PCB burden and average molecular weights. Differences between the chlorine content of the dominant congeners suggest distinct sources of PCBs for the different streams. The apparent similarities in the food resources of the water-striders, as inferred from fatty acid markers, and their distinct PCB congener composition, suggest absorption or ingestion from the surface micro-layer, rather than diet, as a more likely route of uptake of lipophilic contaminants by water-striders.

  14. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, K.R.; Tillitt, D.E.; Nichols, J.W.; Secord, A.L.; McCarty, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  15. PCB Exposure and in Vivo CYP1A2 Activity among Native American/span>s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hwang, Syni-An; Lambert, George; Gomez, Marta; Tarbell, Alice

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P-450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of some carcinogens and is believed to be induced by xenobiotics. Very few studies, however, have investigated the association between environmental exposures and in vivo CYP1A2 activity in humans. To address this issue, a study was conducted of CYP1A2 activity among Native Americans exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the consumption of fish from the St. Lawrence River. At the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne (in New York and in Ontario and Quebec, Canada), 103 adults were interviewed, and they donated blood for serum PCB analysis and underwent the caffeine breath test (CBT), a safe and noninvasive procedure that uses caffeine as a probe for CYP1A2 activity in vivo. The results supported the findings of other studies that CBT values are higher among smokers and men and lower among women who use oral contraceptives. Despite a relatively low average total PCB body burden in this population, the sum of serum levels for nine mono- or di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners showed positive associations with CBT values (p = 0.052 wet weight and p = 0.029 lipid adjusted), as did toxic equivalent quantities (TEQs; p = 0.091 for wet weight and 0.048 for lipid adjusted). Regarding individual congeners, serum levels of PCB-153, PCB-170, and PCB-180 were significantly correlated with CBT values. The results support the notion that CYP1A2 activity may be a marker of an early biological effect of exposure to PCBs in humans and that the CBT may be a useful tool to monitor such effects. PMID:15743714

  16. Fasting augments PCB impact on liver metabolism in anadromous arctic char

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, M.M.; Aluru, N.; Maule, A.G.; Jorgensen, E.H.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) undertake short feeding migrations to seawater every summer and accumulate lipids, while the rest of the year is spent in fresh water where the accumulated lipid reserves are mobilized. We tested the hypothesis that winter fasting and the associated polychlorinated biphenyls' (PCBs) redistribution from lipid depots to critical tissues impair the liver metabolic capacity in these animals. Char were administered Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/ kg body mass) orally and maintained for 4 months without feeding to mimic seasonal winter fasting, while fed groups (0 and 100 mg Aroclor 1254/kg) were maintained for comparison. A clear dose-related increase in PCB accumulation and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein content was observed in the livers of fasted fish. This PCB concentration and CYP1A response with the high dose of Aroclor were 1.5-fold and 3-fold greater in the fasted than in the fed fish, respectively. In fed fish, PCB exposure lowered liver glycogen content, whereas none of the other metabolic indicators were significantly affected. In fasted fish, PCB exposure depressed liver glycogen content and activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and elevated 3-hydroxyacylcoA dehydrogenase activity and glucocorticoid receptor protein expression. There were no significant impacts of PCB on heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and hsp90 contents in either fed or fasted fish. Collectively, our study demonstrates that winter emaciation associated with the anadromous lifestyle predisposes arctic char to PCB impact on hepatic metabolism including disruption of the adaptive metabolic responses to extended fasting. ?? 2006 Oxford University Press.

  17. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  18. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke;

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... the original source to adjacent materials, indoor air and via adsorption from the air to indoor surfaces, causing secondary contaminations. Remediation of buildings with unsatisfactory indoor air concentrations is a complex and difficult task due to the secondary contamination of building materials...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further...

  19. Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180 in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Viluksela

    Full Text Available PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares

  20. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (Pcisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  1. Test burn with PCB-oil in a local cement kiln in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, Kåre Helge; Mubarak, Azeez M; Gunadasa, H N; Wijagunasekara, Bandulasoma; Ratnayake, Niranjanie; Alwis, Ajith De; Fernando, Jayavilal

    2010-02-01

    The production and use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have ceased and most developed countries have disposed off their stocks long time ago. PCBs can however still be found in the environment and one important source is accumulated stocks in developing countries. Sound treatment of PCB is costly and most developing countries do not have dedicated hazardous waste incinerators or non-combustion technologies available for domestic disposal and can usually not afford export. High temperature cement kilns have been used to treat organic hazardous wastes in developed countries for decades and shown to constitute a sound option if well managed and controlled. In contrast to dedicated hazardous waste incinerators and other treatment techniques, cement kilns are already in place in virtually every country and may constitute a treatment option. The objective of this study was therefore to carry out the first test burn with PCB-oil in a developing country cement kiln and to assess its feasibility and destruction performance. The 3 d test burn demonstrated that the Sri Lankan cement kiln was able to destroy PCB in an irreversible and environmental sound manner without causing any new formation of PCDD/PCDF or HCB. The destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) was better than 99.9999% at the highest PCB feeding rate. PMID:20004933

  2. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittsiepe, J.; Schrey, P.; Lemm, F.; Wilhelm, M. [Ruhr-Univ. Bochum, Abt. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin (Germany); Fuerst, P. [Chemisches Landes- und Staatliches Veterinaeruntersuchungsamt, Muenster (Germany); Kraft, M. [Ministerium fuer Umwelt und Naturschutz, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen, Duesseldorf (Germany); Eberwein, G. [Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Essen (Germany); Winneke, G. [Medizinisches Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene an der Heinrich-Heine Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuranes (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is done by analyzing both blood and milk samples. With reference to calculation of Toxicity Equivalents (TEq) as published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1998 determination of 17 PCDD/F congeners together with 4 non- and 8 mono-ortho PCB congeners is the preferred method. In contrast to data on PCDD/F only little is known on background levels of dioxin-like PCB in human blood or milk samples. In the present study we report on PCDD/F and PCB levels in human blood samples of pregnant women living in an industrialized area of Germany and of human milk samples from the same women taken in the first weeks after birth. The investigations demonstrate the current background levels found in Germany, make a contribution for the assessment of preand postnatal exposure of infants and show correlations between the two matrices.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  4. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    OpenAIRE

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood bi...

  5. Methodological refinements in the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho, and mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and 26 organochlorine pesticides in eggs as demonstrated in heron eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S.; Hong, C.-S.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho substituted congeners and 26 chlorinated pesticides is described. The method consists of ultrasonic extraction, Florisilcleanup, HPLC fractionation over porous graphitic carbon (PGC), and final determination with GC/ECD and/or GC/MS. Two PCB congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 161) and two polybromo-biphenyls (2,4?,5-tribromobiphenyl and 3,3?,4,4?-tetrabromobiphenyl) were used as surrogate standards to evaluate the analytical efficiency. Four PCB congeners, PCB 14 and PCB 159 for the first fraction, PCB 61 for the second fraction, and PCB 204 for the third fraction, were used as internal standards to monitor the GC performance. The retention behavior of PCBs and pesticides on porous-graphitic-carbon column were discussed. The method was found to be effective and reliable under the operational conditions proposed and was applied successfully to the analysis of individual PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in heron egg samples.

  6. Gehalte aan PCB's en organochloorpesticiden in mariene organismen van de Belgische kustwateren

    OpenAIRE

    VANDAMME, K.; Baeteman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some oranochlorine pesticides were measured in flounder, cod, sole, shrimps and mussels by capillary gaschromatography. PCBs predomiated among the organochlorine residues and represented 75 to 90 % of the global content. The average PCB-concentration in the wet tissue ranged from 39.5 ppb in shrimps to 261.1 ppb in mussels. From the group "DDT and its metabolites"only the derivates p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD could be quantified.The different organochlorine pest...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  9. PCB-153 AND BDE-47 INCREASE THYROXINE T4) CATABOLISM IN RAT AND HUMAN HEPATOCYTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies demonstrate that in vivo exposure to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) decrease serum thyroxine (T4) levels in rats. This decrease is thought to occur through the induction of hepatic metabolizing enzymes ...

  10. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author)

  11. Enzyme induction and histopathology elucidate aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated versus non-aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated effects of Aroclor 1268 in American mink (Neovison vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, William R; Newsted, John L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Bradley, Patrick W; Kern, John; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zwiernik, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations reported in preferred prey and blubber of bottlenose dolphins from the Turtle-Brunswick River estuary (Georgia, USA) suggest the potential for adverse effects. However, PCBs in Turtle-Brunswick River estuary dolphins are primarily derived from Aroclor 1268, and predicting toxic effects of Aroclor 1268 is uncertain because of the mixture's unique composition and associated physiochemical characteristics. These differences suggest that toxicity benchmarks for other PCB mixtures may not be relevant to dolphins exposed to Aroclor 1268. American mink (Neovison vison) were used as a surrogate model for cetaceans to characterize mechanisms of action associated with Aroclor 1268 exposure. Mink share similarities in phylogeny and life history with cetaceans and are characteristically sensitive to PCBs, making them an attractive surrogate species for marine mammals in ecotoxicity studies. Adult female mink and a subsequent F1 generation were exposed to Aroclor 1268 through diet, and effects on enzyme induction, histopathology, thyroid hormone regulation, hematology, organ weights, and body condition index were compared to a negative control and a 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126)-positive control. Aroclor 1268 dietary exposure concentrations ranged from 1.8 µg/g wet weight to 29 µg/g wet weight. Anemia, hypothyroidism, and hepatomegaly were observed in mink exposed to Aroclor 1268 beyond various dietary thresholds. Cytochrome P450 induction and squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions were low in Aroclor 1268 treatments relative to the positive control. Differences in enzyme induction and the development of squamous epithelial proliferation jaw lesions between Aroclor 1268 treatments and the positive control, coupled with effects observed in Aroclor 1268 treatments not observed in the positive control, indicate that mechanisms additional to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated pathway are associated with

  12. Concentrations and Toxic Equivalency of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Polish Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are widely recognized as important sources of toxic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). An example is given in the present paper, where concentrations of 12 dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) congeners were investigated in effluents from 14 WWTPs of different sizes, using gas chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. The results obtained demonstrate that the smallest WWTPs are characterized by the highest total dl-PCB concentration of 102.69 pg/L, roughly twice those of medium-size and large WWTPs, i.e. 41.14 and 48.29 pg/L, respectively. In all cases, the concentrations obtained were generated mostly by increased contributions of PCB-77, PCB-105 and PCB-118 which constituted 48 %-59 % of the mean dl-PCB concentration. The results also reveal a predominance of mono-ortho over non-ortho PCBs. All three types of WWTP effluent were found to have similar toxic equivalency (TEQ) values, ranging from 0.31 for large to 0.37 pg TEQ/L for medium WWTPs.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from sediment cores and between 0.1 and 2.2ngg(-1) in recent sediments. Chronological records of PCB concentrations displayed a common pattern with historical PCB production and use, with the maximum peak values detected between the 1960s and the 1980s. Sediments deposited within the last two decades presented a ~40% to ~80% PCB reduction in comparison to the peak levels, reflecting the ban on PCB production and use since the late 1970s. PCB levels along with the presence of high-chlorinated congeners decreased southwards, indicating the Po River as the major source of PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  14. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAELB400) metabolizes PCBs. ► Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. ► We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAELB400 variants. ► The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAELB400 variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAELB400) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAERR41, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAELB400, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAELB400. Hence, BphAERR41 was able to metabolize 2,6,2′,6′-, 3,4,3′,5′- and 2,4,3′,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAELB400 is unable to metabolize. BphAERR41 was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAELB400 to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  15. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  16. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangjun Zhang

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  17. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils.

  18. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici Ermanno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO, as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3% and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3% were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB-contaminated soils. The addition of SO to matrices contaminated by technical PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 and Delor 103 and characterized by a large preponderance of low chlorinated congeners, might not be advisable.

  19. Theoretical Modeling and Implementation of Traveling Wave Sensor Based on PCB Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zewen Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on analyzing characteristics of Rogowski coil, a new type of PCB traveling wave sensor with simple structure, high linearity, and anti-interference ability is proposed. The sensor has fine physical structure, which can effectively resist external electromagnetic interference by anti-interference measurement. In addition, it can greatly improve mutual inductance based on simple combinations. Simulations show that the new PCB traveling wave sensor can validly extract and deliver traveling wave signal and therefore realize fault location and protection accurately.

  20. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls enhances lipid peroxidation in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts: a potential role for myeloperoxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Saed, Ghassan M.; Jiang, Zhong L.; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Arab, Ali Al; Diamond, Michael P.; ABU-SOUD, HUSAM M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide and lipid peroxidation (LPO) produced under oxidative stress may contribute to development of postoperative adhesions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD3), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitrite/nitrate in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts. PCB treatment reduced iNOS expression as well as levels of nitrite/nitrate in both cell lines. Although there was no diffe...

  1. Developmental Coexposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Has Additive Effects on Circulating Thyroxine Levels in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from g...

  2. Fate and transport of planar and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Southern California sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, M. Indira

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are an important class of industrial pollutants that areubiquitous in the marine and freshwater environments (NAS, 1979). Although the “planar” or“non-ortho” PCB congeners are present in much lower concentrations than other PCBcongeners, they can be responsible for much of the dioxin-like (TCDD) toxicity in the marineecosystem. Further, their environmental fate may be different from other PCBs. Theirdetermination is, therefore, crucial for assessment of contam...

  3. Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Development of Neuronal Cells in Growth Period; Structure-Activity Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Youngrok; Lee, Dong Kuck

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are accumulated in our body through food chain and cause a variety of adverse health effects including neurotoxicities such as cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction. In particular, neonates are considered as a high risk group for the neurotoxicity of PCBs exposure. The present study attempted to analyze the structure-activity relationship among PCB congeners and the mechanism of PCBs-induced neurotoxicity. We measured total protein kinase C (PKC) activities...

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Centralized Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Chemical Industry Zone: Source, Distribution, and Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yao; Zhongjian Li; Xingwang Zhang; Lecheng Lei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be dissolved in wastewater or adsorbed on particulate. The fate of PCBs in wastewater is essential to evaluate the feasibility of wastewater treatment processes and the environmental risk. Here dissolved and adsorbed concentrations of twenty concerned PCB congeners and total PCBs have been measured in the centralized wastewater treatment plant of a chemical industry zone in Zhejiang, China. It was found that the dyeing chemical processes were the main so...

  5. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kenet, T; Froemke, R. C.; Schreiner, C. E.; Pessah, I N; Merzenich, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in human environment and tissues. Here, an exemplar noncoplanar PCB was fed to rat dams during gestation and throughout three subsequent nursing weeks. Although the hearing sensitivity and brainstem auditory responses of pups were normal, exposure resulted in the abnormal development of the primary auditory cortex (A1). A1 was irregularly shaped and marked by internal nonresponsive zones, its topographic organization was grossl...

