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Sample records for biphenyl pcb effects

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  2. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's... Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are toxic, industrial... practicable time. For the purposes of this paragraph, the term “polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's)”...

  3. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) on regulation of thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically related developmental processes in young rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez de Ku, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Neonatal exposure to the toxic chemical polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induces hypothyroidism and retarded growth. Neonatal rats made hypothyroid by chemical or surgical means experience retarded growth and subnormal activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) This study compared thyroid-, growth-, and neurochemically-related processes altered by hypothyroidism induced by other means, with PCB-induced hypothyroidism: (1) titers of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); (2) titers of hormones that regulate growth [growth hormone (GH), insulin-growth like factor-I (IGF-1), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS)]; or (3) brain ChAT activity. Whether PCB-induced growth retardation and other alterations are secondary to accompanying hypothyroidism rather than or in addition to a direct effect of PCB was also examined. Pregnant rats were fed chow containing 0 (controls), 62.5, 125, or 250 ppm PCB (entering offspring through placenta and milk) throughout pregnancy and lactation. Neonates exposed to PCB displayed many alterations similar to those made hypothyroid by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating by other means: depression of overall and skeletal growth, circulating T[sub 4] levels and ChAT activity, and no change in hypothalamic GHRH and SS concentrations. Differences included a paradoxical increase in circulating GH levels, and no significant alteration of circulation IGF-1 and TSH levels and pituitary GH and TSH levels (although trends were in the expected direction). Thus, PCB-induced hypothyroidism may partially cause altered skeletal growth, circulating GH and TSH concentrations, and ChAT activity. Both T[sub 4] and T[sub 3] injections returned circulating TSH and GH levels and pituitary TSH content toward control levels; T[sub 3] restored skeletal, but not overall growth; and T[sub 4] elevated ChAT activity.

  4. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children.

  5. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and evaluation of hematological and immunological effects of PCB exposure on turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuangying; Halbrook, Richard S; Sparling, Donald W

    2012-06-01

    Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Exposure to PCBs in red-eared sliders collected from the PGDP is characterized by low concentrations of moderately chlorinated mono-ortho and di-ortho congeners (PCB 153, 180, and 118). Although PCB concentrations measured in the current study were low, chronic exposure to PCBs may have altered hematology and immunity of the turtles examined. Total white blood cell count and number of heterophils were negatively correlated with concentrations of total PCBs and Arochlor 1260, respectively. However, disease and other contaminants in the study area may influence the results. Because little is known regarding the influence of PCBs on hematology and immune function in turtles, additional study is needed to better evaluate results observed in the current study.

  6. 21 CFR 509.30 - Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls....30 Temporary tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's.... (b) A compilation entitled “Analytical Methodology for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, February 1973”...

  7. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the... GENERAL Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 500.45 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed. (a) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) represent...

  8. Identification of novel extracellular protein for PCB/biphenyl metabolism in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atago, Yuki; Shimodaira, Jun; Araki, Naoto; Bin Othman, Nor'azizi; Zakaria, Zuriati; Fukuda, Masao; Futami, Junichiro; Hara, Hirofumi

    2016-05-01

    Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1) degrades polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) via co-metabolism with biphenyl. To identify the novel open reading frames (ORFs) that contribute to PCB/biphenyl metabolism in RHA1, we compared chromatin immunoprecipitation chip and transcriptomic data. Six novel ORFs involved in PCB/biphenyl metabolism were identified. Gene deletion mutants of these 6 ORFs were made and were tested for their ability to grow on biphenyl. Interestingly, only the ro10225 deletion mutant showed deficient growth on biphenyl. Analysis of Ro10225 protein function showed that growth of the ro10225 deletion mutant on biphenyl was recovered when exogenous recombinant Ro10225 protein was added to the culture medium. Although Ro10225 protein has no putative secretion signal sequence, partially degraded Ro10225 protein was detected in conditioned medium from wild-type RHA1 grown on biphenyl. This Ro10225 fragment appeared to form a complex with another PCB/biphenyl oxidation enzyme. These results indicated that Ro10225 protein is essential for the formation of the PCB/biphenyl dioxygenase complex in RHA1.

  9. Effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on leopard frog survival and sexual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, Mariana Beatriz; Karasov, William H

    2008-02-01

    We tested the effect of mono-ortho and di-ortho PCB congeners on northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) hatching success, survival and sexual development. Embryos and tadpoles were exposed to two levels (0.5 and 50 microg/l) of two PCBs. PCBs 101 and 70 were selected because they were present in amphibians collected in the Fox River-Green Bay ecosystem and they have the theoretical structural requirements to be able to bind to the estrogen receptor and mediate estrogenic responses. The exposure of leopard frog embryos and tadpoles to PCB 70 and 101 did not significantly affect hatchability, survival, deformities or growth. There were significant departures from the expected 50:50 sex ratio in tadpoles/froglets exposed to PCB 101 and PCB 70. In all the cases of significant departure, the bias was towards higher number of females. Decrease in the proportion of male gonads and increase in the proportion of intersex gonads were observed with increasing PCB tissue concentrations. The effects of PCB congeners on sexual differentiation occur at concentrations higher than observed in frogs in the Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, October 1984 and 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during October 1984 and 1985. Atlantic Ritchfield...

  11. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  12. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...

  13. 21 CFR 109.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 109.15 Section 109.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a) Polychlorinated...

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1...... analysis showed significant associations between 6beta-OHC/FC ratios and summation PCB, PCB-TEQ and p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT and HCB, respectively, but the associations were statistically significant for men only....

  15. Passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Mayer, Philipp

    two phases and comments from experts in the field of PCB containing construction materials, a kinetic sampler (petri dish with silicone) and a potential equilibrium sampler (silicone-coated paper) were tested in buildings. Calibration and validation were based on conventional active sampling, for both...... methods in their kinetic sampling phase. The methods were sensitive and precise, but tended to overestimate the concentration obtained by active sampling. More work will be needed to test the silicone-coated paper under equilibrium sampling conditions.......PCBs were widely used in construction materials in the 1906s and 1970s, a period of high building activity in Denmark. The objective of this study was therefore to use passive sampling techniques to develop a simple and cost-effective screening tool for PCBs in indoor air. The study proceeded...

  16. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  17. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels of workers in a transformer recycling company, their family members, and employees of surrounding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettgen, Thomas; Gube, Monika; Esser, Andre; Alt, Anne; Kraus, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In spring 2010, high internal exposures (up to 236 μg/L plasma) for the sum of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were discovered in workers in a transformer recycling company in Germany, where PCB-contaminated material was not handled according to proper occupational hygiene. The release of PCB from this company raised growing concerns regarding possible adverse human health effects correlated with this exposure. This provided a basis for a large biological monitoring study in order to examine the internal exposure to PCB in individuals working in that recycling company, their family members, and relatives, as well as subjects working or living in the surroundings of this company. Blood samples from 116 individuals (formerly) employed in the transformer recycling company and 45 direct relatives of these persons were obtained. Further, blood samples of 190 subjects working in close vicinity of the recycling plant, 277 persons working in the larger area, and 41 residents of the area were investigated. Plasma samples were analyzed for the 6 indicator PCB (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS; limit of detection [LOD] at 0.01 μg/L). Median concentrations (maximum) for the sum of the 6 indicator PCB in blood of the employees, their relatives, individuals working in close vicinity, persons working in the larger area, and the residents were 3.68 (236.3), 1.86 (22.8), 1.34 (22.9), 1.19 (6.42), and 0.85 (7.22) μg/L plasma, respectively. The (former) employees of the transformer recycling plant partly showed the highest plasma PCB levels determined thus far in Germany. Even family members displayed highly elevated levels of PCB in blood due to contaminations of their homes by laundering of contaminated clothes. Vicinity to the recycling plant including reported contact with possibly contaminated scrap was the main contributor to the PCB levels of the workers of the surrounding companies. Residents

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Bioaccumulation in Fish: A Look at Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, E. C.; Urban, N. R.; Perlinger, J. A.; Khan, T.; Friedman, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fish consumption is an important economic, social and cultural component of Michigan's UpperPeninsula, where safe fish consumption is threatened due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)contamination. Despite its predominantly rural nature, the Upper Peninsula has a history of industrialPCB use. PCB congener concentrations in fish vary 50-fold in Upper Peninsula lakes. Several factors maycontribute to this high variability including local point sources, unique watershed and lakecharacteristics, and food web structure. It was hypothesized that the variability in congener distributionscould be used to identify factors controlling concentrations in fish, and then to use those factors topredict PCB contamination in fish from lakes that had not been monitored. Watershed and lakecharacteristics were acquired from several databases for 16 lakes sampled in the State's fishcontaminant survey. Species congener distributions were compared using Principal Component Analysis(PCA) to distinguish between lakes with local vs. regional, atmospheric sources; six lakes were predictedto have local sources and half of those have confirmed local PCB use. For lakes without local PCBsources, PCA indicated that lake size was the primary factor influencing PCB concentrations. The EPA'sbioaccumulation model, BASS, was used to predict PCB contamination in lakes without local sources as afunction of food web characteristics. The model was used to evaluate the hypothesis that deep,oligotrophic lakes have longer food webs and higher PCB concentrations in top predator fish. Based onthese findings, we will develop a mechanistic watershed-lake model to predict PCB concentrations infish as a function of atmospheric PCB concentrations, lake size, and trophic state. Future atmosphericconcentrations, predicted by modeling potential primary and secondary emission scenarios, will be usedto predict the time horizon for safe fish consumption.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 101, PCB 153 and PCB 180) alter leptin signaling and lipid metabolism in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrante, Maria C. [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Amero, Paola; Santoro, Anna [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Monnolo, Anna [Department of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Productions, Federico II University of Naples, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Simeoli, Raffaele; Di Guida, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mattace Raso, Giuseppina, E-mail: mattace@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy); Meli, Rosaria, E-mail: meli@unina.it [Department of Pharmacy, Federico II University of Naples, Via Montesano 49, 80131 Naples (Italy)

    2014-09-15

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are highly lipophilic environmental contaminants that accumulate in lipid-rich tissues, such as adipose tissue. Here, we reported the effects induced by PCBs 101, 153 and 180, three of the six NDL-PCBs defined as indicators, on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We observed an increase in lipid content, in leptin gene expression and a reduction of leptin receptor expression and signaling, when cells were exposed to PCBs, alone or in combination. These modifications were consistent with the occurrence of “leptin-resistance” in adipose tissue, a typical metabolic alteration related to obesity. Therefore, we investigated how PCBs affect the expression of pivotal proteins involved in the signaling of leptin receptor. We evaluated the PCB effect on the intracellular pathway JAK/STAT, determining the phosphorylation of STAT3, a downstream activator of the transcription of leptin gene targets, and the expression of SOCS3 and PTP1B, two important regulators of leptin resistance. In particular, PCBs 153 and 180 or all PCB combinations induced a significant reduction in pSTAT3/STAT3 ratio and an increase in PTP1B and SOCS3, evidencing an additive effect. The impairment of leptin signaling was associated with the reduction of AMPK/ACC pathway activation, leading to the increase in lipid content. These pollutants were also able to increase the transcription of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNFα). It is worthy to note that the PCB concentrations used are comparable to levels detectable in human adipose tissue. Our data strongly support the hypothesis that NDL-PCBs may interfere with the lipid metabolism contributing to the development of obesity and related diseases. - Highlights: • NDL-PCBs alter lipid content and metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • Impairment of leptin signaling was induced by NDL-PCBs. • NDL-PCBs reduce AMPK and ACC activation. • NDL-PCBs induce the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokine by

  20. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...

  1. Concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the muscle of Clarias gariepinus and sediment from inland rivers of southwestern Nigeria and estimated potential human health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Chukwuka, Azubuike V; Okoli, Chukwunonso P; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-01

    The distributions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in sediment and muscle of the African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) from the Ogun and Ona rivers, southwest Nigeria. In addition, the effect of PCB congeners on condition factor (CF) and associated human health risk was assessed using muscle levels for a noncarcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) calculation. Elevated concentrations of high-molecular-weight (HMW) PCB congeners were detected in sediment and fish downstream of discharge points of both rivers. A significant reduction in fish body weight and CF was observed to correlate with high PCB congener concentrations in the Ona River. A principal component (PC) biplot revealed significant site-related PCB congener distribution patterns for HMW PCB in samples from the Ogun River (71.3%), while the Ona River (42.6%) showed significant PCB congener patterns for low-molecular-weight (LMW) congeners. Biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) was higher downstream for both rivers, presenting PCB congener-specific accumulation patterns in the Ona River. Significant decreases in fish body weight, length and CF were observed downstream compared to upstream in the Ona River. The non-carcinogenic HQ of dioxin-like congener 189 downstream in both rivers exceeded the HQ = 1 threshold for children and adults for both the Ogun and Ona rivers. Overall, our results suggest that industrial discharges contribute significantly to PCB inputs into these rivers, with potential for significant health implications for neighboring communities that utilize these rivers for fishing and other domestic purposes.

  2. Photochemistry treatment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in dielectric fluid; Tratamiento fotoquimico de bifenilos policlorados en fluidos dielectricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano Quinones, M. A. [Escuela Politecnica Superior de Algeciras (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In this work a study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) photodegradation in dielectric fluid have been done. The experiments has been carried out in a pilot scale photo rector with an ultraviolet light source. The results obtained showed a 92% elimination of PCB following a first kinetic order. In addition the photo reaction products have been identified. (Author) 6 refs.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dioxin concentrations in residential dust of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, A L; Callan, A C; Heyworth, J; Rogic, D; de Araujo, J; Crough, R; Mamahit, G; Piro, N; Yates, A; Stevenson, G; Odland, J Ø

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are well known for their persistence in the environment. PCBs can be found in the residential environment long after the use of these chemicals in domestic products and industrial processes has ceased. Dioxins have been assessed in Australia as being of very low concentrations. Despite concerns about residential dust as a source of human exposure to persistent chemicals, there has been limited testing of PCBs and dioxins in dust in Australia. As part of an assessment of maternal exposure to a variety of persistent toxic substances, we analysed 30 residential dust samples from a variety of geographical settings for their dioxin and PCB concentrations. PCBs were found in most samples, the median and range concentrations (pg g(-1)) of dominant congeners of PCB were as follows: PCB118 (315; PCB105 (130; 14.0-16 000) and PCB156 (440; PCB congener concentrations and dioxin isomers in multivariate regression analyses. No other housing or sociodemographic variables, including proximity to industry, were important predictors in multivariate linear regression models.

  4. Tracking Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) after an incident along a river system - Case study Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleisinger, Carmen; Dietrich, Stephan; Kehl, Nora; Claus, Evelyn; Schubert, Birgit

    2017-04-01

    In spring 2015, extremely high concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) well above the long-term average were detected in suspended particulate matter (SPM) within the River Elbe. They were released due to abrasive blasting of the old coating from a bridge in the upper part of the River, approximately 50 km upstream of the first measurement site. PCBs are persistent organic pollutants, preferentially bound to fine-grained fractions of the SPM. Results from monitoring of contaminants in SPM along the Elbe indicate the further dispersal of the PCB-contaminated sediments. These measurements include yearly investigations on PCB concentrations in sediments in the inner reaches of the Elbe, an additional longitudinal survey in 2015 and monthly monitoring of PCBs in SPM at stations along the river including the Elbe estuary (Germany). The Elbe estuary is of major economic importance since Hamburg harbour, one of the largest harbours in Europe, is located there. Maintaining the harbour includes dredging and, i.a., relocating large amounts of the dredged material within the water body. High PCB concentrations in sediments could lead to restrictions on the relocation of these sediments. This study aims at tracking the fate of PCB contaminated material released from the point source of the incident site along the whole river stretch and at estimating its impact on the quality of sediments and consequently on dredging activities in the estuary. The ratio of high (PCB 138, 152 and 180) versus low (PCB 28, 52, 101) chlorinated PCB congeners proved to be a suitable tracer to distinguish the PCB load released by the incident from the long-term background signals. As Delor 106/Clophen A60, which contains approx. 90% hexa- to decachloric congeners, was an additive in the coating of the bridge, the pattern of PCBs released by the incident is dominated by the highly chlorinated PCB-congeners PCB 138, 153 and 180. At the tidal weir Geesthacht, the entrance to the estuary, an

  5. Lactational exposure to hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (OH-PCB 106) causes hyperactivity in male rat pups by aberrant increase in dopamine and its receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmana, Ronny; Shimokawa, Noriaki; Takatsuru, Yusuke; Iwasaki, Toshiharu; Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized as persistent environmental pollutants that may cause adverse health problems. Despite extensive investigations of PCB in neural function, little is known about behavioral traits by PCB exposure and its neurochemical mechanism. Here, we report the behavioral study of a rat pup that was exposed to hydroxylated-PCB 106 (OH-PCB 106; 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5'-pentachlorobiphenyl) through maternal milk. The different groups of mothers received via gavage corn oil vehicle, 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg body weight of OH-PCB 106 every second day from day 3 to 13 after delivery. The exposure did not affect the body weight of the dams or the physical development of the newborn pups in both sexes. Male rats exposed to OH-PCB 106 showed hyperactivity that was characterized by increased locomotor activity in novel environment and circadian period. Interestingly, OH-PCB 106-exposed rat pups displayed abnormally high levels of dopamine and D2 dopamine receptor (D2DR), but not D1DR and D5DR, in the striatum, an important center for the coordination of behavior. These findings indicate that OH-PCB 106 has a significant neurotoxic effect on rat behavior, which may be associated with increased D2DR mediated signals.

  6. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Doi

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  7. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.G. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (United States)); Storr-Hansen, E. (National Environmental Research Inst., Soeborg (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  8. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil by cocktail PCB ELISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M.; Fujimoto, S. [Japan EnviroChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan). Environment Preservation Centre; Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a novel cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a simple pretreatment method for the determination of PCBs in insulating oils. Oil samples were treated with hexane and dimethyl sufloxide (DMSO) and mixed. Hexane layers were then removed, and freshly prepared hexane was added. The DMSO layer was then diluted with an aqueous solution and extracted with hexane. After being dehydrated, the hexane layer was sulfonated with a sulfuric reagent and washed. Standard or pretreated PCBs were then dissolved and diluted in 100 per cent DMSO and added to distilled water prior to the ELISA assay. A horseradish peroxidase conjugate and an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles were added for the assay. A magnetic rack was used to separate the reaction mixture. A colouring reagent was then added. A total of 26 insulating oils contaminated with PCBs were determined using the new cocktail method and compared with data obtained from traditional gas chromatograph electron capture detector (GC-ECD) data. Results showed that the values of both the cocktail and general PCB ELISA were well correlated with the CG-ECD data. It was concluded that combining cocktail PCB ELISA with the developed pretreatment method provided accurate results. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Evaluation of the immunotoxicity of low-level PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) exposure in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smialowicz, R.J.; Andrews, J.E.; Riddle, M.M.; Rogers, R.R.; Luebke, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    Weanling male Fischer 344 rats were exposed daily by gastric intubation for up to 15 weeks to the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Aroclor 1254 at 0.1, 1, 10, or 25 mg/kg body weight. At 5, 10 and 15 weeks groups of rats were killed and immune functions were evaluated. The immune parameters examined included the following: body and lymphoid organ weights, mitogen stimulated lymphoproliferative (LP) responses, natural killer (NK) cell activity, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. After 10 and 15 weeks of dosing body weights were reduced in rats receiving 25 mg/kg PCB while thymus weights were decreased in rats receiving 10 and 25 mg/kg. NK cell activity was reduced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 10 and 25 mg/kg. The LP response to phytohemagglutinin was enhanced in rats dosed for 15 weeks at 25 mg/kg PCB. Exposure of rats to PCB did not affect the MLR or CTL responses. Other groups of rats were exposed to cyclophosphamide (CY) and served as positive controls for the immune assays employed. CY induced alterations in all of the immune parameters measured, indicating that this is a sensitive battery of immune function tests which is capable of detecting immune alterations in the rat.

  10. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  11. Dopamine-dependent behavior in adult rats after perinatal exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB52 and PCB180).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Heikkinen, Päivi; Andersson, Patrik L; van der Ven, Leo T M; Viluksela, Matti

    2014-01-03

    Since knowledge about toxic effects of non-dioxinlike (NDL) PCBs is fragmentary, regulatory panels have concluded that risk assessment of these congeners is hampered or impossible. As the dopaminergic system is one of the main targets in PCB-related neurotoxic effects after developmental exposure, we selected catalepsy induced by the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol to characterize effects of the NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180 in adult offspring from exposed rat dams. Rat dams were treated with PCB congeners by gavage using six dose levels (total doses: PCB52 - 0, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 3000 mg/kg body wt.; PCB180 - 0, 10, 30, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg body wt.) to allow benchmark dose analysis of the results. Testing of adult offspring (starting at 180 days of age) for catalepsy induced by injection with haloperidol revealed slightly prolonged latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB52. Exposure to PCB180 resulted in more pronounced effects, with generally reduced latencies in male offspring. These results indicate reduced dopaminergic activity after PCB52 exposure, whereas the outcome for PCB180 may be related to increased extracellular dopamine as reported in the literature.Benchmark dose analyses revealed that both PCB congeners exerted effects mainly at moderate exposure levels. Together, these results underline the importance of effects on the dopaminergic system as indicated by studies in human females after occupational PCB exposure.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB-Degrading Potential of Microbes Present in a Cryoconite of Jamtalferner Glacier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Weiland-Bräuer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to comprehensively survey the potential pollution of an alpine cryoconite (Jamtalferner glacier, Austria, and its bacterial community structure along with its biodegrading potential, first chemical analyses of persistent organic pollutants, explicitly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, revealed a significant contamination. In total, 18 PCB congeners were detected by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a mean concentration of 0.8 ng/g dry weight; 16 PAHs with an average concentration of 1,400 ng/g; and 26 out of 29 OCPs with a mean concentration of 2.4 ng/g. Second, the microbial composition was studied using 16S amplicon sequencing. The analysis revealed high abundances of Proteobacteria (66%, the majority representing α-Proteobacteria (87%; as well as Cyanobacteria (32%, however high diversity was due to 11 low abundant phyla comprising 75 genera. Biodegrading potential of cryoconite bacteria was further analyzed using enrichment cultures (microcosms with PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. 16S rDNA analysis taxonomically classified 37 different biofilm-forming and PCB-degrading bacteria, represented by Pseudomonas, Shigella, Subtercola, Chitinophaga, and Janthinobacterium species. Overall, the combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods identified degrading bacteria that can be potential candidates to develop novel bioremediation strategies.

  13. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  14. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  15. Rhizospere Redox Cycling and Implications for Rhizosphere Biotransformation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meggo, Richard E; Schnoor, Jerald L

    2013-08-01

    Theoretically, sequential cycles of dechlorination followed by aerobic bio-oxidation are desirable to achieve complete degradation of a mixture of higher and lower chlorinated PCBs. In this research, soil was artificially contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mixture and as single congeners, aged, and planted with two different plant species. Alternating redox cycles were created in the root zone of plants by flooding and draining the soil. Over 32 weeks, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and poplar (Populus deltoids x nigra DN34) planted systems that were exposed to alternate cycles of flooding performed better in reducing parent PCBs than planted systems that were not cycled (p<0.05). The cycled systems also had a higher mass of PCB transformation products than the uncycled systems. Multiple cycles were necessary to achieve significant differences between the cycled and uncycled treatments.

  16. Electroremediation of PCB contaminated soil combined with iron nanoparticles: Effect of the soil type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are carcinogenic and persistent organic pollutants that accumulate in soils and sediments. Currently, there is no cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology for these contaminants. In this work, a new combination of electrodialytic remediation and zero...... nanoparticles. Remediation experiments are made with two different historically PCB contaminated soils, which differ in both soil composition and contamination source. Soil 1 is a mix of soils with spills of transformer oils, while Soil 2 is a superficial soil from a decommissioned school where PCB were used...... as windows sealants. Saponin, a natural surfactant, was also tested to increase the PCB desorption from soils and enhance dechlorination. Remediation of Soil 1 (with highest pH, carbonate content, organic matter and PCB concentrations) obtained the maximum 83% and 60% PCB removal with the two...

  17. Studies on the analysis of pesticide residues in foods (XL) PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) residues in imported smelt fished from the Canadian Great Lakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekita, H; Sasaki, K; Kawamura, Y; Takeda, M; Uchiyama, M

    1987-01-01

    The inspection of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) residues in pond smelt samples imported from Canada in June, 1983, fished from Lake Erie, one of the Great Lakes, was performed by gas chromatography with ECD...

  18. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat Part 2: Effects on reproductive parameters, on sex behavior, on memory retention and on hypothalamic expression of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colciago, A; Casati, L; Mornati, O; Vergoni, A V; Santagostino, A; Celotti, F; Negri-Cesi, P

    2009-08-15

    The gender-specific expression pattern of aromatase and 5alpha-reductases (5alpha-R) during brain development provides neurons the right amount of estradiol and DHT to induce a dimorphic organization of the structure. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are endocrine disruptive pollutants; exposure to PCBs through placental transfer and breast-feeding may adversely affect the organizational action of sex steroid, resulting in long-term alteration of reproductive neuroendocrinology. The study was aimed at: a) evaluating the hypothalamic expression of aromatase, 5alpha-R1 and 5alpha-R2 in fetuses (GD20), infant (PN12), weaning (PN21) and young adult (PN60) male and female rats exposed to PCBs during development; b) correlating these parameters with the time of testicular descent, puberty onset, estrous cyclicity and copulatory behavior; c) evaluating possible alterations of some non reproductive behaviors (locomotion, learning and memory, depression/anxiety behavior). A reconstituted mixture of four indicator congeners (PCB 126, 138, 153 and 180) was injected subcutaneously to dams at the dose of 10 mg/kg daily from GD15 to GD19 and then twice a week till weanling. The results indicated that developmental PCB exposure produced important changes in the dimorphic hypothalamic expression of both aromatase and the 5alpha-Rs, which were still evident in adult animals. We observed that female puberty onset occurs earlier than in control animals without cycle irregularity, while testicular descent in males was delayed. A slight but significant impairment of sexual behavior and an important alteration in memory retention were also noted specifically in males. We conclude that PCBs might affect the dimorphic neuroendocrine control of reproductive system and of other neurobiological processes.

  19. A cohort study of in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposures in relation to secondary sex ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Jean A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that persist in the environment and in human fatty tissue. PCBs are related to a class of compounds known as dioxins, specifically 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin, which has been implicated as a cause of altered sex ratio, especially in relation to paternal exposures. Methods In the 1960's, serum specimens were collected from pregnant women participating in the Child Health and Development Study in the San Francisco Bay Area. The women were interviewed and their serum samples stored at -20°C. For this study, samples were thawed and a total of eleven PCBs were determined in 399 specimens. Secondary sex ratio, or sex ratio at birth, was evaluated as a function of maternal serum concentrations using log-binomial and logistic regression, controlling for hormonally active medications taken during pregnancy. Results The relative risk of a male birth decreased by 33% comparing women at the 90th percentile of total PCBs with women at the 10th percentile (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.94; p = 0.02, or by approximately 7% for each 1 μg/L increase in total PCB concentration. Although some congener-specific associations with sex ratio were only marginally statistically significant, all nine PCB congeners with Conclusion Maternal exposure to PCBs may be detrimental to the success of male sperm or to the survival of male embryos. Findings could be due to contaminants, metabolites or PCBs themselves.

  20. Exposure and body burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and metals in a historically contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Wingren, Gun; Berglund, Marika

    2015-03-01

    There are many small villages where environmental contamination is substantial due to historical industrial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate if long-term or current consumption of local foods, as reported in food frequency questionnaires, co-vary with measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in blood, urine and hair from a population living in a historically contaminated village. Blood, urine and hair were provided by men (n=38) and women (n=57), who had participated in a previous case-control study in the contaminated area, and were analyzed for PCB, OCPs, Pb, Cd and Hg. A detailed food frequency questionnaire, used in the previous epidemiological study, was repeated, and up-dated information of life-style, exposure factors and other covariates was collected. Associations between reported consumption of local foods and exposure biomarkers were explored in relation to age, gender, life-style factors and other covariates. A large part of the population in the area reported consumption of local food, and thus, was potentially exposed to the contaminants. Despite the limited number of participants and other weaknesses described, it was possible to link reported consumption of different foods to biomarker concentrations. Reported consumption of local vegetables, forest berries and mushrooms co-varied with urinary Cd, indicating an influence from the contaminated area on the Cd exposure. We found no associations between PCB plasma concentrations with reported consumption of local fish, but with consumption of herring (non-local sea fish) which is typically high in PCB. Pesticide (HCB, p,p'-DDE, trans-nonachlor) exposure was mainly associated with agricultural work and having a private well the first five years of life, but we found no associations between pesticide concentrations in plasma and consumption of local vegetables or fish. Exposure to Hg

  1. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in school Buildings (PCB Workshop presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measure PCB emission rates from primary sources in laboratory chambersMeasure transport and sorption by materials and dust in laboratory chambersCharacterize PCBs in school building materialsEstimate PCB emission rates from sources in schoolsExamine congener patterns in sources a...

  3. Promotion of thyroid tumors in rats by pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansell, Nichole R; Muppidi, Jagan R; Habeebu, Sultan M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2004-09-01

    Pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and Aroclor 1254 (PCB) both reduce serum thyroid hormone levels in rats, but only PCN consistently produces an increase in serum thyrotropin (TSH). PCN-mediated increases in TSH result in increased thyroid follicular cell proliferation and hyperplasia, which may represent early events on a morphological continuum leading to neoplasia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether PCN, a compound that increases serum TSH, and PCB, which does not increase TSH, promote thyroid tumors in a two-stage carcinogenesis model. Male SD rats were administered the thyroid tumor initiator diisopropanolnitrosamine (2.5 g/kg, sc), and after seven days were fed control diet, diet containing 1000 ppm PCN, or diet containing 100 ppm PCB for 19 weeks. Body weights were unaffected by PCN treatment, but were reduced 21% after 19 weeks of PCB treatment compared to control. PCN treatment significantly reduced serum T4 through week 3 before returning to control concentrations, whereas T4 levels following PCB treatment fell below detection limits by week 3 and remained drastically reduced through week 19. TSH concentrations in PCN-treated rats increased three-fold at week 2, then declined to near control values at week 19. After one week of PCB treatment, TSH concentrations reached nearly twice that of controls, and were sustained until week 6. The incidence of thyroid follicular cell proliferative lesions, including cystic and follicular hyperplasia, cystic and follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma, was significantly increased following PCN treatment, but not following PCB treatment. PCB treatment caused an increase in thyroid carcinomas (4 of 22 rats) not associated with the proliferative-type lesions produced by PCN, despite an increase in TSH serum concentrations. In conclusion, PCN appears to promote thyroid tumors in a manner consistent with known effects of excessive TSH stimulation. However, thyroid carcinomas stemming from PCB

  4. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls in residents of 91 PCB-contaminated and 108 non-contaminated dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Göen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings.......In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings....

  5. Changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting along the Sheboygan River, WI, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Strom, Sean M.; Patnode, Kathleen A.; Franson, J. Christian

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs on the Sheboygan River, Wisconsin in the 1990s was higher at sites downstream (geometric means = 3.33–8.69 μg/g wet wt.) of the putative PCB source in Sheboygan Falls, Wisconsin than it was above the source (1.24 μg/g) with the exposure declining as the distance downstream of the source increased. A similar pattern of declining exposure was present in the 2010s as well. Although exposure to PCBs in eggs along the Sheboygan River at sites downstream of Sheboygan Falls has declined by ~60 % since the mid-1990s (8.69 down to 3.27 μg/g) there still seems to be residual pockets of contamination that are exposing some individuals (~25 %) to PCB contamination, similar to exposure found in the 1990s. The exposure patterns in eggs and nestlings among sites, and the changes between the two decades, are further validated by accumulation rate information.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) residing at eight locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve-day-old Tree Swallow nestlings were studied at eight sites exhibiting a range of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination. In addition to determining PCB concentrations in eggs, nestlings, and food items, hepatic cytochromes P450-associated monooxygenase activity quantified as a biomarker of exposure. Nestlings from several of the sites exhibited elevated PCB concentrations and P450 induction compared to a reference site, Furthermore, cytochromes P450 were correlated with PCB concentrations in nestling. Our findings indicate that likely routes of exposure include the direct materna! deposition of PCBs into the egg and the delivery of contaminated emerging aquatic insects to nestlings. We also examined reproductive and morphological parameters to determine if PCB exposure was adversely affecting swallows at these sites. Hatching success did not differ among sites. There were no dramatic effects on gross and histological gonadal morphology of nestlings, and there was complete concordance between phenotypic sex (gonadal morphology) and genotypic sex (as determined by PCR amplification of the sex chromosome). However, where nestling PCB exposure was substantial, clutch size and body weight differed from a reference site. Despite evidence of PCB exposure, only modest effects were observed in nestling swallows.

  7. A cohort study of developmental polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in relation to post-vaccination antibody response at 6-months of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jusko, Todd A., E-mail: juskota@niehs.nih.gov [Epidemiology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, PO Box 12233, MD A3-05, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr, Rall Bldg 101, Rm A361, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2233 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Paige Lawrence, B. [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY (United States); Palkovicova, Lubica [Department of Environmental Medicine, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Nemessanyi, Tomas [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Drobna, Beata; Fabisikova, Anna; Kocan, Anton [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sonneborn, Dean [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Jahnova, Eva [Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kavanagh, Terrance J. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Trnovec, Tomas [Department of Toxic Organic Pollutants, Slovak Medical University, Bratislava (Slovakia); Hertz-Picciotto, Irva [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Background: Extensive experimental data in animals indicate that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during pregnancy leads to changes in offspring immune function during the postnatal period. Whether developmental PCB exposure influences immunologic development in humans has received little study. Methods: The study population was 384 mother-infant pairs recruited from two districts of eastern Slovakia for whom prospectively collected maternal, cord, and 6-month infant blood specimens were available. Several PCB congeners were measured in maternal, cord, and 6-month infant sera by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Concentrations of IgG-specific anti-haemophilus influenzae type b, tetanus toxoid, and diphtheria toxoid were assayed in 6-month infant sera using ELISA methods. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the relation between maternal, cord, and 6-month infant PCB concentrations and the antibody concentrations evaluated at 6-months of age. Results: Overall, there was little evidence of an association between infant antibody concentrations and PCB measures during the pre- and early postnatal period. In addition, our results did not show specificity in terms of associations limited to a particular developmental period (e.g. pre- vs. postnatal), a particular antibody, or a particular PCB congener. Conclusions: At the PCB concentrations measured in this cohort, which are high relative to most human populations today, we did not detect an association between maternal or early postnatal PCB exposure and specific antibody responses at 6-months of age.