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Oxidative DNA Adducts in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Esra; Gao, Lina; Collins, Leonard B; Walker, Nigel J; Hartwell, Hadley J; Olson, James R; Sun, Wei; Gold, Avram; Ball, Louise M; Swenberg, James A

    2016-08-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic chemicals that were traditionally produced and widely used in industry as mixtures and are presently formed as byproducts of pigment and dye manufacturing. They are known to persist and bioaccumulate in the environment. Some have been shown to induce liver cancer in rodents. Although the mechanism of the toxicity of PCBs is unknown, it has been shown that they increase oxidative stress, including lipid peroxidation. We hypothesized that oxidative stress-induced DNA damage could be a contributor for PCB carcinogenesis and analyzed several DNA adducts in female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), and a binary mixture (PCB 126 + 153) for 14, 31, and 53 wks. Eight adducts were measured to profile oxidative DNA lesions, including 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), 1,N(6)-ethenodeoxyadenosine (1,N(6)-εdA), N(2),3-ethenoguanine (N(2),3-εG), 1,N(2)-ethenodeoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-εdG), as well as malondialdehyde (M1dG), acrolein (AcrdG), crotonaldehyde (CrdG), and 4-hydroxynonenal-derived dG adducts (HNEdG) by LC-MS/MS analysis. Statistically significant increases were observed for 8-oxo-dG and 1,N(6)-εdA concentrations in hepatic DNA of female rats exposed to the binary mixture (1000 ng/kg/day + 1000 μg/kg/day) but not in rats exposed to PCB 126 (1000 ng/kg/day) or PCB 153 (1000 μg/kg/day) for 14 and 31 wks. However, exposure to PCB 126 (1000 ng/kg/day) for 53 wks significantly increased 8-oxo-dG, 1,N(6)-εdA, AcrdG, and M1dG. Exposure to PCB 153 (1000 μg/kg/day) for 53 wks increased 8-oxo-dG, and 1,N(6)-εdA. Exposure to the binary mixture for 53 wks increased 8-oxo-dG, 1,N(6)-εdA, AcrdG, 1,N(2)-εdG, and N(2),3-εG significantly above control groups. Increased hepatic oxidative DNA adducts following exposure to PCB 126, PCB 153, or the binary mixture shows that an increase in DNA damage may play an important role in hepatic toxicity and

  7. Uptake and Translocation of Lesser-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Whole Hybrid Poplar Plants after Hydroponic Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, having one to four chlorine atoms per molecule. Results indicated that PCB 3, 15, 28, 52, and 77 were initially sorbed to the root systems. The Root Concentration Factor (RCF) of PCBs during the exposure was calculated and correlated with Kow. PCB congeners were taken up by the roots of hybrid poplar, and the translocation of PCBs to stems was inversely related to congener hydrophobicity (Log Kow). PCB 3 and 15 were translocated to the upper stem at small but significant rates. PCB 28 was translocated to the wood of the main stem but no farther; translocation from the roots was not detected for PCB 52 and 77. The distribution of PCBs within poplars was determined, and mass balances were completed to within 15% for each chemical except for PCB 3, the most volatile congener. This is the first report on the transport of PCBs through whole plants designed for use in treatment at disposal facilities. PMID:18793792

  8. Remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Fang, Guodong; Fan, Jianxin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation; Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yujun; Cang, Long [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation

    2012-10-15

    An efficient method was developed for treating polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil by soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation, and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism of PCBs was explored. Hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HP{Beta}CD) and polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (Brij35) were used to extract PCBs from contaminated soil at first, and then the degradation of PCBs in the soil extracts was performed by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis under UV irradiation. Washing conditions including washing time, the concentration of HP{Beta}CD/Brij35, and the ratio of soil mass to solution volume for extracting 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) from a PCB28-spiked soil were investigated at first. The results indicated that both HP{Beta}CD and Brij35 exhibited good performance. The intermediates of photocatalytic degradation of PCB28 were from its dechlorination and hydroxylation in the HPCD and aqueous solutions, respectively. A field PCB-contaminated soil from e-waste recycling sites was treated by this method. The results showed that the extracting percentage was significantly affected by the chlorination degree of PCBs, and HP{Beta}CD slowed down the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of overall PCBs. Soil washing and subsequent TiO{sub 2} photocatalytic degradation was successfully applied for treating PCB-contaminated soil, and HP{Beta}CD strongly altered the pathways of the photocatalytic degradation of PCBs.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PCBs are still detectable in Gwangyang Bay in spite of their ban in 1980s. ► PCBs in the benthic ecosystem is enriched in lower chlorinated biphenyls. ► PCBs are released from a nearby local steel industry. ► Distribution of PCBs to the bay arises mostly from atmospheric transfer. - Abstract: Benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, a fast developing industrial area with steel production, port container handling, petroleum and other chemical processing in South Korea was studied. The average levels of polychlorinated biphenylsPCB) in the benthic components were: seawater 2.99 ± 0.13 (ng/L); sediment 294 ± 118 (ng/g TOC); [biota = ng/g lipid] starfish 92; prawn 131 ± 2; mussels 127 ± 22; crab 182 ± 114; clam 187; polychaeta 215; sea cucumber 497 ± 90; squill 603 ± 38; fish 396 ± 159. Levels in the inner bay samples were higher than the outer bay samples suggesting land based pollution. Good correlation (r2 = 0.79; p < 0.05) existed between PCB concentration and lipid content indicating partitioning processes in action. PCB signature in the abiotic and biotic components shows enrichment of lower chlorinated congeners emitted by a unique source nearby, viz. steel manufacturing plant.

  10. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V.; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  11. Indirect Evidence Link PCB Dehalogenation with Geobacteraceae in Anaerobic Sediment-Free Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveckova, Martina; Brennerova, Maria V; Holliger, Christof; De Alencastro, Felippe; Rossi, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) production was brought to a halt 30 years ago, recalcitrance to degradation makes them a major environmental pollutant at a global scale. Previous studies confirmed that organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) were capable of utilizing chlorinated congeners as electron acceptor. OHRB belonging to the Phyla Chloroflexi and Firmicutes are nowadays considered as the main PCB-dechlorinating organisms. In this study, we aimed at exploring the involvement of other taxa in PCB dechlorination using sediment-free microcosms (SFMs) and the Delor PCB mixture. High rates of congener dehalogenation (up to 96%) were attained in long-term incubations of up to 692 days. Bacterial communities were dominated by Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes, among strictly simplified community structures composed of 12 major phyla only. In a first batch of SFMs, Dehalococcoides mccartyi closely affiliated with strains CG4 and CBDB1 was considered as the main actor associated with congener dehalogenation. Addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES), a known inhibitor of methanogenic activity in a second batch of SFMs had an adverse effect on the abundance of Dehalococcoides sp. Only two sequences affiliated to this Genus could be detected in two (out of six) BES-treated SFMs, contributing to a mere 0.04% of the communities. BES-treated SFMs showed very different community structures, especially in the contributions of organisms involved in fermentation and syntrophic activities. Indirect evidence provided by both statistical and phylogenetic analysis validated the implication of a new cluster of actors, distantly affiliated with the Family Geobacteraceae (Phylum δ-Proteobacteria), in the dehalogenation of low chlorinated PCB congeners. Members of this Family are known already for their dehalogenation capacity of chlorinated solvents. As a result, the present study widens the knowledge for the phylogenetic reservoir of indigenous PCB dechlorinating

  12. Theoretical perspectives on the mechanism and kinetics of the OH radical-initiated gas-phase oxidation of PCB126 in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Juan; Shi, Xiangli; Zhang, Qingzhu, E-mail: zqz@sdu.edu.cn; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) primarily exist in the gas phase in air and may undergo atmospheric oxidation degradations, particularly the oxidation reaction initiated by OH radicals. In this work, the mechanism of the OH radical-initiated atmospheric oxidation of the most toxic PCB congener 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) was investigated by using quantum chemistry methods. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were estimated by the Rice–Ramsperger–Kassel–Marcus (RRKM) theory. The oxidation products of the reaction of PCB126 with OH radicals include 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl-ols, chlorophenols, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,6,7-pentachlorodibenzofuran, dialdehydes, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachloro-5′-nitro-biphenyl, and 4,5-dichloro-2-nitrophenol. Particularly, the formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the atmospheric oxidation of PCBs is revealed for the first time. The overall rate constant of the OH addition reaction is 2.52 × 10{sup −13} cm{sup 3} molecule{sup −1} s{sup −1} at 298 K and 1 atm. The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days which indicates that PCB126 can be transported long distances from local to global scales. - Highlights: • A comprehensive mechanism of OH-initiated oxidation of PCB126 was investigated. • The formation of PCDFs from the oxidation of PCBs is determined for the first time. • The rate constants for key elementary reactions were estimated by the RRKM theory. • The atmospheric lifetime of PCB126 determined by OH radicals is about 47.08 days.

  13. HCB, PCB, PCDD and PCDF emissions from ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D. A.

    Since current estimates of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF) from ships are based on a relatively limited and old data set, an update of these emission factors has been outlined as a target towards improved Swedish emission inventories. Consequently, a comprehensive study was undertaken focusing on these emissions from three different ships during December 2003 to March 2004. Analyses were performed on 12 exhaust samples, three fuel oil samples and three lubricating oil samples from a representative selection of diesel engine models, fuel types and during different "real-world" operating conditions. The determined emissions corresponded reasonably well with previous measurements. The data suggest however that previous PCDD/PCDF emission factors are somewhat higher than those measured here. As expected the greatest emissions were observed during main engine start-up periods and for engines using heavier fuel oils. Total emissions for 2002, using revised emission factors, have been calculated based on Swedish sold marine fuels and also for geographical areas of national importance. In terms of their toxic equivalence (WHO-TEQ), the PCDD/PCDF emissions from ships using Swedish fuels are small (0.37-0.85 g TEQ) in comparison to recent estimates for the national total (ca. 45 g TEQ). Emissions from other land-based diesel engines (road vehicles, off-road machinery, military vehicles and locomotives) are estimated to contribute a further 0.18-0.42 g TEQ. Similarly, HCB and PCB emissions from these sources are small compared to 1995 national emission inventories.

  14. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  15. Effects of dietary PCB exposure on reproduction in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of the impact of environmental contaminants on reproduction have typically focused on effects on fertility and subsequent reproductive failure. Contaminants may also impact reproductive output or other aspects of life history through effects on resource acquisition or allocation. We fed successfully breeding female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyls (2:1 Aroclor 1242:1254) at levels of 0 (n = 10), 10 (n = 12), and 25 (n = 10) ppm (mg polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]/kg food). After 4 months on the diets, female mice were bred with male mice maintained on control food. There was no effect of PCB exposure on litter size at birth or weaning, although fewer female mice on the 25-ppm diet gave birth. There was no effect of PCB dose on maternal metabolic rate at peak lactation or on total food (dry matter) intake during lactation. Female mice on the 10-ppm diet, however, consumed more food per pup during lactation and weaned larger pups, although these differences disappeared after 4 weeks of age. We conclude that although moderate-term exposure to PCBs did decrease the number of litters produced for high-dose female mice, it did not change litter size, pup growth rate, or energetic measures for those female mice that did successfully reproduce.

  16. Modelling the dynamic air-water-sediment coupled fluxes and occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls in a high altitude lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BIODEP model in terms of atmosphere-lake interactions was developed. The model was applied to an oligotrophic, dimictic high altitude lake (Lake Redo, Pyrenees) for a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. High altitude lakes, which receive their contaminant inputs uniquely from the atmosphere through long-range atmospheric transport, provide ideal controlled environments for the study of the interactions between atmospheric depositional and water column biogeochemical processes. The BIODEP model was able to predict dissolved water concentrations and PCB accumulation in the lake sediment within a factor of 2. This shows that the BIODEP model captures the essential processes driving the sink of POPs in high altitude lakes and that POP occurrence in the lake is driven by direct atmospheric inputs with limited influence from the watershed. An important seasonal variability in water column concentrations is predicted which should have important implications in sampling strategies. Furthermore, it is shown that diffusive air-water exchange dominated the PCB dynamics in the lake, especially for the less chlorinated biphenyls. - A dynamic flux model was able to accurately predict PCB levels

  17. Effect of PCB153 on BaP-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cells via modulation of metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Chen, Xue-Min; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2009-04-30

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a representative environmental carcinogen and is metabolically activated by several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to become the ultimate carcinogen. Numerous studies have indicated that 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) could effectively alter the activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Therefore, we propose that PCB153 may affect BaP-induced genotoxicity mediated by XMEs. In the present study, we treated HepG2 cells with BaP (50 microM) or PCB153 (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microM), or pretreated the cells with PCB153 for 48 h followed by treatment with a combination of both BaP and PCB153. CYP1A1 activity was dramatically increased in cells treated with either BaP or PCB153. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was increased in BaP-treated cells, but decreased in PCB153-treated cells. In parallel to studies on enzyme activity, the micronuclei (MN) assay was used to assess the genotoxic damage caused by BaP and PCB153. BaP and PCB153 at 100 microM enhanced MN formation. In contrast to BaP treatment alone, treatment with both BaP and PCB153 significantly enhanced the activity of CYP1A1 and the formation of MN, but reduced the activity of GST. alpha-Naphthoflavone (ANF), an inhibitor of CYP1A1, inhibited MN formation in the presence of both BaP and PCB153. In addition, there was a positive correlation between CYP1A activity and MN formation (r(2)=0.794, PBaP and PCB153 may increase BaP-induced genotoxicity, possibly through the induction of CYP1A1 and inhibition of GST.

  18. Ability of bacterial biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356 to catalyse oxygenation of ortho-hydroxychlorobiphenyls formed from PCBs by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial dioxygenases are useful in breakdown of PCB products associated with plants. - Capacity of enzymes of the biphenyl/chlorobiphenyl pathway, especially biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) of two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) degrading bacteria, Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356, to metabolize ortho-substituted hydroxybiphenyls was tested.,These compounds found among plant products of PCB metabolism, are carrying chlorine atoms on the hydroxyl-substituted ring. The abilities of His-tagged purified LB400 and B-356 BPDOs to catalyze the oxygenation of 2-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobiphenyl and 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl were compared. Both enzyme preparations catalyzed the hydroxylation of the three chloro-hydroxybiphenyls on the non-substituted ring. Neither LB400 BPDO nor B-356 BPDO oxygenated the substituted ring of the ortho-hydroxylated biphenyl. The fact that metabolites generated by both enzymes were identical for all three hydroxychlorobiphenyls tested; exclude any other mode of attack of these compounds by LB400 BPDOs than the ortho-meta oxygenation

  19. Comparison of PCB congener profiles in tissues of PCB-treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kania-Korwel, I.; Ludewig, G.; Robertson, L.W.; Lehmler, H.J. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Hornbuckle, K.C.; Peck, A. [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States); Sulkowski, W.W. [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry and Technology, Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Information on the congener-specific distribution of PCBs in tissues of laboratory animals after exposure to technical or environmental PCB mixtures is limited. Typically PCB levels and profiles from adipose tissue, liver, blood and occasionally brain are reported. In the work presented here 120 PCB congeners were extracted from 9 tissues of rats exposed to two different PCB mixtures. One mixture was Aroclor 1254, a well studied technical mixture. The second mixture was an environmental mixture obtained after extraction of soil contaminated with Chlorofen, a highly chlorinated Polish PCB mixture. The study was designed to investigate how different chlorination levels and the structure of PCB congeners affect their distribution and total concentration in selected tissues. Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis were employed to compare tissues of Aroclor and soil extract-treated animals.

  20. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  1. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS): PCB – health Cohort Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie; Specht, Ina Olmer; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Ebbehøj, Niels; Bailey, Janice; Giwercman, Aleksander; Steenland, Kyle; Longnecker, Matthew Paul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have been measured were created. An individual estimate of long-term airborne PCB exposure was assigned based on measurements. The cohorts will be linked to eight different national data sources on mortality, school records, residential history, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease and reproductive outcomes. The linking of indoor air exposures with health outcomes provides a dataset unprecedented worldwide. We describe a project, called HESPERUS (Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools), which will be the first study of the long term health effects of the lower-chlorinated, semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. PMID:27090775

  2. Integrative demographic modeling reveals population level impacts of PCB toxicity to juvenile snapping turtles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant challenge in ecotoxicology and risk assessment lies in placing observed contaminant effects in a meaningful ecological context. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been shown to affect juvenile snapping turtle survival and growth but the ecological significance of these effects is difficult to discern without a formal, population-level assessment. We used a demographic matrix model to explore the potential population-level effects of PCBs on turtles. Our model showed that effects of PCBs on juvenile survival, growth and size at hatching could translate to negative effects at the population level despite the fact that these life cycle components do not typically contribute strongly to population level processes. This research points to the utility of using integrative demographic modeling approaches to better understand contaminant effects in wildlife. The results indicate that population-level effects are only evident after several years, suggesting that for long-lived species, detecting adverse contaminant effects could prove challenging. -- Highlights: • Previous studies have shown the PCBs can impact juvenile snapping turtles. • We used a demographic model of turtles to evaluate population-level PCB effects. • PCB effects on turtles may translate to negative population responses. • Long-term monitoring is needed to detect contaminant effects on natural turtle populations. • Demographic models can improve our understanding contaminant ecotoxicity. -- A demographic model was used to show that PCB induced effects on young snapping turtles can result in adverse effects at the population level

  3. Relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls in molluscs, hydrological characteristics and human pressures, within Basque estuaries (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaun, O; Rodríguez, J G; Borja, A; Larreta, J; Valencia, V

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), measured in the soft tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels and Crassostrea gigas oysters, collected from estuarine waters within the Basque Country (Bay of Biscay), are investigated. Samples were collected in the autumn, between 2002 and 2011. Sites located within the ports of Bilbao and Pasaia showed the highest PCBs concentrations in molluscs; the lowest were observed in the mouth of the Oka estuary, an area of low population and industrial activity. Congener profiles of PCBs in the tissues of molluscs reveal the predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (CB153 and CB138). In addition, redundancy analysis has shown that residence time, river flow and a 'pressure index' explain 57% of the variability in the PCB congener concentrations (the higher the values of these variables, the higher the concentration). Finally, Σ7PCB median concentrations in molluscs and sediments, collected from nearby sampling sites, were found to be moderately correlated (r(2)=0.513, p<0.01).

  4. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  5. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion in adult cocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才乔; 乔惠理

    2004-01-01

    The effects ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction of adult cocks were studied by gavaging peanut oil or PCBs (Aroclor 1254, 50 mg/kg) once a week for six consecutive weeks. Physiological parameters were recorded and gonads were removed at the end of experiment for histological examination. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the control and treatment group in body weight, respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature, and the numbers of red and white blood cells. However, there was a marked decrease in the testicular weight and serum testosterone level after PCB treatment. Morphological studies manifested severe damage of the seminiferous tubules by PCB. The number of the germ cells at the different developmental stages was decreased and condensed nuclei were observed in most of these cells. This study revealed that the reproductive function of the adult cocks is sensitive to PCBs, which inhibited mainly spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion.

  6. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  7. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with 65Ni electron capture detector (GC–ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 μg/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  9. Optimal production planning for PCB assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, William

    2006-01-01

    Focuses on the optimization of the Printed circuit board (PCB) assembly lines' efficiency. This book integrates the component sequencing and the feeder arrangement problems together for the pick-and-place machine and the chip shooter machines.

  10. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  11. Valor收购PCB Matrix公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    专为电子业提供强化生产力解决方案的世界级领导厂商华尔莱科技公司(Valor)近日收购了PCB Matrix公司。PCB Matrix公司是提供用于产生PCB脚位图案和电路图符号的EDA数据库生成工具的领导厂商。

  12. PCB-induced changes of a benthic community and expected ecosystem recovery following in situ sorbent amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Elisabeth M.-L.; Thompson, Janet K.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Luthy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    The benthic community was analyzed to evaluate pollution-induced changes for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site at Hunters Point (HP) relative to 30 reference sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. An analysis based on functional traits of feeding, reproduction, and position in the sediment shows that HP is depauperate in deposit feeders, subsurface carnivores, and species with no protective barrier. Sediment chemistry analysis shows that PCBs are the major risk drivers at HP (1,570 ppb) and that the reference sites contain very low levels of PCB contamination (9 ppb). Different feeding traits support the existence of direct pathways of exposure, which can be mechanistically linked to PCB bioaccumulation by biodynamic modeling. The model shows that the deposit feeder Neanthes arenaceodentata accumulates approximately 20 times more PCBs in its lipids than the facultative deposit feeder Macoma balthica and up to 130 times more than the filter feeder Mytilus edulis. The comparison of different exposure scenarios suggests that PCB tissue concentrations at HP are two orders of magnitude higher than at the reference sites. At full scale, in situ sorbent amendment with activated carbon may reduce PCB bioaccumulation at HP by up to 85 to 90% under favorable field and treatment conditions. The modeling framework further demonstrates that such expected remedial success corresponds to exposure conditions suggested as the cleanup goal for HP. However, concentrations remain slightly higher than at the reference sites. The present study demonstrates how the remedial success of a sorbent amendment, which lowers the PCB availability, can be compared to reference conditions and traditional cleanup goals, which are commonly based on bulk sediment concentrations.

  13. Congener-specific carbon isotopic analysis of technical PCB and PCN mixtures using two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Petrick, Gert; Gamo, Toshitaka; Falandysz, Jerzy; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotope fractionation is a useful method to study the sources and fate of anthropogenic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. To evaluate the utility of carbon isotopes, determination of isotopic ratios of 13C/12C in source materials, for example, technical PCB preparations, is needed. In this study, we determined delta13C values of 31 chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners in 18 technical PCB preparations and 15 chloronaphthalene (CN) congeners in 6 polychlorinated naphthalene preparations using two-dimensional gas chromatography-combustion furnace-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (2DGC-C-IRMS). Development of 2DGC-IRMS enabled improved resolution and sensitivity of compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) of CB or CN congeners. Delta13C values of PCB congeners ranged from -34.4 (Delors) to -22.0/1000 (Sovol). Analogous PCB preparations with similar chlorine content, but different geographical origin, had different delta13C values. PCB preparations from Eastern European countries--Delors, Sovol, Trichlorodiphenyl, and Chlorofen--had distinct delta13C values. PCB mixtures showed increased 13C depletion with increasing chlorine content. Delta13C values for individual CB congeners varied depending on the degree of chlorination in technical mixtures. Delta13C values of CN congeners in Halowaxes ranged from -26.3 to -21.7/1000 and these values are within the ranges observed for PCBs. This study establishes the range of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations, which may prove to be useful in the determination of sources of these compounds in the environment. This is the first study to employ 2DGC-IRMS analysis of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations.

  14. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic.

  15. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research.

  16. PCB disruption of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis involves brain glucocorticoid receptor downregulation in anadromous Arctic charr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluru, N.; Jorgensen, E.H.; Maule, A.G.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether brain glucocorticoid receptor (GR) modulation by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was involved in the abnormal cortisol response to stress seen in anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Fish treated with Aroclor 1254 (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body mass) were maintained for 5 mo without feeding in the winter to mimic their seasonal fasting cycle, whereas a fed group with 0 and 100 mg/kg Aroclor was maintained for comparison. Fasting elevated plasma cortisol levels and brain GR content but depressed heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) and interrenal cortisol production capacity. Exposure of fasted fish to Aroclor 1254 resulted in a dose-dependent increase in brain total PCB content. This accumulation in fish with high PCB dose was threefold higher in fasted fish compared with fed fish. PCBs depressed plasma cortisol levels but did not affect in vitro interrenal cortisol production capacity in fasted charr. At high PCB dose, the brain GR content was significantly lower in the fasted fish and this corresponded with a lower brain hsp70 and hsp90 content. The elevation of plasma cortisol levels and upregulation of brain GR content may be an important adaptation to extended fasting in anadromous Arctic charr, and this response was disrupted by PCBs. Taken together, the hypothalamus-pituitary- interrenal axis is a target for PCB impact during winter emaciation in anadromous Arctic charr.

  17. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  18. Microbiome Dynamics of a Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) Historically Contaminated Marine Sediment under Conditions Promoting Reductive Dechlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, Bruna; Ubaldi, Carla; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can be efficiently reduced in contaminated marine sediments through the reductive dechlorination (RD) process lead by anaerobic organohalide bacteria. Although the process has been extensively investigated on PCB-spiked sediments, the knowledge on the identity and metabolic potential of PCB-dechlorinating microorganisms in real contaminated matrix is still limited. Aim of this study was to explore the composition and the dynamics of the microbial communities of the marine sediment collected from one of the largest Sites of National Interest (SIN) in Italy (Mar Piccolo, Taranto) under conditions promoting the PCBs RD. A long-term microcosm study revealed that autochthonous bacteria were able to sustain the PCB dechlorination at a high extent and the successive addition of an external fermentable organic substrate (lactate) caused the further depletion of the high-chlorinated PCBs (up to 70%). Next Generation Sequencing was used to describe the core microbiome of the marine sediment and to follow the changes caused by the treatments. OTUs affiliated to sulfur-oxidizing ε-proteobacteria, Sulfurovum, and Sulfurimonas, were predominant in the original sediment and increased up to 60% of total OTUs after lactate addition. Other OTUs detected in the sediment were affiliated to sulfate reducing (δ-proteobacteria) and to organohalide respiring bacteria within Chloroflexi phylum mainly belonging to Dehalococcoidia class. Among others, Dehalococcoides mccartyi was enriched during the treatments even though the screening of the specific reductive dehalogenase genes revealed the occurrence of undescribed strains, which deserve further investigations. Overall, this study highlighted the potential of members of Dehalococcoidia class in reducing the contamination level of the marine sediment from Mar Piccolo with relevant implications on the selection of sustainable bioremediation strategies to clean-up the site.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Jeffrey E; Fellers, Gary M; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-10-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas sigma toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains. PMID:12371500

  20. Characterization of estrogen receptor α activities in polychlorinated biphenyls by in vitro dual-luciferase reporter gene assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause adverse health effects, particularly endocrine disruption. However, results on the estrogenic activities of a large set of PCB congeners through hormone receptors have not been fully studied. In this study, we evaluated the anti/estrogenic effects of 20 PCBs using an in vitro dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. PCB 18, 28, 49, 52, 99, 101, 103, 110, and 128 exhibited estrogenic effects, whereas PCB 118, 138, 163, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199 and 203 behaved as anti-estrogens. In particular, PCB 30 and 44 exhibited both agonistic and antagonistic activities in the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. The results obtained from the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, yeast two-hybrid assay and E-SCREEN were compared, suggesting that the dual-luciferase reporter gene assay is a useful approach for high-throughput screening. We also predicted the possible relationship between the chemical structures and the estrogenic effects of PCBs. - Highlights: • Of 20 PCBs tested, 11 PCBs exhibited estrogenic effects. • Of 20 PCBs tested, 11 PCBs exhibited anti-estrogenic effects. • PCB 30 and 44 showed both agonistic and antagonistic activities. - The agonist and antagonist activities of 20 PCBs were investigated and compared in in vitro models

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: Concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑ 209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict. - Highlights: • 209 PCB congeners were measured in 16 different municipal and industrial effluents. • PCB congener differences were elucidated for the various effluent types. • In addition to log Kow, organic carbon and TSS affect partitioning of PCBs. • High concentrations of homolog 2 maybe due to biotransformation of PCBs

  2. Accelerated delivery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recent sediments near a large seabird colony in Arctic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediment cores from ponds located near a large seabird colony at Cape Vera, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Surface sediment PCB concentrations were ∼5x greater in seabird-affected sites relative to a nearby control pond and were correlated with independent indicators of seabird activity including, sedimentary δ15N and lakewater chlorophyll a and cadmium concentrations. PCB fluxes were amongst the highest recorded from the High Arctic, ranging from 290 to 2400 ng m-2 yr-1. Despite a widespread ban of PCBs in the mid-1970s, PCB accumulation rates in our cores increased, with the highest values recorded in the most recent sediments. Possible mechanisms for the recent PCB increases include a vertical flux step driven by seabird-delivered nutrients and/or delayed loading of PCBs from the catchment into the ponds. The high PCB levels recorded in the seabird-affected sites suggest that seabird colonies are exposing coastal ecosystems to elevated levels of contaminants. - Seabird activity accelerates the delivery of PCBs from marine to terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  4. Long-term in vivo polychlorinated biphenyl 126 exposure induces oxidative stress and alters proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiola, Rodrigo Azevedo; Dos Anjos, Fabyana Maria; Shimada, Ana Lúcia; Cruz, Wesley Soares; Drewes, Carine Cristiane; Rodrigues, Stephen Fernandes; Cardozo, Karina Helena Morais; Carvalho, Valdemir Melechco; Pinto, Ernani; Farsky, Sandra Helena

    2016-06-01

    It has been recently proposed that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a risk factor to type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). We investigated this hypothesis using long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure to rats addressing metabolic, cellular and proteomic parameters. Male Wistar rats were exposed to PCB126 (0.1, 1 or 10 μg/kg of body weight/day; for 15 days) or vehicle by intranasal instillation. Systemic alterations were quantified by body weight, insulin and glucose tolerance, and blood biochemical profile. Pancreatic toxicity was measured by inflammatory parameters, cell viability and cycle, free radical generation, and proteomic profile on islets of Langerhans. In vivo PCB126 exposure enhanced the body weight gain, impaired insulin sensitivity, reduced adipose tissue deposit, and elevated serum triglycerides, cholesterol, and insulin levels. Inflammatory parameters in the pancreas and cell morphology, viability and cycle were not altered in islets of Langerhans. Nevertheless, in vivo PCB126 exposure increased free radical generation and modified the expression of proteins related to oxidative stress on islets of Langerhans, which are indicative of early β-cell failure. Data herein obtained show that long-term in vivo PCB126 exposure through intranasal route induced alterations on islets of Langerhans related to early end points of DM2.