  8. In vitro effects of TCDD, PCB126 and PCB153 on estrogen receptors, caspases and metalloproteinase-2 mRNA expression in the chicken shell gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabia, Anna; Leśniak, Agnieszka; Sechman, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Among the environmental chemicals which disturb endocrine functions, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known as the most toxic. Numerous studies in mammals revealed that dioxins and PCBs disrupt functions of the uterus, delay implantation and increase embryo loss. The direct effect of these chemicals on the avian oviduct is not known. Therefore, in the study chicken shell gland tissues were used to examine the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), coplanar PCB126 and non-coplanar PCB153 on estrogen receptors (ERs), initiator caspase-1, executioner caspase-3 and metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) mRNA expression. Fragments of shell gland tissue isolated from the laying chicken were incubated for 24h with TCDD (100nM), PCB126 (100nM) or PCB153 (100 microM). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that: (1) TCDD increased ER beta (ERbeta) mRNA expression, (2) PCB126 increased ER alpha (ERalpha), ERbeta and caspase-1, and decreased MMP-2 mRNA expression, (3) PCB153 elevated the ERbeta and caspase-1 expression levels and (4) expression of caspase-3 was not altered by any investigated xenobiotics. The results obtained using the shell gland explants model indicate that dioxins and PCBs have a direct effect on the chicken oviduct, especially the shell gland, by affecting the expression of genes involved in the function of this oviductal segment. It is suggested that coplanar PCBs such as PCB126, by changing cellular and extracellular regulators gene expression, may lead to disruption of shell gland activity and impair egg components formed in this organ.

  9. Poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCB in European sea bass from different rearing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Majolini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and the level of seven indicator congeners of PCB (BZ/IUPAC no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 were determined in 133 specimens of farm-raised European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax. The fish were caught from different aquaculture rearing systems: extensive fish valley, semi-intensive ponds, sea-cages, and intensive concrete tanks. Fresh fillet chemical composition differed among the rearing systems (fat: 2.9, 7.5, 7.1, and 9.4%; P<0.001. Total concentrations of indicator congeners were below the EU limit (200ng/g fat for meat, poultry and eggs, being the lowest in extensively-reared sea bass (75ng/g fat, intermediate in sea bass from semi-intensive ponds (119 and sea cages (116, and the highest in intensively-reared fish (133 (P<0.001. Similarly, PCB concentrations in fresh fillets were 2,438, 10,116, 8,491, and 12,952pg/g in the four systems (P<0.001. The congener 153 was the most represented in all rearing systems. TEQ concentrations for the dioxin-like congener no. 118 were 50 to 200 times lower than the maximum admitted value. Total concentration of indicator congeners of PCB was poorly correlated with fish slaughter weight (R2=0.17, while highly correlated with fat concentration of fish (R2=0.75.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) anaerobic degradation in marine sediments: microcosm study and role of autochthonous microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matturro, Bruna; Ubaldi, Carla; Grenni, Paola; Caracciolo, Anna Barra; Rossetti, Simona

    2016-07-01

    Polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) biodegradation was followed for 1 year in microcosms containing marine sediments collected from Mar Piccolo (Taranto, Italy) chronically contaminated by this class of hazardous compounds. The microcosms were performed under strictly anaerobic conditions with or without the addition of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, the main microorganism known to degrade PCBs through the anaerobic reductive dechlorination process. Thirty PCB congeners were monitored during the experiments revealing that the biodegradation occurred in all microcosms with a decrease in hepta-, hexa-, and penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) and a parallel increase in low chlorinated PCBs (tri-CBs and tetra-CBs). The concentrations of the most representative congeners detected in the original sediment, such as 245-245-CB and 2345-245-CB, and of the mixture 2356-34-CB+234-245-CB, decreased by 32.5, 23.8, and 46.7 %, respectively, after only 70 days of anaerobic incubation without any bioaugmentation treatment. Additionally, the structure and population dynamics of the microbial key players involved in the biodegradative process and of the entire mixed microbial community were accurately defined by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) in both the original sediment and during the operation of the microcosm. The reductive dehalogenase genes of D. mccartyi, specifically involved in PCB dechlorination, were also quantified using real-time PCR (qPCR). Our results demonstrated that the autochthonous microbial community living in the marine sediment, including D. mccartyi (6.32E+06 16S rRNA gene copy numbers g(-1) sediment), was able to efficiently sustain the biodegradation of PCBs when controlled anaerobic conditions were imposed.

  11. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  12. Effects of Great Lakes fish consumption on brain PCB pattern, concentration, and progressive-ratio performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, P.; Pagano, J.; Sargent, D.; Darvill, T.; Lonky, E.; Reihman, J.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of consumption of Great Lakes fish on progressive ratio performance, and on the pattern and concentrations of brain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (DDE), and mirex in the rat. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a 30% diet of either Lake Ontario salmon (LAKE), Pacific Ocean salmon, or lab chow control for 20 or 65 days. Following the treatment regimen, half the rats from each group were sacrificed immediately for gas chromatographic analysis of organochlorine contaminants, and the other half were tested on a multiple fixed-ratio-progressive-ratio reinforcement schedule and then sacrificed for analysis. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish resulted in significantly higher levels of brain PCBs, DDE, and mirex relative to controls, but still well within human exposure ranges. Consumption of Lake Ontario fish for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 457 and 934 ng/g fat, respectively. Consumption of laboratory rat chow or Pacific Ocean salmon for 20 or 65 days produced an average brain PCB concentration of 240, 464, and 441 ng/g fat, respectively. Moreover, both LAKE-fed groups showed a much more heavily chlorinated pattern of brain PCBs than all control groups, as evidenced by both significant increases in the most heavily chlorinated PCB congeners and significant increases in the average chlorine biphenyl.

  13. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  14. Cell specific effects of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbone receptors in follicular cells of porcine ovaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Augustowska, K.; Gregoraszczuk, E. [Lab. of Physiology and Toxicology of Reproduction, Dept. of Animal Physiology, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs) like other endocrine disrupters could interfere with natural hormones by binding to their receptors and thus mimicking the cellular response to them. They are known to possess either estrogenic or antiestrogenic properties. In our previous papers we demonstrated that PCBs are able to disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis. We found that the coplanar PCB 126 caused the decrease in estradiol secretion in whole cultured pig ovarian follicles. PCB 126 congener is structurally related to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Since TCDD effects are known to be mediated by aryl hydrocarbone receptors (AhRs), we decided to determine if PCB 126 affects signal transduction pathway activated by these receptors. It has been reported that the functional AhR is present in ovary including oocytes, granulosa and theca cells of rat, mouse, rhesus monkey and human ovary. Moreover, the expression of AhR in the rat ovary appeared to be estrous cycle-dependent, thus suggesting that AhR expression may be regulated by fluctuating hormone levels. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the non-ortho-substituted 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) on the AhR activation, localization and protein level in pig ovarian follicle cells.

  15. Menstruation and reproduction in women with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) poisoning: long-term follow-up interviews of the women from the Taiwan Yucheng cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M L; Guo, Y L; Hsu, C C; Rogan, W J

    2000-08-01

    In 1979 in Taiwan, about 2000 people were poisoned by cooking oil contaminated with heat-degraded polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Victims developed chloracne and other symptoms; the illness is called Yucheng (oil disease). The chemicals persist in the victims' bodies and some are toxic to the female reproductive system in experimental animals. In 1993-1994, we identified the living Yucheng women and neighbourhood controls and interviewed them about their reproductive experience. Of the 596 living Yucheng women aged 30-59 years, we found 368, and interviewed 356. We identified 329 controls, and interviewed 312. Of the Yucheng women, 16% reported abnormal menstrual bleeding compared to 8% (P < 0.05) of control women; 4.2% versus 1.7% reported a stillbirth since 1979 (P = 0.068). Other characteristics of the menses, fertility, frequency of intercourse, and age at menopause appeared unaffected. More of the Yucheng women reported that one of their offspring had died during childhood (10.2% versus 6.1%, P < 0. 05), and that they had decided to limit childbearing because of health problems (7% versus 2%, P = 0.01). These findings suggest that high level PCB/polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) exposure has some effect on female endocrine and reproductive function.

  16. The presence of polychlorinated biphenyls in yellow pigment products in China with emphasis on 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hongtao; Li, Yingming; Wang, Thanh; Wang, Pu; Zhang, Haidong; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-03-01

    A non-Aroclor PCB congener, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB 11) has recently attracted wide concerns because of its environmental ubiquity and specific sources potentially associated with yellow pigment production. In order to investigate PCB 11 and other PCBs in the yellow pigment products, 24 yellow pigment samples were collected from three different manufacturing plants in China. ∑20PCBs and PCB 11 were in the range of 50.7-9.19×10(5) ng g(-1) and 41.7-9.18×10(5) ng g(-1), respectively, which was much higher than those reported in previous study. The corresponding TEQ values ranged between 0.16 and 4.21×10(3) ng WHO2005-TEQ kg(-1). The contribution of PCB 11 to ∑20PCBs reached up to 85.5% (median value) followed by PCB 28, PCB 77, and PCB 52 with contributions of 10.5%, 6.70%, and 5.40%, respectively. Significant differences were observed for PCB 11 concentrations among the different types of yellow pigment from the same plant and among the same sample types from different plants. The PCB 11 concentrations in diarylide yellow pigments produced from 3,3'-dichlorbenzidine were the highest in all the samples. It demonstrates that yellow pigment is a significant source not only for the widespread pollution of PCB 11 but also for other PCBs, especially for the lower chlorinated congeners.

  17. Effect of occupational polychlorinated biphenyls exposure on quality-adjusted life years over time at the HELPcB surveillance program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, A; Gaum, P M; Schettgen, T; Kraus, T; Gube, M; Lang, J

    2015-01-01

    HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls [PCB]) is a surveillance program for former PCB-exposed workers of a capacitor recycling company and other concerned individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) and on quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The EQ-5D-3L questionnaire was used to determine the HRQL. After three cross-sectional examinations at intervals of 1 yr, the longitudinal development of QALY was compared by repeated-measurement analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The cohort was split at the 95th percentile of the comparison group for each PCB congener; known confounders such as age were taken into account. A significant difference in height and development of QALY over time was shown for the higher chlorinated non-dioxin-like PCB (hcPCB) congeners. A significant between-groups effect was found on PCB 153, PCB 180, and the sum of hcPCB. It was found that QALY decreased in the high-burden group and QALY stabilized after yr 2 in the normal-burden group. Taking the dimensions of the EQ-5D into account, the between-groups effect seems to be based predominantly on the dimension anxiety. The development of the within-group effect, however, seems to be based on the dimension mobility. This study detected a significant influence of hcPCB on the development of HRQL and QALYs over time according to the level of internal PCB burden.

  18. Effects of thiol antioxidants on the atropselective oxidation of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-02-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0-10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol), and 4,5-136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136, and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo.

  19. Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Matsumura, Tohru; Shiozaki, Ken; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Special polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) standards (native and isotope labeled) were analyzed by isotope dilution method using HRGC-HRMS. Multiple analysis of special PCBs standards by three different laboratories produced the relative response factors (RRFs) and relative standard deviations (RSDs %) was in the average of 0.979 and 3.86, respectively. Additionally, inter-laboratory analysis of various forms of transformer oil revealed the PCBs concentrations were in the following order; PCBs fortified transformer oil (940-1300 ng/g)>PCB polluted transformer oil (490-680 ng/g)>chemically degraded-transformer oil (480-490 ng/g) and PCBs free oil (ND-17 ng/g). Chemical degradation resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in the PCB concentrations. Specifically, higher chlorinated PCBs degraded into lower chlorinated PCBs. Also, composition of PCBs have been determined in PCB formulations from Japan (Kanechlor), Germany (Clophen), USA (Aroclor), Russia (Sovol) and Poland (Chlorofen). Major PCBs (24-PCB congeners) contributed 54-67%, 55-68%, 16-69%, 71% and 72% in Kanechlor, Clophen, Aroclor, Sovol and Chlorofen, respectively to total PCBs. The homologue pattern of Kanechlor, Aroclor and Clophen in technical fromulation was similar (e.g., Kanechlor-300 resembled to those of Clophen A-30 and Aroclor-1242). Furthermore, congener-specific distributions of major PCBs/dioxin-like PCBs and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) were calculated. Based on our tentative assumption calculations, cumulative production of five different technical PCB formulations, WHO-TEQ emission was estimated to be approximately 16.05 tons.

  20. In vitro toxicity profiling of ultrapure non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and their relative toxic contribution to PCB mixtures in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Timo; Kamstra, Jorke H; Cenijn, Peter H; Pencikova, Katerina; Palkova, Lenka; Simeckova, Pavlina; Vondracek, Jan; Andersson, Patrik L; Stenberg, Mia; Machala, Miroslav

    2011-05-01

    The toxic equivalency concept used for the risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is based on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated toxicity of coplanar dioxin-like (DL) PCBs. Most PCBs in the environment, however, are non-dioxin-like (NDL) PCBs that cannot adopt a coplanar structure required for AhR activation. For NDL-PCBs, no generally accepted risk concept is available because their toxicity is insufficiently characterized. Here, we systematically determined in vitro toxicity profiles for 24 PCBs regarding 10 different mechanisms of action. Prior to testing, NDL-PCB standards were purified to remove traces of DL compounds. All NDL-PCBs antagonized androgen receptor activation and inhibited gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC). Lower chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak estrogen receptor (ER) agonists, whereas higher chlorinated NDL-PCBs were weak ER antagonists. Several NDL-PCBs inhibited estradiol-sulfotransferase activity and bound to transthyretin (TTR) but with much weaker potencies than reported for hydroxylated PCB metabolites. AhR-mediated expression of uridine-glucuronyl transferase isozyme UGT1A6 was induced by DL-PCBs only. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the toxicity profiles yielded three separate clusters of NDL-PCBs and a fourth cluster of reference DL-PCBs. Due to small differences in relative potency among congeners, the highly abundant indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180 also contributed most to the antiandrogenic, (anti)estrogenic, antithyroidal, tumor-promoting, and neurotoxic potencies calculated for PCB mixtures reported in human samples, whereas the most potent AhR-activating DL-PCB-126 contributed at maximum 0.2% to any of these calculated potencies. PCB-168 is recommended as an additional indicator congener, given its relatively high abundance and antiandrogenic, TTR-binding, and GJIC-inhibiting potencies.

  1. Co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB (PCB 153) and methylmercury enhances developmental neurotoxic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, C.; Fredriksson, A.; Eriksson, P. [Dept. Environment. Toxicol., Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    In our environment there are innumerable hazardous contaminants. Many of these compounds are the well-known persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like PCB and DDT. Another persistent agent in our environment is methylmercury (MeHg). These agents are known to be neurotoxic in laboratory animals and humans. Fetuses and neonates are known to be high-risk groups for exposure to these agents. A naturally occurring circumstance is the exposure to a combination of different persistent compounds. The knowledge of interaction between different toxic agents during development is sparse. In several studies we have shown that low-dose exposure of environmental toxic agents such as PCBs, DDT, BFRs (brominated flame retardants) as well as well-known neurotoxic agents such as nicotine, organophosphorous compounds and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), during the ''BGS'', in neonatal mice can lead to disruption of the adult brain function, and to an increased susceptibility to toxic agents as adults. Our studies concerning developmental neurotoxic effects after neonatal exposure to single PCB congeners have shown that some orthosubstituted PCBs (such as PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 153) and some co-planar PCBs (such as PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 169) cause derangement of adult behaviour that can worsen with age. Furthermore, the cholinergic receptors in the brain were also found to be affected8. Just recently we have seen that neonatal co-exposure to an ortho-substituted PCB, 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 52), together with a brominated flame retardant, 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenylether (PBDE 99), can enhance developmental neurotoxic effects when the exposure occurs during a critical stage of neonatal brain development. The present study was carried out in order to see whether PCB and MeHg could interact to cause enhanced developmental neurotoxic effects on spontaneous behaviour and habituation capability when given to neonatal mice.

  2. Estimation of the health risks associated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations found onboard older U.S. Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, K R; Arfsten, D P; Jederberg, W W; Kane, L V; Larcom, B J

    2003-10-01

    PCBs have been identified on surfaces and in component materials and equipment from inactive U.S. Navy nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970. Health risks associated with PCBs present onboard submarines were estimated for hypothetical crew members and shipyard workers. Median non-cancer hazard quotients for shipyard workers and submarine crew ranged between 0.4-54.6, with the highest quotients estimated for unprotected shipyard workers. Median cancer risk estimates ranged from 7.3 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-3) with the highest estimated risk calculated for unprotected shipyard workers. Our findings suggest that PCB surface concentrations found onboard inactive nuclear submarines commissioned prior to 1970 may be high enough to constitute a possible risk to the health of persons involved in dismantling of Navy submarines if PCB exposure is not minimized. Potential sources of uncertainty in our risk assessment include the correlation between PCB contamination levels on inactive versus active nuclear submarine vessels, the relationship between wipe sample concentrations and human exposure, dermal contact frequency with PCB-contaminated surfaces, carcinogenicity of PCBs in humans, and uncertainties inherent with the PCB cancer slope factor and oral RfD. Our findings support Navy policy that shipyard workers should wear personal protective equipment when PCB contamination is suspected or has been identified and that IH surveys should continue to identify sources of PCB contamination onboard vessels and reduce PCB contamination to concentrations that are reasonably achievable.

  3. Historical profiles of PCB in dated sediment cores suggest recent lake contamination through the "halo effect".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naffrechoux, Emmanuel; Cottin, Nathalie; Pignol, Cécile; Arnaud, Fabien; Jenny, Jean-Philippe; Perga, Marie-Elodie

    2015-02-03

    We investigated the major sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and interpreted the environmental fate processes of these persistent organic pollutants in the past and current PCB contamination of three large, urbanized, French peri-alpine lakes. Dated sediment cores were analyzed in order to reconstruct and compare the historical contamination in all three lakes. Stratigraphic changes of PCB contents and fluxes were considered as revealing the temporal dynamics of PCB deposition to the lakes and the distribution of the seven indicator congeners (further referred to as PCBi) as an indicator of the main contamination origin and pathway. Although located within a single PCB industrial production region, concentration profiles for the three lakes differed in timing, peak concentration magnitudes, and in the PCBi congeners compositions. PCBi fluxes to the sediment and the magnitude of the temporal changes were generally much lower in Lake Annecy (0.05-2 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) as compared to Lakes Geneva (0.05-5 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and Bourget (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)). For all three lakes, the paramount contamination occurred in the early 1970s. In Lakes Annecy and Bourget, PCB fluxes have declined and plateaued at 0.5 and 8 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1), respectively, since the early 1990s. In Lake Geneva, PCB fluxes have further decreased by the end of the XX(th) century and are now very low. For the most contaminated lake (Lake Bourget), the high PCBi flux (5-290 ng·cm(-2)·yr(-1)) and the predominance of heavy congeners for most of the time period are consistent with a huge local input to the lake. This still high rate of Lake Bourget is explained by transport of suspended solids from one of its affluents, polluted by an industrial point source. Intermediate historical levels and PCBi distribution over time for Lake Geneva suggest a mixed contamination (urban point sources and distant atmospheric transport), while atmospheric deposition to Lake Annecy explains its lowest

  4. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C.; Andersen, H. R.; Rasmussen, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental persistent contaminants giving rise to potential health hazard. Some PCBs exert dioxin-like activities mediated through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Although reports on interaction with other nuclear receptors are sparce, some...... in transiently co-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with an IC50, of 6.2 muM. In summary, this study indicate that the di-ortho, multiple-chloro substituted biphenyls, PCB # 138, PCB # 153 and PCB # 180, can compete with the binding of the natural ligand to two nuclear receptors and thus possess...

  5. Effect of polychlorinated biphenyls on spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion in adult cocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张才乔; 乔惠理

    2004-01-01

    The effects ofpolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction of adult cocks were studied by gavaging peanut oil or PCBs (Aroclor 1254, 50 mg/kg) once a week for six consecutive weeks. Physiological parameters were recorded and gonads were removed at the end of experiment for histological examination. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the control and treatment group in body weight, respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature, and the numbers of red and white blood cells. However, there was a marked decrease in the testicular weight and serum testosterone level after PCB treatment. Morphological studies manifested severe damage of the seminiferous tubules by PCB. The number of the germ cells at the different developmental stages was decreased and condensed nuclei were observed in most of these cells. This study revealed that the reproductive function of the adult cocks is sensitive to PCBs, which inhibited mainly spermatogenesis and testosterone secretion.

  6. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  7. PFOS and PCB 153 have direct adverse effects on neonatal testis modeled using a coculture of primary gonocyte and sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Liang, Jiren; Zhu, Hongyan; Li, Cuizhen; Wu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is widely used in industry; it is nonbiodegradable and persistent in the human body and in the environment. Although reports have indicated that young people might have higher PFOS levels in serum or blood than do older people, its adverse effects on neonatal testicular cells had not been investigated previously. PCB 153 is one of the most prevalent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in biological tissues, but the direct adverse effect of PCB 153 on neonatal testis remains unclear. In this study, we exposed a neonatal Sertoli cell/gonocyte coculture system to PFOS and PCB 153 individually at concentrations of 0, 1, 10, 50, and 100 μM for 24 h. Exposure to either compound reduced the cell viability and induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dose-dependent manners, with PCB 153 having a greater effect than PFOS. Whereas PCB 153 induced apoptosis significantly from 10 μM, PFOS induced no obvious change. Morphologically, both PCB 153 and PFOS induced changes in the vimentin and actin filaments in the Sertoli cells, as investigated using confocal argon ion laser scanning microscopy; here, PFOS exhibited a more dramatic effect than did PCB 153. Furthermore, doses of 50 μM for PFOS and 10 μM for PCB 153 were the key concentrations that produced significant differences between the control and exposure groups. We suggest that both PCB 153 and PFOS directly affect neonatal gonocyte and Sertoli cells; the production of ROS and the change in the cytoskeleton in Sertoli cells might be causes.

  8. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  9. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  10. Effects of PCB thickness on adjustable fountain wave soldering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Abdul Aziz; M Z Abdullah; C Y Khor; A Jalar; M A Bakar; W Y W Yusoff; F Che Ani; Nobe Yan; M Zhou; C Cheok

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of printed circuit board (PCB) thickness on adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering. The pin-through-hole (PTH) vertical fill is examined with three PCBs of different thicknesses (i.e., 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm) soldered through adjustable fountain and conventional wave soldering at conveyor angles of 0° and 6°. The vertical fill of each PCB is the focus. The PTH solder profile is inspected with a non-destructive X-ray computed tomography scanning machine. The percentages of the PTH vertical fill of both soldering processes are also estimated and compared. The aspect ratio of the PCB is also investigated. Experimental results reveal that adjustable fountain wave soldering yields better vertical fill than conventional wave soldering. The vertical fill level of adjustable fountain wave soldering is 100%, 90%, and 50% for the 1.6, 3.1, and 6.0 mm PCB thickness, respectively. FLUENT simulation is conducted for the vertical fill of the solder profile. Simulation and experimental results show that the PTH solder profiles of the two soldering processes are almost identical. The effect of PCB thickness on PTH voiding is also discussed.

  11. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases.

  12. Estimation of Aqueous Solubility (-lgSw) of All Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners by Density Functional Theory and Position of Cl Substitution (NPCS) Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiao-Yan; GE Zhi-Gang; WANG Zun-Yao; XU Jiao

    2007-01-01

    Optimization calculations of 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G* level. It was found that there is significant correlation between the Cl substitution position and some structural parameters. Consequently, Cl substitution positions were taken as theoretical descriptors to establish a novel QSPR model for predicting -lgSw of all PCB congeners. The model achieved in this work contains four variables, of which r2 = 0.9527, q2 = 0.9490 and SD = 0.25 with large t values. In addition, the variation inflation factors (VIFs) of variables in this model are all less than 5.0, suggesting high accuracy of the -lgSw predicting model. And the results of cross-validation test and method validation also show that the model exhibits optimum stability and better predictive capability than that from the AM1 method.

  13. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Chen, Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method. The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology. Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal. Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal. Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent. The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing. Compared with solution flushing, the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent. Similar to solution flushing, solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing. In addition, the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size. Therefore, foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity. An integrated flushing with water, surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam, and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  14. Enhanced flushing of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated sands using surfactant foam: Effect of partition coefficient and sweep efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Jiajun Chen

    2012-01-01

    Foam flushing is an in situ soil remediation technology based on the traditional surfactant flushing method.The contribution of mobility control to contaminant removal by foam is helpful for improving this technology.Foam flushing of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated unconsolidated media was performed to evaluate the effect of the partition coefficient (PC) and sweep efficiency (SE) on PCB removal.Column flushing with surfactant solution and foam with different types and concentrations of surfactant was carried out for PCB removal.Two types of quartz sand were investigated to evaluate the Jamin effect on the SE value of the washing agent.The results demonstrate that a small PC value and large SE value are necessary to achieve high PCB removal for foam flushing.Compared with solution flushing,the introduction of foam can effectively control the mobility of the washing agent.Similar to solution flushing,solubilization is a key factor which dominates the removal of PCBs in foam flushing.In addition,the SE value and PCB removal by foam flushing is less affected by particle size.Therefore,foam flushing was proved to be more effective in porous media with low hydraulic conductivity and high porosity.An integrated flushing with water,surfactant solution and foam was performed and the results prove that this technology successfully combines the advantages of solution solubilization and mobility control by foam,and thus further increases the remediation efficiency of PCBs to 94.7% for coarse sand.

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  16. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah H Peterson

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research.

  17. Effects-based marine ecological risk assessment at a polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated site in Saglek, Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tanya M; Kuzyk, Zou Zou A; Stow, Jason P; Burgess, Neil M; Solomon, Steve M; Sheldon, Tom A; Reimer, Ken J

    2013-02-01

    Although the presence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Arctic marine environments has been well documented, the implications for the health of biota are poorly understood. In the present study, multiple lines of evidence, including site-specific effects data, were used to assess PCB-related risks to marine biota at a contaminated military site in Saglek Bay, Labrador, Canada, from 1997 to 1999. Risks were evaluated for three components of the ecosystem: benthic invertebrates, a bottom-feeding fish (shorthorn sculpin, Myoxocephalus scorpius), and a diving seabird (black guillemot, Cepphus grylle). Average sediment PCB concentrations exceeded the Canadian interim sediment quality guideline level by 41-fold. However, sediment toxicity testing and a benthic community survey showed no evidence of adverse effects. In contrast, shorthorn sculpin and black guillemot PCB exposures (measured as sum of 55 congeners) were elevated enough to pose risks to survival or reproduction. Based on the collective evidence, the authors estimated that risks were posed by sediment PCB concentrations greater than 77 ng/g dry weight for black guillemots and 750 ng/g dry weight for shorthorn sculpins. The present study, along with two parallel studies, provided information to support the management decisions concerning potential remedial action on the contaminated sediments. This ecological risk assessment describes the steps and rationale taken to evaluate the risk posed by an area of PCB-contaminated marine sediments in an otherwise relatively pristine northern coastal environment.

  18. Postnatal exposure to PCB 153 and PCB 180, but not to PCB 52, produces changes in activity level and stimulus control in outbred male Wistar Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaas S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are a class of organic compounds that bioaccumulate due to their chemical stability and lipophilic properties. Humans are prenatally exposed via trans-placental transfer, through breast milk as infants, and through fish, seafood and fatty foods as adolescents and adults. Exposure has several reported effects ranging from developmental abnormalities to cognitive and motor deficiencies. In the present study, three experimental groups of rats were orally exposed to PCBs typically found in human breast milk and then behaviorally tested for changes in measures of stimulus control (percentage lever-presses on the reinforcer-producing lever, activity level (responses with IRTs > 0.67 s, and responses with short IRTs ( Methods Male offspring from Wistar Kyoto (WKY/NTac dams purchased pregnant from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY were orally given PCB at around postnatal day 8, 14, and 20 at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at each exposure. Three experimental groups were exposed either to PCB 52, PCB 153, or PCB 180. A fourth group fed corn oil only served as controls. From postnatal day 25, for 33 days, the animals were tested for behavioral changes using an operant procedure. Results PCB exposure did not produce behavioral changes during training when responding was frequently reinforced using a variable interval 3 s schedule. When correct responses were reinforced on a variable interval 180 s schedule, animals exposed to PCB 153 or PCB 180 were less active than controls and animals exposed to PCB 52. Stimulus control was better in animals exposed to PCB 180 than in controls and in the PCB 52 group. Also, the PCB 153 and PCB 180 groups had fewer responses with short IRTs than the PCB 52 group. No effects of exposure to PCB 52 were found when compared to controls. Conclusions Exposure to PCBs 153 and 180 produced hypoactivity that continued at least five weeks after the last exposure. No effects of

  19. Electrical Stimulation of Microbial PCB Degradation in Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B.; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical...

  20. In utero exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of PCB 153 and PCB 118 disrupts fetal testis development in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogenæs, Anette K; Ropstad, Erik; Gutleb, Arno C; Hårdnes, Nina; Berg, Vidar; Dahl, Ellen; Fowler, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are environmental pollutants linked to adverse health effects including endocrine disruption and disturbance of reproductive development. This study aimed to determine whether exposure of pregnant sheep to three different mixtures of PCB 153 and PCB 118 affected fetal testis development. Ewes were treated by oral gavage from mating until euthanasia (d 134), producing three groups of fetuses with distinct adipose tissue PCB levels: high PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 13), high PCB 118/low PCB 153 (n = 14), and low PCB 153/low PCB 118 (n = 14). Fetal testes and blood samples were collected for investigation of testosterone, testis morphology, and testis proteome. The body weight of the offspring was lower in the high PCB compared to the low PCB group, but there were no significant differences in testis weight between groups when corrected for body weight. PCB exposure did not markedly affect circulating testosterone. There were no significant differences between groups in number of seminiferous tubules, Sertoli cell only tubules, and ratio between relative areas of seminiferous tubules and interstitium. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteomic alterations in the high exposed groups relative to low PCB 153/low PCB 118 group. Twenty-six significantly altered spots were identified by liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectroscopy (MS)/MS. Changes in protein regulation affected cellular processes as stress response, protein synthesis, and cytoskeleton regulation. The study demonstrates that in utero exposure to different environmental relevant PCB mixtures exerted subtle effects on developing fetal testis proteome but did not significantly disturb testis morphology and testosterone production.

  1. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no author on report

    2014-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  2. Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB)/Radioactive Waste Annual Inventory for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Toxic Substances Control Act, 40 CFR 761.65(a)(1) provides an exemption from the one year storage time limit for PCB/radioactive waste. PCB/radioactive waste may exceed the one year time limit provided that the provisions at 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(ii) and 40 CFR 761.65(a)(2)(iii) are followed. These two subsections require, (ii) "A written record documenting all continuing attempts to secure disposal is maintained until the waste is disposed of" and (iii) "The written record required by subsection (ii) of this section is available for inspection or submission if requested by EPA." EPA Region 10 has requested the Department of Energy (DOE) to submit an inventory of radioactive-contaminated PCB waste in storage at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) for the previous calendar year. The annual inventory is separated into two parts, INL without Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) (this includes Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC, and the Naval Reactors Facility), and AMWTP.

  3. Carrier effects of dosing the h4iie cells with 3,3′,4,4tt´etrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyung O.; Fisher, Jeff W.; Burton, G. Allen; Tillitt, Donald E.

    1997-01-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H411E cells and induction of CYPIA1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufm O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/ plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  4. Carrier effects of dosing the H4IIE cells with 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB77) in dimethyl sulfoxide or isooctane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K O; Fisher, J W; Burton, G A; Tillitt, D E

    1997-08-01

    A rat hepatoma cell line, H4IIE, serves as a bioassay tool to assess the potential toxicity of dioxin-like chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in environmental samples. PCB exposure to these cells induces cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1 activity in a dose-dependent fashion, thus allowing assessment of mixtures. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different carriers, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and isooctane on the concentrations of PCBs in the H4IIE cells and induction of CYP1A1 activity as measured by ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity. H4IIE cells were dosed with three micrograms of UL-14C-PCB77/plate dissolved in DMSO or isooctane, and were harvested at sequential time periods for 4 days. PCB77 concentration and EROD activity were measured in the cells. EROD activity was greater when using DMSO as compared to isooctane, while there was no difference in the distribution of PCB77-derived radioactivities within the cell culture system based upon the carrier solvent used to deliver PCB77.