  5. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: Effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Jiajun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method.The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology.Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal.Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal.Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent.The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing.Compared with solution flushing,the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent.Similar to solution flushing,solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing.In addition,the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size.Therefore,foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity.An integrated flushing with water,surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam,and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  6. A Temperate Alpine Glacier as a Reservoir of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Model Results of Incorporation, Transport, and Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlin, Christine; Bogdal, Christian; Lüthi, Martin P; Pavlova, Pavlina A; Schwikowski, Margit; Zennegg, Markus; Schmid, Peter; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    In previous studies, the incorporation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been quantified in the accumulation areas of Alpine glaciers. Here, we introduce a model framework that quantifies mass fluxes of PCBs in glaciers and apply it to the Silvretta glacier (Switzerland). The models include PCB incorporation into the entire surface of the glacier, downhill transport with the flow of the glacier ice, and chemical fate in the glacial lake. The models are run for the years 1900-2100 and validated by comparing modeled and measured PCB concentrations in an ice core, a lake sediment core, and the glacial streamwater. The incorporation and release fluxes, as well as the storage of PCBs in the glacier increase until the 1980s and decrease thereafter. After a temporary increase in the 2000s, the future PCB release and the PCB concentrations in the glacial stream are estimated to be small but persistent throughout the 21st century. This study quantifies all relevant PCB fluxes in and from a temperate Alpine glacier over two centuries, and concludes that Alpine glaciers are a small secondary source of PCBs, but that the aftermath of environmental pollution by persistent and toxic chemicals can endure for decades. PMID:27164482

  7. Trophic magnification of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in an estuarine food web of the Ariake Sea, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Jun; Imuta, Yuki; Komorita, Tomohiro; Yamada, Katsumasa; Ishibashi, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Fumitaka; Nakashima, Naoya; Sakai, Jun; Arizono, Koji; Koga, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate trophic biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in an estuary of the Ariake Sea, Japan, we measured concentrations of 209 PCB congeners and 28 PBDE congeners, and nitrogen stable isotope (δ(15)N) levels in living aquatic organisms. The trophic magnification factor (TMF) for ΣPCBs (all 209 congeners) was 1.52, and TMFs for 58 PCB congeners ranged from 0.90 to 3.28. In contrast, TMF for ΣPBDEs was 1.17, and TMFs for 7 PBDE congeners ranged from 0.46 to 1.66. TMFs of PCB and PBDE congeners in this study were lower than those in marine food webs, and were similar to those in a lake food web. However, although negative relationships were observed between TMF and log octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) values among PCB congeners in this study (log KOW up to 7), positive relationships have been reported in several other studies. In the present estuary, PCB concentrations in sea bass may not reach a steady state because sea bass are migratory species. Therefore, TMFs of highly chlorinated congeners with high log KOW values take longer to reach the steady state and may not increase with increasing log KOW. PMID:25240773

  8. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl-induced VCAM-1 expression is attenuated in aortic endothelial cells isolated from caveolin-1 deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a critical mediator for adhesion and uptake of monocytes across the endothelium in the early stages of atherosclerosis development. The upregulation of VCAM-1 by PCBs may be dependent on functional membrane domains called caveolae. Caveolae are particularly abundant in endothelial cell membranes and involved in trafficking and signal transduction. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial cell dysfunction. Primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) isolated from caveolin-1-deficient mice and background C57BL/6 mice were treated with coplanar PCBs, such as PCB77 and PCB126. In addition, siRNA gene silencing technique was used to knockdown caveolin-1 in porcine vascular endothelial cells. In MAECs with functional caveolae, VCAM-1 protein levels were increased after exposure to both coplanar PCBs, whereas expression levels of VCAM-1 were not significantly altered in cells deficient of caveolin-1. Furthermore, PCB-induced monocyte adhesion was attenuated in caveolin-1-deficient MAECs. Similarly, siRNA silencing of caveolin-1 in porcine endothelial cells confirmed the caveolin-1-dependent VCAM-1 expression. Treatment of cells with PCB77 and PCB126 resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2), and pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 diminished the observed PCB-induced increase in monocyte adhesion. These findings suggest that coplanar PCBs induce adhesion molecule expression, such as VCAM-1, in endothelial cells, and that this response is regulated by caveolin-1 and functional caveolae. Our data demonstrate a critical role of functional caveolae in the activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells by coplanar PCBs.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, L.A.

    1998-02-04

    One waste sample that was obtained with solids from tank 101 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprene tubing (Phthalate free) was obtained in a glass jar with teflon lid was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Results are presented.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) analysis report for solid sample from 219S tank 101

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One waste sample that was obtained with solids from tank 101 of 219S via a peristaltic pump equipped with a stainless steel tube and Norprene tubing (Phthalate free) was obtained in a glass jar with teflon lid was analyzed (with duplicate, matrix spike, and matrix spike duplicate) for PCBs as Aroclor mixtures by the Inorganic/Organic Chemistry Group. A soxhlet extraction procedure was used for extraction of the Aroclors from the sample. Analysis was performed using dual column confirmation gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Results are presented

  12. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl; Decomposition thermique du biphenyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author) [French] Du biphenyle tres pur, dont la purification est decrite, est pyrolyse a 400 C en phase vapeur et en phase liquide dans des ampoules scellees sous vide, a des taux de decomposition n'ayant jamais depasse 0,1 pour cent. Les produits provenant de la pyrolyse sont essentiellement: l' hydrogene, le benzene, les therphenyles, et un depot de polyphenyles adherant fortement aux parois. En plus il se forme de faibles quantites d'hydrocarbures aliphatiques gazeux. On indique la variation des rendements des differents produits avec la duree de pyrolyse, l'etat gazeux ou liquide du biphenyle, et la pression de la vapeur. Variant la superficie et la nature des parois, on montre qu'en absence de liquide la pyrolyse se fait en phase adsorbee. La pyrolyse est plus active au contact de parois metalliques que de celles de verres (pyrex ou silice). A partir des resultats experimentaux un mecanisme de

  13. Exposure to Chlorinated Biphenyls Causes Polymorphonucleocytes to Induce Progenitor Cell Toxicity in Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanika V. Martin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Progenitor cells (PC are the precursors for many developmental structures and are sensitive to a variety of toxic agents including the environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The mechanism(s that contributes to the development of PCB-induced progenitor cell-related fetotoxicities are not completely understood. However, several studies have demonstrated an important role for neutrophils (polymorphonucleocytes in the development of PCB induced toxicities. Our recent findings have indicated that conditioned medium collected from PC (CMPC exposed to a single dose of the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1248, can activate isolated neutrophil populations. Because of our recent findings, this study was conducted to determine if conditioned medium from PC treated with a PCB mixture causes neutrophils to injure PC in culture. Isolated PC were cultured and treated with different concentrations of Aroclor 1248 for 24 hours. The resulting PC-derived conditioned media was collected and its affect on neutrophil activity was analyzed. Conditioned medium from PC treated with Aroclor 1248 was chemotactic for neutrophils. The conditioned medium from Aroclor 1248 treated-PC also stimulated neutrophils to release super oxide anion, cathepsin G and elastase into culture medium. Furthermore, the conditioned medium from Aroclor 1248 treated- PC was able to stimulate neutrophils to cause progenitor cell toxicity in co-cultures. The conditioned medium from Aroclor 1248 treated-PC was not toxic to individual neutrophil cultures or PC cultures. Moreover, the addition of a protease inhibitor to the co-cultures containing neutrophils and PC, afforded protection against neutrophil-induced cytotoxicity of PC. These data suggest that a PCB mixture can cause progenitor cells to produce a factor(s that activates neutrophils and stimulates them to damage PC populations in culture.

  14. Modeling Population-Level Consequences of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure in East Greenland Polar Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Viola; Grimm, Volker; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin; Rigét, Frank F; Letcher, Robert J; Gustavson, Kim; Desforges, Jean-Pierre; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can cause endocrine disruption, cancer, immunosuppression, or reproductive failure in animals. We used an individual-based model to explore whether and how PCB-associated reproductive failure could affect the dynamics of a hypothetical polar bear (Ursus maritimus) population exposed to PCBs to the same degree as the East Greenland subpopulation. Dose-response data from experimental studies on a surrogate species, the mink (Mustela vision), were used in the absence of similar data for polar bears. Two alternative types of reproductive failure in relation to maternal sum-PCB concentrations were considered: increased abortion rate and increased cub mortality. We found that the quantitative impact of PCB-induced reproductive failure on population growth rate depended largely on the actual type of reproductive failure involved. Critical potencies of the dose-response relationship for decreasing the population growth rate were established for both modeled types of reproductive failure. Comparing the model predictions of the age-dependent trend of sum-PCBs concentrations in females with actual field measurements from East Greenland indicated that it was unlikely that PCB exposure caused a high incidence of abortions in the subpopulation. However, on the basis of this analysis, it could not be excluded that PCB exposure contributes to higher cub mortality. Our results highlight the necessity for further research on the possible influence of PCBs on polar bear reproduction regarding their physiological pathway. This includes determining the exact cause of reproductive failure, i.e., in utero exposure versus lactational exposure of offspring; the timing of offspring death; and establishing the most relevant reference metrics for the dose-response relationship. PMID:26289812

  15. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  16. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  17. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene

  18. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 gene is related to circulating PCB118 levels in a population-based sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Lars [Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Penell, Johanna [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Syvänen, Anne-Christine; Axelsson, Tomas [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Ingelsson, Erik [Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Epidemiology and Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Salihovic, Samira; Bavel, Bert van [MTM Research Centre, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro (Sweden); Lind, P. Monica, E-mail: monica.lind@medsci.uu.se [Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-08-15

    Several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. the dioxin-like PCBs, are known to induce the P450 enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 by activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ah)-receptor. We evaluated if circulating levels of PCBs in a population sample were related to genetic variation in the genes encoding these CYPs. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (1016 subjects all aged 70), 21 SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 genes were genotyped. Sixteen PCB congeners were analysed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ HRMS). Of the investigated relationships between SNPs in the CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 and six PCBs (congeners 118, 126, 156, 169, 170 and 206) that captures >80% of the variation of all PCBs measured, only the relationship between CYP1A1 rs2470893 was significantly related to PCB118 levels following strict adjustment for multiple testing (p=0.00011). However, there were several additional SNPs in the CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 that showed nominally significant associations with PCB118 levels (p-values in the 0.003–0.05 range). Further, several SNPs in the CYP1B1 gene were related to both PCB156 and PCB206 with p-values in the 0.005–0.05 range. Very few associations with p<0.05 were seen for PCB126, PCB169 or PCB170. Genetic variation in the CYP1A1 was related to circulating PCB118 levels in the general elderly population. Genetic variation in CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 might also be associated with other PCBs. - Highlights: • We studied the relationship between PCBs and the genetic variation in the CYP genes. • Cross sectional data from a cohort of elderly were analysed. • The PCB levels were evaluated versus 21 SNPs in three CYP genes. • PCB 118 was related to variation in the CYP1A1 gene.

  19. Mortality among 24,865 workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in three electrical capacitor manufacturing plants: a ten-year update

    OpenAIRE

    Ruder Avima M; Hein Misty J; Hopf Nancy B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate mortality among a cohort of 24,865 capacitor-manufacturing workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at plants in Indiana, Massachusetts, and New York and followed for mortality through 2008. Cumulative PCB exposure was estimated using plant-specific job-exposure matrices. External comparisons to US and state-specific populations used standardized mortality ratios, adjusted for gender, race, age and calendar year. Among long-term worker...

  20. Biomonitoring of Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Transgenic Arabidopsis Using the Mammalian Pregnane X Receptor System: A Role of Pectin in Pollutant Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Lieming; Gao, Chen; Li, Miaomiao; Chen, Yong; Lin, Weiqiang; Yang, Yanjun; Han, Ning; Bian, Hongwu; Zhu, Muyuan; Wang, Junhui

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR). In the transgenic Arabidopsis desig...

  1. In Vitro and in Silico Analyses for Predicting Hepatic Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolic Potencies of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Baikal Seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jean; Hirano, Masashi; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Agusa, Tetsuro; Kim, Eun-Young; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2015-12-15

    The aim of this study was to understand the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolic pathway and potency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Baikal seal (Pusa sibirica). In vitro metabolism of 62 PCB congener mixtures was investigated by using liver microsomes of this species. A decreased ratio of over 20% was observed for CB3, CB4, CB8, CB15, CB19, CB22, CB37, CB54, CB77, and CB105, suggesting the preferential metabolism of low-chlorinated PCBs by CYPs. The highly activated metabolic pathways in Baikal seals that were predicted from the decreased PCBs and detected hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) were CB22 to 4'OH-CB20 and CB77 to 4'OH-CB79. The total amount of OH-PCBs detected as identified and unidentified congeners accounted for only a 3.8 ± 1.7 mol % of loaded PCBs, indicating many unknown PCB metabolic pathways. To explore factors involved in CYP-dependent PCB metabolism, we examined the relationships among the structural and physicochemical properties of PCBs, the in silico PCB-CYP docking parameters, and the in vitro PCB decreased ratios by principal component analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the decreased PCB ratio was at least partly accounted for by the substituted chlorine number of PCBs and the distance from the Cl-unsubstituted carbon of docked PCBs to the heme Fe in CYP2A and 2B. PMID:26579933

  2. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance. PMID:27152205

  3. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance.

  4. Congener-specific levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Batang, Zenon B.

    2016-08-01

    All 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in edible fish tissue from the central Red Sea coast (Jeddah region) of Saudi Arabia were analyzed by isotope dilution high-resolution gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The upper-bound total PCBPCB) levels in nine commonly consumed fish species from three areas were 0.2–82.5 ng/g wet weight (17–8450 ng/g lipid weight), which were at the lower end of reported global range and far below international tolerance limits (500–3000 ng/g ww). Dioxin-like congeners contributed up to 12.8% (mean 6.5%) to ΣPCB in tissue samples, with the total PCB toxic equivalencies (TEQs) at a tolerable range (0.05–2.6 pg TEQ/g ww or 2–238 pg TEQ/g lw) for all species. PCB profiles were dominated by moderately chlorinated homologs, mainly hexachlorobiphenyls, but less chlorinated congeners were also consistently elevated, notably in Siganus rivulatus (Area III) and Mugil cephalus (Area I). It remains to be ascertained if the latter were breakdown products or due to fresh inputs. The top congeners based on dominance by both occurrence and abundance were identified as potential markers of ΣPCB in fish tissue, which can be used for future selective biomonitoring in case of reasonable constraints on full congener approach.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Levels and its Correlation to Size of Marine Organisms Harvested from a War-Induced Oil Spill Zone of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.K. BARBOUR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first work establishing a base-line data of the level of total Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB contaminants in selected marine organisms (Siganus rivulatus, Mullet spp., and oysters and its relationship to organism size and the harvest distance from the oil spill source. Six locations across the Lebanese Mediterranean were included for sampling. Oysters and the two fish types were collected after 72 days of the spill. The length, maximum width, and whole weight of individual organisms were recorded. Methanol extracts of the samples were analyzed for total PCB using a Competitive Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA based Spectrophotometry.All means of PCB in the three selected marine organisms were below the guidance level set by USFDA (2 ppm. A total of 6 significant regression equations were established between the total PCB level and certain size dimensions of specific selected marine species, with values of R2 ranging between 0.719 – 0.909 and P values ranging from 0.038 – 0.099.In addition, the total PCB level in Siganus rivulatus correlated with the harvest distance north of the oil spill source, signifying a drop in total PCB level with an increase in harvest distance from the oil spill source.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Human Hair and Serum from E-Waste Recycling Workers in Southern China: Concentrations, Chiral Signatures, Correlations, and Source Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jing; Yu, Le-Huan; Chen, She-Jun; Hu, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Hui; Yan, Xiao; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Sukun; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-02-01

    Hair is increasingly used as a biomarker for human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, the internal and external sources of hair POPs remain a controversial issue. This study analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human hair and serum from electronic waste recycling workers. The median concentrations were 894 ng/g and 2868 ng/g lipid in hair and serum, respectively. The PCB concentrations in male and female serum were similar, while concentrations in male hair were significantly lower than in female hair. Significant correlations between the hair and serum PCB levels and congener profiles suggest that air is the predominant PCB source in hair and that hair and blood PCB levels are largely dependent on recent accumulation. The PCB95, 132, and 183 chiral signatures in serum were significantly nonracemic, with mean enantiomer fractions (EFs) of 0.440-0.693. Nevertheless, the hair EFs were essentially racemic (mean EFs = 0.495-0.503). Source apportionment using the Chemical Mass Balance model also indicated primary external PCB sources in human hair from the study area. Air, blood, and indoor dust are responsible for, on average, 64.2%, 27.2%, and 8.79% of the hair PCBs, respectively. This study evidenced that hair is a reliable matrix for monitoring human POP exposure.

  7. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  8. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  9. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  10. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Brian C; Caldwell, Colleen A

    2008-03-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/ kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. PMID:17967068

  11. Valor收购PCB Matrix公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    以色列雅法-专为电子业提供强化生产力解决方案的世界级领导厂商华尔莱科技公司(Valor)近日收购了PCB Matrix公司。PCB Matrix公司是提供用于产生PCB脚位图案和电路图符号的EDA数据库生成工具的领先厂商。

  12. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  13. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  14. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Sung Yong; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs.

  15. 40 CFR 761.2 - PCB concentration assumptions for use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB concentration assumptions for use..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS General § 761.2 PCB concentration assumptions for use. (a)(1) Any person may..., oil-filled cable, and rectifiers whose PCB concentration is not established contain PCBs at < 50...

  16. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single...

  17. Biodynamic modeling of PCB uptake by Macoma balthica and Corbicula fluminea from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon amendment was assessed in the laboratory as a remediation strategy for freshwater sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Grasse River (near Massena, NY). Three end points were evaluated: aqueous equilibrium PCB concentration, uptake into semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and 28-day bioaccumulation in the clam Corbicula fluminea. PCB uptake by water, SPMDs, and clams followed similar trends, with reductions increasing as a function of carbon dose. Average percent reductions in clam tissue PCBs were 67, 86, and 95% for activated carbon doses of 0.7, 1.3, and 2.5% dry wt, respectively. A biodynamic model that incorporates sediment geochemistry and dietary and aqueous uptake routes was found to agree well with observed uptake by C. fluminea in our laboratory test systems. Results from this study were compared to 28-day bioaccumulation experiments involving PCB-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (San Francisco Bay, CA) and the clam Macoma balthica. Due to differences in feeding strategy, M. balthica deposit-feeds whereas C. fluminea filter-feeds, the relative importance of the aqueous uptake route is predicted to be much higher for C. fluminea than for M. balthica. Whereas M. balthica takes up approximately 90% of its body burden through sediment ingestion, C. fluminea only accumulates approximately 45% via this route. In both cases, results strongly suggest that it is the mass transfer of PCBs from native sediment to added carbon particles, not merely reductions in aqueous PCB concentrations, that effectively reduces PCB bioavailability and uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. Simultaneous monitoring of PCB profiles in the urban air of Dalian, China with active and passive samplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xu; Songtao Qin; Yan Li; Xiuhua Zhu; Bernhard Henkelmann; Karl-Werner Schramm; Jiping Chen; Yuwen Ni; Wei Wang; Gerd Pfister; Jun Mu

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the urban air of Dalian,China was monitored from November 2009 to October 2010 with active high-volume sampler and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) passive sampler.The concentration of PCBs (particle + gas) (ΣPCBs) ranged from 18.6 to 91.0 pg/m3,with an average of 50.9 pg/m3,and the most abundant dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCBs) was PCB118.The WHO-TEQ values of DL-PCBs were 3.6-22.1 fg/m3,with an average of 8.5 fg/m3,and PCB 126 was the maximum contributor to Σ TEQ.There was a much larger amount of PCBs in the gas phase than in the particulate phase.The dominant PCB components were lower and middle molecular weight PCBs.With increasing chlorination level,the concentration of the PCB congeners in the air decreased.The gas-particulate partitioning of PCBs was different for the four seasons.The gasparticulate partitioning coefficients (logKp) vs.subcooled liquid vapor pressures (logPL0) of PCBs had reasonable correlations for different sampling sites and seasons.The absorption mechanism contributed more to the gas-particulate partitioning process than adsorption.Correlation analysis of meteorological parameters with the concentration of PCBs was conducted using SPSS packages.The ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure were important factors influencing the concentration of PCBs in the air.The distribution pattern of the congeners of PCBs and the dominant contributors to DL-PCBs and TEQ in active samples and SPMDs passive samples were similar.SPMD mainly sequestrated gas phase PCBs.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a river ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremle, G.

    1997-03-01

    In the Emaan River, in southeast Sweden, contaminated sediment was a source of PCB, the largest deposits of it being found in a small lake connected to the river: lake Jaernsjoen, the sediment of which contained about 400 kg of PCB. The concentration of PCB in the water and in the fish was more elevated downstream from the lake than at upstream sites. Lake Jaernsjoen was cleaned up by dredging during 1993 and 1994. The dredged sediment, estimated to contain over 95% of the PCB in the lake, was deposited in a landfill. During the cleanup action, the concentration of PCB downstream from the lake did not become higher than before. The PCB concentration in the air around the landfill increased in the vicinity and during construction of the landfill. After closure of the landfill by a layer placed on top of it, the PCB concentration in the air fell to background levels. No increase in the PCB concentration in the ground water around the landfill as a result of the remedial action could be detected. In the summer of 1996, nearly two years after remediation had been completed, an investigation of the PCB concentration in the fish of the river system was conducted. This investigation was a repetition of one made in 1991, prior to remediation. It showed that after remediation the concentration of PCB in one-year old fish in Lake Jaernsjoen was halved. The concentration of PCB in fish upstream was also lower, probably because of the decrease in overall background contamination. 155 refs, 13 figs

  20. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  1. Vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment core from Thane Creek area of Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a growing concern all over the globe about the marine pollution due to persistent organic pollutants. Sediments, which is an important component of marine environment can serve as sorbent or concentrator for various persistent organic pollutants including Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Transport and fate of PCB congeners in sediment depends on their physicochemical characteristics. In this study, the depth profile of accumulated PCBs in Thane Creek sediments of Mumbai, India, was studied. The sediment core samples were collected using a gravity corer, processed and analysed for different PCB congeners. Analysis of PCBs in the sediment samples were carried out using gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The study on vertical distribution of PCBs in sediment could reflect the geochemical history including changes due to anthropogenic releases into the system. The surface segment shows the downward trend for these compounds, indicating slow phase out of PCBs after ban. The concentration and composition of different homologues varies at different depth. An attempt has also been made to find out the various sources of PCBs which could have contributed to these compounds by performing factor analysis over the observed concentrations of the PCB compounds in the core sediment.

  2. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Double-Shell Tanks (DST) have received small quantities of PCBs in historic waste shipments. For this reason at least some DST waste has been determined to be PCB remediation waste by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This determination was documented on August 31, 2000 in the ''Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste'' (Boston, et al.). PCB remediation waste is a new category of waste promulgated in the 1998 revision to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) commonly called the Mega-Rule. The applicability of TSCA to tank farm waste resulted in the application of new requirements and the necessity to manage and track PCBs in tank waste. This document describes the principal methods of managing PCBs in the DST system. This document also describes waste acceptance criteria to be used in evaluating the acceptability of waste containing PCBs. The main purpose behind the transfer controls and PCB waste acceptance criteria is to ensure that the waste can be adequately treated in the Waste Treatment (vitrification) Plant. These criteria may change as additional information on the treatment plant's capability becomes available

  3. Courtship behavior of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S A; Bortolotti, G R; Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Marchant, T A; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2001-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect reproduction in birds. Captive adult male and female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were studied to investigate the potential behavioral and hormonal alterations during the courtship period resulting from clinical exposure to PCBs. American kestrels ingested 7 mg/kg/body weight/bird/day of a 1:1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260 through their diet of day-old cockerels. The dietary dosage of Aroclors resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in the eggs, averaging 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean). There was no difference between treatment and control birds in the circulating levels of total androgens (p = 0.44) or in 17 beta-estradiol (p = 0.29), one week following pairing. Male kestrels exposed to dietary PCBs exhibited significantly more sexual behaviors (p = 0.034) and flight behaviors (p = 0.026) than the control males. Sexual behaviors of male kestrels included; nest-box inspections, solicitation of copulation, the offer of food to the female, and giving the female food. The flight behaviors of the male included; flying from one perch to another and aerial display. In addition, the frequency of male sexual behaviors were correlated (r = 0.605, p = 0.001) with total PCB residues in the eggs of their mates. A concurrent study found that these same PCB-exposed kestrels experienced a delay in clutch initiation as well as a greater number of completely infertile clutches. PMID:11462146

  4. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. PMID:24357032

  5. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  6. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  7. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjiang [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Key Lab of Birth Defects and Reproductive Health of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Chongqing Population and Family Planning Science and Technology Research Institute, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yang, Jixin [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yang, Kedi, E-mail: yangkd@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  8. Characterization of the biosorption and biodegradation properties of Ensifer adhaerens: A potential agent to remove polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Chen, Xiong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Liang, Mingxiang

    2016-01-25

    Ensifer adhaerens is a soil bacterium known for its potential to remove pollutants from the environment. We investigated the contributions of biosorption and biodegradation to the process of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from water by living or heat-killed E. adhaerens with different incubation times. We examined the physicochemical properties of E. adhaerens, including its membrane surface moieties, extracellular polymeric substances, and defense-related enzyme activities. In addition, we measured the biosorption and biodegradation of different PCB congeners. We found that removal of PCBs by heat-killed E. adhaerens was attributed to biosorption only, while both biosorption and biodegradation were responsible for the dissipation of PCBs by live E. adhaerens. Biosorption initially plays a major role in PCB removal, but biodegradation becomes increasingly important with increased incubation time. The results of infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that bacterial lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides, which offer abundant binding sites, are responsible for the biosorption of PCBs. Biodegradation was correlated with loosely bound polysaccharides and defense-related enzyme activities that could increase the pollutant's solubility and facilitate further degradation. The PCB congeners exhibited different biosorption and biodegradation patterns, and the patterns were correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) of the congeners. The more hydrophobic organic compounds tended to have higher biosorption, but lower biodegradation capacities. These results indicate that E. adhaerens-mediated biosorption and biodegradation of PCBs are dependent on the status of the strain, the incubation time, and the PCB congener present, and suggest guidelines for PCB removal from water. PMID:26476319

  9. Stimulation-Evoked Dopamine Release in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Cocaine Administration in Rats Perinatally Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sable, Helen J. K.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alters brain dopamine (DA) concentrations and DA receptor/transporter function, suggesting the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse acting on the DA system may be affected by PCB exposure. Female Long-Evans rats were orally exposed to 0, 3, or 6mg/kg/day PCBs from 4 weeks prior to breeding until litters were weaned on postnatal day 21. In vivo fixed potential amperometry (FPA) was used in adult anesthetized offspring to determine whether perinatal PCB exposure altered (1) presynaptic DA autoreceptor (DAR) sensitivity, (2) electrically evoked nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA efflux following administration of cocaine, and (3) the rate of depletion of presynaptic DA stores. One adult male and female littermate were tested using FPA following a single injection of cocaine (20mg/kg ip), whereas a second adult male and female littermate were tested following the last of seven daily cocaine injections of the same dose. The carbon fiber recording microelectrode was positioned in the NAc core, and DA oxidation currents (i.e., DA release) evoked by brief stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) were quantified before and after administration of cocaine. PCB-exposed rats exhibited enhanced stimulation-evoked DA release (relative to baseline) following a single injection of cocaine. Although nonexposed controls exhibited typical DA sensitization following repeated cocaine administration, this effect was attenuated in PCB-exposed rats. In addition, DAR sensitivity was higher (males only), and the rate of depletion of presynaptic DA stores was greater in PCB-exposed animals relative to nonexposed controls. These results indicate that perinatal PCB exposure can modify DA synaptic transmission in the NAc in a manner previously shown to alter the reinforcing properties of cocaine. PMID:23912914

  10. Sediment pore water distribution coefficients of PCB congeners in enriched black carbon sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 2300 sediment pore water distribution coefficients (KPCBids) of 93 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured and modeled from sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal. KPCBids were calculated from previously reported bulk sediment values and newly analyzed pore water. PCBs in pore waters were measured using SPME PDMS-fiber and ∑PCB ranged from 41 to 1500 ng L−1. The resulting KPCBids were ∼1 log unit lower in comparison to other reported values. A simple model for the KPCBid consisted of the product of the organic carbon fraction and the octanol–water partition coefficient and provided an excellent prediction for the measured values, with a mean square error of 0.09 ± 0.06. Although black carbon content is very high in these sediments and was expected to play an important role in the distribution of PCBs, no improvement was obtained when a two-carbon model was used. -- Highlights: •PCB sediment-pore water distribution coefficients were measured and modeled. •Distribution coefficients were lower in comparison to other reported values. •Organic carbon fraction times the KOW yielded the best prediction model. •The incorporation of black carbon into a model did not improve the results. -- The organic carbon fraction times the octanol–water partition coefficient yielded the best prediction model for the sediment pore water distribution coefficient of PCBs

  11. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  12. Evaluation of PCB fluxes in the environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema JA; Beurskens JEM; Bodar CWM; Baart AC; Bakker DJ; Berdowski JJM; Duijvenbooden W van; Klein AE; Liem AKD; Linden AMA van der; Noordijk H; Poel P van der; TNO; ACT; LAE; LWD; LBG; LOC; LLO; TNO

    1995-01-01

    Since the early seventies a variety of stringent measures have been taken by (international) governments to reduce the risks posed by the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. A crucial question is whether these measures have achieved the desired result. The present report

  13. Toxicity of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Renu; Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2016-09-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (HO-PCBs) are toxic contaminants which are produced in the environment by biological or abiotic oxidation of PCBs. The toxicity of a suite of 23 mono-hydroxylated derivatives of PCBs and 12 parent PCBs was determined using the bacterial bioluminescent assay Microtox(®). All HO-PCBs tested exhibited higher toxicity than the corresponding parent PCB, with effect concentration 50 % (EC50) ranging from 0.07 to 133 mg L(-1). The highest toxicities were recorded with 4-hydroxylated derivatives of di-chlorinated biphenyls (EC50 = 0.07-0.36 mg L(-1)) and 2-hydroxylated derivatives of tri-chlorinated biphenyls carrying a chlorine substituent on the phenolic ring (EC50 = 0.34-0.48 mg L(-1)). The toxicity of HO-PCBs generally decreased when the degree of chlorination increased. Consistently with this observation, a significant positive correlation was measured between toxicity (measured by EC50) and octanol-water partition coefficient (pK ow) for the HO-PCBs under study (Pearson's correlation coefficient, r = 0.74), which may be explained by the lower solubility and bioavailability generally associated with higher hydrophobicity. This study is the first one which assessed the toxicity of a suite of PCBs and HO-PCBs using the bioluminescent assay Microtox(®), showing an inverse correlation between toxicity and hydrophobicity. PMID:27411941

  14. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC50 values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox-2.

  15. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  16. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data......The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCB) are ubiquitous in food of animal origin and accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans. The most toxic congener is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo...

  17. Utilizing the partitioning properties of silicone for the passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Odsbjerg, Lisbeth; Langeland, Majbrith;

    2016-01-01

    coefficients, but further research is required for the determination of silicone-air partition coefficients. Avoiding performance reference compounds (PRCs) because of the indoor setting, the two formats were calibrated against conventional active measurements. Comparisons of air concentrations derived from......The former use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials can lead to elevated indoor air concentrations. We studied the partitioning of PCB congeners between indoor air and silicone with a view to establish passive sampling of PCBs. The release of PCB congeners from silicone......) in a petri dish, while PCBs reached equilibrium in silicone-coated paper sheets (0.001 mm silicone on each side) exposed to indoor air for 1–2 weeks. The ratios of equilibrium concentrations in silicone and conventionally measured air concentrations were roughly comparable with silicone-air partition...