  5. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentration and sediment supplementation on rates of methanogenesis and 2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl dechlorination in an anaerobic enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, A.W.; May, H.D. (Celgene Corp., Warren, NJ (United States)); Blake, C.K. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)); Price, W.A. (Princeton Research Center, Lawrenceville, NJ (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the environment has caused public concern. PCBs are know known to be susceptible to biodegradation; PCBs in the Hudson river have been shown to be extensively dechlorinated, but the rate of dechlorination in anaerobic environments have been slow, over months or years. This study tested the effects of PCB concentration and sediment supplementation with 2,3,6-trichlorobiphenol, on the rate of PCB dechlorination and methanogenesis. The rates of meta dechlorination in sediment supplemented cultures were measured in the laboratory, including both the rate per bacterial cell and the rate of methanogenesis when dechlorination increases. 24 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. EFFECTS OF THIOL ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE ATROPSELECTIVE OXIDATION OF 2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL (PCB 136) BY RAT LIVER MICROSOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, such as PCB 136, are atropselectively metabolized to various hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs). The present study investigates the effect of two thiol antioxidants, glutathione and N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), on profiles and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites in rat liver microsomal incubations. Liver microsomes prepared from rats pretreated with phenobarbital were incubated with PCB 136 (5 μM) in the presence of the respective antioxidant (0–10 mM), and levels and chiral signatures of PCB 136 and its HO-PCB metabolites were determined. Three metabolites, 5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol), 4-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) and 4,5-136 (2,2′,3,3′,6,6′-hexachlorobiphenyl-4,5-diol), were detected in all incubations, with 5-136 being the major metabolite. Compared to microsomal incubations without antioxidant, levels of 4,5-136 increased with increasing antioxidant concentration, whereas levels of PCB 136 and both mono-HO-PCBs were not affected by the presence of either antioxidant. PCB 136, 4-136 and 5-136 displayed significant atropisomeric enrichment; however, the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment was not altered in the presence of an antioxidant. Because 4,5-136 can either be conjugated to a sulfate or glucuronide metabolite that is readily excreted or further oxidized a potentially toxic PCB 136 quinone, the effect of both thiol antioxidants on 4,5-136 formation suggests that disruptions of glutathione homeostasis may alter the balance between both metabolic pathways and, thus, PCB 136 toxicity in vivo. PMID:26155892

  8. Effects of maternal exposure to estrogen and PCB on different life stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Per-Erik; Westerlund, L.; Billsson, K.; Berg, A.H. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cellular and Developmental Biology; Teh, S.J.; Hinton, D.E. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology; Tysklind, M. [Umeaa Univ., (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Nilsson, Jan; Eriksson, Lars-Ove [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Aquaculture

    1999-02-01

    PCBs have been found to impair both reproduction and development in fish. We have investigated the effects of 3 PCB congeners, 2,3,3`,4,4`,5,6-HpCB (PCB-190); 2,3,4,4`-TeCB (PCB-60); and 2,2`,4,6,6`-PeCB (PCB-104), and the estrogenic hormone 17{beta}-estradiol on fecundity, early life-stage mortality, gross morphology and histology of zebrafish (Danio rerio). While none of the studied substances reduced fecundity, they increased embryo and larval mortality. The most severe effects on viability were observed following treatment with 17{beta}-estradiol or the weakly estrogenic PCB-104. Following 17{beta}-estradiol or PCB-104 exposure, mortality continued through the yolksac absorption phase. PCB-60, on the other hand, resulted in mortality between the 30% epiboly stage and 75% epiboly stage. At the same time as embryos started to die, embryo development and hatching were delayed. PCB-190 showed only moderate effects on early-life stage mortality. The fish were reared until sexual maturation where after they were subjected to gross morphological and histological analyses. Changes in morphology were observed following PCB-104 and PCB-190 treatment. Both substances gave rise to craniofacial malformations while PCB-104 also led to lordosis in females and scoliosis in fish of both sexes. From histological analysis it was found that PCB-104 and 17{beta}-estradiol resulted in karyorrhexis and karyolysis in the kidney. Possible signs of bile stasis were observed following 17{beta}-estradiol and PCB-190 treatment. Some effects were observed on the gonads, including areas in the ovary showing atresia and limited failure of testicular spermatogenesis in 17{beta}-estradiol, PCB-104, and PCB-60 treated fish. While all studied substances resulted in effects on offspring, the observation that estrogenic substances are highly embryotoxic, raises concern that endocrine disrupting substances may severely reduce fish populations in polluted areas

  9. Potent inhibition of estrogen sulfotransferase by hydroxylated PCB metabolites: a novel pathway explaining the estrogenic activity of PCBs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kester, M.H.A.; Bulduk, S.; Tibboel, D.; Meinl, W.; Glatt, H.; Falany, C.N.; Coughtrie, M.W.H.; Bergman, A.; Safe, S.H.; Kuiper, G.G.J.M.; Schuur, A.G.; Brouwer, A.; Visser, T.J.

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants which exert a variety of toxic effects in animals, including disturbances of sexual development and reproductive function. The estrogenic effects of PCBs may be mediated in part by hydroxylated PCB metabolites (PCB-OHs), but th

  10. Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yueliang L; Lambert, George H; Hsu, Chen-Chin; Hsu, Mark M L

    2004-04-01

    Yucheng ("oil-disease") victims were Taiwanese people exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their heat-degradation products, mainly polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), from the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1978-1979. Serial studies in Yucheng offspring born between 1978 and 1992 are summarized. Children of the exposed women were born with retarded growth, with dysmorphic physical findings, and, during development, with delayed cognitive development, increased otitis media, and more behavioral problems than unexposed children. Recently, examination of the reproductive system has suggested that prenatal exposure exerts late effects on semen parameters in young men after puberty. Results of the investigation in Yucheng children will provide important information about the human health effects and toxicology of PCB/PCDF exposure. Prenatal exposure to these environmental chemicals causes the fetus to be sensitive to the toxic effects of persistent organic pollutants.

  11. Effects of PCB126 and PCB153 on telomerase activity and telomere length in undifferentiated and differentiated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xing; Senthilkumar, P K; Schnoor, Jerald L; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    PCBs are persistent organic pollutants that are carcinogenic and immunotoxic and have developmental toxicity. This suggests that they may interfere with normal cell maturation. Cancer and stem/progenitor cells have telomerase activity to maintain and protect the chromosome ends, but lose this activity during differentiation. We hypothesized that PCBs interfere with telomerase activity and the telomere complex, thereby disturbing cell differentiation and stem/progenitor cell function. HL-60 cells are cancer cells that can differentiated into granulocytes and monocytes. We exposed HL-60 cells to PCB126 (dioxin-like) and PCB153 (nondioxin-like) 6 days before and during 3 days of differentiation. The differentiated cells showed G0/G1 phase arrest and very low telomerase activity. hTERT and hTR, two telomerase-related genes, were downregulated. The telomere shelterins TRF1, TRF2, and POT1 were upregulated in granulocytes, and TRF2 was upregulated and POT1 downregulated in monocytes. Both PCBs further reduced telomerase activity in differentiated cells, but had only small effects on the differentiation and telomere-related genes. Treatment of undifferentiated HL-60 cells for 30 days with PCB126 produced a downregulation of telomerase activity and a decrease of hTERT, hTR, TRF1, and POT1 gene expression. With PCB153, the effects were less pronounced and some shelterin genes were increased after 30 days of exposure. With each PCB, no differentiation of cells was observed and cells continued to proliferate despite reduced telomerase activity, resulting in shortened telomeres after 30 days of exposure. These results indicate cell-type and PCB congener-specific effects on telomere/telomerase-related genes. Although PCBs do not seem to strongly affect differentiation, they may influence stem or progenitor cells through telomere attrition with potential long-term consequences for health.

  12. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces or assembles electrical capacitors in which PCB or PCB-containing compounds are part of the... are prohibited in any discharge from any PCB manufacturer. (c) Electrical capacitor...

  13. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  14. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation.

  15. Impact of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Estrogenic Activity in Human Male Serum

    OpenAIRE

    Plíšková, Martina; Vondráček, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jiřií; Kočan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomáš; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighbo...

  16. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE COMPUESTOS ORGÁNICOSPERSISTENTES (COP: I. EL CASO DE LOS BIFENILOSPOLICLORADOS (PCB Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs: I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARBELI ZIV

    Full Text Available Los contaminantes orgánicos persistentes poseen propiedades tóxicas, son resistentes a la degradación, se bioacumulan y son transportados por el aire, el agua y las especies migratorias a través de las fronteras internacionales; en consecuencia se depositan lejos del lugar de su liberación, acumulándose en ecosistemas terrestres y acuáticos. Para atender a esta problemática a nivel mundial se firmó el 23 de mayo de 2001 el Convenio de Estocolmo. Aunque por ahora los COP estan prohibidos en la mayoria de los países, todavía existen en el mundo muchos sitios contaminados con estas sustancias. La remediación de sitios que presentan contaminantes orgánicos persistentes requiere consideraciones distintas a las contempladas en la recupe-ración por contaminación de hidrocarburos. El siguiente texto revisa la literatura sobre la biodegradación anaeróbica y aeróbica de los bifeniles policlorados (PCB y las posibles estrategias para estimular dicha biodegradación. La degradación de los demás COP será descritas en textos adicionales.Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places, such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB and possible

  17. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S;

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which...... is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic...... acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure...

  18. The effect of ventilation on the indoor air concentration of PCB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    The impact of increased ventilation on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) air concentration by installation of mechanical balanced ventilation units was studied. The intervention was carried out in three PCB-contaminated rooms; one classroom in an elementary school and two small bedrooms...... in an apartment in a residential building. In the classroom, the air exchange rate (ACH) was raised from 0.2 (without mechanical ventilation) to 5.5 /h during the intervention. In the two bedrooms, the highest ACH was 6.6 /h and 0.5 /h without mechanical ventilation. The corresponding concentration decrease...... achieved from the intervention was 30% and in one of the bedrooms 45%. Emissions of PCB rose dramatically during periods of increased ventilation as the drop in concentration did not match the increased ACH. When ventilation in the bedrooms was increased incrementally from 0.5 to 2.2, 4.5, and 6.6 /h...

  19. The effects of PCB126 on intra-hepatic mechanisms associated with non alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Boucher, Marie-Pier; Lefebvre, Caroline; Chapados, Natalie Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) results from alteration in lipid synthesis and elimination mechanisms such as very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) production and de novo lipogenesis. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are chemicals that were mostly used historically as pesticides, solvents, flame retardant, and other applications. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been recognized to be of environmental and potential toxicologic concerns. Specifically, PCB1...

  20. PCB 77 dechlorination products modulate pro-inflammatory events in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eske, Katryn; Newsome, Bradley; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are associated with detrimental health outcomes including cardiovascular diseases. Remediation of these compounds is a critical component of environmental policy. Although remediation efforts aim to completely remove toxicants, little is known about the effects of potential remediation byproducts. We previously published that Fe/Pd nanoparticles effectively dechlorinate PCB 77 to biphenyl, thus eliminating PCB-induced endothelial dysfunction using primary vascular endothelial cells. Herein, we analyzed the toxic effects of PCB congener mixtures (representative mixtures of commercial PCBs based on previous dechlorination data) produced at multiple time points during the dechlorination of PCB 77 to biphenyl. Compared with pure PCB 77, exposing endothelial cells to lower chlorinated PCB byproducts led to improved cellular viability, decreased superoxide production, and decreased nuclear factor kappa B activation based on duration of remediation. Presence of the parent compound, PCB 77, led to significant increases in mRNA and protein inflammatory marker expression. These data implicate that PCB dechlorination reduces biological toxicity to vascular endothelial cells.

  1. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besseling, Ellen; Wegner, Anna; Foekema, Edwin M; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Koelmans, Albert A

    2013-01-02

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of polystyrene (PS) microplastic on survival, activity, and bodyweight, as well as the transfer of 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were assessed in bioassays with Arenicola marina (L.). PS was pre-equilibrated in natively contaminated sediment. A positive relation was observed between microplastic concentration in the sediment and both uptake of plastic particles and weight loss by A. marina. Furthermore, a reduction in feeding activity was observed at a PS dose of 7.4% dry weight. A low PS dose of 0.074% increased bioaccumulation of PCBs by a factor of 1.1-3.6, an effect that was significant for ΣPCBs and several individual congeners. At higher doses, bioaccumulation decreased compared to the low dose, which however, was only significant for PCB105. PS had statistically significant effects on the organisms' fitness and bioaccumulation, but the magnitude of the effects was not high. This may be different for sites with different plastic concentrations, or plastics with a higher affinity for POPs.

  2. PCB concentrations of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Ebener, Mark P.; Sepulveda, Maria S.

    2015-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 26 female lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 34 male lake whitefish from northern Lake Huron. In 5 of the 26 female lake whitefish, we also determined PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 60 ng/g and 80 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 34% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Based on the PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 2.5%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain, to any degree, the higher PCB concentrations observed in males compared with females. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being only 0.7% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the growth dilution effect contributed very little to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. We conclude that males were higher than females in PCB concentration most likely due to a higher rate of energy expenditure, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate. A higher rate of energy expenditure leads to a higher rate of food consumption, which, in turn, leads to a higher PCB accumulation rate.

  3. Effect of seafood mediated PCB exposure on desaturase activity and PUFA profile in Faroese septuagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Choi, Anna L; Bjerve, Kristian S; Weihe, Pal; Grandjean, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure may affect serum concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) by inhibiting desaturases ∆5 and ∆6 that drive their synthesis from precursor fatty acids. Such changes in the composition of fatty acids may affect cardiovascular disease risk, which is thought to increase at elevated PCB exposures. This population-based cross-sectional study examined 712 Faroese men and women aged 70-74 years. The serum phospholipid fraction of fasting blood samples was used to determine the PUFA profile, including linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, eicosatrienoic acid, and other relevant fatty acids. Ratios between precursor and metabolite fatty acids were used as proxies for ∆5 and ∆6 desaturase activity. Tertiles of serum-PCB concentrations were used in multiple regression analyses to determine the association between the exposure and desaturase activity. In multiple regression models, PCB exposure was inversely related to the estimated Δ6 desaturase activity resulting in accumulation of precursor fatty acids and decrease in the corresponding product PUFAs. A positive association between PCB and Δ5 desaturation was also found. A relative increase in EA was also observed, though only in the third tertile of PCB exposure. Non-linear relationships between the exposure and the desaturase activity were not found. Consuming fish and seafood may not be translated into beneficial fatty acid profiles if the diet simultaneously causes exposure to PCBs. Although the desaturase estimates were likely influenced by dietary intakes of product PUFAs, the association between PCB exposure and ∆6 desaturase activity is plausible and may affect cardiovascular disease risk.

  4. Insight into the neuroproteomics effects of the food-contaminant non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Laura; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente; Campagna, Roberta; Airoldi, Luisa; De Paola, Massimiliano; Fanelli, Roberto; Mariani, Alessandro; Mazzoletti, Marco; Pastorelli, Roberta

    2012-04-18

    Recent studies showed that food-contaminant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) congeners (PCB52, PCB138, PCB180) have neurotoxic potential, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal damage are not entirely known. The aim of this study was to assess whether in-vitro exposure to NDL-PCBs may alter the proteome profile of primary cerebellar neurons in order to expand our knowledge on NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Comparison of proteome from unexposed and exposed rat cerebellar neurons was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semi-quantitative mass-spectrometry method. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, that fall into two main classes: (i) novel targets for both PCB138 and 180, mediating the dysregulation of CREB pathways and ubiquitin-proteasome system; (ii) different congeners-specific targets (alpha-actinin-1 for PCB138; microtubule-associated-protein-2 for PCB180) that might lead to similar deleterious consequences on neurons cytoskeleton organization. Interference of the PCB congeners with synaptic formation was supported by the increased expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins quantified by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression alteration of synaptic markers was confirmed in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to these congeners, suggesting an adaptive response to neurodevelopmental toxicity on brain structures. As such, our work is expected to lead to new insights into the mechanisms of NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  6. Effects of perinatal coexposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls on neurobehavioral development in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, Norio [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki (Japan); Ohba, Takashi; Nakai, Kunihiko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Keita; Kameo, Satomi; Shimada, Miyuki; Kurokawa, Naoyuki; Satoh, Chieko; Satoh, Hiroshi [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Environmental Health Sciences, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Kakita, Akiyoshi [Niigata University, Department of Pathological Neuroscience, Resource Branch for Brain Disease Research, Brain Research Institute, Niigata (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants that cause neurobehavioral deficits in humans. Because exposures to MeHg and PCBs occur through fish consumption, it is necessary to clarify the effects of the interaction of the two pollutants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of perinatal exposure to MeHg and PCBs on the neurobehavioral development in mice. Female mice (C57BL/6Cr) were divided into four groups according to the type of exposure: (1) vehicle control, (2) MeHg alone, (3) PCBs alone, and (4) MeHg + PCBs. The MeHg-exposed groups were fed with a diet containing 5 ppm MeHg (as Hg), from 4 weeks before mating, throughout pregnancy, and lactation. The PCB-exposed groups were given a commercial mixture of PCBs, Aroclor 1254, at 18 mg/kg body weight in corn oil by gavage every 3 days from day 5 after breeding and continued until postnatal day (PND) 20. Before weaning, an assessment of eye opening showed the interactive effects between MeHg and PCBs on PND 12: The coexposure group showed a similar response to the control group, whereas the MeHg- and PCB-exposed groups showed a high response than the former two groups. We also observed delay in development of grasp reflex by MeHg exposure on PNDs 12 and 14. When the offspring mice were 8 weeks old, the group exposed to PCBs alone showed increases in the frequencies of excrement defecation and urine traces in an open-field test. Analysis of the latency revealed the antagonistic interaction between the MeHg and PCBs: The latency increased by either MeHg or PCB exposure was decreased by coexposure. Treatment with MeHg decreased the distance walked by the mice, and MeHg interacted with PCBs. Moris' water maze test showed that the MeHg-treated mice took a long time to reach the submerged platform; however, this MeHg exposure showed no interaction with PCB exposure. The spontaneous locomotion activity of the mice was not affected by the chemical exposure at 9 weeks of

  7. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Kun; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway of higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The efficiency of anaerobic composting remediation of PCB-contaminated soil using pig manure was determined. The results show that the dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil via anaerobic composting with pig manure is feasible. PCB concentration is the most critical factor. Elevated PCB concentrations can inhibit dechlorination but does not disrupt the anaerobic fermentation process. At 1 mg kg(-1) PCBs, the degradation rate of five or more chlorinated biphenyls is 43.8%. The highest dechlorination performance in this experiment was obtained when the soil-to-organic waste ratio, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, moisture content, and PCB concentration were 2:3, 20, 60%, and 1 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  8. Effects on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism in transthyretin-null mice by polychlorinated biphenyl isomers 118 and 114

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, N.; Yonemoto, J.; Takeuchi, Y.; Yokoi, C.; Tohyama, C. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Some congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their metabolites are known to disturb thyroid and retinoid metabolism in laboratory animals and humans. Among 209 isomers of PCBs, 12 PCB isomers termed as the coplanar PCBs are grouped into dioxin-like chemicals based on their resemblance of toxic effects and mechanism(s) to dioxins. Mechanism(s) of toxicity by the dioxin-like chemicals have been established to be mediated through aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The toxic potency of each congener/isomer of dioxin-like chemicals has been evaluated by relative potency to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as the toxic equivalent factor (TEF). Because dioxins in environments are generally distributed as mixtures, the toxic equivalency (TEQ) concept has been adopted to evaluate the health risk of exposure to complex environmental mixtures. TEQ values are calculated by multiplication of the sum of the chemical concentrations by the corresponding TEF values. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of two coplanar PCBs, PCB118, highly detected in human tissues and milk (TEF value: 0.0001), and PCB114 (TEF value: 0.0005) on thyroid hormone and retinoid metabolism. Possible involvement of transthyretin (TTR), the principal carrier of thyroid hormone and retinol-binding protein in the rodent, in PCBs-induced disruption of thyroid and retinoid homeostasis was investigated.

  9. Involvement of prostaglandin F2alpha in the adverse effect of PCB 77 on the force of contractions of bovine myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michal H; Rekawiecki, Robert; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-08-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) stimulate in vitro both the force of myometrial contractions and endometrial secretion of PGF2alpha in cattle. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate the participation of PGF2alpha in the effect of PCBs on uterine contractility. For this aim, the myometrial strips were incubated (48h) with PCB 77 at the dose of 1, 10 and 100ng/ml (i.e., 0.0034, 0.034 and 0.34nmol/ml) separately or jointly with indomethacin (INDO, 10(-4)M), which blocks the PGF2alpha synthesis. Next, the force of myometrial strips contractions was measured. Further, the influence of PCB 77 (0.1, 1 and 10ng/ml) on the PGF2alpha secretion from myometrial cells after 6, 24, and 48h and PCB 77 (1 and 10ng/ml) on the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and PGF2alpha synthase (PGFS) in myometrial cells after 6 and 24h, was investigated. The increase (P<0.05-0.001) of the contractions force of myometrial strips evoked by each dose of PCB 77, was markedly reduced (P<0.05-001) by INDO. There was an increase (P<0.05-0.001) of both PGF2alpha secretion after all studied periods of cell incubation and mRNA expression for COX-2 and PGFS after 6h treatment of myometrial cells with PCB 77. It can be concluded that myometrial synthesis of PGF2alpha and its further secretion is a part of the mechanism by means of which PCB 77 may affect the force of myometrial contractions in cattle.

  10. Effects of randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on the bioavailability and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in three pristine soils spiked with a transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, F; Ciccotosto, V F

    2002-03-01

    The low bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soils often results in their slow and partial aerobic biodegradation. The process can be enhanced by supplementing soils with cyclodextrins. However, pure cyclodextrins are expensive and we have therefore explored the use of a less costly technical grade mixture of randomly methylated-beta-cyclodextrins (RAMEB). RAMEB was tested at 0, 1, 3 and 5% (w/w) in the aerobic bioremediation and detoxification of a loamy-, a humic- and a sandy-soil, each artificially contaminated with a PCB-containing transformer oil (added PCBs: about 450 or 700 mg/kg), inoculated with an exogenous aerobic PCB-biodegrading bacterial co-culture and treated in slurry- and solid-phase laboratory conditions. Significant depletions of the spiked PCBs were observed in all microcosms of the three soils after 90 days of treatment; however, interesting yields of PCB dechlorination and detectable decreases of the original soil ecotoxicity were observed in the slurry-phase microcosms. RAMEB generally enhanced PCB-metabolism with effects which were dependent on the concentration at which it was applied, the physical-chemical nature of the amended soil, and the soil treatment conditions employed. RAMEB, which was slowly metabolized by soil microorganisms, enhanced the presence of PCBs and PCB-cometabolizing bacteria in the soil-water phase, suggesting that RAMEB enhances aerobic biodegradation of PCBs by increasing pollutant bioavailability in soil microcosms.

  11. Gender differential effects of developmental exposure to methyl-mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls 126 or 153, or its combinations on motor activity and coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauli, Omar; Piedrafita, Blanca; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-09-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (MeHg) are persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the food chain. Pre- and neonatal exposure to these neurotoxicants may affect brain development and lead to long-lasting alterations in cerebral function, which can result in motor alterations in youth and/or adulthood. Some neurotoxicants induce gender specific effects. The aims of the present work were to: (1) assess the effects of developmental exposure to MeHg, PCB 153 or PCB 126 on spontaneous locomotor and vertical activity and motor coordination when the rats are 2-month old; (2) assess whether perinatal exposure to combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 alter the effects of the individual neurotoxicants; (3) follow the progression of motor alterations when the rats are 3-, 5- and 7-month old; (4) assess if the effects are similar or different in males and females. Pregnant rats were treated with MeHg (0.5mg/kgday); PCB126 (100ng/kgday) or PCB153 (1mg/kgday) or with combinations of MeHg with each PCB, administered in food from gestational day 7 until weaning at post-natal day 21. PCB 126 impaired motor coordination at 2 months in males but not in females. PCB 153 impaired coordination both in males and females. Combinations of MeHg with PCB153 or PCB126 did not affect motor coordination, indicating that MeHg counteracts the effects of the PBCs. The combination of MeHg and PCB153 induces hypolocomotion at 2 months but hyperactivity at 7 months while the individual compounds did not induce any effect. PCB126 induced gender selective effects, reducing locomotor activity at 2 months in females but not in males. The combination of MeHg and PCB126 behaves as PCB126 alone. All compounds and combinations tested induce gender-selective alterations in vertical activity. The effects on locomotor and vertical activity change with age in the same rats. At 2 months all compounds and combinations reduce vertical activity in females but not in males. At 7 months

  12. Separation and enrichment of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls from real waters using a novel magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Pan, Muyun; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen; Long, Nengbing

    2015-03-01

    A novel and effective magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls was developed. Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, then the poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) was laid on its surface to prepare the polyanionic magnetic nanoparticles. The above materials were then grafted with polycationic multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were modified by polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride through the layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. Its performance was tested by magnetic solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Under optimal conditions, the spiked recoveries of several real samples for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180) were in the range of 73.4-99.5% with relative standard deviations varying from 1.5 to 8.4%. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls were between 0.018 and 0.039 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in real water samples. Satisfactory results were obtained using the effective magnetic absorbent.

  13. Photo-assisted electrochemical degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls with boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, Rubén F; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo; Hernández-Ramírez, Aracely; Malo, Edi A; Nájera-Aguilar, Hugo A

    2017-09-19

    The capacity of the photo electro-Fenton (PEF) process to degrade a mixture of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was studied. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) sheets were used as anode and cathode in the experimental electrolytic cell that contained Na2SO4 0.05 M at pH 3 as supporting electrolyte for the electro generation of H2O2 at the cathode. The effects of UV light intensity (254 and 365 nm), current density (8, 16 and 24 mA cm(-2)) and ferrous ion dosage (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM) on PCB (C0 = 50 μg L(-1)) degradation were evaluated. The highest level of PCB degradation (97%) was achieved with 16 mA cm(-2) of current density, 0.1 mM of ferrous ion and UV light at 365 nm as irradiation source after 6 h of reaction. PCB28, PCB52 and PCB101 were not detected after 0.5, 1.5 and 3 h of reaction, respectively. The degradation of PCB138, PCB153, PCB180 and PCB209 was also high (>95%). The PEF system outperformed other oxidation processes (electro-Fenton, anodic oxidation, Fenton, photo-Fenton and UV photolysis) in terms of reaction rate and degradation efficiency. These results demonstrate for the first time the degradation of PCB209, the most highly chlorinated PCB congener, by an advanced electrochemical oxidation process.

  14. Quantum Transport in a Biphenyl Molecule: Effects of Magnetic Flux

    OpenAIRE

    Maiti, Santanu K.

    2009-01-01

    Electron transport properties of a biphenyl molecule are studied based on the Green's function formalism. The molecule is sandwiched between two metallic electrodes, where each benzene ring is threaded by a magnetic flux $\\phi$. The results are focused on the effects of the molecule to electrode coupling strength and the magnetic flux $\\phi$. Our numerical study shows that, for a fixed molecular coupling, the current amplitude across the bridge can be {\\em regulated} significantly just by tun...

  15. Sulfate radical-based degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls: Effects of chloride ion and reaction kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Guo-Dong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Dionysiou, Dionysios D. [Environmental Engineering and Science Program, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0071 (United States); Wang, Yu [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Al-Abed, Souhail R. [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Zhou, Dong-Mei, E-mail: dmzhou@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A kinetic model was used to predict the radical species and their distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The generated radical species were identified by EPR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined. - Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radical (SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}) have been recently used for soil and groundwater remediation. The presence of chloride ion in natural or wastewater decreases the reactivity of sulfate radical system, but explanations for this behavior were inconsistent, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the effect of chloride ion on the degradation of 2,4,4 Prime -CB (PCB28) and biphenyl (BP) by persulfate, based on the produced SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -}. The results showed that the presence of chloride ion greatly inhibited the transformation of PCB28 and BP. Transformation intermediates of BP were monitored, suggesting that the chloride ion can react with SO{sub 4}{center_dot}{sup -} to produce chlorine radical, which reacts with BP to generate chlorinated compounds. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these processes, a kinetic model was developed for predicting the effect of chloride ion on the types of radical species and their distributions. The results showed that chloride ion could influence the selectivity of radical species and their distribution, and increase the concentration of the sum of radical species. In addition, the second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined, and quantum-chemical descriptors were introduced to predict the rate constants of other PCBs based on our experimental data.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl 126 to Tigriopus japonicus: effects on survival, growth, reproduction, and intrinsic rate of population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2012-03-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus has a wide geographical distribution and is considered as a suitable model species for the assessment of toxicity of marine pollutants. The aim of the present study was to test the impacts of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the growth, development, and reproduction of T. japonicus in two successive generations. We first quantified the 96-h 50% lethal concentration (2.83 mg/L; all reported concentrations are nominal values), the no-observed-effect concentration (0.6 mg/L), and the lowest-observed-effect concentration (LOEC; 1.2 mg/L) of PCB126 in the nauplii. Nauplii were more sensitive than the adults, which still survived at the highest tested PCB126 concentration (8 mg/L). In the chronic toxicity testing, 10 life history traits were quantified for T. japonicus. No obvious effect on any of these traits was observed in the first generation (F0) at tested concentrations (generational life-cycle exposure (F1), however, PCB126 had an obvious toxic effect on the reproduction (>1 µg/L) and growth (>0.1 µg/L). Thus, copepods became more sensitive to PCB126 exposure as generations developed. Among the different traits tested, body size was the most sensitive parameter. Reproduction (fecundity, number of clutches, nauplii/clutch) and intrinsic population growth were also significantly impacted by PCB exposure. The survivorship, sex ratio, hatching time, and development were not affected. Environmental risk assessment of contaminants must therefore be based on a long-term multigenerational exposure to provide a realistic measurement of the influences of pollutants on aquatic life.

  17. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Haftka, J.J.H.; Parsons, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air−n-hexadecane and n-octanol−water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was d

  18. Biological and tumor-promoting effects of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mouse liver after single or combined treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignall, Benjamin; Grote, Konstanze; Gavrilov, Alina; Weimer, Marc; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Krause, Eberhard; Appel, Klaus E; Buchmann, Albrecht; Robertson, Larry W; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Schwarz, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To assess the impact of a mixture containing dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), male mice were initiated with N-nitroso-diethylamine and subsequently treated with PCB126, an Ah-Receptor agonist, and PCB153, acting via activation of the constitutive androstane receptor. The two congeners were given at two dose levels: the low dose was adjusted to induce ~150-fold increases in cytochrome P450 (Cyp)1a1 (PCB126) and Cyp2b10 mRNAs (PCB153), and the high dose was chosen as twice the low dose. To keep the liver PCB levels constant, mice were given initial loading doses followed by weekly maintenance doses calculated on the basis of the PCBs' half-lives. Mice were treated with the individual congeners (low and high dose) or with a mixture consisting of the low doses of the 2 PCBs. The following results were obtained: (1) the 2 PCBs produced dose-dependent increases in Cyp1a1 and Cyp2b10 mRNA, protein, and activity when given individually; (2) combined treatment caused more than additive effects on Cyp1a1 mRNA expression, protein level, and ethoxyresurofin activity; (3) changes in the levels of several proteins were detected by proteome analysis in livers of PCB-treated mice; (4) besides these biological responses, the individual PCBs caused no significant increase in the number of glucose-6-phospatase (G6Pase)-deficient neoplastic lesions in liver, whereas a moderate significant effect occurred in the combination group. These results suggest weak but significant response-additive effects of the 2 PCBs when given in combination. They also suggest that the Cyp biomarkers tend to overestimate the carcinogenic response produced by the PCBs in mouse liver.

  19. Effects of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléia Rocha de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, used as pesticides in agriculture, can lead to irreversible injuries in living organisms, particularly in liver. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the liver pathogenesis induced by different molecules, including PCBs. It has been demonstrated that quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid found in the diet, exhibits a potent antioxidant effect in different liver pathologies. Objective: To evaluate oxidative stress caused by PCBs in liver and the antioxidant activity of quercetin. Methodology: We used male Wistar rats (n = 36, divided in 4 groups: control, quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, PCBs (0.4 ml/kg/day, and rats treated with both PCBs and quercetin. On day 25 blood was collected to assess liver integrity (enzymes AST, ALT and ALP, and liver samples to measure oxidative stress (TBARS, activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and DNA damage (micronucleus assay, and histological damage. Results: TBARS concentration and SOD activity were significantly higher in PCBs animals as compared to the PCB group receiving quercetin. CAT and GPx decreased in PCBs and increased when quercetin was added. The histological analysis showed damage to hepatocytes in PCBs, but quercetin was able to afford protection against such damage. The micronucleus test showed there was an increase in the production of microclenucleus compared to control, and quercetin was able to reduce this effect. Conclusion: Contamination with PCBs led to increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and the use of antioxidant quercetin was effective in reducing PCBs-induced liver injury.

  20. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  1. Dioxin-like PCB in indoor air contaminated with different sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzow, B.G.J.; Mohr, S.; Ostendorp, G. [Landesamt fuer Gesundheit und Arbeitssicherheit des Landes Schleswig-Holstein, Flintbek (Germany); Kerst, M.; Koerner, W. [Bayerisches Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz, Augsburg (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) have been used in public building constructions for various purposes in the 1960s and 1970s, mainly as an additive to concrete, caulking, grout, paints, as a major constitutent of permanent elastic Thiokol rubber sealants and flame retardant coatings of acoustic ceiling tiles. Offgazing of semivolatile PCB from building materials can nowadays still result in considerable house-dust contamination and in indoor air concentrations exceeding 10,000 ng/m{sup 3}. In Germany, PCB levels in indoor air in non-occupational settings have been regulated with a tolerable total PCB concentration of 300 ng /m{sup 3} and an intervention level of 3000 ng/m{sup 3}. Lower re-entry criteria have been proposed by Michaud et al. Technical mixtures of PCB contain dioxin-like non- and mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners and are contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and mainly dibenzofurans (PCDF), sharing overlapping toxic effects and physicochemical properties. We report here on levels of dioxinlike PCB measured in buildings with various PCB sources and correlations among PCDD/PCDF and dioxin-like PCB and di-ortho PCB.

  2. Package and PCB Effects Shift Intermodulation Notch in an RF Common-Emitter Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Wu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A Taylor series analysis is conducted to study the effects of the package and printed circuit board (PCB on the intermodulation nulling of an RF common-emitter amplifier. The equivalent parasitic element of the package and PCB interconnects is extracted from the impedance and admittance parameters, which are obtained using a three-dimensional (3-D electromagnetic simulation tool. The theoretical analysis reveals that the effects of the package and PCB on the intermodulation nulling of common-emitter amplifiers is to shift the intermodulation notch; that the third-order intermodulation (IM3 products under an original bias condition cannot be suppressed and that the linearity of common-emitter amplifiers is thereby degraded. A comparison between theory and simulation reveals good agreement in the predicted locations of the intermodulation notch in the absence and presence of a package and PCB.

  3. Multiple mechanisms of PCB neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Stoner, C.T.; Lawrence, D.A. [Univ. of New York, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in cancer, but many of the symptoms in humans exposed to PCBs are related to the nervous system and behavior. We demonstrated three different direct mechanisms whereby PCBs are neurotoxic in rats. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the orthosubstituted PCB congener 2,4,4{prime}, but neither TCDD nor the coplanar PCB congener 3,4,5,3{prime},4{prime}, causes rapid death of cerebellar granule cells. The ortho-substituted congener 2,4,4{prime} reduced long-term potentiation, an indicator of cognitive potential, in hippocampal brain slices, but a similar effect was observed for the coplanar congener 3,4,3{prime},4{prime}, indicating that this effect may be caused by both ortho- and coplanar congeners by mechanisms presumably not mediated via the Ah receptor. It was previously shown that some ortho-substituted PCB congeners cause a reduction in levels of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that this is due to reduction of synthesis of dopamine via inhibition of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. Thus, PCBs have a variety of mechanisms of primary neurotoxicity, and neurotoxicity is a characteristic of ortho-substituted, non-dioxin-like congeners as well as some coplanar congeners. The relative contribution of each of these mechanisms to the loss of cognitive function in humans exposed to PCBs remains to be determined. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Neuropsychological effects of chronic low-dose exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klett Martin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to indoor air of private or public buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs has raised health concerns in long-term users. This exploratory neuropsychological group study investigated the potential adverse effects of chronic low-dose exposure to specific air-borne low chlorinated PCBs on well-being and behavioral measures in adult humans. Methods Thirty employees exposed to indoor air contaminated with PCBs from elastic sealants in a school building were compared to 30 non-exposed controls matched for education and age, controlling for gender (age range 37–61 years. PCB exposure was verified by external exposure data and biological monitoring (PCB 28, 101, 138, 153, 180. Subjective complaints, learning and memory, executive function, and visual-spatial function was assessed by standardized neuropsychological testing. Since exposure status depended on the use of contaminated rooms, an objectively exposed subgroup (N = 16; PCB 28 = 0.20 μg/l; weighted exposure duration 17.9 ± 7 years was identified and compared with 16 paired controls. Results Blood analyses indicated a moderate exposure effect size (d relative to expected background exposure for total PCB (4.45 ± 2.44 μg/l; d = 0.4. A significant exposure effect was found for the low chlorinated PCBs 28 (0.28 ± 0.25 μg/l; d = 1.5 and 101 (0.07 ± 0.09 μg/l; d = 0.7. Although no neuropsychological effects exceeded the adjusted significance level, estimation statistics showed elevated effect sizes for several variables. The objectively exposed subgroup showed a trend towards increased subjective attentional and emotional complaints (tiredness and slowing of practical activities, emotional state as well as attenuated attentional performance (response shifting and alertness in a cued reaction task. Conclusion Chronic inhalation of low chlorinated PCBs that involved elevated blood levels was associated with a subtle attenuation of emotional well

  5. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute...... to this difference. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977). METHODS: PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years...... were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB period also had significantly higher (46%, 95% CI: 22; 70) PCB 28 concentrations compared to children...

  6. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P Madenjian

    Full Text Available Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  7. Differences in Energy Expenditures and Growth Dilution Explain Higher PCB Concentrations in Male Summer Flounder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Jensen, Olaf P; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Vastano, Anthony R; Pothoven, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  8. Differences in energy expenditures and growth dilution explain higher PCB concentrations in male summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Vastano, Anthony R.; Pothoven, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish PCB concentrations in 23 female summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To investigate the potential for differences in diet or habitat utilization between the sexes, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were also determined. In 5 of the 23 female summer flounder, PCB concentrations in the somatic tissue and ovaries were determined. In addition, we used bioenergetics modeling to assess the contribution of the growth dilution effect to the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes. Whole-fish PCB concentrations for females and males averaged 87 and 124 ng/g, respectively; thus males were 43% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios did not significantly differ between the sexes, suggesting that diet composition and habitat utilization did not vary between the sexes. Based on PCB determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that PCB concentration of females would increase by 0.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Thus, the change in PCB concentration due to release of eggs did not explain the higher PCB concentrations observed in males. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could account for males being 19% higher in PCB concentration compared with females. Thus, the bulk of the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes was not explained by growth dilution. We concluded that a higher rate of energy expenditure in males, stemming from greater activity and a greater resting metabolic rate, was most likely the primary driver for the observed difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes.

  9. Structural characterization of Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 biphenyl dioxygenase reveals features of potent polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Colbert

    Full Text Available The oxidative degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is initiated in Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 by biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO(B356. BPDO(B356, a heterohexameric (αβ(3 Rieske oxygenase (RO, catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of BPDO(B356 with and without its substrate biphenyl 1.6-Å resolution for both structures. In both cases, the Fe(II has five ligands in a square pyramidal configuration: H233 Nε2, H239 Nε2, D386 Oδ1 and Oδ2, and a single water molecule. Analysis of the active sites of BPDO(B356 and related ROs revealed structural features that likely contribute to the superior PCB-degrading ability of certain BPDOs. First, the active site cavity readily accommodates biphenyl with minimal conformational rearrangement. Second, M231 was predicted to sterically interfere with binding of some PCBs, and substitution of this residue yielded variants that transform 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl more effectively. Third, in addition to the volume and shape of the active site, residues at the active site entrance also apparently influence substrate preference. Finally, comparison of the conformation of the active site entrance loop among ROs provides a basis for a structure-based classification consistent with a phylogeny derived from amino acid sequence alignments.

  10. Sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls onto biochars derived from corn straw and the effect of propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Ren, Xinhao; Sun, Hongwen; Ma, Ling; Zhu, Hongkai; Xu, Jiayao

    2016-11-01

    The sorption of three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in single-solute and bi-solute systems in the presence of propranolol was studied on biochars at pyrolyzing temperatures of 200°C (BC200) and 700°C (BC700). Hydrophobicity and molecular planarity played a major role in PCB sorption onto BC200 and BC700, respectively. The steric hindrance caused by non-planarity made the strong specific sorption sites on BC700 less accessible to nonplanar PCBs. In bi-solute systems for BC200, propranolol monomers at an initial concentration (Cinit) of 0.8mg/L inhibited the sorption of PCB4 by competing for sorption sites. Propranolol at Cinit larger than 1.2mg/L could form hemimicelle structures on the biochar surface, providing a favorable phase for PCB4 partitioning, thereby increasing Koc up to 1.15 times. For BC700, propranolol prohibited PCB4 sorption mainly by pore-blocking, with the log Koc being reduced from 4.92 to 3.94. This study informs the application of biochar in mixture-contaminated environment.

  11. Effects of prenatal exposure to hydoxylated PCB metabolites and some brominated flame retardants on the development of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitenhuis, C.; Cenijn, P.C.; Velzen, M. van; Gutleb, A.C.; Legler, J. [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lilienthal, H. [Heinrich Univ., Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. Neurobehavioural Toxicology, Medical Institute of Environmental Hygiene; Malmberg, T.; Bergman, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry; Brouwer, A.

    2004-09-15

    Possible human health effects from low-level exposure to environmental chemicals are an issue that has attracted much attention. Environmental compounds that may play a role are those that may disrupt endocrine function. Organohalogen compounds, and in particular their hydroxylated metabolites, show a striking resemblance to steroid hormones.The main objective of this research is to investigate comparative pathways of early life-stage exposure and long-term effects for several classes of organohalogens, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and flame retardants, polybrominated bisphenols and -diphenylethers, and their hydroxylated metabolites. Due to their prevalence in human plasma, the hydroxylated PCB metabolites 4-OH-CB107 and 4-OH-CB187, as well as 6-OH-BDE47 and 2,4,6- tribromophenol, were selected as test compounds. BDE 47 has been included as a test compound due to its relatively high levels in the environment and biota, whereas tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) was selected because of its high volume production. The in vivo studies involved prenatal exposure of rats to test compounds during critical stages of gonadal development and were focussed on low dose effects. Several endpoints were investigated, including endocrine (thyroid and sex steroid hormones) effects, developmental landmarks, sexual and neurobehavioural development. Blood plasma and tissue levels of test compounds were analysed to determine transplacental transfer of (hydroxylated) organohalogens.

  12. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  13. 食物中多氯联苯PCB 126对南方鲇的致死效应及代谢胁迫的研究%LETHAL EFFECT AND METABOLIC STRESS OF DIETARY PCB126 ON THE SOUTHERN CATFISH ,SILURUS MERIDIONALIS CHEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伦强; 谢小军; 闫玉莲

    2009-01-01

    3,3' ,4,4' ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), a kind of typical persistent organic pollutant, is one of the poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners with high bioaccumulation and strong toxicity. It has been considered to have detrimental effects on the health of the human and animals as well as on ecosystems for being difficult to be decomposed or be transformed in both environment and organisms. In order to test the lethal effect and metabolic stress of dietary PCB 126 on the southern catfish, Silurus meridionalis Chen, from October to December, 2007, 72 one-year-old juvenile south-era catfish acclimated with control diet for 2 weeks prior to study initiation were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (12 fish in each group) for different dietary PCB 126 treatments. Six iso-nitrogenous (45% crude protein) , iso-li-pidic (12% crude lipid) and iso-carbohydrate (15% crude carbohydrate) experimental diets with different levels of PCB 126 were formulated, the dietary concentrations of PC B 126 were 0(as control) , 50, l O0,200,400 and 800 μg/kg, re-spectively. In each group, the southern catfish were individually fed with each experimental diet in an indoor rearing sys-tem at 3% BW per day ration level for 8 weeks at (27.5±0.2)℃. The median lethal time (LT50) , the total amounts of PCB 126 intake during the experiment, hepatosomatic index (HSI) , the resting metabolic rate (RMR) as well as the rate of oxygen consumption and activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) of the liver mitochondria in southern catfish were deter-mined and calculated. The results showed that no mortality of the experimental fish occurred during the experiment in groups fed with the diets in the PCB 126 concentrations of 0, 50 and 100 μg/kg, and the total amounts of PCB 126 intake were 0, 30.56 and 66.66μg/kg body weight at the termination of the experiment, respectively, whereas, the mortality was observed in fish fed with the diets containing PCB 126 of 200, 400 and 800 μg/kg, and

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet;

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs...

  15. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of

  16. Laboratory study of PCB transport from primary sources to settled dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transport of house dust and Arizona Test Dust on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing panels and PCB-free panels was investigated in a 30-m3 stainless steel chamber. The PCB-containing panels were aluminum sheets coated with a PCB-spiked, oil-based primer or two-part polysul...

  17. Alterations in geometry, biomechanics, and mineral composition of juvenile rat femur induced by nonplanar PCB-155 and/or planar PCB-169.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovič, Jana; Jovanovski, Sašo; Jevnikar, Peter; Hofmeister, Alexander; Reininger-Gutmann, Birgit; Jan, Janja; Grošelj, Maja; Osredkar, Joško; Uršič, Matjaž; Fazarinc, Gregor; Pogačnik, Azra; Vrecl, Milka

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to widespread lipophilic and bioaccumulative polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induces diverse biochemical and toxicological responses in various organs, including the bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in growth rate, geometry, serum, and bone biochemical parameters and biomechanics of juvenile rat femur induced by lactational exposure to nonplanar PCB-155 and planar PCB-169 individually and in combination. Fifteen lactating Wistar rats were divided into four groups (PCB-169, PCB-155, PCB-155+169, and control), and PCBs were administered intraperitoneally at different time points after delivery. Femurs from 22-day-old offspring were analyzed by microCT, three-point bending test and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to obtain data on bone geometry, biomechanics and mineral composition. The serum levels of calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase were also determined. Lactational exposure to planar PCB-169 resulted in shorter and thinner femurs, reduced endosteal and periosteal perimeters, smaller total cross-sectional and medullary areas, and lowered serum bone marker levels and calcium levels in the bone, while femur mechanical properties were not significantly altered. The changes observed in the combination exposure (PCB-155+169) group were similar to those observed in the PCB-169 group but were less pronounced. In summary, our results demonstrate that alterations in lactationally exposed offspring were primarily induced by planar PCB-169. The milder outcome in the combined group suggested that the PCB-169-mediated toxic effects on the bone might be reduced by a nonplanar PCB-155 congener. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1135-1146, 2017.

  18. Exposure to the three structurally different PCB congeners (PCB 118, 153, and 126) results in decreased protein expression and altered steroidogenesis in the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremoen, Nina Hårdnes; Fowler, Paul A; Ropstad, Erik; Verhaegen, Steven; Krogenæs, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), synthetic, persistent organic pollutants (POP), are detected ubiquitously, in water, soil, air, and sediments, as well as in animals and humans. PCB are associated with range of adverse health effects, such as interference with the immune system and nervous system, reproductive abnormalities, fetotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and endocrine disruption. Our objective was to determine the effects of three structurally different PCB congeners, PCB118, PCB 126, and PCB 153, each at two concentrations, on the steroidogenic capacity and proteome of human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line cultures (H295R) . After 48 h of exposure, cell viability was monitored and estradiol, testosterone, cortisol and progesterone secretion measured to quantify steroidogenic capacity of the cells. Two-dimensional (2D) gel-based proteomics was used to screen for proteome alterations in H295R cells in response to the PCB. Exposure to PCB 118 increased estradiol and cortisol secretion, while exposure to PCB 153 elevated estradiol secretion. PCB 126 was the most potent congener, increasing estradiol, cortisol, and progesterone secretion in exposed H295R cells. Seventy-three of the 711 spots analyzed showed a significant difference in normalized spot volumes between controls (vehicle only) and at least one exposure group. Fourteen of these protein spots were identified by liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). Exposure to three PCB congeners with different chemical structure perturbed steroidogenesis and protein expression in the H295R in vitro model. This study represents an initial analysis of the effects on proteins and hormones in the H295R cell model, and additional studies are required in order to obtain a more complete understanding of the pathways disturbed by PCB congeners in H295R cells. Overall, alterations in protein regulation and steroid hormone synthesis suggest that exposure to PCB disturbs several cellular processes, including

  19. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would...

  20. Evaluation and interconversion of various indicator PCB schemes for ∑PCB and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent levels in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Nilima; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Reiner, Eric J; Chen, Tony; Morse, Dave; Arhonditsis, George B; Drouillard, Ken G

    2015-01-06

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (∑PCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ∑PCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ∑PCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.

  1. Prenatal exposure to PCB-153, p,p'-DDE and birth outcomes in 9000 mother-child pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Maribel; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Martínez, David

    2014-01-01

    Low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) can impair fetal growth; however, the exposure-response relationship and effect modifiers of such association are not well established. This study is an extension of an earlier European me...

  2. Effects of DDE and PCB (Aroclor 1260) on experimentally poisoned little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus): Lethal brain concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Stafford, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    Adult female little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) were collected in a church attic in North East, Cecil County, Md. Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) containing organochlorine pollutants were fed to the bats as follows: 5 bats were dosed at 480 ppm DDE, 12 at 150 ppm DDE, 5 at 1000 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB; Aroclor 1260), and 12 at 15 ppm PCB. Seven other bats were fed untreated mealworms. The objective was to elevate brain levels of DDE and PCB to lethality and measure these concentrations. During 40 d of dosage, one DDE-dosed bat and two PCB-dosed bats died after exhibiting the prolonged tremor that characterizes organochlorine poisoning. After dosage, surviving bats were starved to elevate brain levels of toxicants, and three additional DDE-dosed bats had tremors before dying. The mean brain concentration of DDE diagnostic of death was estimated as 603 ppm, range 540-670 ppm. This mean is 16-18% higher than means for Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), and may indicate less sensitivity. Lethal brain concentrations of Aroclor 1260 were 1300 and 1500 ppm. Such values appear to be higher than values (Aroclor 1254) for brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater). During starvation, DDE-dosed bats lost weight about 24% faster than controls. If smaller amounts of stored DDE cause increases in metabolic rates of nonfeeding bats, as during hibernation or migration, the result could be premature energy depletion and increased mortality.

  3. Evaluation of cumulative PCB exposure estimated by a job exposure matrix versus PCB serum concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Succop, Paul; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been banned in many countries for more than three decades, exposures to PCBs continue to be of concern due to their long half-lives and carcinogenic effects. In National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health studies, we are using semiquantitative plant-specific job exposure matrices (JEMs) to estimate historical PCB exposures for workers (n = 24,865) exposed to PCBs from 1938 to 1978 at three capacitor manufacturing plants. A subcohort of these workers (n = 410) employed in two of these plants had serum PCB concentrations measured at up to four times between 1976 and 1989. Our objectives were to evaluate the strength of association between an individual worker's measured serum PCB levels and the same worker's cumulative exposure estimated through 1977 with the (1) JEM and (2) duration of employment, and to calculate the explained variance the JEM provides for serum PCB levels using (3) simple linear regression. Consistent strong and statistically significant associations were observed between the cumulative exposures estimated with the JEM and serum PCB concentrations for all years. The strength of association between duration of employment and serum PCBs was good for highly chlorinated (Aroclor 1254/HPCB) but not less chlorinated (Aroclor 1242/LPCB) PCBs. In the simple regression models, cumulative occupational exposure estimated using the JEMs explained 14-24% of the variance of the Aroclor 1242/LPCB and 22-39% for Aroclor 1254/HPCB serum concentrations. We regard the cumulative exposure estimated with the JEM as a better estimate of PCB body burdens than serum concentrations quantified as Aroclor 1242/LPCB and Aroclor 1254/HPCB.

  4. Long-term effects of environmentally relevant doses of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153 on neurobehavioural development, health and spontaneous behaviour in maternally exposed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heegaard Einar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread in the environment, human food and breast milk. Seafood is known to contain nutrients beneficial for the normal development and function of the brain, but also contaminants such as PCBs which are neurotoxic. Exposure to non-coplanar PCBs during brain development can disrupt spontaneous behaviour in mice and lead to hyperactive behaviour. Humans are chronically exposed to the highest relative levels of organochlorines in early childhood during brain development, though usually at doses which do not give clinical symptoms of toxicity. This study aimed to elucidate the developmental and behavioural effects of 2,2',4,4',5,5' hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153 in mice, mimicking human exposure during gestation and lactation. Methods Environmentally relevant doses of PCB153 were added to the experimental diets. Feed concentrations were approximately 0.5, 6.5, and 1500 μg PCB153/kg feed, representing a realistic and a worst case scenario of frequent consumption of contaminated fish. The study also investigated the effects of maternal nutrition, i.e. a standard rodent diet versus a high inclusion of salmon. Mice pups were examined for physical- and reflex development, sensorimotor function and spontaneous behaviour from five days after birth until weaning. A selection of pups were followed until 16 weeks of age and tested for open field behaviour and the acoustic startle response (ASR with prepulse inhibition (PPI. Blood thyroid hormones and liver enzymes, blood lipids and PCB153 content in fat were examined at 16 weeks. Statistical analyses modelled the three way interactions of diet, PCB exposure and litter size on behaviour, using generalized linear models (GLM and linear mixed effect models (LME. The litter was used as a random variable. Non-parametric tests were used for pair wise comparisons of biochemical analyses. Results Litter size consistently influenced pup development and behaviour

  5. Effectiveness of a sediment time critical removal action-PCB reduction in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment via wet excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santini, Andrew D; King, Todd; Krawczyk, Keith; Kern, John W

    2015-01-01

    Documenting successful remediation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediments is limited; potentially due to inadequate monitoring methods, complexities associated with the environment, and selected remedial techniques. At some sites, absence of appropriate baseline and postremoval monitoring limits proper evaluation of remedial efficacy. Accurate interpretation of interactions between media, space, time, species, lipid content, and remedial technique requires robust study design and data. This article presents baseline and postremoval data documenting reduced PCB concentrations in fish tissue, surface water, and sediment in response to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) time-critical removal action (TCRA) that was conducted at the former Bryant Mill Pond (BMP) on Portage Creek in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The BMP is part of an operable unit (OU) within the Allied Paper, Inc./Portage Creek/Kalamazoo River Superfund Site. PCBs discharged to the creek as a byproduct of carbonless copy paper recycling are the primary contaminant of concern. Paper waste residuals commonly appear as gray to light gray clays in river sediments and floodplain soils. The cleanup criterion was 10 mg/kg, with a residual PCB concentration goal of 1 mg/kg. Because the PCB-containing waste is (generally) associated with readily visible light gray clay, excavation of all visibly contaminated current or formerly impounded sediment served as a surrogate for the cleanup criteria and goal. Sediment was wet excavated and backfilled after diversion of the creek. After confirmation that PCB concentrations met cleanup criteria, the stream was diverted to the excavated side, and excavation and backfilling were completed. Overall, 146000 cubic yards of material including PCB-contaminated sediments were removed from the BMP. The long-term monitoring (LTM) program implemented by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), and historic data from a variety of sources

  6. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  7. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  8. Metabolism of 2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) atropisomers in tissue slices from phenobarbital or dexamethasone-induced rats is sex-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Duffel, Michael; Lein, Pamela J; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-11-01

    1. Chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as PCB 136 enantioselectively sensitize the ryanodine receptor (RyR). In light of recent evidence that PCBs cause developmental neurotoxicity via RyR-dependent mechanisms, this suggests that enantioselective PCB metabolism may influence the developmental neurotoxicity of chiral PCBs. However, enantioselective disposition of PCBs has not been fully characterized. 2. The effect of sex and cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme induction on the enantioselective metabolism of PCB 136 was studied using liver tissue slices prepared from naïve control (CTL), phenobarbital (PB; CYP2B inducer) or dexamethasone (DEX; CYP3A inducer) pretreated adult Sprague-Dawley rats. PCB 136 metabolism was also examined in hippocampal slices derived from untreated rat pups. 3. In liver tissue slices, hydroxylated PCB (OH-PCB) profiles depended on sex and inducer pretreatment, and OH-PCB levels followed the rank orders male > female and PB > DEX > CTL. In contrast, the enantiomeric enrichment of PCB 136 and its metabolites was independent of sex and inducer pretreatment. Only small amounts of PCB 136 partitioned into hippocampal tissue slices and no OH-PCB metabolites were detected. 4. Our results suggest that enantioselective metabolism, sex and induction status of P450 enzymes in the liver may modulate the neurotoxic outcomes of developmental exposure to chiral PCBs.

  9. Adverse effects in risk assessment: Modeling polychlorinated biphenyls and thyroid hormone disruption outcomes in animals and humans☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Fred; Wise, Amber; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Portier, Christopher; Zeise, Lauren; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing need for quantitative approaches to extrapolate relationships between chemical exposures and early biological perturbations from animals to humans given increasing use of biological assays to evaluate toxicity pathways. We have developed such an approach using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid hormone (TH) disruption as a case study. We reviewed and identified experimental animal literature from which we developed a low-dose, linear model of PCB body burdens and decrements in free thyroxine (FT4) and total thyroxine (TT4), accounting for 33 PCB congeners; extrapolated the dose–response from animals to humans; and compared the animal dose–response to the dose–response of PCB body burdens and TH changes from eleven human epidemiological studies. We estimated a range of potencies for PCB congeners (over 4 orders of magnitude), with the strongest for PCB 126. Our approach to developing toxic equivalency models produced relative potencies similar to the toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) from the World Health Organization (WHO). We generally found that the dose–response extrapolated from the animal studies tends to under-predict the dose–response estimated from human epidemiological studies. A quantitative approach to evaluating the relationship between chemical exposures and TH perturbations, based on animal data can be used to assess human health consequences of thyroid toxicity and inform decision-making. PMID:22575326

  10. Effect of PCB 126 on aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1) mRNA expression and CYP1 monooxygenase activity in chicken (Gallus domesticus) ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dagmara; Antos, Piotr A; Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-12-03

    The aim of the experiment was to study the in vitro effect of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) on aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR1) and AHR1 nuclear translocator (ARNT1) mRNA expression and the activity of CYP1 family monooxygenases in chicken ovarian follicles. White (1-4 mm) and yellowish (4-8 mm) prehierarchical follicles as well as fragments of the theca and granulosa layers of the 3 largest preovulatory follicles (F3-F1) were incubated in a medium supplemented with 0 (control group), 1, 10 or 100 nM PCB 126. The incubation was carried out for 6 h or 24 h for determination of mRNA expression of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes (real-time qPCR) and CYP1 monooxygenase activity (EROD and MROD fluorometric assays), respectively. It was found that chicken ovarian follicles express mRNA of AHR1 and ARNT1 genes. A modulatory effect of PCB 126 on AHR1 and ARNT1 expression depended not only on the biphenyl concentration but also on the follicular layer and the maturational state of the follicle. EROD and MROD activities appeared predominantly in the granulosa layer of the yellow preovulatory follicles. PCB 126 induced these activities in a dose-dependent manner in all ovarian follicles. The obtained results suggest that ovarian follicles, especially the granulosa layer, are involved in the detoxification process of PCBs in the laying hen. Taking this finding into consideration it can be suggested that the granulosa layer of the yellow hierarchical follicles plays a key role in the protective mechanism which reduces the amount of transferred dioxin-like compounds into the yolk of the oocyte.

  11. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  12. Molecular interaction of PCB153 to human serum albumin: Insights from spectroscopic and molecular modeling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chao; Fang, Senbiao; Cao, Huiming; Lu, Yan; Ma, Yaqiong [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Wei, Dongfeng [Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700 (China); Xie, Xiaoyun [College of Earth and Environmental Science, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiaohua [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Xin [College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471003 (China); Fei, Dongqing [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhao, Chunyan, E-mail: zhaochy07@lzu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► We identify the binding mode of PCB153 to human serum albumin (HSA). ► Spectroscopic and molecular modeling results reveal that PCB153 binds at the site II. ► The interaction is mainly governed by hydrophobic and hydrogen bond forces. ► The work helps to probe transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs. -- Abstract: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possessed much potential hazard to environment because of its chemical stability and biological toxicity. Here, we identified the binding mode of a representative compound, PCB153, to human serum albumin (HSA) using fluorescence and molecular dynamics simulation methods. The fluorescence study showed that the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA was quenched by addition of PCB153 through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic analysis proved the binding behavior was mainly governed by hydrophobic force. Furthermore, as evidenced by site marker displacement experiments using two probe compounds, it revealed that PCB153 acted exactly on subdomain IIIA (site II) of HSA. On the other hand, the molecular dynamics studies as well as free energy calculations made another important contribution to understand the conformational changes of HSA and the stability of HSA-PCB153 system. Molecular docking revealed PCB153 can bind in a large hydrophobic activity of subdomain IIIA by the hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond interactions between chlorine atoms and residue ASN391. The present work provided reasonable models helping us further understand the transporting, distribution and toxicity effect of PCBs when it spread into human blood serum.

  13. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Yule, Daniel L.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Berglund, Eric K.; Isaac, Edmund J.

    2014-01-01

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5–22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (P Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect could explain males being higher than females in PCB concentration by only 3–7%. We concluded that the higher PCB concentration in males was most likely due to higher rate of energy expenditure, originating from greater activity and a higher resting metabolic rate. Mean PCB concentration in the cisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  14. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites is Associated with Neurological Functioning in 3-Month-Old Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuis, Sietske A.; Soechitram, Shalini D.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether pre

  15. Occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls and health risk assessment in Selangor River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nobumitsu; Dayana, Emmy; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Yoneda, Minoru; Nik Sulaiman, Nik Meriam; Ali Mohd, Mustafa

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were monitored in surface water collected in the Selangor River basin, Malaysia, to identify the occurrence, distribution, and dechlorination process as well as to assess the potential adverse effects to the Malaysian population. Ten PCB homologs (i.e., mono-CBs to deca-CBs) were quantitated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The total concentration of PCBs in the 10 sampling sites ranged from limit of detection to 7.67 ng L(-1). The higher chlorinated biphenyls (tetra-CBs to deca-CBs) were almost not detected in most of the sampling sites, whereas lower chlorinated biphenyls (mono-CBs, di-CBs, and tri-CBs) dominated more than 90 % of the 10 homologs in all the sampling sites. Therefore, the PCB load was estimated to be negligible during the sampling period because PCBs have an extremely long half-life. The PCBs, particularly higher chlorinated biphenyls, could be thoroughly dechlorinated to mono-CBs to tri-CBs by microbial decomposition in sediment or could still be accumulated in the sediment. The lower chlorinated biphenyls, however, could be resuspended or desorbed from the sediment because they have faster desorption rates and higher solubility, compared to the higher chlorinated biphenyls. The health risk for the Malaysia population by PCB intake that was estimated from the local fish consumption (7.2 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and tap water consumption (1.5 × 10(-3)-3.1 × 10(-3) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) based on the detected PCB levels in the surface water was considered to be minimal. The hazard quotient based on the tolerable daily intake (20 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) was estimated at 0.36.

  16. ENANTIOMERIC RATIOS OF CHIRAL PCB ATROPISOMERS IN RADIODATED SEDIMENT CORES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs)) of chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were quantified in radiodated sediment cores of Lake Hartwell SC, a reservoir heavily impacted by PCBS, to study spatial and temporal changes in chirality. A chiral analysis of cores showed accumulat...

  17. Treatment of a suspension of PCB contaminated soil using iron nanoparticles and electric current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comes, Helena I.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.

    2015-01-01

    Contaminated soils and sediments with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are an important environmental problem due to the persistence of these synthetic aromatic compounds and to the lack of a cost-effective and sustainable remediation technology. Recently, a new experimental setup has been proposed...... using electrodialytic remediation and iron nanoparticles. The current work compares the performance of this new setup (A) with conventional electrokinetics (setup B). An historically contaminated soil with an initial PCB concentration of 258 mu g kg-1 was treated during 5, 10, 20 and 45 d using...

  18. PCB 136 atropselectively alters morphometric and functional parameters of neuronal connectivity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons via ryanodine receptor-dependent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dongren; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Ghogha, Atefeh; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Bose, Diptiman D; Pessah, Isaac N; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners with multiple ortho chlorine substitutions sensitize ryanodine receptors (RyRs), and this activity promotes Ca²⁺-dependent dendritic growth in cultured neurons. Many ortho-substituted congeners display axial chirality, and we previously reported that the chiral congener PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) atropselectively sensitizes RyRs. Here, we test the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers differentially alter dendritic growth and other parameters of neuronal connectivity influenced by RyR activity. (-)-PCB 136, which potently sensitizes RyRs, enhances dendritic growth in primary cultures of rat hippocampal neurons, whereas (+)-PCB 136, which lacks RyR activity, has no effect on dendritic growth. The dendrite-promoting activity of (-)-PCB 136 is observed at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100 nM and is blocked by pharmacologic RyR antagonism. Neither atropisomer alters axonal growth or cell viability. Quantification of PCB 136 atropisomers in hippocampal cultures indicates that atropselective effects on dendritic growth are not due to differential partitioning of atropisomers into cultured cells. Imaging of hippocampal neurons loaded with Ca²⁺-sensitive dye demonstrates that (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the frequency of spontaneous Ca²⁺ oscillations. Similarly, (-)-PCB 136 but not (+)-PCB 136 increases the activity of hippocampal neurons plated on microelectrode arrays. These data support the hypothesis that atropselective effects on RyR activity translate into atropselective effects of PCB 136 atropisomers on neuronal connectivity, and suggest that the variable atropisomeric enrichment of chiral PCBs observed in the human population may be a significant determinant of individual susceptibility for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes following PCB exposure.

  19. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  20. PCB's in Suburban Watershed, Reston, Va

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, J.M.; Rickert, D.A.; Siegel, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Lake Anne basin increased from water (<0.05-0.2 ppb), to bed sediment (<2.5-105 ppb), to fish (140-700 ppb) in an average ratio of 1:500:3000. The highest concentrations were observed in the lake, which is 10 years old, and receives no sewage or industrial waste discharges. Evidence indicates that the polvchlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) originate from diffuse sources associated with urban development and living.

  1. Developmental Effects of Intraperitoneal Injection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rats During Pregnancy%妊娠期腹腔注射多氯联苯对大鼠生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雄清; 阮期平; 罗英

    2004-01-01

    将50只同期怀孕的大鼠分为5组,在怀孕第7-18 d,每天给两组大鼠腹腔分别注射1和20 mg/kg体重2,2',4,4'-四氯联苯(PCB 47);给另两组分别注射0.25和1 mg/kg体重3,3',4,4'-四氯联苯(PCB 77);对照组注射0.1 mL芝麻油.幼鼠出生时记录每窝产仔数和性比;出生后每隔7d称体重直到第119 d;出生后第15天时检查幼鼠的睁眼率.与对照组相比,PCB 47和PCB 77所有剂量组每窝产仔数和性比无显著差异;PCB 47(20 g/kg体重组)和PCB 77(两个剂量组)雌幼鼠肛门-生殖孔距离显著增加,出生后15d幼鼠的睁眼率显著降低;PCB 77(1 mg/kg体重组)雄幼鼠从出生后第35至119天体重显著降低.提示PCB 77主要影响雄鼠的生长发育.%Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread environmental contaminants that are possible health hazards for human beings through a variety of pathways.In the present study,50 time mated pregnant rats were divided into five groups and injected daily from gestational days 7 to 18 with either 2, 2′, 4, 4′- tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 47) or 3, 3′, 4, 4′- tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) or seseme oil (control) to evaluate the effects of these PCBs on prenatal and postnatal development.Offspring were examined for malformations of genitalia at birth and in adulthood.Body weight gains of these animals were checked every 7 days through postnatal day (PND) 119.There were no clinical signs of toxicity in the PCB-treated dams or their offspring throughout the experiment.Litter size and sex ratio of the litters were not affected.Both PCBs produced a significant increase in the females anogenital distance,suggesting a modification of androgen responsiveness in females resulting from PCB exposure during development.Similar effects were not seen with the males.The proportion of individuals with eyes open by PND 15 was significantly reduced by both PCBs.Exposure to 1 mg/kg body weight of PCB 77 significantly reduced body weight gains in male pups

  2. The effects of flooding on dioxin and PCB levels in food produced on industrial river catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Iain R; Foxall, Christopher D; Fernandes, Alwyn; Lewis, Mervyn; Rose, Martin; White, Oliver; Lovett, Andrew A; White, Shaun; Dowding, Alan; Mortimer, David

    2015-04-01

    This research examined the effect of regular flooding upon PCDD/F and PCB levels in milk, beef and lamb, produced on the floodplains of industrial river catchments. Our unique dataset included more than 200 samples analysed for PCDD/Fs and PCBs over two data collection phases (1998-1999 & 2008-2010) from working farms. A robust paired study design was adopted with samples taken from flood-prone farms and nearby control farms not subject to flooding. On industrial river catchments regular flooding is associated with higher PCDD/F and PCB levels in soils and grass. This contamination may be transferred to food but the impact varied by food type. These contrasts may be due to physiological differences between animals, the ages at which they are sent to market and differences in animal husbandry. To minimise the risks of producing food on flood-prone land in industrial river catchments, as well as on any land with elevated PCDD/F and PCB levels, this research suggests a number of options. The choice of livestock may be important and as an example in our study beef cattle accumulated PCDD/Fs to a higher degree than sheep. Land management may also play a role and could include minimising the time that livestock spend on such land or feeding commercial feed, low in PCDD/Fs and PCBs, where appropriate.