  18. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  19. Characterization of gas/particle concentrations and partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in an urban site of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in both gas and particle phases were measured in an urban site (BUTAL-Merinos) of the city of Bursa, Turkey between August 2004 and May 2005. The mean of total (particle + gas) PCB concentrations was about 491.8 ± 189.4 pg/m3. The main contributors for PCBs in the sampling site were the local sources and long-range atmospheric transport supported by back trajectory analysis. Lower molecular weight PCB congeners generally dominated in the samples. The particle phase of the measured PCBs accounted for 15% of the total PCB concentrations. Gas/particle distribution was investigated using different approaches such as log K P -log P Lo, log K P -log K OA and the Junge-Pankow model. Regression analysis among log K P, log P Lo and log K OA exhibited significant correlation at p < 0.05. Correlation between PCB homologs and meteorological parameters was formed to investigate the possible relationships. - Atmospheric PCBs including particle and gas phases, homolog distribution, partitioning characteristics and relationship with air transport were investigated

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorocyclohexanes in sediments and fish species from the Napoleon Gulf of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Wang, Pu; Sojinu, Samuel O; Otieno, Peter O; Zhu, Nali; Zhu, Chaofei; Zhang, Haidong; Shang, Hongtao; Ren, Daiwei; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-05-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analyzed in surface sediments (Napoleon Gulf on the northern shore of Lake Victoria. The analysis was done using a gas chromatograph (GC) coupled to a high resolution mass spectrometer for PCBs and a GC equipped with an electron capture detector for HCHs. Total (Σ) PCBs in the muscles of fish varied widely with mean values ranging from 41 to 670 pg g(-1) lipid weight (lw). The PCB levels in L. niloticus were significantly greater than those in O. niloticus. The large variability observed in the data was attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. While O. niloticus is a filter-eating fish species feeding mainly on phytoplankton and zooplankton, L. niloticus have predatory feeding behaviors and prefer a diet of live fish and, therefore, are more prone to bio-accumulate contaminants. The mean PCB concentrations in the sediments varied from 362 to 848 pg g(-1) dry weight. Variations in PCB levels were observed from one study site to another, this was attributed to the nature and particle size of the sediments. HCH isomers were detected in fish at mean concentrations of up to 45,900 pg g(-1) lw. The PCB and HCH concentrations were lower than those from previous studies elsewhere in literature and were below the maximum residue limits set by the European Commission and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption.

  1. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  2. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  3. Occurrence and possible sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments from the Wuhan reach of the Yangtze River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhifeng; Shen, Zhenyao; Gao, Fan; Tang, Zhenwu; Niu, Junfeng

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-seven surface sediment samples were collected from the mainstream and eight tributaries of the Wuhan reach of the Yangtze River, China, in 2005, in order to assess the distribution, possible sources, and potential risk of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. The total concentrations of PCBs (the sum of 39 congeners) ranged from 1.2 to 45.1 ng g(-1) dry weight, with a mean value of 9.2 ng g(-1). Sediment samples with the highest PCB concentrations came from the tributary sites, which are closer to PCB sources. Conversely, PCB concentrations in the sediment from the mainstream sites of Yangtze River were relatively low. The observed PCB levels were higher than those found in the sediments of other rivers in China, but lower than those in river sediments from other urban areas and harbors around the world. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by tetra-PCBs and penta-PCBs, were identified as being prevalent in the surface sediments. Correlation analyses between the PCBs and the geochemistry and heavy metal content of the sediments suggest that the washing of these compounds from the land into the river by floods and heavy rains, or industrial wastewater and domestic sewage, may be the major sources of the PCBs. According to established sediment quality guidelines, the risk of adverse biological effects from the levels of PCBs recorded at most of the studied sites should be insignificant, although the higher concentrations at other sites could cause acute biological damage. PMID:19108865

  4. Topsoil dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and sources along an urban-rural gradient in the Yellow River Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjun; Chen, Aiping; Li, Jianyong; Liu, Qing; Yang, Hongjun; Wu, Tao; Lu, Zhaohua

    2012-01-01

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a typical agricultural and petrochemical industrial area of China. To assess the current status of soil dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) residues, topsoil samples (0-15 cm) (n = 82) were collected in Bincheng District, at the geographic center of the YRD. The total concentrations of six DDT homologues were within 3.3-3819 microg/kg, with a mean concentration of 191 microg/kg, showing significant increase along urban-rural gradient. Soil concentrations of seven indicator PCBs in the area ranged from non-detectable to 87.0 microg/kg, dominated by heavily chlorinated PCBs (PCB-101 and -118). Soil PCBs concentrations were significantly greater in urban than suburban and rural areas. Principal component and multiple linear regression analysis suggest that 86.4% of soil DDTs originate from past DDT usage, and 13.6% originate from dicofol application. Soil PCBs most likely originate from the petrochemical industry (77.1%), municipal solid waste disposal (16.5%), local commercial PCB homologues usage (5.2%), and long-range atmospheric deposition (1.2%). In general, soil DDTs pollution was classified as low level, and mean PCBs concentrations were below the severe contamination classification range. Because PCB-118 is a dioxin-like congener, monitoring and remediation is advised to assess and reduce negative environmental and human health effects from soil DDTs and dioxin-like congeners in the study area.

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Biotransformation Enzymes in Three Species of Sea Turtles from the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, K L; Lopez Castro, M.; Gardner, S. C.; Schlenk, D.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as the expression patterns of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were measured in livers of loggerhead (Caretta caretta), green (Chelonia mydas), and olive ridley (Lepidocheyls olivacea) sea turtles from the Baja California peninsula of Mexico. The mean concentrations of total PCBs were 18.1, 10.5, and 15.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) respectively for the three species and PCB 153 was the dominant co...

  6. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  7. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  8. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hye-Youn

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal exposure to defined subsets of PCBs and neurodevelopment in a cohort of infants in eastern Slovakia enrolled at birth in 2002-2004. Methods Maternal and cord serum samples were collected at delivery, and analyzed for PCBs using high-resolution gas chromatography. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development -II (BSID were administered at 16 months of age to over 750 children who also had prenatal PCB measurements. Results Based on final multivariate-adjusted linear regression model, maternal mono-ortho-substituted PCBs were significantly associated with lower scores on both the psychomotor (PDI and mental development indices (MDI. Also a significant association between cord mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and reduced PDI was observed, but the association with MDI was marginal (p = 0.05. Anti-estrogenic and di-ortho-substituted PCBs did not show any statistically significant association with cognitive scores, but a suggestive association between di-ortho-substituted PCBs measured in cord serum and poorer PDI was observed. Conclusion Children with higher prenatal mono-ortho-substituted PCB exposures performed more poorly on the Bayley Scales. Evidence from this and other studies suggests that prenatal dioxin-like PCB exposure, including mono-ortho congeners, may interfere with brain development in utero. Non-dioxin-like di-ortho-substituted PCBs require further investigation.

  9. Independent review of inappropriate identification, storage and treatment methods of polychlorinated biphenyl waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the review was to evaluate incidents involving the inappropriate identification, storage, and treatment methods associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) waste streams originating from the V-tank system at the Test Area North (TAN). The team was instructed to perform a comprehensive review of Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO's) compliance programs related to these incidents to assess the adequacy and effectiveness of the management program in all respects including: adequacy of the waste management program in meeting all LMITCO requirements and regulations; adequacy of policies, plans, and procedures in addressing and implementing all federal and state requirements and regulations; and compliance status of LMITCO, LMITCO contract team members, and LMITCO contract/team member subcontractor personnel with established PCB management policies, plans, and procedures. The V-Tanks are part of an intermediate waste disposal system and are located at the Technical Support Facility (TSF) at TAN at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The IRT evaluated how a waste was characterized, managed, and information was documented; however, they did not take control of wastes or ensure followup was performed on all waste streams that may have been generated from the V-Tanks. The team has also subsequently learned that the Environmental Restoration (ER) program is revising the plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of the intermediate waste disposal system based on new information listed and PCB wastes. The team has not reviewed those in-process changes. The source of PCB in the V-Tank is suspected to be a spill of hydraulic fluid in 1968

  10. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D and D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D and D

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Compliance Issues in the 21. Century: Poorly Recognized and Potentially Devastating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves 'PCB free'. Unfortunately, in many cases, these 'PCB-free' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990's and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 'PCB ban'. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) activities. PCBs can pose other significant waste management issues for D and D projects

  12. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N

    2007-11-20

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D&D) activities. PCBs can pose other

  13. Machine Vision Implementation in Rapid PCB Prototyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosafat Surya Murijanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, the heart of machine vision, has proven itself to be an essential part of the industries today. Its application has opened new doorways, making more concepts in manufacturing processes viable. This paper presents an application of machine vision in designing a module with the ability to extract drills and route coordinates from an un-mounted or mounted printed circuit board (PCB. The algorithm comprises pre-capturing processes, image segmentation and filtering, edge and contour detection, coordinate extraction, and G-code creation. OpenCV libraries and Qt IDE are the main tools used. Throughout some testing and experiments, it is concluded that the algorithm is able to deliver acceptable results. The drilling and routing coordinate extraction algorithm can extract in average 90% and 82% of the whole drills and routes available on the scanned PCB in a total processing time of less than 3 seconds. This is achievable through proper lighting condition, good PCB surface condition and good webcam quality. 

  14. PCB-containing wood floor finish is a likely source of elevated PCBs in residents' blood, household air and dust: a case study of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seryak Liesel M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent pollutants identified worldwide as human blood and breast milk contaminants. Because they bioaccumulate, consumption of meat, fish, and dairy products predicts human blood concentrations. PCBs were also used widely in building materials, including caulks and paints, but few studies have evaluated the contribution of these exposures to body burden. Methods In an earlier study, we detected PCBs in indoor air in 31% of 120 homes on Cape Cod, MA. Two of the homes had much higher concentrations than the rest, so we retested to verify the initial finding, evaluate blood PCB concentrations of residents, and identify the PCB source. Results Air and dust concentrations remained elevated over 5 years between initial and follow-up sampling. Blood serum concentrations of PCBs in residents of the homes were generally elevated above the 95th percentile of a representative sample of the US population. Serum concentrations in residents and air and dust concentrations were especially high in a home where a resident reported use of PCB-containing floor finish in the past, and where the floor of one room was sanded and refinished just prior to sample collection. Conclusion This case-study suggests that PCB residues in homes may be more significant contributors to overall exposure than diet for some people, and that use of a commercially-available PCB-containing wood floor finish in residences during the 1950s and 1960s is an overlooked but potentially important source of current PCB exposure in the general population.

  15. The use of muscle burden in rabbitfish Siganus oramin for monitoring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong and potential human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, James K H; Wu, Rudolf S S; Zheng, Gene J; Au, Doris W T; Lam, Paul K S; Shin, Paul K S

    2009-07-01

    Muscle concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in rabbitfish Siganus oramin collected from Victoria Harbour and its vicinity, Hong Kong from 2004 to 2007. Spatially, relatively higher levels of [summation operator]PAH (1.05-4.26 microg g(-1)) and [summation operator]PCB (45.1-76.9 ng g(-1)) were determined in the central and western sites inside the harbour. Temporally, upward trend of [summation operator]PAH, accompanied with a proportion shift from high molecular weight to low molecular weight PAHs, was detected during the three-year study period, suggesting a heavier marine traffic in Victoria Harbour and its western region. However, human health risk assessment based on five individual PAHs indicated that PAHs in fish muscles posed minimal health risk through consumption. In contrast, a downward trend of [summation operator]PCB was registered as the open use of PCBs has been banned. Despite this, the level of [summation operator]PCB in fish muscles still posed a health risk on the local people who have a high fish consumption rate. While seasonal influences on [summation operator]PAH/[summation operator]PCB accumulation in S. oramin seemed to be negligible, our findings in S. oramin were in line with the established PAH and PCB levels in sediments and/or mussels from the harbour, suggesting S. oramin can be used as a model fish species for monitoring PAHs and PCBs in the region.

  16. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  17. Biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in transgenic Arabidopsis using the mammalian pregnane X receptor system: a role of pectin in pollutant uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieming Bao

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants damaging to human health and the environment. Techniques to indicate PCB contamination in planta are of great interest to phytoremediation. Monitoring of dioxin-like PCBs in transgenic plants carrying the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR has been reported previously. Herein, we report the biomonitoring of non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs using the mammalian pregnane X receptor (PXR. In the transgenic Arabidopsis designated NDL-PCB Reporter, the EGFP-GUS reporter gene was driven by a promoter containing 18 repeats of the xenobiotic response elements, while PXR and its binding partner retinoid X receptor (RXR were coexpressed. Results showed that, in live cells, the expression of reporter gene was insensitive to endogenous lignans, carotenoids and flavonoids, but responded to all tested NDL-PCBs in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Two types of putative PCB metabolites, hydroxy- PCBs and methoxy- PCBs, displayed different activation properties. The vascular tissues seemed unable to transport NDL-PCBs, whereas mutation in QUASIMODO1 encoding a 1,4-galacturonosyltransferase led to reduced PCB accumulation in Arabidopsis, revealing a role for pectin in the control of PCB translocation. Taken together, the reporter system may serve as a useful tool to biomonitor the uptake and metabolism of NDL-PCBs in plants.

  18. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorrink, Sabine U. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Severson, Paul L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kulak, Mikhail V. [Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Futscher, Bernard W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Domann, Frederick E., E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced AhR function and

  19. PCB Concentrations and Dioxin-like Activity in Blood Samples from Danish School Children and Their Mothers living in Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai;

    2014-01-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still......R transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were......, there was a positive association between age and PCB concentration. These results show that both PCBs and dioxin-like activity can be measured as biomarkers of exposure and effects in blood samples from children and women. The results indicate that people living in urban areas may be exposed to higher concentrations...

  20. Assessment of the toxic potential of PCB congener 81 (3,4,4[prime],5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) to fish in relation to other non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, G.E.; Kiparissis, Y.; Metcalfe, C.D. (Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program)

    1994-09-01

    PCB congener 81 (3,4,4[prime],5-tetrachlorobiphenyl) has been detected in fish tissues from various sites in North America. The embryotoxicity of this compound to medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the induction of hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined to assess the toxic potency of this compound relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and two other non-ortho-substituted PCB compounds, congener 77 (3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and congener 126 (3,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl). The TCDD toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congener 81 from two end points in the medaka embryotoxicity assay were 0.0014 (from mortality data) and 0.006 (from swim bladder inflation data). The TEF estimated for congener 81 from data on AHH induction in rainbow trout was 0.004. All TEFs were greater than those estimated for congener 77 but were less than the TEFs estimated for congener 126. On the basis of these toxicity data, it is suggested that this congener may contribute significantly to the toxic burden of planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon in fish.

  1. Laboratory Estimation of Net Trophic Transfer Efficiencies of PCB Congeners to Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Its Prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; David, Solomon R.