  3. Effect van PCB's op de energiekosten van migratie en bloedparameters van Europese aal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van V.J.T.; Palstra, A.P.; Nieveen, M.; Berg, van den J.H.J.; Murk, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Er zijn nog steeds PCB's aanwezig in het ecosysteem (water en land). Als palingen 6000 km migreren, zullen ze hun vetreserves aanspreken en komen er giftige PCB's vrij in het lichaam. Daarnaast kan de embryonale ontwikkeling nadelig beïnvloed worden door ophoping van PCB's in dooiermateriaal. Paling

  4. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1-/- mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1-/- endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1-/- endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation.

  5. Distribution, sources, and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface waters and sediments of rivers in Shanghai, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueping; Han, Jingchao; Bi, Chunjuan; Huang, Xing; Jia, Jinpu; Chen, Zhenlou

    2016-10-01

    The distribution, sources, and potential risks of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in the rivers of Shanghai, China were investigated. Fourteen PCB congeners in surface waters and sediments, which were collected from 53 sampling sites, were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The total concentrations of PCBs in the dissolved phase, in particulates, and in sediments ranged from not detected (nd) to 34.8 ng•L‒1, from 0.76 to 39.71 ng•L‒1, and from 1.46 to 46.11 ng•g-1 (dry weight, dw), respectively. The corresponding WHO toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) ranged between nd-1135.63 pg TEQ•L-1, 0.02-605.94 pg TEQ•L-1, and 0.05-432.12 pg TEQ•g-1 dw, respectively. The penta-CBs, especially PCB 118 and PCB 105, were the dominant congeners in all samples. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) indicated that the PCBs were mainly influenced by a historical accumulation of commercial PCB products, the burning of house coal, and emissions from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and secondary metallurgy industries. The center of Shanghai was significantly affected by PCB contamination, followed by the industrial parklands and suburban towns, while the farmland of Chongming Island was the least affected area. Adverse biological and health effects would be likely in the central urban areas, industrial parks, and residential towns of Shanghai.

  6. Aerobic degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, D.H. [Dept. of Environmental Microbiology, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The microbial degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been extensively studied in recent years. The genetic organization of biphenyl catabolic genes has been elucidated in various groups of microorganisms, their structures have been analyzed with respect to their evolutionary relationships, and new information on mobile elements has become available. Key enzymes, specifically biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases, have been intensively characterized, structure/sequence relationships have been determined and enzymes optimized for PCB transformation. However, due to the complex metabolic network responsible for PCB degradation, optimizing degradation by single bacterial species is necessarily limited. As PCBs are usually not mineralized by biphenyl-degrading organisms, and cometabolism can result in the formation of toxic metabolites, the degradation of chlorobenzoates has received special attention. A broad set of bacterial strategies to degrade chlorobenzoates has recently been elucidated, including new pathways for the degradation of chlorocatechols as central intermediates of various chloroaromatic catabolic pathways. To optimize PCB degradation in the environment beyond these metabolic limitations, enhancing degradation in the rhizosphere has been suggested, in addition to the application of surfactants to overcome bioavailability barriers. However, further research is necessary to understand the complex interactions between soil/sediment, pollutant, surfactant and microorganisms in different environments. (orig.)

  7. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  8. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  9. EFFECTS OF POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AND DIOXINS ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAUER, PJJ; HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; MORSE, DC; SMITSVANPROOIJE, AE; VANDEBERG, KJ; TUINSTRA, LGMT; VANDERPAAUW, CG; BOERSMA, ER; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; LAMMERS, JHCM; KULIG, BM; BROUWER, A

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are potentially toxic compounds which occur widely in the environment. Their effects on the growth and development of infants at the levels currently found in highly industrialised western countries is not well known. This Dutch multicenter study, combini

  10. Compound- and sex-specific effects on programming of energy and immune homeostasis in adult C57BL/6JxFVB mice after perinatal TCDD and PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esterik, J C J; Verharen, H W; Hodemaekers, H M; Gremmer, E R; Nagarajah, B; Kamstra, J H; Dollé, M E T; Legler, J; van der Ven, L T M

    2015-12-01

    Early life exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds has been linked to chronic diseases later in life, like obesity and related metabolic disorders. We exposed C57BL/6JxFVB hybrid mice to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the constitutive androstane receptor/pregnane X receptor agonist polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) in an experimental design relevant for human exposure. Exposure occurred during gestation and lactation via maternal feed to a wide dose range (TCDD: 10-10,000 pg/kg body weight/day; PCB 153: 0.09-1406 μg/kg body weight/d). Then exposure was ceased and offspring were followed up to 1 year of age. Metabolic parameters like body weight, fat pad weights, glucose tolerance, endocrine serum profile, and neurobehavioral and immunological parameters were determined. Body weight was transiently affected by both compounds throughout the follow-up. TCDD-exposed males showed decreased fat pad and spleen weights and an increase in IL-4 production of splenic immune cells. In contrast, females showed increased fat pad weights and production of IFNγ. PCB 153-exposed males showed an increase in glucose, whereas females showed an increase in glucagon, a decrease in pancreas weight, and an increase in thymus weight. In conclusion, early life exposure to TCDD appears to affect programming of energy and immune homeostasis in offspring, whereas the effects of perinatal PCB 153 were mainly on programming of glucose homeostasis. Both compounds act sex-specifically. Lowest derived BMDLs (lower bounds of the (two sided) 90%-confidence interval for the benchmark dose) for both compounds are not lower than current tolerable daily intakes.

  11. PCB concentrations and activity of sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Binder, Thomas R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 40 male and 40 female adult sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus captured in the Cheboygan River, a tributary to Lake Huron, during May 2011. In addition, we performed a laboratory experiment using passive integrated transponder tags to determine whether male adult sea lampreys were more active than female adult sea lampreys. Sex had a significant effect on PCB concentration, and PCB concentration at a given level of sea lamprey condition was approximately 25 % greater in males than in females. Adjusting for the difference in condition between the sexes, males averaged a 17 % greater PCB concentration compared with females. Results from the laboratory experiment indicated that males were significantly more active than females. The observed sex difference in PCB concentrations was not due to female sea lampreys releasing eggs at spawning because the sea lamprey is semelparous, and we caught the sea lampreys before spawning. Rather, we attributed the sex difference in PCB concentrations to a greater rate of energy expenditure in males compared with females. We proposed that this greater rate of energy expenditure was likely due to greater activity. Our laboratory experiment results supported this hypothesis. A greater resting metabolic rate may also have contributed to a greater rate of energy expenditure. Our findings should eventually be applicable toward improving control of sea lamprey, a pest responsible for considerable damage to fisheries in lakes where it is not native.

  12. Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Thyroid Hormone Physiology and Metabolism of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    OpenAIRE

    Schnitzler, Joseph; Klaren, Peter; Celis, Niko; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Das, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Studies in the laboratory have shown that a number of synthetic and natural chemicals can interfere with the endocrine system in fish. Among them, organic compounds such as pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) are well described endocrine disrupters. Of particular interest are effects on thyroid function, but data on effects of PCB exposure on these hormones and related metabolism has been lacking. We propose here a thorough approach to assess effects of these compounds on the thyroid fu...

  13. Electrical stimulation of microbial PCB degradation in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Chan Lan; Payne, Rayford B; Sowers, Kevin R; May, Harold D

    2013-01-01

    Bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been precluded in part by the lack of a cost-effective method to stimulate microbial degradation in situ. A common limitation is the lack of an effective method of providing electron donors and acceptors to promote in situ PCB biodegradation. Application of an electric potential to soil/sediment could be an effective means of providing electron-donors/-acceptors to PCB dechlorinating and degrading microorganisms. In this study, electrical stimulation of microbial PCB dechlorination/degradation was examined in sediment maintained under simulated in situ conditions. Voltage was applied to open microcosms filled with PCB-impacted (Aroclor 1242) freshwater sediment from a Superfund site (Fox River, WI). The effect of applied low voltages (1.5-3.0 V) on the microbial transformation of PCBs was determined with: 1) spiked PCBs, and 2) indigenous weathered PCBs. The results indicate that both oxidative and reductive microbial transformation of the spiked PCBs was stimulated but oxidation was dominant and most effective with higher voltage. Chlorobenzoates were produced as oxidation metabolites of the spiked PCBs, but increasing voltage enhanced chlorobenzoate consumption, indicating that overall degradation was enhanced. In the case of weathered PCBs, the total concentration decreased 40-60% in microcosms exposed to electric current while no significant decrease of PCB concentration was observed in control reactors (0 V or sterilized). Single congener analysis of the weathered PCBs showed significant loss of di- to penta-chlorinated congeners, indicating that microbial activity was not limited to anaerobic dechlorination of only higher chlorinated congeners. Degradation was most apparent with the application of only 1.5 V where anodic O(2) was not generated, indicating a mechanism of degradation independent of electrolytic O(2). Low voltage stimulation of the microbial degradation of weathered PCBs observed in this

  14. An Unrecognized Source of PCB Contamination in Schools and Other Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    McClean, Michael D.; Meeker, John D.; Lisa K. Baxter; Weymouth, George A.; Herrick, Robert F

    2004-01-01

    An investigation of 24 buildings in the Greater Boston Area revealed that one-third (8 of 24) contained caulking materials with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content exceeding 50 ppm by weight, which is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) specified limit above which this material is considered to be PCB bulk product waste. These buildings included schools and other public buildings. In a university building where similar levels of PCB were found in caulking material, PCB leve...

  15. Effect of PCB153 on BaP-induced genotoxicity in HepG2 cells via modulation of metabolic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Chen, Xue-Min; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2009-04-30

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is a representative environmental carcinogen and is metabolically activated by several cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes to become the ultimate carcinogen. Numerous studies have indicated that 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) could effectively alter the activity of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Therefore, we propose that PCB153 may affect BaP-induced genotoxicity mediated by XMEs. In the present study, we treated HepG2 cells with BaP (50 microM) or PCB153 (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 microM), or pretreated the cells with PCB153 for 48 h followed by treatment with a combination of both BaP and PCB153. CYP1A1 activity was dramatically increased in cells treated with either BaP or PCB153. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was increased in BaP-treated cells, but decreased in PCB153-treated cells. In parallel to studies on enzyme activity, the micronuclei (MN) assay was used to assess the genotoxic damage caused by BaP and PCB153. BaP and PCB153 at 100 microM enhanced MN formation. In contrast to BaP treatment alone, treatment with both BaP and PCB153 significantly enhanced the activity of CYP1A1 and the formation of MN, but reduced the activity of GST. alpha-Naphthoflavone (ANF), an inhibitor of CYP1A1, inhibited MN formation in the presence of both BaP and PCB153. In addition, there was a positive correlation between CYP1A activity and MN formation (r(2)=0.794, PBaP and PCB153 may increase BaP-induced genotoxicity, possibly through the induction of CYP1A1 and inhibition of GST.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisler, R.

    1986-04-01

    Entirely as a result of human activities, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are now distributed worldwide, with measurable concentrations recorded in fishery and wildlife resources from numerous and disparate locations. PCBs elicit a variety of biologic effects including death, birth defects, tumors, and a wasting syndrome. The account summarizes the recent technical literature on the environmental chemistry of PCBs, lists PCB background concentrations in fish, wildlife, and invertebrates; documents their toxic and sublethal properties; and reviews and provides recommendations for the protection of sensitive species.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  18. Acute alteration of cardiac ECG, action potential, I{sub Kr} and the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) K{sup +} channel by PCB 126 and PCB 77

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Mi-Hyeong; Park, Won Sun; Jo, Su-Hyun, E-mail: suhyunjo@kangwon.ac.kr

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been known as serious persistent organic pollutants (POPs), causing developmental delays and motor dysfunction. We have investigated the effects of two PCB congeners, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ECG, action potential, and the rapidly activating delayed rectifier K{sup +} current (I{sub Kr}) of guinea pigs' hearts, and hERG K{sup +} current expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PCB 126 shortened the corrected QT interval (QTc) of ECG and decreased the action potential duration at 90% (APD{sub 90}), and 50% of repolarization (APD{sub 50}) (P < 0.05) without changing the action potential duration at 20% (APD{sub 20}). PCB 77 decreased APD{sub 20} (P < 0.05) without affecting QTc, APD{sub 90}, and APD{sub 50}. The PCB 126 increased the I{sub Kr} in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes held at 36 °C and hERG K{sup +} current amplitude at the end of the voltage steps in voltage-dependent mode (P < 0.05); however, PCB 77 did not change the hERG K{sup +} current amplitude. The PCB 77 increased the diastolic Ca{sup 2+} and decreased Ca{sup 2+} transient amplitude (P < 0.05), however PCB 126 did not change. The results suggest that PCB 126 shortened the QTc and decreased the APD{sub 90} possibly by increasing I{sub Kr}, while PCB 77 decreased the APD{sub 20} possibly by other modulation related with intracellular Ca{sup 2+}. The present data indicate that the environmental toxicants, PCBs, can acutely affect cardiac electrophysiology including ECG, action potential, intracellular Ca{sup 2+}, and channel activity, resulting in toxic effects on the cardiac function in view of the possible accumulation of the PCBs in human body. -- Highlights: ► PCBs are known as serious environmental pollutants and developmental disruptors. ► PCB 126 shortened QT interval of ECG and action potential duration. ► PCB 126 increased human ether-a-go-go-related K{sup +} current and I{sub Kr}.

  19. Anaemia, hypothyroidism and immune suppression associated with polychlorinated biphenyl exposure in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwacke, Lori H; Zolman, Eric S; Balmer, Brian C; De Guise, Sylvain; George, R Clay; Hoguet, Jennifer; Hohn, Aleta A; Kucklick, John R; Lamb, Steve; Levin, Milton; Litz, Jenny A; McFee, Wayne E; Place, Ned J; Townsend, Forrest I; Wells, Randall S; Rowles, Teresa K

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), persistent chemicals widely used for industrial purposes, have been banned in most parts of the world for decades. Owing to their bioaccumulative nature, PCBs are still found in high concentrations in marine mammals, particularly those that occupy upper trophic positions. While PCB-related health effects have been well-documented in some mammals, studies among dolphins and whales are limited. We conducted health evaluations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) near a site on the Georgia, United States coast heavily contaminated by Aroclor 1268, an uncommon PCB mixture primarily comprised of octa- through deca-chlorobiphenyl congeners. A high proportion (26%) of sampled dolphins suffered anaemia, a finding previously reported from primate laboratory studies using high doses of a more common PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254. In addition, the dolphins showed reduced thyroid hormone levels and total thyroxine, free thyroxine and triiodothyronine negatively correlated with PCB concentration measured in blubber (p = 0.039, dolphins when compared with previously sampled reference sites, and therefore probably did not contribute to the observed correlations. Our results clearly demonstrate that dolphins are vulnerable to PCB-related toxic effects, at least partially mediated through the endocrine system. The severity of the effects suggests that the PCB mixture to which the Georgia dolphins were exposed has substantial toxic potential and further studies are warranted to elucidate mechanisms and potential impacts on other top-level predators, including humans, who regularly consume fish from the same marine waters.

  20. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    OpenAIRE

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life stages of sole were exposed to a concentration series of PCB 126 in seawater until 4, 8, 10 and 15 days post fertilisation (dpf). Subsequently the development of the larvae was registered under furthe...

  1. The effect of co-occurring polychlorinated biphenyls on quantitation of toxaphene in fish tissue samples by gas chromatography negative ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Wenjian; Tsukada, David; Maruya, Keith A

    2012-12-28

    Determinative methods based on gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) provide improved sensitivity and specificity for toxaphene in environmental samples, but are subject to misidentification due to oxygen reaction in the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of co-occurring PCBs in fish tissue samples when utilizing single quadrupole instruments to implement this method. Mixtures of PCB congeners and technical toxaphene, and extracts of fish tissue with varying concentrations of PCBs were analyzed for individual congener and total toxaphene concentrations by GC-NCI/MS. The contribution of co-injected PCB 204 ranged from 23% to 88% of the total peak area for the Cl-9 toxaphene homolog quantitation ion, a contribution that increased as the ratio of technical toxaphene to PCB 204 decreased. PCB interferences in fish tissue extracts, including a standard reference material, were subtracted using a three-step procedure featuring spectral analysis of isotopic patterns for target peaks. Total toxaphene concentrations without PCB subtraction in three fish tissue samples with low, intermediate and high co-occurring PCBs were overestimated by 33, 55 and 745%, respectively, underscoring the need for practical strategies to account for PCB interferences in GC-NCI/MS based protocols. In contrast, no appreciable interference or resulting positive bias in concentrations was observed for quantitation of eight common toxaphene residue congeners.

  2. The effect of anthropogenic contaminations (PAH, PCB) on terrestrial annelids in conurban ecosystems. Final report; Einfluss von anthropogenen Schadstoffen (PAK und PCB) auf terrestrische Invertebraten urbaner Oekosysteme. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achazi, R.K.; Beylich, A.; Chroszcz, G.; Dueker, C.; Heck, M.; Henneken, M.; Flenner, C.; Froehlich, E.; Garbers, U.; Khan, M.A.; Kreibich, M.; Kronshage, J.; Philippe, L.; Pilz, C.; Rothe, B.; Schabedoth, E.; Schaub, K.; Scheiwe, E.; Schmid, C.; Steudel, I.; Struwe, M.; Throl, C.; Wuertz, S. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany); Back, H.; Naehring, D.; Thielemann, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Angewandte Oekologie und Umweltplanung mbH, Nussloch (Germany)

    1997-09-23

    The project was conducted from August 1993 until May 1997. The objectives were (a) an elaboration of effect concentrations and index values for organic contaminants (PAH, PCB) and heavy metals in soil of conurbations for the community of decomposers, (b) the improvement of a biotest system for the evaluation of the habitat function of contaminated soils and (c) to obtain informations concerning a controlled utilization of contaminated areas. For that purpose field investigations in former sewage water irrigation areas of Berlin, Germany, concerning the abundance, species composition and dominance structure of terrestrial annelids (Enchytraeids, Lumbricids) were performed, as well as bioassays using contaminated soils of these sites and soils spiked with bezo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, PCB 52, Cd and Cu and experiments on accumulation, elimination and biotransformation in annelids. 12 of the 17 sites investigated lacked earthworms, while only 2 sites lacked enchytraeids. The abundance of enchytraeids was in the range of 500 to 12.500/m{sup 2}, compared to 25.000 to 280.000/m{sup 2} on reference sites. The hostility of the soils of former irrigation fields to annelids was confirmed by lamina bait tests and by bioassays with Enchytraeus crypticus, E. albidus, E. buchholzi and Eisenia f. fetida. The ecotoxicity of the combined contaminants was enforced by the acidity and the degradation of the soils. The toxicity of organic and inorganic contaminants to terrestrial annelids was definitely proved by reproduction tests in the agar test system. The applied methods of investigation can be used for evaluation of contaminated soils. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Projekt wurde von August 1993 bis Mai 1997 durchgefuehrt. Ziele waren die Erarbeitung (a) von Wirkschwellen fuer organische Schadstoffgruppen (PAK, PCB) und Schwermetalle im Boden fuer Destruenten urbaner Oekosysteme, (b) von Biotestsystemen zur Bewertung der Lebensraumfunktion belasteter Boeden und (c) von Hinweisen zur

  3. A comparative study on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQ) concentrations in subcutaneous fat tissue, blood and hair of patients with yusho and normal control in Nagasaki prefecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, T; Nonaka, S; Murayama, F; Yamashita, K; Irifune, H; Watanabe, M; Tsukazaki, N; Tanaka, K; Yoshida, H; Rikioka, Y

    1989-05-01

    The relationship between PCB and PCQ concentrations in the blood, subcutaneous fat tissue and hair was investigated in this study. PCB and PCQ concentrations in twenty four patients with PCB poisoning (yusho) and 59 normal controls were analyzed. The alkaline decomposition method described in the official standard analytical methods for the isolation of PCB and PCQ fractions was used. The mean value of PCB concentrations was 2.43 ppb, CB% ratio was 0.69 and the PCQ concentration in the blood of the control group was too low to be detected by our analysis. On the other hand, the PCB concentration and CB% ratio in the yusho group were two times higher than those in the control group. The mean value of PCQ concentration was 1.34 ppb in the yusho group although it was below the level of detection in the control group. The mean PCB concentration in the hair of patients with yusho was 28.92 ppb, and 8.06 ppb in the control group. CB% ratio in the hair of patients with yusho was two times higher than that in the control group. The mean value of PCQ concentration in the hair of patients with yusho was 0.55 ppb although it was not detected in the control group. The PCB and PCQ concentrations in the hair were not greatly elevated when compared with those in the subcutaneous fat tissue. However, the hair is an excellent sample for the detection of these chemicals because it can be collected simply without operation.

  4. [Effect of green tea (matcha) on gastrointestinal tract absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents the liver distribution and fecal excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) congeners, in male rats fed with powdered green tea (matcha). The rats were given a treatment diet containing 10% matcha for the first five days. Then, the animals were administered 4 g of 10% matcha diet containing 0.5 ml of the casual rice-bran oil of Yusho that had occurred in the Southwest part of Japan in 1968 and kept on the same diet for another five days. The fecal excretion of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the group fed with 10% matcha were 4.4, 2.4-9.1 and 2.5-4.7 times higher (p matcha is useful as a treatment of Yusho patients exposed to PCB, PCDF and PCDD.

  5. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  6. Effects of prenatal PCB and dioxin background exposure on cognitive and motor abilities in Dutch children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, HJI; Lanting, Caren; Mulder, PCH; Boersma, ER; Weisglas-Kuperus, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to evaluate whether effects of exposure to environmental levels of PCBs and dioxins on development in the Dutch cohort persist until school age. Study design: In the Dutch PCB/dioxin study, cognitive and motor abilities were assessed with the McCarthy Scales of Children's

  7. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  8. PCB eksponering i Farum Midtpunkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    I marts og april 2011 blev i alt 104 lejligheder og 289 beboere fra Farum Midtpunkt undersøgt for niveauer af PolyChlorerede Biphenyler (PCB) i henholdsvis fuger og indeluft i lejligheder-ne, og i blodplasma. Til analyserne i denne rapport indgik 273 beboere, 139 fra PCB-forurenede lejligheder og...... 134 fra ikke-forurenede lejligheder. Der blev indsamlet luftprøver fra 83 forure-nede og 21 ikke-forurenede lejligheder og fugeprøver fra 20 forurenede lejligheder. Ni ud af 24 målte PCB-kongenere var under detektionsgrænsen i luften, inkl. de to mest toksiske kongenere nr. 126 og 169. For de...... forurenede lejlig-heder, undtagen for nr. 183 og 190, samt for nr. 182 som alle lå under detektionsgrænsen. For ni ud af tolv dioxin-lignende PCB-forbindelser var alle, eller næsten alle prøver under detektions-grænsen. For nr. 105 og 118 sås signifikant højere niveau blandt eksponerede. Mænd havde et lidt...

  9. Biphenyl metabolism by rat liver microsomes. Regioselective effects of inducers, inhibitors, and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugen, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the inducers phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene, the inhibitors 7,8-benzoflavone and 1-benzyl-imidazole, and the solvents methanol, acetone, and dimethyl sulfoxide on the 2-, 3-, and 4-hydroxylation of biphenyl and the O-de-ethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin by rat liver microsomes were examined. Phenobarbital pretreatment primarily induced 2- and 3-hydroxylation, the latter most dramatically. 3-Methylcholanthrene pretreatment induced 2- and 3-hydroxylation to similar extents. The inhibitors and solvents had regioselective effects on biphenyl metabolism that were characteristic of the uninduced, phenobarbital-induced, and 3-methylcholanthrene-induced microsomes. The presence of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in uninduced microsomes is indicated by the regioselective effects of the solvents and the inhibitors. The 3-methylcholanthrene-dependent increases in 2- and 3-hydroxylation appear due to induction of a single form of cytochrome P-450, as indicated by similar dose-response relationships and similar changes in sensitivitty to the inhibitors. The phenobarbital-dependent increases in 2- and 3-hydroxylation appear due to the induction of two forms of cytochrome P-450, as indicated by different changes in sensitivity to the effects of dimethyl sulfoxide and 7,8-benzoflavone. The results indicate that examination of the regioselectivity of biphenyl metabolism is a useful approach for characterizing microsomal mono-oxygenases, and they suggest that the approach may also be useful in the characterization of purified mono-oxygenase systems. (JMT)

  10. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petriello, Michael C. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Sung Gu [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, College of Animal Bioscience and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Newsome, Bradley J. [University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Hennig, Bernhard [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); University of Kentucky Superfund Research Center, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Department of Animal and Food Sciences, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Kentucky, KY 40506 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    and participants: A total of 771 healthy Danish third grade school children aged 8-10 years in the municipality of Odense were recruited in 1997 through a two-stage cluster sampling from 25 different schools stratified according to location and socioeconomic character; 509 (9.7±0.8 years, 53% girls) had adequate......Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings......-DDE. Conclusion: A strong inverse association between serum insulin and PCB exposure was found while fasting plasma glucose remained within the expected narrow range. Our findings suggest that PCB may not exert effect through decreased peripheral insulin sensitivity, as seen in obese and low fit children...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity to Japanese quail as related to degree of chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.; Heath, R.G.; Spann, J.W.; Williams, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    To learn if the percentage of chlorine in a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) alone determines toxicity, Japanese quail were fed diets containing Aroelor 1248, 1254, or 1260 at levels that added equal amounts of chlorine to the feed. The experiment comprised two consecutive 5-day periods; three sublethal concentrations of chlorine were evaluated during the first period and three lethal concentrations during the second period. Evaluations utilized comparisons of mortality, time to death, weight change, and food consumption. Sublethal concentrations produced no detectable effects. Lethal concentrations with equal Chlorine showed Aroelor 1248 to be less toxic at the highest chlorine concentrations, but at lower concentrations Aroelor 1254 was more toxic than Aroclor 1260. Although chlorine percentage of a PCB is positively correlated with its avian toxicity, PCB toxicity is apparently not simply a function of chlorination.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls target Notch/Dll and VEGF R2 in the mouse placenta and human trophoblast cell lines for their anti-angiogenic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkunte, Satyan; Huang, Zheping; Lippe, Eliana; Kumar, Sunil; Robertson, Larry W.; Sharma, Surendra

    2017-01-01

    The intrauterine environment is particularly vulnerable to environmental exposures. We previously established a mouse model that provided evidence for pregnancy complications and placental anti-angiogenesis in response to Aroclor 1254 (A-1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Importantly, these effects were observed in IL-10−/−, but not wild type, mice, suggesting that IL-10 deficiency predisposes to pregnancy disruptive effects of environmental toxicants. However, the mechanisms by which PCBs cause anti-angiogenic effects are unclear. Here, we evaluated PCB-mediated anti-angiogenic effects by diverse but complementary approaches, including HUVEC-mediated trophoblast invasion in nude mice, in vitro three-dimensional capillary tube formation involving HUVEC and/or HTR8 trophoblasts, and aortic ring endothelial cell outgrowth/sprouting. Taken together, our data suggest that PCBs act as potent anti-angiogenic agents. Importantly, we show that treatment of pregnant IL-10−/− mice with A-1254 resulted in placental activation of the Notch/Delta-like ligand (Dll) pathway, a master regulator of cell-cell interaction and vascular patterning. Similar results were obtained with HUVEC and HTR8 trophoblasts. Rescue of A-1254-induced disruption of HUVEC-based tube formation by γ-secretase inhibitor L1790 confirmed the critical role of the Notch/Dll pathway. Our data suggest that PCBs impart pregnancy disruptive functions by activating the Notch/Dll pathway and by inducing anti-angiogenic effects at the maternal-fetal interface. PMID:28071720

  16. Bioremediation trial on aged PCB-polluted soils--a bench study in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Taru; Mikkonen, Anu; Sigfusson, Bergur; Ólafsdóttir, Kristín; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Guicharnaud, Rannveig

    2014-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose a threat to the environment due to their high adsorption capacity to soil organic matter, stability and low reactivity, low water solubility, toxicity and ability to bioaccumulate. With Icelandic soils, research on contamination issues has been very limited and no data has been reported either on PCB degradation potential or rate. The goals of this research were to assess the bioavailability of aged PCBs in the soils of the old North Atlantic Treaty Organization facility in Keflavík, Iceland and to find the best biostimulation method to decrease the pollution. The effectiveness of different biostimulation additives (N fertiliser, white clover and pine needles) at different temperatures (10 and 30 °C) and oxygen levels (aerobic and anaerobic) were tested. PCB bioavailability to soil fauna was assessed with earthworms (Eisenia foetida). PCBs were bioavailable to earthworms (bioaccumulation factor 0.89 and 0.82 for earthworms in 12.5 ppm PCB soil and in 25 ppm PCB soil, respectively), with less chlorinated congeners showing higher bioaccumulation factors than highly chlorinated congeners. Biostimulation with pine needles at 10 °C under aerobic conditions resulted in nearly 38 % degradation of total PCBs after 2 months of incubation. Detection of the aerobic PCB degrading bphA gene supports the indigenous capability of the soils to aerobically degrade PCBs. Further research on field scale biostimulation trials with pine needles in cold environments is recommended in order to optimise the method for onsite remediation.

  17. NADPH OXIDASE AND LIPID RAFT-ASSOCIATED REDOX SIGNALING ARE REQUIRED FOR PCB153-INDUCED UPREGULATION OF CELL ADHESION MOLECULES IN HUMAN BRAIN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eum, Sung Yong; Andras, Ibolya; Hennig, Bernhard; Toborek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), can lead to chronic inflammation and the development of vascular diseases. Because cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) of the cerebrovascular endothelium regulate infiltration of inflammatory cells into the brain, we have explored the molecular mechanisms by which ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as PCB153, can upregulate CAMs in brain endothelial cells. Exposure to PCB153 increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), as well as elevated adhesion of leukocytes to brain endothelial cells. These effects were impeded by inhibitors of EGFR, JAKs, or Src activity. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of NADPH oxidase or disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol depleting agents blocked PCB153-induced phosphorylation of JAK and Src kinases and upregulation of CAMs. In contrast, silencing of caveolin-1 by siRNA interference did not affect upregulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells stimulated by PCB153. Results of the present study indicate that lipid raft-dependent NADPH oxidase/JAK/EGFR signaling mechanisms regulate the expression of CAMs in brain endothelial cells and adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial monolayers. Due to its role in leukocyte infiltration, induction of CAMs may contribute to PCB-induced cerebrovascular disorders and neurotoxic effects in the CNS. PMID:19632255

  18. PCB exposure in sea otters and harlequin ducks in relation to history of contamination by the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, Mark A.; Miles, A. Keith; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bodkin, James L.; Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants other than petroleum hydrocarbons could confound interpretation of Exxon Valdez oil spill effects on biota at Prince William Sound, Alaska. Hence, we investigated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of sea otters and harlequin ducks sampled during 1998. PCB concentrations characterized by lower chlorinated congeners were highest in sea otters from the unoiled area, whereas concentrations were similar among harlequin ducks from the oiled and unoiled area. Blood enzymes often elevated by xenobiotics were not related to PCB concentrations in sea otters. Only sea otters from the unoiled area had estimated risk from PCBs, and PCB composition or concentrations did not correspond to reported lower measures of population performance in sea otters or harlequin ducks from the oiled area. PCBs probably did not influence limited sea otter or harlequin duck recovery in the oiled area a decade after the spill.

  19. The effects of fuel composition and ammonium sulfate addition on PCDD, PCDF, PCN and PCB concentrations during the combustion of biomass and paper production residuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Lisa; Jansson, Stina

    2014-01-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, the higher levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can promote the formation of deposits and organic pollutants. Here, the effect of fuel composition and the inhibitory effects of ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, on the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the flue gas of a lab-scale combustor was investigated. Ammonium sulfate is often used as a corrosion-preventing additive and may also inhibit formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In addition to PCDDs and PCDFs, polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCN) and biphenyls (PCB) were also analyzed. It was found that the flue gas composition changed dramatically when (NH4)2SO4 was added: CO, SO2, and NH3 levels increased, while those of HCl decreased to almost zero. However, the additive's effects on POP formation were less pronounced. When (NH4)2SO4 was added to give an S:Cl ratio of 3, only the PCDF concentration was reduced, indicating that this ratio was not sufficient to achieve a general reduction in POP emissions. Conversely, at an S:Cl ratio of 6, significant reductions in the WHO-TEQ value and the PCDD and PCDF contents of the flue gas were observed. The effect on the PCDF concentration was especially pronounced. PCN formation seemed to be promoted by the elevated CO concentrations caused by adding (NH4)2SO4.

  20. Exposure to sublethal levels of PCB-126 impacts fuel metabolism and swimming performance in rainbow trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellehumeur, Karyne; Lapointe, Dominique; Cooke, Steven J; Moon, Thomas W

    2016-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are recognized physiological stressors to fish which over time may impair individual performance and perhaps fitness by inducing changes that could have population-level consequences. PCB-126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl) accumulates in lipids and can subsequently be released into the bloodstream during periods of high activity that involve the mobilization of stored fuels to meet with increasing energy demands. The goal of this study was to determine if a sublethal exposure to PCB-126 altered the content of tissue energy supplies (carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides) and impaired swimming performance as well as oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were injected intraperitoneally with a single Low (100μgkg(-1)) or High (400μgkg(-1)) dose of PCB-126 then swimming performance and metabolic rates from 1 to 9days post-injection were compared to Control (non-dosed) fish. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was assessed as an indication of PCB-126 intoxication while plasma and white muscle tissue metabolites were analyzed as an index of physiological disturbance. Swimming performance, assessed using two successive modified critical swimming speed (Ucrit) tests, was highest for fish in the High PCB-126 treatment; however, their initial condition factor (K) was also higher, largely due to their greater body mass. Trout in the High and Low PCB-126 treatments exhibited impaired recovery following intense exercise as they swam comparatively poorly when provided a second challenge. PCB-exposed fish exhibited reduced spleen somatic indices as well as muscle glucose and glycogen contents; whereas plasma cortisol and glucose levels were elevated, indicating higher metabolic costs during recovery and muscle restoration. Overall, this research provides insights into the sublethal effects of a toxic organic compound on swimming performance in trout.

  1. Design for Measurability of PCB%PCB 可测性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宏伟; 蔡金燕; 封吉平

    2001-01-01

    Aim To improve inspection and fault diagnosis ability f or PCB and raise the maintainability of PCB. Methods Standardiza tion of structure and new design for measurability are applied. Results Testing and detection ability for PCB is improved markedly. Conc lusion Design for measurability is an effective means to improve testing and inspection ability for PCB.%目的 提高 PCB 的检测和故障诊断能力, 从而提高 PCB 的维修性. 方法 结构标准化和应用新的可测性设计. 结果 PCB 的测试检测能力显著提高. 结论 可测 性设计是提高 PCB 测试、 检测能力的有效手段.

  2. The effects of pruning and nodal adventitious roots on polychlorinated biphenyl uptake by Cucurbita pepo grown in field conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jennifer E.; Whitfield Aslund, Melissa L. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Rutter, Allison [School of Environmental Studies, Rm 0626 Biosciences Complex, Queen' s University, 116 Barrie St., Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Zeeb, Barbara A., E-mail: zeeb-b@rmc.ca [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, PO Box 17000 Station Forces, Kingston, ON, K7K 7B4 (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    Two cultivation techniques (i-pruning and ii-nodal adventitious root encouragement) were investigated for their ability to increase PCB phytoextraction by Cucurbita pepo ssp pepo cv. Howden (pumpkin) plants in situ at a contaminated industrial site in Ontario (Aroclor 1248, mean soil [PCB] = 5.6 {mu}g g{sup -1}). Pruning was implemented to increase plant biomass close to the root where PCB concentration is known to be highest. This treatment was found to have no effect on final shoot biomass or PCB concentration. However, material pruned from the plant is not included in the final shoot biomass. The encouragement of nodal adventitious roots at stem nodes did significantly increase the PCB concentration in the primary stem, while not affecting shoot biomass. Both techniques are easily applied cultivation practices that may be implemented to decrease phytoextraction treatment time. - Research highlights: > Presence of nodal adventitious roots do increase phytoextraction efficiency. > Pruning may increase the biomass of pumpkin plants during phytoextraction. > [Aroclor 1248] decreases in plant tissue with increasing distance from the root. - The application of cultivation practices (pruning and nodal adventitious root encouragement) increases phytoextraction of PCBs in C. pepo.

  3. Dermatological findings in capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischbein, A.; Wolff, M.S.; Bernstein, J.; Selikoff, I.J.; Thornton, J.

    1982-03-01

    Significant occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may occur in the manufacturing of capacitors and transformers, in which PCBs are used as electrical insulators. Reports of adverse health effects resulting from PCB exposure have come primarily from an incident resulting from the accidental ingestion of contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968 (''Yusho''). Dermatological findings were prominent features and included pigmentation disturbances and chloracne. To evaluate the dermatological effects of long-term occupational exposure to PCBs, a cross-section clinical survey was conducted of 326 capacitor manufacturing workers. A high prevalence (37%) of dermatological abnormalities was found, but typical PCB-associated signs, such as chloracne, were less frequent than among patients with ''Yusho,'' despite high concentrations of plasma PCB. An association between dermatological signs and plasma levels of higher homologues of PCBs was suggested, but contaminants which have been reported to be present in commercial PCB mixtures (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) should be considered an etiologic factor or co-factor in the development of ''PCB-associated'' dermatological findings.

  4. Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180 in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Viluksela

    Full Text Available PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares

  5. Toxicological profile of ultrapure 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorbiphenyl (PCB 180) in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viluksela, Matti; Heikkinen, Päivi; van der Ven, Leo T M; Rendel, Filip; Roos, Robert; Esteban, Javier; Korkalainen, Merja; Lensu, Sanna; Miettinen, Hanna M; Savolainen, Kari; Sankari, Satu; Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Adamsson, Annika; Toppari, Jorma; Herlin, Maria; Finnilä, Mikko; Tuukkanen, Juha; Leslie, Heather A; Hamers, Timo; Hamscher, Gerd; Al-Anati, Lauy; Stenius, Ulla; Dervola, Kine-Susann; Bogen, Inger-Lise; Fonnum, Frode; Andersson, Patrik L; Schrenk, Dieter; Halldin, Krister; Håkansson, Helen

    2014-01-01

    PCB 180 is a persistent non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (NDL-PCB) abundantly present in food and the environment. Risk characterization of NDL-PCBs is confounded by the presence of highly potent dioxin-like impurities. We used ultrapure PCB 180 to characterize its toxicity profile in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study in young adult rats extended to cover endocrine and behavioral effects. Using a loading dose/maintenance dose regimen, groups of 5 males and 5 females were given total doses of 0, 3, 10, 30, 100, 300, 1000 or 1700 mg PCB 180/kg body weight by gavage. Dose-responses were analyzed using benchmark dose modeling based on dose and adipose tissue PCB concentrations. Body weight gain was retarded at 1700 mg/kg during loading dosing, but recovered thereafter. The most sensitive endpoint of toxicity that was used for risk characterization was altered open field behavior in females; i.e. increased activity and distance moved in the inner zone of an open field suggesting altered emotional responses to unfamiliar environment and impaired behavioral inhibition. Other dose-dependent changes included decreased serum thyroid hormones with associated histopathological changes, altered tissue retinoid levels, decreased hematocrit and hemoglobin, decreased follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels in males and increased expression of DNA damage markers in liver of females. Dose-dependent hypertrophy of zona fasciculata cells was observed in adrenals suggesting activation of cortex. There were gender differences in sensitivity and toxicity profiles were partly different in males and females. PCB 180 adipose tissue concentrations were clearly above the general human population levels, but close to the levels in highly exposed populations. The results demonstrate a distinct toxicological profile of PCB 180 with lack of dioxin-like properties required for assignment of WHO toxic equivalency factor. However, PCB 180 shares several toxicological

  6. The effect of Aroclor 1254 (PCB) on the physiology of reproduction in the female rat--I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezner, E; Terkel, J; Perry, A S

    1984-01-01

    Daily oral exposure of rats to 30 mg/kg of Aroclor 1254 for 1 month caused deleterious effects on the reproductive process, which were reflected in a decrease in the reproductive potential. The following disturbances were observed: prolongation of the estrous cycle; decrease in sexual receptivity; delay in timing of copulation; vaginal bleeding during gestation; decrease in litter size and delay in the time of parturition. The offspring, whether exposed to PCBs either prenatally and/or postnatally, showed a slower rate of body weight gain than controls. This was accompanied by high mortality until weaning of treated pups. Vaginal opening in the PCB-treated (as young) females occurred precociously, while other reproductive parameters were not affected at adulthood. Discontinuance of PCB treatment reversed the above symptoms.

  7. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-06-28

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  8. Study of penetration behavior of PCB-DNAPL in a sand layer by a column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Nobuyasu; Shimizu, Takaaki; Muratani, Masaru; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2014-11-01

    To better understand the infiltration performances of high concentration PCB oils (KC-300 and KC-1000 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures), representative dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), under both saturated and unsaturated conditions, we conducted experiments on a sand column filled with Toyoura Standard Sand. When PCB oil with the volume comparable to the total porosity in the column was supplied, the residual PCB concentrations under PCB-water conditions were 4.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-300 and 3.9×10(4)mgkg(-1) in KC-1000. Under PCB-air conditions, residual PCB concentrations were 6.0×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 2.4×10(5)mgkg(-1) in the upper and lower parts for KC-300 and 3.6×10(4)mgkg(-1) and 1.5×10(5)mgkg(-1) in those for KC-1000, respectively, while the rest of the PCBs were infiltrated. On the other hand, when a small amount of PCB oil with the volume far smaller than the total porosity in the column was supplied, the original PCBs were not transported via water permeation. However, lower-chlorinated PCB congeners-e.g., di- or tri-chlorinated biphenyls-preferentially dissolved and were infiltrated from the bottom of the column. These propensities on PCB oil infiltration can be explained in conjunction with the degree of PCB saturation in the sand column.

  9. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Foods from Catalonia, Spain: Estimated Dietary Intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llobet J.M; Bocio A; Domingo J.L; Teixido A; Casas C; Muller L

    2003-01-01

    .... Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 108 samples of vegetables, fruits, pulses, cereals, fish and shellfish, meats and meat products, eggs, milk and dairy products, and oils and fats...

  10. PCB 126 and other dioxin-like PCBs specifically suppress hepatic PEPCK expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuo Zhang

    Full Text Available Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR. The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, however, commenced early in the 20(th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism.

  11. PCB 126 and Other Dioxin-Like PCBs Specifically Suppress Hepatic PEPCK Expression via the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenshuo; Sargis, Robert M.; Volden, Paul A.; Carmean, Christopher M.; Sun, Xiao J.; Brady, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds encompass a group of structurally related heterocyclic compounds that bind to and activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). The prototypical dioxin is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a highly toxic industrial byproduct that incites numerous adverse physiological effects. Global commercial production of the structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), however, commenced early in the 20th century and continued for decades; dioxin-like PCBs therefore contribute significantly to total dioxin-associated toxicity. In this study, PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB, was evaluated with respect to its direct effects on hepatic glucose metabolism using primary mouse hepatocytes. Overnight treatment with PCB 126 reduced hepatic glycogen stores in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, PCB 126 suppressed forskolin-stimulated gluconeogenesis from lactate. These effects were independent of acute toxicity, as PCB 126 did not increase lactate dehydrogenase release nor affect lipid metabolism or total intracellular ATP. Interestingly, provision of cells with glycerol instead of lactate as the carbon source completely restored hepatic glucose production, indicating specific impairment in the distal arm of gluconeogenesis. In concordance with this finding, PCB 126 blunted the forskolin-stimulated increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA levels without affecting glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Myricetin, a putative competitive AhR antagonist, reversed the suppression of PEPCK induction by PCB 126. Furthermore, other dioxin-like PCBs demonstrated similar effects on PEPCK expression in parallel with their ability to activate AhR. It therefore appears that AhR activation mediates the suppression of PEPCK expression by dioxin-like PCBs, suggesting a role for these pollutants as disruptors of energy metabolism. PMID:22615911

  12. Assessment of field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl exposures and sorbent amendment using polychaete bioassays and passive sampler measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, E.M.; Oen, A.M.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2011-01-01

    Field-related influences on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure were evaluated by employing caged deposit-feeders, Neanthes arenaceodentata, along with polyoxymethylene (POM) samplers using parallel in situ and ex situ bioassays with homogenized untreated or activated carbon (AC) amended sediment. The AC amendment achieved a remedial efficiency in reducing bioaccumulation by 90% in the laboratory and by 44% in the field transplants. In situ measurements showed that PCB uptake by POM samplers was greater for POM placed in the surface sediment compared with the underlying AC amendment, suggesting that tidal exchange of surrounding material with similar PCB availability as untreated sediment was redeposited in the cages. Polychlorinated biphenyls bioaccumulation with caged polychaetes from untreated sediment was half as large under field conditions compared with laboratory conditions. A biodynamic model was used to confirm and quantify the different processes that could have influenced these results. Three factors appeared most influential in the bioassays: AC amendment significantly reduces bioavailability under laboratory and field conditions; sediment deposition within test cages in the field partially masks the remedial benefit of underlying AC-amended sediment; and deposit-feeders exhibit less PCB uptake from untreated sediment when feeding is reduced. Ex situ and in situ experiments inevitably show some differences that are associated with measurement methods and effects of the environment. Parallel ex situ and in situ bioassays, passive sampler measurements, and quantifying important processes with a model can tease apart these field influences. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  13. The Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect Studied for All 209 PCB Congeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk was developed; with application to a set of caulk and window glazing material samples. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, and including quality...

  14. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jönsson, Maria E., E-mail: maria.jonsson@ebc.uu.se [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Evolutionary Biology, Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18A, 752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Kubota, Akira, E-mail: akubota@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Timme-Laragy, Alicia R., E-mail: atimmelaragy@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Division of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, 01003 (United States); Woodin, Bruce, E-mail: bwoodin@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States); Stegeman, John J., E-mail: jstegeman@whoi.edu [Biology Department, Redfield 3-42 MS 32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, 02543 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24 h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC{sub 50} values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2 nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells. -- Highlights: ► PCB126 caused cellular changes in the developing swim bladder. ► Swim bladder inflation was not related to expression of CYP1 or cox

  15. Bioaugmentation of a historically contaminated soil by polychlorinated biphenyls with Lentinus tigrinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federici Ermanno

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several species belonging to the ecological group of white-rot basidiomycetes are able to bring about the remediation of matrices contaminated by a large variety of anthropic organic pollutants. Among them, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs are characterized by a high recalcitrance due to both their low bioavailability and the inability of natural microbial communities to degrade them at significant rates and extents. Objective of this study was to assess the impact of a maize stalk-immobilized Lentinus tigrinus CBS 577.79 inoculant combined with soybean oil (SO, as a possible PCB-mobilizing agent, on the bioremediation and resident microbiota of an actual Aroclor 1260 historically contaminated soil under unsaturated solid-phase conditions. Results Best overall PCB depletions (33.6 ± 0.3% and dechlorination (23.2 ± 1.3% were found after 60 d incubation in the absence of SO where, however, the fungus appeared to exert adverse effects on both the growth of biphenyl- and chlorobenzoate-degrading bacteria and the abundance of genes coding for both biphenyl dioxygenase (bph and catechol-2,3-dioxygenase. A significant (P bph. Conclusions The PCB depletion extents obtained in the presence of L. tigrinus are by far higher than those reported in other remediation studies conducted under unsaturated solid phase conditions on actual site soils historically contaminated by Aroclor 1260. These results suggest that the bioaugmentation strategy with the maize stalk-immobilized mycelium of this species might be promising in the reclamation of PCB-contaminated soils. The addition of SO to matrices contaminated by technical PCB mixtures, such as Aroclor 1242 and Delor 103 and characterized by a large preponderance of low chlorinated congeners, might not be advisable.

  16. Males exceed females in PCB concentrations of cisco (Coregonus artedi) from Lake Superior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P; Yule, Daniel L; Chernyak, Sergei M; Begnoche, Linda J; Berglund, Eric K; Isaac, Edmund J

    2014-09-15

    We determined whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations of 25 male and 25 female age-7 ciscoes (Coregonus artedi) captured from a spawning aggregation in Thunder Bay, Lake Superior, during November 2010. We also determined PCB concentrations in the ovaries and somatic tissue of five additional female ciscoes (ages 5-22). All 55 of these ciscoes were in ripe or nearly ripe condition. Bioenergetics modeling was used to determine the contribution of the growth dilution effect toward a difference in PCB concentrations between the sexes, as females grew substantially faster than males. Results showed that the PCB concentration of males (mean = 141 ng/g) was 43% greater than that of females (mean = 98 ng/g), and this difference was highly significant (Pcisco eggs was well below the U. S. Food and Drug Administration and Ontario Ministry of Environment guidelines of 2000 and 844 ng/g, respectively, and this finding may have implications for the cisco roe fishery currently operating in Lake Superior.

  17. Enhanced Polychlorinated Biphenyl Removal in a Switchgrass Rhizosphere by Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi; Meggo, Richard; Hu, Dingfei; Schnoor, Jerald L; Mattes, Timothy E

    2014-10-01

    Phytoremediation makes use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up soils and sediments contaminated with inorganic and organic pollutants. In this study, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was used to test for its efficiency in improving the removal of three specific polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB 52, 77 and 153) in soil microcosms. The congeners were chosen for their ubiquity, toxicity, and recalcitrance. After 24 weeks of incubation, loss of 39.9 ± 0.41% of total PCB molar mass was observed in switchgrass treated soil, significantly higher than in unplanted soil (29.5 ± 3.4%) (p<0.05). The improved PCB removal in switchgrass treated soils could be explained by phytoextraction processes and enhanced microbial activity in the rhizosphere. Bioaugmentation with Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 was performed to further enhance aerobic PCB degradation. The presence of LB400 was associated with improved degradation of PCB 52, but not PCB 77 or PCB 153. Increased abundances of bphA (a functional gene that codes for a subunit of PCB-degrading biphenyl dioxygenase in bacteria) and its transcript were observed after bioaugmentation. The highest total PCB removal was observed in switchgrass treated soil with LB400 bioaugmentation (47.3 ± 1.22 %), and the presence of switchgrass facilitated LB400 survival in the soil. Overall, our results suggest the combined use of phytoremediation and bioaugmentation could be an efficient and sustainable strategy to eliminate recalcitrant PCB congeners and remediate PCB-contaminated soil.

  18. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Hu, Dingfei; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Duffel, Michael W; Bergman, Åke; Robertson, Larry W

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.

  19. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  1. Detection of Surface-Linked Polychlorinated Biphenyls using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindzevicius, Tomas; Barten, Jan; Vorobiev, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    We present an improved procedure for analytical detection of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. A gold-capped silicon nanopillar substrate was utilized to concentrate PCB molecules within an area of high electromagnetic fields throug...

  2. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  3. Neurobehavioral deficits associated with PCB in 7-year-old children prenatally exposed to seafood neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pal; Burse, Virly W.;

    2001-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child......Methylmercury compounds, Neuropsychological tests, Polychlorinated biphenyls, Prenatal exposure delayed effects, Preschool child...

  4. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  5. Evaluation of alternative PCB clean-up strategies using an individual-based population model of mink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: Chris.salice@ttu.edu [Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79410 (United States); Sample, Bradley E., E-mail: bsample@ecorisk.com [Ecological Risk Inc., Rancho Murieta, CA 95683 (United States); Miller Neilan, Rachael; Rose, Kenneth A.; Sable, Shaye [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Energy, Coast and Environment Building, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Population models can be used to place observed toxic effects into an assessment of the impacts on population-level endpoints, which are generally considered to provide greater ecological insight and relevance. We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate the population-level effects of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the impact that different remediation strategies had on mink population endpoints (population size and extinction risk). Our simulations indicated that the initial population size had a strong impact on mink population dynamics. In addition, mink populations were extremely responsive to clean-up scenarios that were initiated soon after the contamination event. In fact, the rate of PCB clean-up did not have as strong a positive effect on mink as did the initiation of clean-up (start time). We show that population-level approaches can be used to understand adverse effects of contamination and to also explore the potential benefits of various remediation strategies. - Highlights: > We used an individual-based model of mink to evaluate population-level impacts of PCB contamination. > The model was also used to explore the population responses to different PCB remediation strategies. > Population size had a large impact on whether mink populations persisted or went extinct. > Starting remediation sooner had a stronger positive effect on mink populations than did the rate of PCB clean-up. > Individual-based models are useful in understanding effects of contamination and different remediation strategies. - An individual-based model of mink showed strong population-level effects of PCB contamination and provided insight into optimal PCB remediation strategies.

  6. A meta-analysis of relationships between polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and performance across studies of free-ranging tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonier, Frances

    2016-04-01

    Habitats worldwide are increasingly being degraded by human activities, with environmental pollution representing a significant threat to species and ecosystems. The presence of persistent organic chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has generated concern. Captive experiments and field studies have reported some evidence for detrimental effects of PCB exposure, but also significant variation across studies and species. Here, I use a meta-analytical approach to combine findings across 10 studies investigating effects of PCBs on performance (e.g. reproductive success, offspring growth) in free-ranging tree swallows, a common bioindicator species that accumulates high levels of PCBs at some contaminated sites. Contrary to predictions, five complementary analyses revealed no significant negative association between PCB exposure and performance in tree swallows. In fact, in one analysis, increased PCB exposure was associated with improved reproductive success. Possible explanations for these findings include several limitations of field studies, variation in the toxicity of different PCB congener mixtures found across sites included in the analysis, and variation in the degree of tolerance of PCB exposure among species (with high tolerance found in tree swallows). At this point, the available evidence from field studies does not demonstrate negative impacts of PCB exposure on tree swallow performance.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls and toxaphene in Pacific tree frog tadpoles (Hyla regilla) from the California Sierra Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Jeffrey E; Fellers, Gary M; Matsumura, Fumio

    2002-10-01

    Pacific tree frog (Hyla regilla) tadpoles were collected throughout the Sierra Nevada mountain range, California, USA, in 1996 and 1997 and analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and toxaphene. Whole-tadpole sigma PCB levels ranged from 244 ng/g (wet wt) at lower elevations on the western slope to 1.6 ng/g high on the eastern slope, whereas sigma toxaphene levels ranged from 15.6 to 1.5 ng/g. Linear regression of PCB and toxaphene residue levels versus elevation indicated a significant relationship, with an r2 value of 0.33 for PCB and 0.45 for toxaphene indicating a significant elevation effect on PCB and toxaphene bioaccumulation in Sierra Nevada H. regilla. Tadpole samples from sites in east-facing versus west-facing drainage basins showed significant differences in PCB and toxaphene residue levels, suggesting the possibility of a rain-shadow effect in the long-range atmospheric transport of these contaminants to the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

  8. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  9. Responsiveness of hepatic and cerebral cytochrome P450 in rat offspring prenatally and lactationally exposed to a reconstituted PCB mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Patrizia; Comelli, Francesca; Assi, Laura; Casati, Lavinia; Colciago, Alessandra; Villa, Sara; Santagostino, Angela; Costa, Barbara; Colombo, Anita

    2014-08-01

    Perinatal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures still remain a serious health concern because offspring receive PCB burden from mother during vulnerable processes of development. Since cytochrome P450 (CYP) represents a toxicological endpoint, in the present study, representing an extended investigation of a previous multitasked one, we explored the long-term responsiveness of CYP1A and CYP2B isoforms by Western blot analysis in liver and whole brain of lactating (PN12), weaning (PN21), and adult offspring (PN60) rats prenatally and lactationally exposed to a reconstituted PCB mixture (RM) of noncoplanar PCB138, 153, 180, and coplanar PCB126 congeners. We chose highly chlorinated PCBs instead of lower chlorinated one, because their recalcitrance to biotransformation makes easy their accumulation/persistence in tissues and breast milk. Dioxin-like congener PCB126 binding aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is responsible of many toxic effects. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams with high affinity AHR received subcutaneous injection of RM (10 mg/kg body weight) daily during gestation (days 15-19) and twice a week during breast-feeding. The results evidenced a transfer of PCBs to neonates through milk and a significant responsiveness of hepatic CYP in both mothers and offspring. In liver of exposed progeny, CYP isoforms exhibited a significant increment at PN12 (70% over control) and at PN21 (270% over control). Contrary to dams, in adult PCB offspring CYP levels showed a decline up to values similar to those of control. This transient developmental responsiveness of CYP isoforms in offspring liver reflects roughly the time course of hepatic PCB levels previously reported. Even if congeners were detected in brain, we failed in evidencing a responsiveness of CYP isoforms probably because of region-specific CYP expression in this organ. In conclusion, induction of offspring hepatic CYP is index of liver PCB burden, and despite the insensitivity of whole brain CYP we cannot

  10. Dietary antioxidants (selenium and N-acetylcysteine) modulate paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in PCB 126-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Li, Miao; Wang, Bingxuan; Lai, Ian K; Robertson, Larry W; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    Environmental pollutants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), especially dioxin-like PCBs, cause oxidative stress and associated toxic effects, including cancer and possibly atherosclerosis. We previously reported that PCB 126, the most potent dioxin-like PCB congener, not only decreases antioxidants such as hepatic selenium (Se), Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione (GSH) but also increases levels of the antiatherosclerosis enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1) in liver and serum. To probe the interconnection of these three antioxidant systems, Se, GSH, and PON1, we examined the influence of varying levels of dietary Se and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and precursor for GSH synthesis, on PON1 in the absence and presence of PCB 126 exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, fed diets with differing Se levels (0.02, 0.2, or 2 ppm) or NAC (1%), were treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of corn oil or various doses of PCB 126 and euthanized 2 weeks later. PCB 126 significantly increased liver PON1 mRNA, protein level and activity, and serum PON1 activity in all dietary groups but did not consistently increase thiobarbituric acid levels (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), an indicator of lipid oxidation and oxidative stress, in liver or serum. Inadequate (high or low) dietary Se decreased baseline and PCB 126-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) expression but further increased PCB 126-induced cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) expression, the enzyme believed to be the cause for PCB 126-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a significant inverse relationship was observed not only between dietary Se levels and PON1 mRNA and PON1 activity but also with TBARS levels in the liver, suggesting significant antioxidant protection from dietary Se. NAC lowered serum baseline TBARS levels in controls and increased serum PON1 activity but lowered liver PON1 activities in animals treated with 1 μmol/kg PCB 126, suggesting

  11. Phyto/rhizoremediation studies using long-term PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackova, Martina; Prouzova, Petra; Stursa, Petr; Ryslava, Edita; Uhlik, Ondrej; Beranova, Katarina; Rezek, Jan; Kurzawova, Veronika; Demnerova, Katerina; Macek, Tomas

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a large group of recalcitrant environmental pollutants, differing in the number of chlorine atoms bound to biphenyl ring. Due to their excellent technological properties, PCBs were used as heat-transfer media, for filling transformers and condensers, as paint additives, etc. With increasing knowledge of their toxicity, transfer to food chains and accumulation in living organisms, their production ended in most countries in the 1970s and in 1984 in the former Czechoslovakia. But even a quarter of century after the PCB production ceased, from contaminated areas, the volatile PCBs evaporate and contaminate much larger areas even at very distant parts of the world. For this reason, PCBs still represent a global problem. The main method of PCB removal from contaminated environment is at present the expensive incineration at high temperatures. With the aim of finding effective alternative approaches, we are studying biological methods for PCB removal from the environment. In this paper, we summarise 10 years of studies using long-term PCB-contaminated soil from a dumpsite in South Bohemia, targeted for the use of plants (phytoremediation) and their cooperation with microorganisms in the root zone (rhizoremediation). Long-term contaminated soil from Lhenice dumpsite, more than hundred kilograms of homogenised material, was used in microcosms (pots and buckets), and field plots were established at the site. Tested plants include among others tobacco, black nightshade, horseradish, alfalfa and willow. Aseptic plant cell and tissue cultures were from the collection of the IOCB. Microorganisms were our own isolates. The paper summarises experiments done between 1998 and 2008 with real contaminated soil, both vegetated and non-vegetated. PCB analysis was performed by GC-ECD, metabolic products identified mostly using 2D-GC/MS-MS and synthetic standards, whereas molecular methods included quantitative PCR and sequencing. The soil was

  12. 植物间种强化根际修复PCB NO.14污染土壤的研究%Effects of Intercropping Rhizo-remediation on Soils Contaminated with PCB NO.14

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘龙元; 贺鸿志; 申时立; 黎华寿

    2012-01-01

    为了更好地了解间作系统对受持久性有机污染物污染的农业土壤的生物修复效率及其机制,运用室内盆栽试验,研究了南瓜(Cucurbita moschata)、大豆[Glycine max (L.) Merr.]和玉米(Zea mays L.)3种植物的单作和两两间作强化多氯联苯污染赤红壤的根际修复效应.结果表明:植物不同种植方式均对根际土壤中PCB的减量有促进作用,单作的土壤PCB单位残留量是对照的70.25%~92.11%,间作的土壤PCB单位残留量是对照的61.44%~80.53%.其中,大豆、玉米间作效果最好,根际修复土壤PCB单位残留量是对照的61.44%,显著低于对照.各种植方式中植物地上部吸收积累的多氯联苯符合中国食品安全标准的限值.各处理根际土壤的荧光素二乙酸酯酶、脱氢酶、过氧化氢酶活性和Eh、C/N均与对照差异显著.相关分析结果表明,根际土壤PCB残留量与FDA酶、过氧化氢酶活性、C/N呈极显著负相关,与多酚氧化酶、Eh呈显著负相关.%In order to better understand the bioremediation efficiency and its mechanism of co-cropping systems in agricultural soils contaminated by POPs (persistent organic pollutants), a greenhouse experiment under both single cropping and intercropping conditions with 3 plants including pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and maize (Zea mays L.) were conducted in a PCB contaminated lateritic red soil. The results indicated that the phytoremediation was good to the degradation of PCB in the soil and the co-cropping. The PCB concentration in the soil of monocropping was 70.25%-92.11% of control. The soil biodegradation of PCB was significantly enhanced under intercropping conditions with PCB concentration of 61.44%-80.53% of control. Especially, it was the best effect in a soybean-maize intercropping system, significantly lower than control. In addition, accumulation of PCB in aboveground of all plants complied with the limit values of

  13. Measurement of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water via ultrasound assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) using low-density organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakok-Dikmen, Begum; Kuzukiran, Ozgur; Filazi, Ayhan; Kara, Erdem

    2016-04-01

    Despite bans and restrictions for their adverse health effects including endocrine disruption, due to their stability in the environment, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are still of concern for their residues in several matrices. This study employed low-density ultrasound-assisted emulsification-microextraction (USAEME) to measure selected PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in water samples for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Among tested solvents (isooctane, chloroform, hexane, and cyclohexane), 200 μL isooctane resulted in the highest yield for a 10 mL sample. The optimized method was validated and yielded recoveries of 87.29-92.83% with the limit of detection and limit of quantification (LOQ) values 3-12 ng/L and 10-40 ng/L, respectively. Twelve tap water samples collected in September 2014 were screened using this simple, rapid, and validated method. PCB concentrations in two samples were above the LOQ values; one sample contained 1,380 ng/L of PCB 118, 530 ng/L of PCB 138, and 152 ng/L of PCB 153, and the other contained 444 ng/L of PCB 138. Despite the city water supply being clean and the municipality employing all available measures to ensure clean water supply, the general public must be made aware of the regular maintenance of local water pipelines and storage tanks for the prevention of PCB contamination.

  14. Effect of PCB3 and its hydroxylated metabolites on estradiol secretion, cell viability, and caspase-3 activity in porcine small folicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, A.; Gregoraszczuk, E.L. [Lab. of Reproductive Physiology and Toxicology of Domestic Animals, Inst. of Zoology, Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Ludewig, G.; Lehmler, H.J.; Robertson, L.W. [Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Coll. of Public Health, The Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    In general, highly chlorinated PCBs are slowly metabolized and eliminated. Lower chlorinated PCBs on the other hand are hydroxylated in vitro and in vivo. Surprisingly this does not necessarily mean that these hydroxylated PCBs are rapidly excreted, as recent findings of substantial amounts of hydroxylated PCBs in animal and human blood have shown. Therefore it must be assumed that not only the PCBs themselves, but also their metabolites can participate in the toxic effects of PCBs. Indeed, some hydroxylated metabolites of PCBs (OH-PCBs) have significant estrogenic activity through binding to the estrogen receptors. Surprisingly, PCB54 (2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) has about 10% of the activity of 4-OH-PCB54 in the MCF-7 focus assay, but does not bind to the estrogen receptor, suggesting the possibility of an additional, yet unknown mechanism of estrogenicity. We found that PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites cause an increase in estrogen secretion from ovarian follicular cells in vitro, with PCB3 < 4-OHPCB3 < 3, 4-OH-PCB3. The most sensitive follicles were those collected during the early stage of their development. In the present study we used this type of follicles to answer the question whether this observed huge stimulatory action of PCB3 and/or its metabolites on estrogen release into the medium is due to the action on cells viability and cell apoptosis.