    2014-01-01

    A technique for laboratory estimation of net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to piscivorous fish from their prey is described herein. During a 135-day laboratory experiment, we fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) that had been caught in Lake Michigan to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) kept in eight laboratory tanks. Bloater is a natural prey for lake trout. In four of the tanks, a relatively high flow rate was used to ensure relatively high activity by the lake trout, whereas a low flow rate was used in the other four tanks, allowing for low lake trout activity. On a tank-by-tank basis, the amount of food eaten by the lake trout on each day of the experiment was recorded. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and end of the experiment. Four to nine lake trout from each of the eight tanks were sacrificed at the start of the experiment, and all 10 lake trout remaining in each of the tanks were euthanized at the end of the experiment. We determined concentrations of 75 PCB congeners in the lake trout at the start of the experiment, in the lake trout at the end of the experiment, and in bloaters fed to the lake trout during the experiment. Based on these measurements, γ was calculated for each of 75 PCB congeners in each of the eight tanks. Mean γ was calculated for each of the 75 PCB congeners for both active and inactive lake trout. Because the experiment was replicated in eight tanks, the standard error about mean γ could be estimated. Results from this type of experiment are useful in risk assessment models to predict future risk to humans and wildlife eating contaminated fish under various scenarios of environmental contamination. PMID:25226430

  2. Complete PCB design using OrCAD capture and PCB editor

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzner, Kraig

    2009-01-01

    This book provides instruction on how to use the OrCAD design suite to design and manufacture printed circuit boards. The primary goal is to show the reader how to design a PCB using OrCAD Capture and OrCAD Editor. Capture is used to build the schematic diagram of the circuit, and Editor is used to design the circuit board so that it can be manufactured. The book is written for both students and practicing engineers who need in-depth instruction on how to use the software, and who need background knowledge of the PCB design process. KEY FEATURES:* Beginning to end cove

  3. Teneur des organismes marins des eaux côtières belges en PCB et en pesticides organo-chlorés

    OpenAIRE

    VANDAMME, K.; Baeteman, M.

    1982-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some oranochlorine pesticides were measured in flounder, cod, sole, shrimps and mussels by capillary gaschromatography. PCBs predomiated among the organochlorine residues and represented 75 to 90 % of the global content. The average PCB-concentration in the wet tissue ranged from 39.5 ppb in shrimps to 261.1 ppb in mussels. From the group "DDT and its metabolites"only the derivates p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD could be quantified.The different organochlorine pest...

  4. Construction of a Bioluminescent Reporter Strain To Detect Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, A C; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M. M.; Sayler, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307(pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/lit...

  5. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fava Fabio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biotreatability of actual-site polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-contaminated soils is often limited by their poor content of autochthonous pollutant-degrading microorganisms. In such cases, inoculation might be the solution for a successful bioremediation. Some pure and mixed cultures of characterized PCB degrading bacteria have been tested to this purpose. However, several failures have been recorded mostly due to the inability of inoculated microbes to compete with autochthonous microflora and to face the toxicity and the scarcity of nutrients occurring in the contaminated biotope. Complex microbial systems, such as compost or sludge, normally consisting of a large variety of robust microorganisms and essential nutrients, would have better chances to succeed in colonizing degraded contaminated soils. However, such sources of microorganisms have been poorly applied in soil bioremediation and in particular in the biotreatment of soil with PCBs. Thus, in this study the effects of Enzyveba, i.e. a consortium of non-adapted microorganisms developed from composted material, on the slurry- and solid-phase aerobic bioremediation of an actual-site, aged PCB-contaminated soil were studied. Results A slow and only partial biodegradation of low-chlorinated biphenyls, along with a moderate depletion of initial soil ecotoxicity, were observed in the not-inoculated reactors. Enzyveba significantly increased the availability and the persistence of aerobic PCB- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading cultivable bacteria in the bioreactors, in particular during the earlier phase of treatment. It also markedly enhanced PCB-biodegradation rate and extent (from 50 to 100% as well as the final soil detoxification, in particular under slurry-phase conditions. Taken together, data obtained suggest that Enzyveba enhanced the biotreatability of the selected soil by providing exogenous bacteria and fungi able to remove inhibitory or toxic intermediates of

  6. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoradova-Murinova, Slavomira; Dudasova, Hana; Lukacova, Lucia; Certik, Milan; Dercova, Katarina [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology and Food Science; Silharova, Katarina; Vrana, Branislav [Water Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls between Yu-cheng children and a potential food source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lung Shih-Chun Candice [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan); Guo Yu-Liang Leon; Chang Ho-Yuan [Dept. of Environmental and Occupational Health, Coll. of Medicine, National Cheng Kung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan)

    2004-09-15

    In 1979, about two thousand people in central Taiwan were intoxicated by consumption of the rice oil that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This ''Yu-cheng'' incident was one of the two human tragedies which people ingested substantial amounts of PCBs within a short period of time. Some of the follow-up epidemiological studies focused on the children born to the exposed mothers, the Yu-cheng children, since they could be exposed to PCBs via breast-feeding or transplacental transfer. This report presents the results of the serum PCB levels of the 21 Yu-cheng children with a congener-specific analysis. On the other hand, fish consumption is thought to be the single most important exposure route to PCBs to the general public; thus, it is crucial to understand PCB exposure from fish consumption. In a separated study to assess PCB contamination in fish, PCB congener concentrations in tilapia (Oreochromis hybrids), the most popular fish in Taiwan, were evaluated. The consumption quantity of tilapia is the highest throughout the Island. It is mostly farmed in fresh water but can also be bred in saltwater. This report presents the concentrations and profiles in the serums of the Yu-cheng children. The congener profile is compared with PCB profile in the serum of Yu-cheng women reported previously and that in one of the potentially significant exposure source, tilapia, conducted in a separated work. Remarkable similarity between the profile of Yu-cheng children and that of the tilapia is revealed and discussed.

  8. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) and vitamin C on antioxidant system of rat ventral prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Sridhar; P.Venkataraman; S.Dhanammal; A.Arunkumar; M.M.Aruldhas; N.Srinivasan; J.Arunakaran

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and vitamin C on ventral prostatic antioxidant system in adult male rats.Methods:A group of 20 adult male rats were administered ip Aroclor 1254 in corn oil at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 30 days.Ten control rats were administered only the vehicle.After 30 days the treated rats were divided at random into 2 sub-groups of 10 animals each.One sub-group received vitamin C at a dose of 500 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 10 days.The other group was maintained as Aroclor 1254 control.Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed by decapitation.Ventral prostatic homogenate was prepared and used for the estimation of enzymatic antioxidants,including superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),lipid peroxidation (LPO) and prostatic acid phosphatase.The serum levels of total T3,total T4,TSH,testosterone and estradiol were also assayed.Results:The body weight and ventral prostatic weight were reduced in PCB treated rats.The activities of SOD,CAT,GST and acid phosphatase were decreased while the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were increased in the ventral prostate of PCB treated rats.Administration of vitamin C restored these parameters.Serum levels of thyroid hormones,estradiol and testosteron ewere decreased in PCB treated animals.Administration of vitamin C restored the thyroid hormone levels.Conclusion:PCB induces oxidative stress and decreases the antioxidant enzymes in the ventral prostate of adult male rats;the effects could be reversed by the administration of vitamin C.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:19-22)

  9. Potential effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) on immune cells and blood biochemistry measures: a cross-sectional assessment of the NHANES 2003-2004 data

    OpenAIRE

    Serdar, Berrin; William G LeBlanc; Norris, Jill M.; Dickinson, L. Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely distributed in the environment and may have adverse effects on the immune system. Methods Lipid adjusted serum levels of 19 Dioxin Like (DL), 17 Non Dioxin Like (NDL) PCBs, 5 OCPs, and measures of complete blood count and routine biochemistry profile were obtained from the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. For each of the PCB/OCP variables, individuals were put into four exposure groups and blood markers were co...

  10. Profile of polychlorinated biphenyls in the brown alga Padina sanctae-crucis along the Orote dump coastline, Orote Peninsula, Western Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Brian Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brown seaweed Padina sanctae-crucis might be used as a biomonitor organism to determine the location, distribution, and type of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) present along a contaminated tropical coastline. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in P. sanctae-crucis collected from near-shore waters along a 4-km stretch of coastline. The profile of PCB levels from samples obtained at 13 sites along the coastline demonstrated a positive concentration gradient as sample locations progressed toward the dump site. Sample locations nearest the dump site revealed PCB levels twofold higher than background levels for P. sanctae-crucis. Chromatograms of samples obtained nearest the dump site indicated a similarity to the Aroclor 1260 fingerprint. The P. sanctae-crucis frond trimmings used for laboratory analysis were approximately 3-5 wk old. This study was conducted 8 mo following the completion of the removal actions at the dump site. Data suggest a release of Aroclor 1260 into the marine environment approximately 7 mo following the completion of removal actions at the dump site.

  11. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3‧-MeO-CB-65 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4‧-OH-CB-101 and 4‧-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs.

  12. Detection of methoxylated and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge in China with evidence for their microbial transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Zhu, Lizhong; Pan, Lili; Wei, Zi; Song, Yao; Zhang, Yuduo; Qu, Liping; Zhan, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The concentrations of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in the sewage sludge samples collected from twelve wastewater treatment plants in China. Two MeO-PCB congeners, including 3'-MeO-CB-65 and 4'-MeO-CB-101, were detected in three sludge with mean concentrations of 0.58 and 0.52 ng/g dry weight, respectively. OH-PCBs were detected in eight sludge samples, with an average total concentration of 4.2 ng/g dry weight. Furthermore, laboratory exposure was conducted to determine the possible source of OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in the sewage sludge, and their metabolism by the microbes. Both 4'-OH-CB-101 and 4'-MeO-CB-101 were detected as metabolites of CB-101 at a limited conversion rate after 5 days. Importantly, microbial interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs was observed in sewage sludge. Demethylation of MeO-PCBs was favored over methylation of OH-PCBs. The abundant and diverse microbes in sludge play a key role in the transformation processes of the PCB analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MeO-PCBs in environmental matrices and on OH-PCBs in sewage sludge. The findings are important to understand the environmental fate of PCBs. PMID:27417462

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides as intrinsic tracer tags of foraging grounds of bluefin tuna in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ashok D; Dickhut, Rebecca M; Dockum, Bruce W; Brill, Richard W; Farrington, Cameron

    2016-04-15

    Researchers have utilized chemical fingerprints in the determination of habitat utilization and movements of the aquatic animals. In the present effort, we analyzed polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and organochlorine pesticides in the samples of juvenile bluefin tuna caught offshore of Virginia, and in larger bluefin tuna from the Gulf of Maine and near Nova Scotia. For a given specimen, or a given location, PCB concentrations were highest, followed by DDTs, and chlordanes. Average contaminant concentrations from fish captured from the three locations were not significantly different; and PCBs, DDTs, and chlordanes correlated well with each other. Trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratios in bluefin tuna of eastern Atlantic (i.e., Mediterranean) origin are low compared to the corresponding ratios in fish in the western Atlantic. As the former migrate to the western Atlantic, these ratios gradually turnover due to the accumulation of biomass from forage contaminated with higher trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio reflecting dissimilar use of chlordane pesticides on two sides of the Atlantic Ocean. The trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio indicated that one juvenile bluefin tuna from offshore of Virginia and one large bluefin tuna from Gulf of Maine in the present study originated from foraging grounds in the Mediterranean Sea, and that they have made the trans-Atlantic migrations. The remaining individuals were determined to be either spawned in the Gulf of Mexico or the trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio for the putative Mediterranean bluefin tuna was completely turned over to resemble the ratio characteristic to the western Atlantic. Based on the turnover time for trans-nonachlor/PCB 153 ratio previously determined, the residence time of juvenile bluefin tuna offshore Virginia was estimated to be at least 0.8 to 1.6years. A discriminant function analysis (DFA) plot of total PCB normalized signatures of PCB congeners showed three separate clusters, which suggested that bluefin tuna

  14. [EVALUATION OF MIGRATION ABILITY OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN THE "SOIL-PLANT" AND "SOIL-EARTHWORMS"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeva, Yu I; Chernykh, N A

    2016-01-01

    In the article there is given a hygienic assessment ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination of soils of the city of Serpukhov of the Moscow region. For the first time there was investigated the PCB's ability to migrate in the system "soil-earthworms", and were calculated bioaccumulation factors at the different level of soil contamination. There was performed a comparative evaluation of the accumulation of given contaminants by higher terrestrial plants and representatives of soil paedobionts (Lumbricidae worms), and revealed clear differences in these processes. There was shown the possibility of the use of earthworms as a highly sensitive bio-indicators in monitoring for soil contamination by persistent organic pollutants, even at low concentrations. PMID:27430062

  15. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C.; Andersen, H. R.; Rasmussen, T.H.;

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental persistent contaminants giving rise to potential health hazard. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Although reports on interaction with other nuclear receptors are sparce, some...... pleiotropic effects on the estrogen- and androgen-receptor. In MCF-7 cells a slightly increased cell proliferation was observed at low concentrations (1-10 nM) in cells co-treated with 0.01 nM 17 beta -Estradiol. whereas the compounds inhibited cell growth significantly at 1 and 10 muM. In reporter gene (ERE......-tk-CAT) analysis the three congeners exhibited a significantly estrogen receptor-ligand mediated decrease of the chloramphenicol transferase activity in both control and 10 nM 17 beta -estradiol induced MCF-7 cells. In addition, PCB # 138 elicited a dose-dependent antagonistic effect on androgen receptor activity...

  16. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  17. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Naveau

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell cycle exit and neuron migration. Pregnant rats exposed to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1254 ended gestation with reduced total and free serum thyroxine levels. Exposure to Aroclor 1254 increased cell cycle exit of the neuronal progenitors and delayed radial neuronal migration in the fetal cortex. Progenitor cell proliferation, cell death and differentiation rate were not altered by prenatal exposure to PCBs. Given that PCBs remain ubiquitous, though diminishing, contaminants in human systems, it is important that we further understand their deleterious effects in the brain.

  18. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  19. PCB126暴露对斑马鱼胚胎发育及氧化应激的影响%Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress of PCB126 to zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寒; 林红英; 聂芳红; 孔庆波; 马驿; 巨向红; 宋春雨; 陈进军; 蔡吉榛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To probe into the embryotoxic mechanism mediated by oxidative stress of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ( DIPCBs). Methods A range of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) embryos were waterbornely exposed to PCB126 at different concentrations of 0, 16, 32, 64 and 128 μg/L, respectively. The survival rate, pericardium and yolk sac edema rate, heart rate as well as activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) , catalase (CAT) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) of the embryos in different hours of poster-fertilization (hpf) were measured. Results The embryonic survival rate significantly decreased (P<0. 05) since 144 hpf as the concentrations of PCB126 increased, and all of the embryos exposed to 128 μg/L of PCB126 died at 168 hpf; The pericardium and yolk sac edema rate significantly increased (P <0. 01) since 96 hpf and the edema rate at 32 μg/L of PCB126 was 100% at 144 hpf; The heart rate at 128 μ/L of PCB126 significantly decreased at 96 hpf and 132 hpf ( P <0. 01) , respectively. At 24 hpf, the activities of CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups had no change while MDA of the embryos exposed to 64 μg/L of PCB126 increased; At 72 hpf, the activity of CuZn-SOD of the embryos in all of the exposure groups was enhanced, especially by far higher at 16 μg/ L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure (P < 0. 01) , while the activity of CAT at 64 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure was lowered (P<0. 05) , and MDA at 32 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure increased (P < 0. 05) , respectively. At 96 hpf, the activities of ? CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased (P < 0. 01) while MDA of the embryos exposed to 32 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 increased, respectively; At 132 hpf, the activities of CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased (P < 0. 01 ) and MDA of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased ( P < 0. 01

  20. Adverse Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Exposure on Male Reproductive Function%多氯联苯对男性生殖毒性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐承敏; 钱亚玲

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a classification of persistent organic pollutants that were widely used in the last century. Even though the commercial production of PCBs was banned at the end of the 1970s in many countries worldwide, they continue to be a health concern due to their lipophilic nature, persistence in the environment, and various exposure routes. The reproductive toxicity of PCBs has received considerable world-wide attention in recent years. The article reviewed polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and reproductive toxicity with a focus on dioxin-like PCB and indicator PCB. Discussion and perspectives for future research were also proposed.%多氯联苯(polychlorinated biphenyls,PCBs)是一类广泛应用的持久性有机污染物.尽管目前世界大多数国家已经禁止使用达几十年,但由于其难降解的特性,人类继续受到各种途径暴露PCBs的侵害.近年来PCBs的生殖毒性是研究的热点.本文拟综述类二恶英多氯联苯和指示性多氯联苯对男性精液质量、生殖激素水平和生育能力的影响,并对今后的研究加以展望.