  15. Effect of current collector corrosion made from printed circuit board (PCB) on the degradation of self-breathing direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jian-Wei; Xie, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Jin-Hai; Shang, Yu-Ming [Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2008-02-25

    Adopting printed circuit board (PCB) as the current collector for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is a promising task. This paper found that the combinational 10 {mu}m Ni/2 {mu}m Au coatings on PCB could not endure halide attacking in its anodic polarization. With this coated PCB, the self-breathing DMFC stack with passive methanol supply exhibited progressively degradation in its lifetime test. By using a series of measurements, it is shown that initial corrosion would not obviously influence stack degradation, but the subsequently inter-facilitation, between F{sup -} originating from Nafion membrane and corrosion products of Ni{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} from PCB, would result in serious degradation, the final stack invalidation would present accompanied with the loss of membrane conductivity. The defects on coated PCB are crucial to initiate localized corrosion and stack degradation. Although cyclic voltammetry (CV) technology is effective to recover cell temporarily, its damage by releasing F{sup -} should be further evaluated. (author)

  16. A relevant exposure to a food matrix contaminated environmentally by polychlorinated biphenyls induces liver and brain disruption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounnas, Fayçal; Privé, Florence; Lamarche, Fréderic; Salen, Patricia; Favier-Hininger, Isabelle; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Venisseau, Anais; Batandier, Cécile; Fontaine, Eric; de Lorgeril, Michel; Demeilliers, Christine

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants present in dietary fats. Most studies evaluating PCB effects have been conducted with a single compound or a mixture of PCBs given as a single acute dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vivo PCB toxicity in a realistic model of exposure: a low daily dose of PCBs (twice the tolerable daily intake (TDI)), chronically administered (8 weeks) to rats in contaminated goat milk. Liver and brain PCB toxicities were investigated by evaluating oxidative stress status and mitochondrial function. PCB toxicity in the liver was also estimated by transaminase enzymatic activity. This study shows that even at low doses, chronic PCB exposure resulted in a statistically significant reduction of mitochondrial function in liver and brain. In the liver, oxygen consumption in the condition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production (state 3) decreased by 22-29% (p food complex mixture of environmental origin) resulted in multiple disruptions in the liver and brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); S. Patandin (Svati); G.A. Berbers; T.C.J. Sas (Theo); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to P

  18. PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS AND DIOXINS AND ITS EFFECT ON NEONATAL NEUROLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, M; KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; FIDLER, [No Value; HADDERSALGRA, M; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; SAUER, PJJ; TOUWEN, BCL; BOERSMA, ER

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast mi

  19. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins and its effect on neonatal neurological development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Fidler, V.; Hadders-Algra, M.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Sauer, P.J.J.; Touwen, B.C.L.; Boersma, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast mi

  20. Ahr2-dependence of PCB126 effects on the swim bladder in relation to expression of CYP1 and cox-2 genes in developing zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Maria E; Kubota, Akira; Timme-Laragy, Alicia R; Woodin, Bruce; Stegeman, John J

    2012-12-01

    The teleost swim bladder is assumed a homolog of the tetrapod lung. Both swim bladder and lung are developmental targets of persistent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR(2)) agonists; in zebrafish (Danio rerio) the swim bladder fails to inflate with exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126). The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but studies have suggested roles of cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) in some Ahr-mediated developmental effects in zebrafish. We determined relationships between swim bladder inflation and CYP1 and Cox-2 mRNA expression in PCB126-exposed zebrafish embryos. We also examined effects on β-catenin dependent transcription, histological effects, and Ahr2 dependence of the effect of PCB126 on swim bladder using morpholinos targeting ahr2. One-day-old embryos were exposed to waterborne PCB126 or carrier (DMSO) for 24h and then held in clean water until day 4, a normal time for swim bladder inflation. The effects of PCB126 were concentration-dependent with EC(50) values of 1.4 to 2.0 nM for induction of the CYP1s, 3.7 and 5.1 nM (or higher) for cox-2a and cox-2b induction, and 2.5 nM for inhibition of swim bladder inflation. Histological defects included a compaction of the developing bladder. Ahr2-morpholino treatment rescued the effect of PCB126 (5 nM) on swim bladder inflation and blocked induction of CYP1A, cox-2a, and cox-2b. With 2nM PCB126 approximately 30% of eleutheroembryos(3) failed to inflate the swim bladder, but there was no difference in CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA expression between those embryos and embryos showing inflated swim bladder. Our results indicate that PCB126 blocks swim bladder inflation via an Ahr2-mediated mechanism. This mechanism seems independent of CYP1 or cox-2 mRNA induction but may involve abnormal development of swim bladder cells.

  1. Effect of a PCB-based transformer oil on testicular steroidogenesis and xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andric, Nebojsa L; Kostic, Tatjana S; Zoric, Sonja N; Stanic, Bojana D; Andric, Silvana A; Kovacevic, Radmila Z

    2006-07-01

    Pyralene is a PCB-based transformer oil with a unique PCB congener profile when compared to other mixtures. We studied the influence of Pyralene on testicular steroidogenesis and the status of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in the testis and liver of rats during oral exposure (10 and 50 mg/kg body weight, p.o. daily for 1 week) and a 3-week post-treatment recovery period. As expected, Pyralene induced a rapid and sustained increase in mRNA transcripts for CYP1A1 and CYP2B1 in hepatocytes that was associated with a dramatic increase in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (PROD) activities. Testicular androgenesis and the conversion of progesterone to testosterone in testicular microsomes were bidirectionally affected. An increase in these parameters was observed 24h after the initial administration of Pyralene, followed by inhibition that lasted until the fourth post-treatment day. Expression PCR analysis revealed a significant decrease in 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD) transcript abundance at 48 h after Pyralene administration. In contrast, transcripts for several other steroidogenic enzymes and for testicular CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYP2B1 were unaffected under the same conditions. These results in the rat indicate that a sub-chronic exposure to Pyralene disrupted testicular steroidogenesis and suggest the mechanism may involve direct action on the regulation of specific steroidogenic enzymes such as 17betaHSD.

  2. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins (PCDD/F) and biphenyls (PCB) in fish, beef, and fowl purchased in food markets in Northern California USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksemburg, W.; Maier, M.; Patterson, A. [Alta Analytical Laboratory, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wenning, R.; Braithwaite, S. [ENVIRON International, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Food basket surveys and exposure studies conducted over the past decade suggest that one of the main routes of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) is likely through the consumption of food products such as eggs, meats, fish, and dairy products. More recently, studies of human milk, blood, and adipose tissues also demonstrate human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The contamination of Belgium store-bought chicken products in 1999 and, more recently, concerns regarding farmraised fish products in the U.S., Ireland, and elsewhere by PCDD/Fs and PCBs has heightened concerns about the occurrence of other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including PBDEs, in consumer food products. In the U.S., for example, recent studies have shown the edible portions of farm-raised fish containing higher levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs than in wild fish. In this study, fillets from several species of freshwater and ocean fish (both farm-raised and wild), as well as ground beef, ground deer, and meat from several species of fowl (chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pheasant), were purchased from food markets in the cities of Sacramento and El Dorado Hills, California USA. Foods were tested for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs and the results used to evaluate human exposure through the consumption of store-bought consumer food products.

  3. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Schrank, Candy S.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Elliott, Robert F.; Quintal, Richard T.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 35 female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and 60 male coho salmon caught in Lake Michigan (Michigan and Wisconsin, United States) during the fall of 1994 and 1995. In addition, we determined PCB concentrations in the skin-on fillets of 26 female and 19 male Lake Michigan coho salmon caught during the fall of 2004 and 2006. All coho salmon were age-2 fish. These fish were caught prior to spawning, and therefore release of eggs could not account for sexual differences in PCB concentrations because female coho salmon spawn only once during their lifetime. To investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, males were 19% higher in PCB concentration than females, based on the 1994–1995 dataset. Similarly, males averaged a 20% higher PCB concentration in their skin-on fillets compared with females. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of adult females was less than 1% higher than adult male GGE. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the 20% higher PCB concentration exhibited by the males. Nonetheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations.

  4. Effects of subacute PVB-exposure (Arocolor 1254) on oxygen consumption, swimming behavior and biotransformation (GST-activity) of carp (Cyprinus carpio); Wirkung subakuter PCB-Exposition (Aroclor 1254) auf Sauerstoffverbrauch, Schwimmbewegung und Biotransformation (GST-Aktivitaet) des Karpfens (Cyprinus carpio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflugmacher, S.; Staaks, G.B.O.; Steinberg, C.E.W. [Leibniz Inst. fuer Gewaesseroekologie und Binnenfischerei, Berlin (Germany); Schmidt, K.

    2005-07-01

    Objective and Background. PCB (polychlorinated biphenyle) are typical man-made environmental pollutants that cause a broad spectrum of effects in vertebrates. Although a lot has been studied about the toxic effects of xenobiotic substances on aquatic organisms, their subacute effects are not yet well known. Fish occupies a central position in freshwater food webs and therefore, carp was chosen to be our test organism. The aim of our study was the investigation of subacute effects of Aroclor 1254 (22 {mu}g l{sup -1}) on respiration, swimming activity, and biotransformation, allowing discussion of changed interaction between the available energy resources. Methods. The respiration experiments under controlled laboratory conditions were run for 29 days (5 d before, 16 d with and 8 d after chemical exposure) with exposed carp compared to the non-exposed fish. Furthermore, the BehavioQuant system quantitatively monitors the positions of each individual fish before (8 d) and during (21 d) PCB exposure and swimming activity (number of horizontal turnings s{sup -1}) of animals was calculated. Thereafter, liver samples were taken from animals for analysis of the phase 2 enzyme activity (glutathione-S-transferase). In the respiration experiments were 6 exposure, 6 control, and 3 solubilizer control groups (12 animals each group); in the behavioral experiments were 9 exposure, 6 control- and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group), and in the enzyme activity measurements were 9 exposure, 6 control and 3 solubilizer control groups (6 animals each group) examined. (orig.)

  5. An overlooked environmental issue? A review of the inadvertent formation of PCB-11 and other PCB congeners and their occurrence in consumer products and in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are banned from production and use in most countries as they are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern for environment and health. Recent research has pointed at a new environment issue resulting from the inadvertent formation of PCBs in certain processes, in particular the pigment production. PCB-11 is a major by-product in these processes, but PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-77 as well as the nonachlorinated PCBs and PCB-209 have been found in pigments and consumer products as well. In addition to environmental emissions via point sources, in particular related to industrial and municipal wastewater, atmospheric transport seems to be important for the global distribution of PCB-11. Thus, PCB-11 has also been detected in the polar regions. Worldwide air concentrations appear relatively uniform, but maxima have been found in urban and industrialised areas. Data on the uptake and accumulation of PCB-11 in the food chain are still inconclusive: Although food web studies do not show biomagnification, PCB-11 has been detected in humans. The human exposure might originate from the direct contact to consumer products as well as from the omnipresence of PCB-11 in the environment.

  6. PCB and PAH speciation among particle types in contaminated harbor sediments and effects on PAH bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upal; Zimmerman, John R; Luthy, Richard G

    2003-05-15

    This research provides particle-scale understanding of PCB and PAH distribution in sediments obtained from three urban locations in the United States: Hunters Point, CA; Milwaukee Harbor, WI; and Harbor Point, NY. The sediments comprised mineral grains (primarily sand, silt, and clays) and carbonaceous particles (primarily coal, coke, charcoal, pitch, cenospheres, and wood). The carbonaceous sediment fractions were separated from the mineral fractions based on their lower density and were identified by petrographic analysis. In all three sediments, carbonaceous particles contributed 5-7% of the total mass and 60-90% of the PCBs and PAHs. The production of carbonaceous particles is not known to be associated with PCB contamination, and it is very unlikely that these particles can be the source of PCBs in the environment Thus, it appears that carbonaceous particles preferentially accumulate PCBs acting as sorbents in the aqueous environment if PCBs are released directly to the sediment or if deposited as airborne soot particles. Aerobic bioslurry treatment resulted in negligible PAH loss from the carbonaceous coal-derived material in Milwaukee Harbor sediment but resulted in 80% of the PAHs being removed from carbonaceous particles in Harbor Point sediment. Microscale PAH extraction and analysis revealed that PAHs in Harbor Point sediment were associated mainly with coal tar pitch residue. PAHs present in semisolid coal tar pitch are more bioavailable than PAHs sorbed on carbonaceous particles such as coal, coke, charcoal, and cenosphere. Results of this study illustrate the importance of understanding particle-scale association of hydrophobic organic contaminants for explaining bioavailability differences among sediments.

  7. Comparison of toxicity of congener-153 of PCB, PBB, and PBDE to Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakari, Tarja; Huhtala, Sami

    2008-10-01

    Acute and reproductive toxicity tests were performed to assess the effects of two polybrominated flame retardants, polybrominated biphenyl (PBB)-153, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE)-153, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-153 on Daphnia magna. According to the 24-h acute toxicity test, up to concentration of 210 microg/L, these chemicals were not toxic to Daphnia. In the reproductive tests, we used concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 microg/L. At the concentrations of 50 and 100 microg/L, the Daphnia started to die after the second test day, and there were no Daphnia alive on the fourth test day. The testing was continued using the concentrations of 12.5 and 25 microg/L. The reproductive tests were then repeated using only concentrations of 12.5 and 25 microg/L. The results, based on the weight per volume (w/v) concentrations, showed that of the three compounds we tested PCB-153 had the most severe effects on the Daphnia reproduction. PBDE-153 was the least toxic, although in this group, too, offspring production was significantly lower and mortality significantly higher than those in the control group. Also, it was observed that PCB-153 accumulated into the parent Daphnia nearly three times more actively than the two other chemicals we tested. These chemicals, although having very similar structures, seem to affect differently the reproduction of Daphnia. They also seem to accumulate differently into Daphnia. Thus, further research data are needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the effects caused by these kinds of chemicals and to assess their risks accurately.

  8. Effects of estrogen supplementation on PCB 126-induced effects on vertebral bone, vitamin D and thyroxin levels in serum of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Monica Lind [Karolinska Inst., Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyberg, I.; Oerberg, J. [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Environmental Toxicology (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Own and others experimental studies in rat have demonstrated that high affinity Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) ligands such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and the dioxin-like PCB congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), impair normal bone metabolism and result in increased bone fragility. No experimental study have, up to now, investigated effects of POCs on vertebra in bone-toxicological studies. Recently a Swedish epidemiological study showed that Swedish east-coast fishermen's wives have a significantly increased incidence for hospitalized vertebral fractures when compared with west-coast fishermen's wives7. The results give some indirect support for the notion that a high dietary intake of POCs through fatty fish might be a risk factor for vertebral fractures. The levels of POCs are much higher in the fish from the Baltic Sea compared with fish from the sea on the Swedish West coast. Vertebral bone consists to a larger extent than e.g. the long bones of trabecular bone which compared with cortical bone has a much higher metabolism and a more rapid bone turnover. It is therefore more likely to find more obvious effects of endocrine disruption in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. As an extension of our previous work, the goals of this study are therefore to (1) investigate interactive effects between PCB126 exposure, estrogen depletion (OVX) and estrogen supplementation (2) investigate the effects of PCB126 exposure of the trabecular rich vertebral bone (3) analyse serum levels 25OH- vitamin D and thyroxin as these are both important for bone tissue homeostasis and as biomarkers for organochlorines exposure.

  9. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and ...

  10. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorrink, Sabine U; Severson, Paul L; Kulak, Mikhail V; Futscher, Bernard W; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O2 prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity.

  11. Using SPMDs To Assess Natural Recovery Of PCB-Contaminated Sediments In Lake Hartwell, SC: I. A Field Test Of New In-Situ Deployment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from the field testing of some innovative sampling methods developed to evaluate risk management strategies for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated sediments are presented. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were combined with novel deployment methods to quan...

  12. RECENT DECLINES IN PAH, PCB, AND TOXAPHENE LEVELS IN THE NORTHERN GREAT LAKES AS DETERMINED FROM HIGH RESOLUTION SEDIMENT CORES. (R825151)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment cores were collected from two sites in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan in May 1998, dated using 210Pb geochronology, and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxaphene. The extraor...

  13. Adaptive responses and cellular behaviour of biphenyl-degrading bacteria toward polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Francisco P; Gordillo, Felipe; Jerez, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the most widely distributed classes of chlorinated chemicals in the environment. For cleanup of large areas of PCB-contaminated environments, bioremediation seems to be a promising approach. However, the multitude of PCB congeners, their low bioavailability and high toxicity are important factors that affect the cleanup progression. Elucidating how the PCB-degrading microorganisms involved in the process adapt to and deal with the stressing conditions caused by this class of compounds may help to improve the bioremediation process. Also specific physiological characteristics of biphenyl-utilizing bacteria involved in the degradation of PCBs may enhance their availability to these compounds and therefore contribute to a better microbial mineralization. This review will focus in the stress responses caused in aerobic biphenyl-utilizing bacteria by PCBs and its metabolic intermediates and will also analyze bacterial properties such as motility and chemotaxis, adherence to solid surfaces, biosurfactant production and biofilm development, all properties found to enhance bacteria-pollutant interaction.

  14. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  15. Dietary exposure of mink (Mustela vison) to fish from the Housatonic River, Berkshire County, Massachusetts, USA: Effects on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursian, Steven J.; Sharma, Chanda; Aulerich, Richard J.; Yamini, Behzad; Mitchell, Rachel R.; Beckett, Kerrie J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Moore, Dwayne; Svirsky, Susan; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of feeding ranch mink (Mustela vison) diets containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated fish (88 gold fish [Carassius auratus] weighing a total of 70.3 kg and 16 carp [Cyprinus carpio] weighing a total of 77.3 kg) collected from the Housatonic River (HR; Berkshire County, MA, USA) in October 1999 on organ weights and histology and hepatic concentrations of total PCBs (ΣPCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalence (TEQ) were evaluated. Diets contained 0.22 to 3.54% HR fish, which provided 0.34 to 3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed (3.5-69 pg TEQ/g feed). Female mink were fed the diets eight weeks before breeding through weaning of kits at six weeks of age. Offspring were maintained on their respective diets for an additional 180 d. The dietary concentration of PCBs that caused a decrease in kit survival (3.7 μg ΣPCBs/g feed [69 pg TEQ/g]) resulted in a maternal hepatic concentration of 3.1 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (218 pg TEQ/g). Organ weights were not consistently affected. Mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation was apparent in 31-week-old juveniles exposed to as low as 0.96 (xg ΣPCBs/g feed (9.2 pg TEQ/g). Juveniles in this treatment group had a liver concentration of 1.7 μg ΣPCBs/g wet weight (40 pg TEQ/g). Because inclusion of PCB-contaminated fish, which comprised approximately 1% of the diet, resulted in mandibular and maxillary squamous cell proliferation, it is possible that consumption of up to 30-fold that quantity of HR fish, as could be expected for wild mink, would result in more severe lesions characterized by loss of teeth, thus impacting survivability.

  16. Enrichment and Characterization of PCB-Degrading Bacteria as Potential Seed Cultures for Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Hršak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of our study was to obtain seed cultures for enhancing the transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in contaminated soil of the transformer station in Zadar, Croatia, damaged during warfare activities in 1991. For enrichment, six soil samples were collected from different polluted areas and microcosm approach, stimulating the growth of biphenyl-degrading bacteria, was employed. Enrichment experiments resulted in the selection of two fast growing mixed cultures TSZ7 and AIR1, originating from the soil of the transformer station and the airport area, respectively. Both cultures showed significant PCB-degrading activity (56 to 60 % of PCB50 mixture was reduced after a two-week cultivation. Furthermore, the cultures displayed similar PCB-degrading competence and reduced di-to tetrachlorobiphenyls more effectively than penta- to hepta-chlorobiphenyls. Strain Z6, identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, was found to be the only culture member showing PCB-transformation potential similar to that of the mixed culture TSZ7, from which it was isolated. Based on the metabolites identified in the assay with the single congener 2,4,4’-chlorobiphenyl, we proposed that the strain Z6 was able to use both the 2,3-and 3,4-dioxygenase pathways. Furthermore, the identified metabolites suggested that beside these pathways another unidentified pathway might also be active in strain Z6. Based on the obtained results, the culture TSZ7 and the strain Z6 were designated as potential seed cultures for bioremediation of the contaminated soil.

  17. Development of a Computer Model for Prediction of PCB Degradation Endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Just, E.M.; Klasson, T.

    1999-12-07

    Several researchers have demonstrated the transformation if polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. This transformation, or conversion, is characteristic and often dependent on PCB congener structure and in addition, dictates the products or endpoints. Since transformation is linked to microbial activities, bioremediation has been hailed as a possible solution for PCB-contaminated soils and sediments, and several demonstration activities have verified laboratory results. This paper presents results from mathematical modeling of PCB transformation as a means of predicting possible endpoints of bioremediation. Since transformation can be influenced by both starting composition of the PCBs and microbial activity, this paper systematically evaluates several of the most common transformation patterns. The predicted data are also compared with experimental results. For example, the correlation between laboratory-observed and predicted endpoint data was, in some cases, as good as 0.98 (perfect correlation = 1.0). In addition to predicting chemical endpoints, the possible human effects of the PCBs are discussed through the use of documented dioxin-like toxicity and accumulation in humans before and after transformation.

  18. Histopathology of feral fish from a PCB-contaminated freshwater lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, Kari; Ritola, Ossi; Huuskonen, Sirpa E.; Lindstroem-Seppae, Pirjo [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Physiology; Myers, Mark S. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). National Marine Fisheries Service

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of chronic sublethal polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure on feral fish, using histopathology as an endpoint. Histopathological study of bream (Abramis brama) and asp (Aspius aspius) living in a PCB-polluted freshwater lake revealed abnormal cellular changes in the renal corpuscle of both species. Dilation of glomerular capillaries (DGC), mesangial edema (ME), an adhesion between visceral and parietal layers of Bowman's capsule (ABC), and filling of Bowman's space (FBS), were highly prevalent features in lake fish. The prevalence of each of these lesions was significantly lower, or totally absent in fish caught from reference locations. Cellular alterations in liver, gill, gonads, spleen, and intestine were all linked to seasonal changes. The results suggest that some of the observed histopathological changes in renal glomeruli, particularly DGC and ME, could possibly indicate a prolonged chemical stress caused by PCBs and related compounds. It is also possible that chronic PCB exposure may have suppressed and weakened the immuno systems of exposed fish making them more vulnerable to secondary parasitic infection.

  19. C-Depth Method to Determine Diffusion Coefficient and Partition Coefficient of PCB in Building Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars; Zhang, Yinping

    2015-10-20

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be persistent in the environment and possibly harmful. Many buildings are characterized with high PCB concentrations. Knowledge about partitioning between primary sources and building materials is critical for exposure assessment and practical remediation of PCB contamination. This study develops a C-depth method to determine diffusion coefficient (D) and partition coefficient (K), two key parameters governing the partitioning process. For concrete, a primary material studied here, relative standard deviations of results among five data sets are 5%-22% for K and 42-66% for D. Compared with existing methods, C-depth method overcomes the inability to obtain unique estimation for nonlinear regression and does not require assumed correlations for D and K among congeners. Comparison with a more sophisticated two-term approach implies significant uncertainty for D, and smaller uncertainty for K. However, considering uncertainties associated with sampling and chemical analysis, and impact of environmental factors, the results are acceptable for engineering applications. This was supported by good agreement between model prediction and measurement. Sensitivity analysis indicated that effective diffusion distance, contacting time of materials with primary sources, and depth of measured concentrations are critical for determining D, and PCB concentration in primary sources is critical for K.

  20. Degradation of PCB77 by nanoscale zero-valent iron and microorganism integrated treatment system%纳米Fe0协同微生物对PCB77的降解研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈涛; 尹敏敏; 司雄元; 司友斌

    2011-01-01

    研究了纳米零价铁协同微生物降解水溶液中的PCB77.从污染土样中分离出一株多氯联苯(pCBs)降解菌,对其进行革兰氏染色形态观察,并用降解菌降解PCB77.结果表明:培养温度30℃、溶液pH 7.0、微生物接种量109 cfu·mL-1、PCB77初始质量浓度1.0 mg·L-1时,降解菌对PCB77的降解率为58.63%.纳米零价铁对PCB77的降解是一个还原脱氯过程,7 d时的降解率为82.99%.采用纳米零价铁/微生物联合体系降解水溶液中PCB77,降解率显著高于微生物和纳米零价铁单一体系,降解率可达93.30%.研究结果将为环境中PCBs残留提供了一种高效去除的方法,并为PCBs污染土壤的修复提供理论依据.%The degradation of PCB77 in solution with a combination of nanoscale zero-valent iron and micro- organism were studied.A bacterium strain was isolated from soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which was enriched and used to degrade PCB77. When the incubation temperature was 30 ℃, solution pH was 7.0, the inoculation amount of microorganism was 109 cfu·mL-1 and the concentration of PCB77 was 1.0 mg·L-1, the degradation rate of PCB77 was 58.63% on the seventh day. Meanwhile,PCB77 could be reductive dechlorined by nanoscale zero-valent iron, and the degradation rate of PCB77 could reach to 82.99%.Furthermore, the combination of nanoscale zero-valent iron and microorganism could accelerate the degradation of PCB77 compared to the individual, the degradation rate of PCB77 by the integrated system could reach to 93.30%. The studies will provide an effective method for the degradation of PCBs and theoretical basis for the remediation of contaminated soil by PCBs.

  1. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyls contamination on estrogenic activity in human male serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plísková, Martina; Vondrácek, Jan; Canton, Rocio Fernandez; Nera, Jirí; Kocan, Anton; Petrík, Ján; Trnovec, Tomás; Sanderson, Thomas; van den Berg, Martin; Machala, Miroslav

    2005-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause numerous adverse health effects, but their impact on estrogen signaling is still not fully understood. In the present study, we used the ER-CALUX bioassay to determine estrogenic/antiestrogenic activities of the prevalent PCB congeners and PCB mixtures isolated from human male serum. The samples were collected from residents of an area with an extensive environmental contamination from a former PCB production site as well as from a neighboring background region in eastern Slovakia. We found that the lower-chlorinated PCBs were estrogenic, whereas the prevalent higher-chlorinated PCB congeners 138, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 199, and 203, as well as major PCB metabolites, behaved as antiestrogens. Coplanar PCBs had no direct effect on estrogen receptor (ER) activation in this in vitro model. In human male serum samples, high levels of PCBs were associated with a decreased ER-mediated activity and an increased dioxin-like activity, as determined by the DR-CALUX assay. 17beta-Estradiol (E2) was responsible for a major part of estrogenic activity identified in total serum extracts. Significant negative correlations were found between dioxin-like activity, as well as mRNA levels of cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes, and total estrogenic activity. For sample fractions containing only persistent organic pollutants (POPs), the increased frequency of antiestrogenic samples was associated with a higher sum of PCBs. This suggests that the prevalent non-dioxin-like PCBs were responsible for the weak antiestrogenic activity of some POPs fractions. Our data also suggest that it might be important to pay attention to direct effects of PCBs on steroid hormone levels in heavily exposed subjects.

  2. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M; Gibson, Polly P; Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A

    2017-05-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI, USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r(2)  > 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged across all years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa less effective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1278-1286. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls disturb differentiation of normal human neural progenitor cells: clue for involvement of thyroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Ellen; Cline, Jason E; Nguyen, Ngoc-Ha; Scanlan, Thomas S; Abel, Josef

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental chemicals that accumulate in adipose tissues over the food chain. Epidemiologic studies have indicated that PCBs influence brain development. Children who are exposed to PCBs during development suffer from neuropsychologic deficits such as a lower full-scale IQ (intelligence quotient), reduced visual recognition memory, and attention and motor deficits. The mechanisms leading to these effects are not fully understood. It has been speculated that PCBs may affect brain development by interfering with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling. Because most of the data are from animal studies, we established a model using primary normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells to determine if PCBs interfere with TH-dependent neural differentiation. NHNP cells differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in culture, and they express a variety of drug metabolism enzymes and nuclear receptors. Like triiodothyronine (T3), treatment with the mono-ortho-substituted PCB-118 (2,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl; 0.01-1 microM) leads to a dose-dependent increase of oligodendrocyte formation. This effect was congener specific, because the coplanar PCB-126 (3,3',4,4 ,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) had no effect. Similar to the T3 response, the PCB-mediated effect on oligodendrocyte formation was blocked by retinoic acid and the thyroid hormone receptor antagonist NH-3. These results suggest that PCB-118 mimics T3 action via the TH pathway.

  4. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  5. Field application of activated carbon amendment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeo-Myoung; Ghosh, Upal; Kennedy, Alan J; Grossman, Adam; Ray, Gary; Tomaszewski, Jeanne E; Smithenry, Dennis W; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2009-05-15

    We report results on the first field-scale application of activated carbon (AC) amendment to contaminated sediment for in-situ stabilization of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The test was performed on a tidal mud flat at South Basin, adjacent to the former Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA. The major goals of the field study were to (1) assess scale up of the AC mixing technology using two available, large-scale devices, (2) validate the effectiveness of the AC amendment at the field scale, and (3) identify possible adverse effects of the remediation technology. Also, the test allowed comparison among monitoring tools, evaluation of longer-term effectiveness of AC amendment, and identification of field-related factors that confound the performance of in-situ biological assessments. Following background pretreatment measurements, we successfully incorporated AC into sediment to a nominal 30 cm depth during a single mixing event, as confirmed by total organic carbon and black carbon contents in the designated test plots. The measured AC dose averaged 2.0-3.2 wt% and varied depending on sampling locations and mixing equipment. AC amendment did not impact sediment resuspension or PCB release into the water column over the treatment plots, nor adversely impactthe existing macro benthic community composition, richness, or diversity. The PCB bioaccumulation in marine clams was reduced when exposed to sediment treated with 2% AC in comparison to the control plot Field-deployed semi permeable membrane devices and polyethylene devices showed about 50% reduction in PCB uptake in AC-treated sediment and similar reduction in estimated pore-water PCB concentration. This reduction was evident even after 13-month post-treatment with then 7 months of continuous exposure, indicating AC treatment efficacy was retained for an extended period. Aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations and PCB desorption showed an AC-dose response. Field-exposed AC after 18 months

  6. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoradova-Murinova, Slavomira; Dudasova, Hana; Lukacova, Lucia; Certik, Milan; Dercova, Katarina [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology and Food Science; Silharova, Katarina; Vrana, Branislav [Water Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes. (orig.)

  7. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorádová-Murínová, Slavomíra; Dudášová, Hana; Lukáčová, Lucia; Certík, Milan; Silharová, Katarína; Vrana, Branislav; Dercová, Katarína

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes.

  8. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Patandin, S; Berbers, GAM; Sas, TCJ; Mulder, PGH; Sauer, PJJ; Hooijkaas, H

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with the pre

  9. Effects of sedimentary soot-like materials on bioaccumulation and sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Hoenderboom, A.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals from sediments containing soot or sootlike materials has been hypothesized to be limited by strong sorption of the chemicals to the soot matrixes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified bioaccumulation of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the a

  10. Differential effect of elicitors on biphenyl and dibenzofuran formation in Sorbus aucuparia cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttner, Cornelia; Beuerle, Till; Scharnhop, Helge; Ernst, Ludger; Beerhues, Ludger

    2010-11-24

    The Rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae) is well-known for its economically important fruit trees, such as apple and pear, and also includes Sorbus aucuparia. Elicitor-treated S. aucuparia cell cultures are used to study the biosynthesis of the Pyrinae-specific phytoalexins, biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Three biphenyls (aucuparin, noraucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin) and a dibenzofuran (eriobofuran) were isolated and structure elucidated using GC-MS and NMR. A second dibenzofuran of low abundance was tentatively assigned as noreriobofuran. Treatment of S. aucuparia cell cultures with yeast extract induced the formation of aucuparin as the major phytoalexin. In contrast, addition of preparations from the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora, and the scab-causing fungus, Venturia inaequalis, resulted in accumulation of eriobofuran as the major inducible constituent. Methyl jasmonate was a poor elicitor. The observations are suggestive of a biogenic relationship between biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Elicitor-treated S. aucuparia cell cultures provide an interesting in vitro system for studying biphenyl and dibenzofuran metabolism in the economically valuable Pyrinae.

  11. Effects of sedimentary soot-like materials on bioaccumulation and sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Hoenderboom, A.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic chemicals from sediments containing soot or sootlike materials has been hypothesized to be limited by strong sorption of the chemicals to the soot matrixes. To test this hypothesis, we quantified bioaccumulation of 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into the

  12. Riparian spiders as sentinels of polychlorinated biphenyl contamination across heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Gibson, Polly P.; Walters, David M.; Mills, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems.However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. The present study tests the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. The spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in 2 common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011 to 2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique (MI,USA) that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats. Sediment ΣPCB concentrations normalized for total organic carbon explained 41% of the variation in lipid-normalized spider ΣPCB concentrations across 11 sites. Furthermore, 2 common riparian spider taxa (Araneidae and Tetragnathidae) were highly correlated (r2> 0.78) and had similar mean ΣPCB concentrations when averaged acrossall years. The results indicate that riparian spiders may be useful sentinels of relative PCB availability to aquatic and riparian food webs in heterogeneous aquatic ecosystems like rivermouths where habitat and contaminant variability may make the use of aquatic taxa lesseffective. Furthermore, the present approach appears robust to heterogeneity in shoreline development and riparian vegetation that support different families of large web-building spiders. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;9999:1–9. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  13. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil using UV and visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jiansong; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H

    2013-01-01

    A study on dechlorination of PCB138 in transformer oil (TO) and 2-propanol (IPA) using 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light as well as dye sensitized visible light has been conducted. Studies on dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in TO using visible light in the presence of methylene blue (MB) and triethylamine (TEA) (providing a 'photocatalytic' cycle) in both deaerated and aerated conditions have been conducted to determine effects of TO, MB and TEA on reaction rates. The results show that photolytic methods are effective in treating PCBs in TO, and that the oil plays a limited adverse role. Under UV irradiation, PCB 138 can be >99% dechlorinated in the presence 0.06% (w/w) TO in IPA within 1 h with a rate constant of 0.0853 min(-1), while 47% of PCB138 can be dechlorinated in 92.1% (w/w) TO in IPA within 2 h with a rate constant of 0.0051 min(-1). In the 'photocatalytic' system, 94% reduction of PCB 138 was achieved within 30 min with a rate constant of 0.0968 min(-1) when the solvent was 60.70% (w/w) TO in IPA, while 71% dechlorination of PCB138 was achieved within 30 min with a rate constant of 0.0382 min(-1) when 81.62% (w/w) TO was present. In treatment of 30-73 ppm PCBs in TO, the optimal concentration of MB and TEA were found to be 0.5 g/L and 58.08 g/L respectively. Because of quenching by oxygen, deaeration of the solution is necessary for an efficient reaction. The photocatalytic system is especially adapted for treating lower concentration of PCBs in TO.