  1. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, P.K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ludewig, G., E-mail: Gabriele-ludewig@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  2. Application of tritium-labeled complex technical mixture of PCB congeners as radiotracer in ecological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative analysis of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) is enough difficult analytical task. According to IUPAC nomenclature it is described more than 200 possible PCB congeners from which about 150 congeners are present at an environment. At the same time in environment PCBs are present as complex technical mixes of congeners (trade names include Apirolio, Aroclor, Clophen, Fenchlor, Kanechlor, Phenoclor, Pyralene, Pyranol, Pyroclor, Santotherm FR, and Sovol). In routine practice of gas chromatography analysis the quantitative measurement of PCB marker congeners is applied. In the most samples containing PCBs, there are often several dozens of different congeners. For practical reasons, all of them are not always measured, but the most important congeners are used as indicators. In Belgian chicken incident, only seven abundant congeners were usually measured: congeners with IUPAC numbers 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 (2,4,4 '-TriCB, 2,2 ', 5,5 '-TCB, 2,2 ', 4,5,5 '-PeCB, 2,3 ', 4,4 ', 5-PeCB, 2,2 ', 3,4,4 ', 5 '-HxCB, 2,2 ', 4,4 ', 5,5 '-HxCB, 2,2 ', 3,4,4 ', 5,5 '-HpCB, respectively). The seven congeners are estimated to constitute about one third of all PCBs in the contaminated feed. Such measurement can give the big error in a quantitative estimation of PCBs contents in a sample. As alternative method of quantitative measurement PCBs the radiochemical method with use radioactive labeled PCBs as radiotracer can be used. We had been developed a method of synthesis of labeled by thermally activated tritium a complex technical mixture of PCBs congeners - Sovol. We had been showed a basic opportunity of receiving of uniformly tritium labeled mixture of PCBs congeners without structural failure of mixture. The tritium labeled preparation of complex technical mixture of PCBs congeners (Sovol) has been received. On the basis of received tritium labeled preparation of PCBs (Sovol) we had been developed the following quantitative and qualitative radiochemical

  3. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., but is not limited to, the following non-liquid PCB remediation waste: soil, sediments, dredged... proximity to areas such as residential dwellings, hospitals, schools, nursing homes, playgrounds, parks, day... bulk PCB remediation waste on-site using a soil washing process may do so without EPA approval,...

  4. Soil-washing technology shrinks PCB problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintec Environnement Inc., of Quebec has developed a soil-washing technology that has helped to reduce the problem of eliminating PCBs from the Canada Lands Company Kempt Road site in Halifax, NS. The physical/chemical process is typically used for soils contaminated with heavy metals. In the process, incoming truck-loads of soil are sampled and segregated by type of contamination. Material registering under 50 ppm PCB go directly to Cintec's landfill which is approved for receiving hazardous material. The remainder is screened to remove particles larger than two inches in diameter, and tested again. Material with more than 50 ppm PCBs is mixed with water and treated by hydrocycloning, attrition and flotation to further separate the material, and isolating particles smaller than 80 microns. This material is treated with a specially-developed proprietary chemical reagent that dissolves the PCBs. As a measure of the success of this process, of 2,171 tonnes of material received, only two tonnes of highly concentrated PCB-contaminated material remained after treatment. This was incinerated at the Chem Security incinerator at Swan Hills, Alberta

  5. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR(2)) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC(50) values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos(3) failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in various bird species from northern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Zhang Xiulan; Mai Bixian [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun Quanhui [Beijing Raptor Rescue Center, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Beijing 100875 (China); Song Jie [Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Luo Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y. [State Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Hale, Robert C., E-mail: hale@vims.ed [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, 1208 Greate Road, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Little data are available on organochlorine contamination in Chinese terrestrial birds of prey. This study examined the presence of PCBs, DDTs and other organochlorine pesticides in various raptors from northern China. DDE exhibited the highest concentrations among targeted compounds. Greatest levels (23.5-1020 mg/kg lipid weight) were observed in Eurasian sparrowhawks. This may be due to their stopover in southeastern China, where high DDT and dicofol applications have been documented. Residential kestrels exhibited much lower DDE, but similar PCB and HCH concentrations. SIGMATEQs and PCB-126/-77 concentration ratios exhibited significant positive correlations with SIGMAPCB concentrations, respectively. Similar results were also demonstrated by a meta-analysis of previously published data across avian species. Possible hepatic sequestration of coplanar PCB-77, -126, -169 and -118 was observed as liver TEQs increased in Eurasian sparrowhawks. These observations may indicate an induction of CYP1A enzymes, as a result of elevated contamination in some species. - Substantial bioaccumulation of organochlorine contaminants may cause toxic effects (i.e., an induction of Cytochrome P450 enzymes) in birds of prey from the northern China.

  7. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    2009-04-01

    in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible strategies to stimulate these processes. The degradation of the other POPs would be reviewed in additional texts.

    Key words: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs; Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB; Biodegradation; Bioremediation.

  8. A simplified pretreatment method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranami, K.; Morita, M. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Okuyama, A. [EnBio Tec Laboratories Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a simplified pretreatment method for determining polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The method used a combination of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and hexane partition and solid phase extraction. Kanechlors (KC) was used along with a transformer oil comprised of paraffin, naphthene, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Waste oil samples contaminated with PCBs were prepared by adding KC to the oil. Capillary column gas chromatography electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was used to analyze the samples. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of KC and the oil were conducted. An ELISA kit was then used to analyze PCB samples in DMSO and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) PCB competitors in TBS. A sulfuric acid/silica gel cartridge was used to purify the samples with n-hexane solutions. The ratio of the DMSO/hexane partition was examined. Results showed that the ELISA system is subject to negative interference in the presence of hydrocarbon co-contaminations. It was suggested that the oil matrix must be eliminated in order to detect PCB using the system. A simplified pretreatment was then developed which included direct addition of waste oil samples to the silica cartridge followed by elution with hexane. ELISA values of the pretreatment samples were corrected by multiplying dilution factors. It was concluded that the method successfully pretreated samples in approximately 10 minutes. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources.

  10. Serum concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls in Taiwan Yu-cheng victims twenty years after the incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1979, about 2000 people in central Taiwan were intoxicated via rice oil consumption that was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This 'Yu-cheng' incident was one of the two known major human PCB intoxication episodes. Twenty years after the intoxication, serum samples of 435 Yu-cheng victims, 414 adults and 21 children, were collected. Sixteen PCB congeners were analyzed with a gas chromatograph-electron capture detector. We found the median concentration of total PCBs in the adult serum was 1500 ng/g lipid, still substantially higher than that of the general population in Taiwan (3.7-fold) and most seafood consumers in the world. Most of analyzed PCB congeners in children were below or around the detection limits. Congener no. 138, however, had the highest concentrations, approximately accounting for 55% and 29% in the child and adult groups, respectively. Given that PCBs are persistent organic pollutants and endocrine disruptors, the concentrations and congener-specific profiles regarding the Yu-cheng victims provide valuable information for the investigation of such chemicals in humans. - Total serum PCBs in the Yu-cheng adult victims twenty years after the incident were still higher than that of the general population in Taiwan

  11. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in ambient air of an industrial region in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-11-01

    Source apportionment is generally applied to a time series of data collected at a single site. However, in a complex airshed containing several different sources, it may be helpful to collect samples from multiple sites to ensure that some of them have low contributions from specific sources, thus the boundaries can be properly defined. Ambient air polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) samples (n = 160) were collected at 40 sites during four seasons (summer, fall, winter, and spring) between July 2009 and April 2010 in the heavily industrialized Aliaga region in Turkey to investigate their spatial, seasonal variations and to identify possible PAH and PCB sources. The newest version of EPA PMF (V5.0) having the capability of handling multiple site data was used for source apportionment. Five PAH sources were identified as biomass and coal combustion, iron-steel production, unburned crude oil and petroleum products, and diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions with contributions of 40, 27, 27, 3, and 3%, respectively. The sources of PCBs were identified as iron-steel production (consisting of steel-making and ship breaking activities), coal and wood combustion, and evaporative emissions from technical PCB mixtures with contributions of 57, 31, and 12%, respectively.

  12. Soil concentrations, occurrence, sources and estimation of air-soil exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Li, Jun; Selvaraj, Sakthivel; Breivik, Knut; Jones, Kevin C

    2016-08-15

    Past studies have shown potentially increasing levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indian environment. This is the first attempt to investigate the occurrence of PCBs in surface soil and estimate diffusive air-soil exchange, both on a regional scale as well as at local level within the metropolitan environment of India. From the north, New Delhi and Agra, east, Kolkata, west, Mumbai and Goa and Chennai and Bangalore in the southern India were selected for this study. 33 PCB congeners were quantified in surface soil and possible sources were derived using positive matrix factorization model. Net flux directions of PCBs were estimated in seven major metropolitan cities of India along urban-suburban-rural transects. Mean Σ33PCBs concentration in soil (12ng/g dry weight) was nearly twice the concentration found in global background soil, but in line with findings from Pakistan and urban sites of China. Higher abundance of the heavier congeners (6CB-8CB) was prevalent mostly in the urban centers. Cities like Chennai, Mumbai and Kolkata with evidence of ongoing PCB sources did not show significant correlation with soil organic carbon (SOC). This study provides evidence that soil is acting as sink for heavy weight PCB congeners and source for lighter congeners. Atmospheric transport is presumably a controlling factor for occurrence of PCBs in less polluted sites of India. PMID:27136304

  13. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Congener specific determination and enantiomeric ratios of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, S.; Schurig, V. [Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany). Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Jimenez, B.; Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain). Inst. of Organic Chemistry; Marsili, L. [Univ. of Sienna (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Biology

    1999-06-01

    Blubber and liver samples from six striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989--1990 were tested for 37 coplanar and chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including the enantiomeric ratios of 9 chiral PCBs. The method includes a fractionation step using HPLC (PYE column) for separating the PCBs according to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho positions. HRGC/ECD and HRGC/LRMS with an a chiral column (DB-5) were used to determine the PCB congeners. The enantiomeric ratios of nine chiral PCBs were determined by HRGC/LRMS (SIM) with a chiral column (Chirasil-Dex) and by MDGC as the confirmatory technique. The total PCB concentration (sum of 37 congeners) ranged from 7.2 to 89.6 {micro}g/g (wet weight) and from 0.52 to 29.2 {micro}g/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, 170, and 180. The toxic equivalent values (TEQ) ranged from 0.17 to 3.93 ng/g (wet weight) and from 0.02 to 0.73 ng/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCBs 95, 132, 135, 149, and 176 revealed an enantiomeric excess of the second eluted enantiomer in almost all of the samples, whereas PCBs 136 and 174 were racemic or almost racemic. PCBs 88 and 91 were under the detection limits of the methodology used.

  15. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  16. Spatial Distribution, Air-Water Fugacity Ratios and Source Apportionment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Lower Great Lakes Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Muir, Derek; Teixeira, Camilla; Lohmann, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) continue to be contaminants of concern across the Great Lakes. It is unclear whether current concentrations are driven by ongoing primary emissions from their original uses, or whether ambient PCBs are dominated by their environmental cycling. Freely dissolved PCBs in air and water were measured using polyethylene passive samplers across Lakes Erie and Ontario during summer and fall, 2011, to investigate their spatial distribution, determine and apportion their sources and to asses their air-water exchange gradients. Average gaseous and freely dissolved ∑29 PCB concentrations ranged from 5.0 to 160 pg/m(3) and 2.0 to 55 pg/L respectively. Gaseous concentrations were significantly correlated (R(2) = 0.80) with the urban area within a 3-20 km radius. Fugacity ratios indicated that the majority of PCBs are volatilizing from the water thus acting as a secondary source for the atmosphere. Dissolved PCBs were probably linked to PCB emissions from contaminated sites and areas of concern. Positive matrix factorization indicated that although volatilized Aroclors (gaseous PCBs) and unaltered Aroclors (dissolved PCBs) dominate in some samples, ongoing non-Aroclor sources such as paints/pigments (PCB 11) and coal/wood combustion showed significant contributions across the lower Great Lakes. Accordingly, control strategies should give further attention to PCBs emitted from current use sources. PMID:25915412

  17. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  18. Effects on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism in transthyretin-null mice by polychlorinated biphenyl isomers 118 and 114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, N.; Yonemoto, J.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yokoi, C.; Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Some congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are known to disturb thyroid and retinoid metabolism in laboratory animals and humans. Among 209 isomers of PCBs, 12 PCB isomers termed as the coplanar PCBs are grouped into dioxin-like chemicals based on their resemblance of toxic effects and mechanism(s) to dioxins. Mechanism(s) of toxicity by the dioxin-like chemicals have been established to be mediated through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The toxic potency of each congener/isomer of dioxin-like chemicals has been evaluated by relative potency to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as the toxic equivalent factor (TEF). Because dioxins in environments are generally distributed as mixtures, the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept has been adopted to evaluate the health risk of exposure to complex environmental mixtures. TEQ values are calculated by multiplication of the sum of the chemical concentrations by the corresponding TEF values. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two coplanar PCBs, PCB118, highly detected in human tissues and milk (TEF value: 0.0001), and PCB114 (TEF value: 0.0005) on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism. Possible involvement of transthyretin (TTR), the principal carrier of thyroid hormone and retinol-binding protein in the rodent, in PCBs-induced disruption of thyroid and retinoid homeostasis was investigated.

  19. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos. PMID:24967557

  20. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  1. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  2. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  3. Thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in waste insulating oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using a batch reactor and two different (vertical and horizontal) types of continuous reactor. A simple batch reactor was first designed and constructed to examine applicability of thermal-chemical destruction of PCBs. It was evidenced from the batch test results that the destruction of PCBs in the insulating oil (40% PCBs, w/w) was accomplished via abiotic dechlorination and mineralization of PCBs with quicklime at 600 deg C under nitrogen environment. PCB destruction efficiencies were obtained about 99.95%. The reaction was exothermic resulting release of heat by which the reactor temperature suddenly increased up to 750 deg C at the incipient 30 min of the experiment. Two major end products, CaCl2 and carbon, were identified. For a practical purpose, two continuous reactors were developed and tested. The observed continuous test results indicate that over 99.99% of PCB destruction efficiencies were achieved when excess quicklime (>3Ca:1Cl2 as a molar basis) was used. Specifically, the horizontal continuous reactor was suitable in view of ease of solid transfer, which is essential for complete destruction of PCBs and for full-scale applications

  4. Temporal Trends of Hexabromocyclododecane, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Ringed Seals from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank Farsø; Bossi, Rossana;

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a signifi......Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed...... on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which...... also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding...

  5. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. F