  14. Modeling the global levels and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in air under a climate change scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Lara; Von Waldow, Harald; Macleod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Marcomini, Antonio; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-08-01

    We used the multimedia chemical fate model BETR Global to evaluate changes in the global distribution of two polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB 28 and PCB 153, under the influence of climate change. This was achieved by defining two climate scenarios based on results from a general circulation model, one scenario representing the last twenty years of the 20th century (20CE scenario) and another representing the global climate under the assumption of strong future greenhouse gas emissions (A2 scenario). The two climate scenarios are defined by four groups of environmental parameters: (1) temperature in the planetary boundary layer and the free atmosphere, (2) wind speeds and directions in the atmosphere, (3) current velocities and directions in the surface mixed layer of the oceans, and (4) rate and geographical pattern of precipitation. As a fifth parameter in our scenarios, we considerthe effect of temperature on primary volatilization emissions of PCBs. Comparison of dynamic model results using environmental parameters from the 20CE scenario against historical long-term monitoring data of concentrations of PCB 28 and PCB 153 in air from 16 different sites shows satisfactory agreement between modeled and measured PCBs concentrations. The 20CE scenario and A2 scenario were compared using steady-state calculations and assuming the same source characteristics of PCBs. Temperature differences between the two scenarios is the dominant factor that determines the difference in PCB concentrations in air. The higher temperatures in the A2 scenario drive increased primary and secondary volatilization emissions of PCBs, and enhance transport from temperate regions to the Arctic. The largest relative increase in concentrations of both PCB congeners in air under the A2 scenario occurs in the high Arctic and the remote Pacific Ocean. Generally, higher wind speeds under the A2 scenario result in more efficient intercontinental transport of PCB 28 and PCB 153 compared to the 20CE

  15. PCB Content of Sediments Collected at Manistique Harbor, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    waste, fine organic, and mineral fractions of the sediment. Results showed that the primary repository of PCBs was the coarse wood waste fraction...then dried further at 180 °C to remove water bound to the wood and mineral materials and yield the dry solids content. Thermal gravimetric analysis...the influence of wood waste on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content in sediment. Sediments were fractionated by density and size to isolate the wood

  16. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  17. Solvent cleaning of pole transformers containing PCB contaminated insulating oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbe, H; Shibuya, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1989, it was discovered that the recycled insulation oil in pole transformers for electric power supply was contaminated with trace amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; maximum 50 mg-PCB/kg-insulation oil). In order to remove the PCBs from transformer components using n-hexane as a solvent, we investigated the relationship between progressive stages of dismantling and cleaning results. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Based on the cleaning test results, we made an estimate of the residual PCB amount on iron and copper components. By dismantling the test pole transformers into the "iron core and coil portion" and cleaning the components, we achieved a residual PCB amount that was below the limit of detection (0.05 mg-PCB/kg-material). To achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the transformer paper component, it was necessary to cut the paper into pieces smaller than 5 mm. We were unable to achieve a residual PCB amount below the limit of detection for the wood component. (2) Compared to Japan's stipulated limited concentration standard values for PCBs, the results of the cleaning test show that cleaning iron or copper components with PCBs only on their surface with the solvent n-hexane will satisfy the limited concentration standard values when care is taken to ensure the component surfaces have adequate contact with the cleaning solvent.

  18. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl mass transfer after amendment of contaminated sediment with activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Werner; Upal Ghosh; Richard G. Luthy [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The sorption kinetics and concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in historically polluted sediment is modeled to assess a remediation strategy based on in situ PCB sequestration by mixing with activated carbon (AC). The authors extend their evaluation of a model based on intraparticle diffusion by including a biomimetic semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and a first-order degradation rate for the aqueous phase. The model predictions are compared with the previously reported experimental PCB concentrations in the bulk water phase and in SPMDs. The simulated scenarios comprise a marine and a freshwater sediment, four PCB congeners, two AC grain sizes, four doses of AC, and comparison with laboratory experiments. The modeling approach distinguishes between two different sediment particles types: a light-density fraction representing carbonaceous particles such as charcoal, coal, coke, cenospheres, or wood, and a heavy-density fraction representing the mineral phase with coatings of organic matter. A third particle type in the numerical model is AC. The model qualitatively reproduces the observed shifts in the PCB distribution during repartitioning after AC amendment but overestimates the overall effect of the treatment in reducing aqueous and SPMD concentrations of PCBs by a factor of 2-6. For the AC application in sediment, competitive sorption of the various solutes apparently requires a reduction by a factor of 16 of the literature values for the AC-water partitioning coefficient measured in pure aqueous systems. With this correction, model results and measurements agree within a factor of 3. After AC amendment is homogeneously mixed into the sediment and then left undisturbed, aqueous PCB concentrations tend toward the same reduction after 5 years. 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. In situ application of activated carbon and biochar to PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of mixing regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyes, Mackenzie J; Rutter, Allison; Zeeb, Barbara A

    2013-11-01

    The in situ use of carbon amendments such as activated carbon (AC) and biochar to minimize the bioavailability of organic contaminants is gaining in popularity. In the first in situ experiment conducted at a Canadian PCB-contaminated Brownfield site, GAC and two types of biochar were statistically equal at reducing PCB uptake into plants. PCB concentrations in Cucurbita pepo root tissue were reduced by 74%, 72% and 64%, with the addition of 2.8% GAC, Burt's biochar and BlueLeaf biochar, respectively. A complementary greenhouse study which included a bioaccumulation study of Eisenia fetida (earthworm), found mechanically mixing carbon amendments with PCB-contaminated soil (i.e. 24 h at 30 rpm) resulted in shoot, root and worm PCB concentrations 66%, 59% and 39% lower than in the manually mixed treatments (i.e. with a spade and bucket). Therefore, studies which mechanically mix carbon amendments with contaminated soil may over-estimate the short-term potential to reduce PCB bioavailability.

  20. Risk assessments of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, John Christian

    2006-01-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCB) are ubiquitous in food of animal origin and accumulate in fatty tissues of animals and humans. The most toxic congener is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo...... as toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ). The EC Scientific Committee for Food evaluated these compounds in 2001. The assessment used the most sensitive adverse toxicological end-points of TCDD in experimental animals. These were developmental and reproductive effects in the male offspring of rats administered TCDD......,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF, and the dioxin-like PCB, and expressed as a group tolerable weekly intake of 14 pg WHC-TEQ/kg bw. The FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) performed a similar assessment whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) has paid more attention to human data...

  1. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of a binary mixture of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) (Cas No. 57465-28-8) and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) (Cas No. 31508-00-6) in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats (gavage studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    DIOXIN TOXIC EQUIVALENCY FACTOR EVALUATION OVERVIEW: Polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) have the ability to bind to and activate the ligand-activated transcription factor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Structurally related compounds that bind to the AhR and exhibit biological actions similar to TCDD are commonly referred to as "dioxin-like compounds" (DLCs). Ambient human exposure to DLCs occurs through the ingestion of foods containing residues of DLCs that bioconcentrate through the food chain. Due to their lipophilicity and persistence, once internalized they accumulate in body tissue, mainly adipose, resulting in chronic lifetime human exposure. Since human exposure to DLCs always occurs as a complex mixture, the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) methodology has been developed as a mathematical tool to assess the health risk posed by complex mixtures of these compounds. The TEF methodology is a relative potency scheme that ranks the dioxin-like activity of a compound relative to TCDD, which is the most potent congener. This allows for the estimation of the potential dioxin-like activity of a mixture of chemicals, based on a common mechanism of action involving an initial binding of DLCs to the AhR. The toxic equivalency of DLCs was nominated for evaluation because of the widespread human exposure to DLCs and the lack of data on the adequacy of the TEF methodology for predicting relative potency for cancer risk. To address this, the National Toxicology Program conducted a series of 2-year bioassays in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity of DLCs and structurally related polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and mixtures of these compounds. Mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118) were produced commercially before 1977 for the electric industry as dielectric

  2. Mercury accumulation and the mercury-PCB-sex interaction in summer flounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; DeWild, John F.; Ogorek, Jacob M.; Vastano, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns in the relative differences in contaminant concentrations between the sexes of mature fish may reveal important behavioral and physiological differences between the sexes. We determined whole-fish total mercury (Hg) concentrations in 23 female summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and 27 male summer flounder from New Jersey coastal waters. To estimate the change in Hg concentration due to release of eggs at spawning, Hg concentration in the somatic tissue and ovaries of 5 of the 23 female summer flounder were also determined. To ascertain whether most of the Hg in the summer flounder was methylmercury (MeHg), whole-fish MeHg concentrations were determined in all 50 summer flounder. Whole-fish Hg concentrations averaged 113 ng/g for females and 111 ng/g for males. Thus, females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males, on average, but the difference was not statistically significant. Based on Hg determinations in the somatic tissue and ovaries, we predicted that Hg concentration of females would increase by 3.6%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. On average, 92% of the Hg in the summer flounder was MeHg. To determine whether the effect of sex on Hg concentration was significantly different from the effect of sex on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration, we paired our Hg determinations with PCB determinations from a previous study, and applied regression analysis. Sex significantly interacted with contaminant type (Hg or PCBs), as males were 43% higher in PCB concentration than females, whereas females were 2% higher in Hg concentration than males. Males eliminating Hg from their bodies at a faster rate than females was a likely explanation for this discrepancy between the two contaminant types. Overall, the Hg and PCB concentrations in the summer flounder were relatively low, and therefore our findings also had implications for continued operation of the summer flounder fishery.

  3. The Belgian PCB/dioxin crisis-8 years later An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; Schepens, Paul; Jorens, Philippe; Blust, Ronny; Neels, Hugo

    2008-03-01

    In January 1999, 50kg polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated with 1g dioxins were accidentally added to a stock of recycled fat used for the production of 500tonnes animal feed in Belgium. Although signs of poultry poisoning were noticed by February 1999, the extent of the contamination was publicly announced only in May 1999, when it appeared that more than 2500 poultry and pig farms could have been involved. This has resulted in a major food crisis, known worldwide as the "Belgian PCB/dioxin crisis". The crisis was resolved by the implementation of a large food monitoring program for the seven PCB markers (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180). When PCB concentrations exceeded the tolerance levels of 100, 200 or 1000ng/g fat for milk, meat or animal feed, respectively, the 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) congeners were also determined. By December 1999, more than 55,000 PCB and 500 dioxin analyses were already done by Belgian and international laboratories. The highest concentrations of PCBs and dioxins and the highest percentage of affected animals were found in poultry. Several important consequences of the food crisis were: (1) the introduction in 1999 of norms for PCBs in feedstuffs and food in Belgium followed by the introduction in 2002 of European harmonized norms for PCDD/Fs in animal feed and food of animal origin; (2) the systematic national monitoring of food of animal origin; and (3) the creation of the Federal Agency for Food Safety in Belgium. The human health risk following this major incident was assessed with contradictory results. It was suggested that, since only a limited proportion of the food chain was contaminated, it is unlikely that adverse effects were inflicted in the Belgian population. However, another assessment suggests that neurotoxic and behavioural effects in neonates, together with an increase in the number of cancers, may be observed.

  4. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  5. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  6. Coactivation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling pathways in PCB153-induced NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changjiang [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Key Lab of Birth Defects and Reproductive Health of National Health and Family Planning Commission, Chongqing Population and Family Planning Science and Technology Research Institute, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yang, Jixin [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Tongji Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Fu, Wenjuan; Qi, Suqin; Wang, Chenmin; Quan, Chao [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Yang, Kedi, E-mail: yangkd@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environment and Health, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2014-06-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent and widely distributed environmental pollutants that have various deleterious effects, e.g., neurotoxicity, endocrine disruption and reproductive abnormalities. In order to verify the hypothesis that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by PCBs, Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were dosed with PCB153 intraperitoneally at 0, 4, 16 and 32 mg/kg for five consecutive days; BRL cells (rat liver cell line) were treated with PCB153 (0, 1, 5, and 10 μM) for 24 h. Results indicated that the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were activated in vivo and in vitro after exposure to PCB153, and protein levels of phospho-Akt and phospho-ERK were significantly increased. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and caspase-3, -8 and -9 inhibition caused by PCB153 were also observed. Inhibiting the ERK pathway significantly attenuated PCB153-induced NF-κB activation, whereas inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway hardly influenced phospho-NF-κB level. However, inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway significantly elevated caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities, while the ERK pathway only synergistically regulated caspase-9. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a reliable indicator of cell proliferation, was also induced. Moreover, PCB153 led to hepatocellular hypertrophy and elevated liver weight. Taken together, PCB153 leads to aberrant proliferation and apoptosis of hepatocytes through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition, and coactivated PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways play critical roles in PCB153-induced hepatotoxicity. - Highlights: • PCB153 led to hepatotoxicity through NF-κB activation and caspase inhibition. • The PI3K/Akt and ERK pathways were coactivated in vivo and in vitro by PCB153. • The ERK pathway regulated levels of phospho-NF-κB and caspase-9. • The PI3K/Akt pathway regulated levels of caspase-3, -8 and -9.

  7. Automated PCB Inspection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Usama BUKHARI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Development of an automated PCB inspection system as per the need of industry is a challenging task. In this paper a case study is presented, to exhibit, a proposed system for an immigration process of a manual PCB inspection system to an automated PCB inspection system, with a minimal intervention on the existing production flow, for a leading automotive manufacturing company. A detailed design of the system, based on computer vision followed by testing and analysis was proposed, in order to aid the manufacturer in the process of automation.

  8. Thermal dechlorination of heavily PCB-contaminated soils from a sealed site of PCB-containing electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbao; Ji, Bingjing; Huang, Qifei

    2016-08-01

    A large amount of soils are contaminated by leakage of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sealed-up PCB-containing electrical equipment in China. Thermal dechlorination of soils contaminated with PCBs at a level of 108 mg g(-1) and PCB77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) as a model isomer in conjunction with calcium oxide was investigated in this study. The PCB dechlorination rate improved with increased temperature and time. The highest dechlorination rate was 85.3 %, and temperature was the main influencing factor. Pentachlorobiphenyl and tetrachlorobiphenyl in soils decreased or disappeared in response to treatment at 350 and 400 °C for 4 h, while monochlorinated biphenyl and biphenyl were detected after the reaction, indicating the presence of a dechlorination/hydrogenation pathway. Discrepancy in chlorine balance was observed after low-temperature thermal dechlorination. The species of dechlorination products were identified as amorphous carbon containing a crystalline graphite plane structure and a carbonyl group-containing polymerized product, demonstrating the existence of a dechlorination/polymerization pathway. The yield of amorphous carbon and high-molecular-weight intermediates increased with heating time. The results showed that the discrepancy in chlorine balance was because of the generation of polymerized products and undetected intermediates.

  9. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of myocardial infarction - a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, Charlotte; Berglund, Marika; Glynn, Anders; Wolk, Alicja; Åkesson, Agneta

    2015-03-15

    Fish consumption may promote cardiovascular health. The role of major food contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) common in fatty fish, is unclear. We assessed the association between dietary PCB exposure and risk of myocardial infarction taking into account the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids. In the prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort, 33,446 middle-aged and elderly women, free from cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes at baseline (1997) were followed-up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and intake of fish fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid; EPA-DHA) were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. During follow-up 1386 incident cases of myocardial infarction were ascertained through register-linkage. Women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 286 ng/day) had a multivariable-adjusted RR of myocardial infarction of 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.45) compared to the lowest quartile (median 101 ng/day) before, and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.10-2.25) after adjusting for EPA-DHA. Stratification by low and high EPA-DHA intake, resulted in RRs 2.20 (95% CI, 1.18-4.12) and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.81-3.69), respectively comparing highest PCB tertile with lowest. The intake of dietary EPA-DHA was inversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction after but not before adjusting for dietary PCB. Exposure to PCBs was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction, while some beneficial effect was associated with increasing EPA and DHA intake. To increase the net benefits of fish consumption, PCB contamination should be reduced to a minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and neuropsychological status among older adults in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Shrestha, Srishti; Gomez, Marta I; McCaffrey, Robert J; Zimmerman, Earl A; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Hwang, Syni-an

    2012-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are emerging environmental contaminants, but little is known about their possible human health effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PBDEs and neuropsychological function among older adults and the possibility of effect modification with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of 9 PBDE and 30 PCB congeners and 34 tests of cognitive and motor function, affective state, and olfactory function were assessed among 144 men and women of 55-74 years of age. After adjustment for relevant confounders, no overall associations were observed between the sum of the PBDE congener concentrations in serum (∑ PBDE) and scores on the neuropsychological tests. However, statistically significant interactions were found between PBDEs and PCBs for some measures of verbal learning and memory. Among persons with ∑ PCB concentrations at or above the median of 467ppb (lipid basis), an increase in ∑ PBDE concentrations from the 25th to 75th percentile was associated with decreases between 7% and 12% on scores for certain subscales of the California Verbal Learning Test. In contrast, no statistically significant associations were observed for PBDEs among persons with ∑ PCB levels below the median. The results suggest that PBDEs and PCBs may interact to affect verbal memory and learning among persons 55-74 years old. This is the first study to evaluate the neuropsychological effects of PBDEs in adults and the possibility of synergy with PCBs in humans.

  11. Enhanced reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil by in-vessel anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Zhang, Chi; Du, Yao; Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic dechlorination is an effective degradation pathway for higher chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCB-contaminated soil by anaerobic composting with zero-valent iron (ZVI) was studied, and preliminary reasons for the enhanced reductive dechlorination with ZVI were investigated. The results show that the addition of nanoscale ZVI can enhance dechlorination during in-vessel anaerobic composting. After 140 days, the average number of removed Cl per biphenyl with 10 mg g(-1) of added nanoscale ZVI was 0.63, enhancing the dechlorination by 34 % and improving the initial dechlorination speed. The ZVI enhances dechlorination by providing a suitable acid base environment, reducing volatile fatty acid inhibition and stimulating the microorganisms. The C/N ratios for treatments with the highest rate of ZVI addition were smaller than for the control, indicating that ZVI addition can promote compost maturity.

  12. Modelling growth and bioaccumulation of Polychlorinated biphenyls in common sole ( Solea solea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, M.; Loizeau, V.; Roupsard, F.; Le Guellec, A. M.; Bacher, C.

    2010-10-01

    Experiments were performed on juvenile sole in controlled conditions in the aim of understanding how the biology of common sole may affect the accumulation and dilution of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The fish were raised in optimal conditions and divided into two tanks: one control tank and one PCB tank. 4 PCB congeners were added to food for 3 months in the PCB tank; the soles were subsequently fed unspiked food for 3 months. Growth (length and weight) and PCB concentrations were monitored in both tanks and juvenile sole growth was not significantly affected by PCBs in our experimental conditions. We used the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory to model sole biology and paid special attention to model calibration through the wide use of data from the literature. The model accurately reproduced fish growth in both tanks. We coupled a bioaccumulation model to reproduce the concentration dynamics of the 4 PCB congeners used. This model did not require additional calibration and was dependent solely on the growth model and PCB concentrations in food. The bioaccumulation model accurately simulated PCB accumulation in fish, but overestimated PCB concentrations in fish during the dilution phase. This may suggest that in addition to PCB dilution due to growth, PCB concentrations decreased due to other PCB elimination mechanisms. Finally, we discussed potential improvements to the model and its future applications.

  13. Prospects for using combined engineered bacterial enzymes and plant systems to rhizoremediate polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, Michel

    2013-03-01

    The fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil is driven by a combination of interacting biological processes. Several investigations have brought evidence that the rhizosphere provides a remarkable ecological niche to enhance the PCB degradation process by rhizobacteria. The bacterial oxidative enzymes involved in PCB degradation have been investigated extensively and novel engineered enzymes exhibiting enhanced catalytic activities toward more persistent PCBs have been described. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that approaches involving processes based on plant-microbe associations are very promising to remediate PCB-contaminated sites. In this review emphasis will be placed on the current state of knowledge regarding the strategies that are proposed to engineer the enzymes of the PCB-degrading bacterial oxidative pathway and to design PCB-degrading plant-microbe systems to remediate PCB-contaminated soil.

  14. Research of Vision Detection System on PCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Songlin; ZHOU Zude; HU Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    Machine vision is applied in defect detection system on PCB. The whole system structure and the principle of vision detection are introduced, while the detection method including image processing, detection and recognition algorithms are detailed. The simulation results demonstrate that through this method, four types of defects including short circuit, open circuit, protuberance and concavity on PCB circuit can be effectively inspected, located and recognized.

  15. Food contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Belgium. Effects on the body burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Larebeke, N; Covaci, A; Schepens, P; Hens, L

    2002-11-01

    The core paper of this debate shows that persistent organic pollutant residues of the 12 chemicals targeted for a phase out under the Stockholm Convention are present in almost all categories of food in the US food supply. For dioxins, the study does not use measured data, but is based upon potential dioxin residues in selected food items. Polychlorinated biphenyls are not included in the study. In this paper we discuss selected data of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin concentrations in Belgian food. Some of these exposures are chronic, others are attributable to incidents. Both result in high body burdens in Belgium. The paper also compares the current concentrations in food with the recent standards launched by the EU for dioxins in food, and discusses whether these values adequately protect European citizens.

  16. STUDIES OF THE SUBSTITUTION EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES FOR BIPHENYL AND DERIVATIVE MOLECULES BY USING DFT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Khedir Al-Yasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DFT method has been carried out to study the substitution effects of NO2 group on the electronic (ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, hardness, softness and electrophilicity index and IR spectral properties of biphenyl and derivative molecules by using the B3LYP functional and the 3-21G basis set, as well as the optimization structure. The calculated values of HOMO and LUMO energies, as well as predicted by ChemBioDraw program 1H and 13C NMR spectra for the studied compounds are in a good agreement with experimental data.

  17. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  18. Relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birthweight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.; Lawrence, C.E.

    1984-09-20

    A study was made of the relation between occupational exposure of women to high homolog polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and birthweight and gestational age among the live offspring of these workers. In 1982 interviews were conducted with 200 women who had held jobs with direct PCB exposure. A comparison was made with 205 women who had never held such a job. When all births occurring to mothers following exposure to PCBs were considered, the unadjusted mean birthweight in the direct exposure group was 96 grams less than the comparison group. No differences in gestational age were seen between groups. The birthweight difference was reduced to 41 grams following adjustment for potential confounding factors. In a parallel analysis using a continuous exposure variable estimate generated from an independently derived serum PCB prediction model, no effect of PCBs was noted on birthweight or gestational age using either crude or adjusted analyses. The authors conclude that no evidence for a biologically meaningful effect of high homolog PCBs on gestational age or birthweight exists.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    no name on report

    2014-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Document Log section of this report meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  20. Health effects and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and metals in a contaminated community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmfrid, Ingela; Berglund, Marika; Löfman, Owe; Wingren, Gun

    2012-09-01

    Environmental measurements carried out by local authorities during the 1970s, 80s and 90s in an area contaminated by hundreds of years of industrial activities have revealed high levels of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in soil, vegetables, root crops, berries and mushrooms. In 1972, a large quantity of oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was accidentally spilled into the river running through the village. To investigate the possible health effects of exposure from local sources, all cancer diagnoses, registered in 1960-2003 for individuals living in the study area, were collected from the regional cancer register of southeast Sweden. The total cancer incidence was non-significantly decreased both among males and females as compared to national rates (SIR=0.91) for each gender. Among males, increased risks, of border-line significance, were seen for testicular cancer and lymphomas as well as significantly decreased risks for cancer in the rectum, respiratory system and brain. Information on lifetime residence, occupation, smoking habits, diseases, childbirth and food consumption, was collected via questionnaires from cancer cases and randomly selected controls. In both genders combined, significant associations were found for total cancer and high consumption of local perch, and for lymphomas and high consumption of both perch and pikeperch. Female breast cancer was significantly associated with high consumption of local perch and pike as well as with work in metal production. Mothers residing in the parish before the age of five reported significantly more preterm child deliveries. In spite of study limitations, the results indicate that residing in a rural contaminated area may contribute to the development of certain cancers and reproductive effects. In females, high consumption of local fish was shown to be the strongest determinant for total cancer, while in males, the strongest determinant was residing in the study area

  1. Intensification of the aerobic bioremediation of an actual site soil historically contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs through bioaugmentation with a non acclimated, complex source of microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fava Fabio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The biotreatability of actual-site polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-contaminated soils is often limited by their poor content of autochthonous pollutant-degrading microorganisms. In such cases, inoculation might be the solution for a successful bioremediation. Some pure and mixed cultures of characterized PCB degrading bacteria have been tested to this purpose. However, several failures have been recorded mostly due to the inability of inoculated microbes to compete with autochthonous microflora and to face the toxicity and the scarcity of nutrients occurring in the contaminated biotope. Complex microbial systems, such as compost or sludge, normally consisting of a large variety of robust microorganisms and essential nutrients, would have better chances to succeed in colonizing degraded contaminated soils. However, such sources of microorganisms have been poorly applied in soil bioremediation and in particular in the biotreatment of soil with PCBs. Thus, in this study the effects of Enzyveba, i.e. a consortium of non-adapted microorganisms developed from composted material, on the slurry- and solid-phase aerobic bioremediation of an actual-site, aged PCB-contaminated soil were studied. Results A slow and only partial biodegradation of low-chlorinated biphenyls, along with a moderate depletion of initial soil ecotoxicity, were observed in the not-inoculated reactors. Enzyveba significantly increased the availability and the persistence of aerobic PCB- and chlorobenzoic acid-degrading cultivable bacteria in the bioreactors, in particular during the earlier phase of treatment. It also markedly enhanced PCB-biodegradation rate and extent (from 50 to 100% as well as the final soil detoxification, in particular under slurry-phase conditions. Taken together, data obtained suggest that Enzyveba enhanced the biotreatability of the selected soil by providing exogenous bacteria and fungi able to remove inhibitory or toxic intermediates of

  2. [Polychlorinated biphenyls in house dust at an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China: sources and human exposure and health risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhi-Cheng; Chen, She-Jun; Ding, Nan; Wang, Jing; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in house dust from an e-waste site and urban site in the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The PCB concentrations in house dust at the e-waste site ranged from 12.4 to 87 765 ng x g(-1), with an average of 10 167 ng x g(-1). There was no significant difference in the PCB concentrations between indoor and outdoor dust. The PCB homologue pattern was dominated by tri-, penta-, hexa-, and tetra-CBs, which was not similar to that in Chinese technical PCB product. There was also no significant difference in the PCB compositions between indoor and outdoor dust. PCB sources in house dust at the e-waste site were apportioned by chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The results showed that the PCBs were derived primarily from Aroclor 1262 (36.7% ), Aroclor 1254 (26.7%), Aroclor 1242 (21.4%), and Aroclor 1248 (18.5%). The daily exposure doses were 42, 17, and 2.9 ng x (kg x d)(-1) for toddlers, children/adolescents, and adults in the e-waste area, respectively. Risk assessment indicated that the hazard quotients were higher than 1 for toddlers and children/adolescents indicating adverse effects for them. The lifetime average excess carcinogenic risk for population in the e-waste area was 4.5 x 10(-5), within the acceptable range of U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. The mean concentrations of PCBs in house dust in Guangzhou was 48.7 ng x g(-1). The low PCB level is consistent with the fact that technical PCBs were not widely used in China in the past. The risks of exposure to PCBs via house dust in Guangzhou are very low.

  3. Monitoring serum PCB levels in the adult population of the Canary Islands (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Burillo-Putze

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic chemicals that have been detected in human serum or tissues all over the world. These pollutants could exert a number of deleterious effects on humans and wildlife, including carcinogenic processes. The Spanish population of the Canary Islands was evaluated with respect to PCB levels more than ten years ago showing lower levels than other Western populations. The objective of our study was to assess the current level of contamination by PCBs showed by this population. We measured serum PCBs in a sample of healthy adult subjects (206 serum samples from subjects with an average age of 66 years old to evaluate the potential modification of PCB serum levels in this population during the last decade. PCB congeners (28, 52, 77, 81, 101, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 138, 153, 156, 157, 167, 169, 180, and 189 were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Our results showed that PCB residues were found in 84% of serum samples analyzed, the congeners 28, 153 and 180 being the most frequently detected and at the highest median values (0.1 ng/mL. In addition, the median concentration of the sum of those PCBs considered as markers of environmental contamination by these chemicals (Marker-PCBs was 0.6 ng/mL, reaching values as high as as 2.6 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. Levels of the sum of PCBs with toxic effects similar to dioxins (dioxin-like PCBs reached median values of 0.4 ng/mL in the 95th percentile. The reported levels are similar to those described previously in this population more than ten years ago, in the sense that the inhabitants of the Canary Archipelago show levels of PCB contamination lower than the majority of populations from developed countries. These findings suggest that currently there is not any active source of these chemicals in this archipelago. Nevertheless, as foods seem to be a relevant source for these compounds, Public Health authorities should monitor the

  4. In Vitro Exposure of Porcine Ovarian Follicular Cells to PCB 153 Alters Steroid Secretion But Not Their Viability—Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In our previous paper[1], we demonstrated that porcine follicles collected during the early stage of development are the most sensitive to the toxic action of polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153. Follicles of this type were collected to test the effect of PCB 153 on cell steroidogenesis and viability. Cocultures of granulosa and theca cells were grown in M199 medium at 37ºC. Control cultures were maintained in that medium alone, while experimental ones were supplemented with PCB 153 at doses of 5, 10, 50, and 100 ng/ml. After 48, 96, and 144 h, media were collected for steroid analysis and cell viability was measured using an LDH (lactate dehydrogenase activity cytotoxicity test. A 2-day exposure of follicular cells to all the investigated doses of PCB 153 caused a statistically significant decrease in progesterone (P4 secretion, while in doses of 50 and 100 ng/ml there was also a decrease in testosterone (T secretion. No effect on estradiol (E2 secretion was observed. The observed decrease in P4 and T secretion, and lack of any statistically significant effect on E2 secretion by cells from small follicles exposed for 48 h to PCB, suggests that PCB 153 acts before P4 formation. Longer exposures caused an increase in P4 secretion, with a concomitant drastic decrease in T secretion and a tendency to decrease the E2 secretion, suggesting inhibition of P450 17α hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that converts P4 to T. The observed PCB 153–induced increase in P4 secretion by cells collected from small antral follicles, with a concomitant decrease in E2 secretion, accounts for the induction of luteinization and, in this case, inhibition of aromatization process in the follicles. However, in all doses tested and at all times of exposure, PCB 153 had no effect on cell viability. These findings suggest different time of exposure–dependent action of PCB 153 on particular steps of steroidogenesis but not action on cell viability. These results

  5. Biodynamic modeling of PCB uptake by Macoma balthica and Corbicula fluminea from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon amendment was assessed in the laboratory as a remediation strategy for freshwater sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Grasse River (near Massena, NY). Three end points were evaluated: aqueous equilibrium PCB concentration, uptake into semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), and 28-day bioaccumulation in the clam Corbicula fluminea. PCB uptake by water, SPMDs, and clams followed similar trends, with reductions increasing as a function of carbon dose. Average percent reductions in clam tissue PCBs were 67, 86, and 95% for activated carbon doses of 0.7, 1.3, and 2.5% dry wt, respectively. A biodynamic model that incorporates sediment geochemistry and dietary and aqueous uptake routes was found to agree well with observed uptake by C. fluminea in our laboratory test systems. Results from this study were compared to 28-day bioaccumulation experiments involving PCB-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard (San Francisco Bay, CA) and the clam Macoma balthica. Due to differences in feeding strategy, M. balthica deposit-feeds whereas C. fluminea filter-feeds, the relative importance of the aqueous uptake route is predicted to be much higher for C. fluminea than for M. balthica. Whereas M. balthica takes up approximately 90% of its body burden through sediment ingestion, C. fluminea only accumulates approximately 45% via this route. In both cases, results strongly suggest that it is the mass transfer of PCBs from native sediment to added carbon particles, not merely reductions in aqueous PCB concentrations, that effectively reduces PCB bioavailability and uptake by sediment-dwelling organisms. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  6. Effects on development, growth responses and thyroid-hormone systems in eyed-eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) continuously exposed to 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukwe, Augustine; Olufsen, Marianne; Cicero, Nicola; Hansen, Marianne D

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (triiodothyronine, T3; and thyroxine, T4) play significant roles in development, metamorphosis, metabolism, homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and differentiation, for which the effects are mediated through thyroid hormone receptors (TRα and TRβ). Similarly, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is involved in growth and development through regulation of somatic growth. This study was designed to examine the effects of the dioxin-like 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) on responses related to growth and thyroid hormone system in eyed eggs and yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic salmon. Salmon eggs were continuously exposed to two waterborne concentrations of PCB-77 (1 or 10 ng/L) over a period of 50 d covering hatching and through yolk-sac absorption stages. Sampling was performed regularly throughout the exposure period and at different time intervals. Gene expression patterns were performed on whole-body homogenate at age 500, 548, 632, 674, and 716 dd (dd: day degrees) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Total T3 (TT3) and total T4 (TT4) were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data showed that 10 ng PCB-77 increased dioiodinase 2 (Dio2) at 500 dd and both PCB-77 concentrations decreased dio2 expression at 548 dd. PCB-77 elevated cellular TT3 at 500 dd and was lowered at 548 dd only at 10 ng. Otherwise, time-related reduction was not affected by PCB-77 exposure as observed for the rest of the exposure period. For TT4, 1 ng PCB-77 produced a rise at 500 dd, and an apparent concentration decrease at 548 dd, before a total inhibition at 632 dd. The IGF-1 and IGF-1R were variably affected by PCB-77. For IGF-2, PCB-77 produced a concentration-dependent increase at 548 dd, and thereafter an elevation (1 ng) and fall (10 ng) at 632 dd. TRβ mRNA demonstrated PCB-77 related increases during the exposure period, and this effect returned to control levels at 716 dd. For TRα, a rise was noted only after exposure to 10 ng PCB-77 at 500 dd

  7. Habitat-based PCB environmental quality criteria for the protection of endangered killer whales (Orcinus orca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alava, Juan José; Ross, Peter S; Lachmuth, Cara; Ford, John K B; Hickie, Brendan E; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2012-11-20

    The development of an area-based polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) food-web bioaccumulation model enabled a critical evaluation of the efficacy of sediment quality criteria and prey tissue residue guidelines in protecting fish-eating resident killer whales of British Columbia and adjacent waters. Model-predicted and observed PCB concentrations in resident killer whales and Chinook salmon were in good agreement, supporting the model's application for risk assessment and criteria development. Model application shows that PCB concentrations in the sediments from the resident killer whale's Critical Habitats and entire foraging range leads to PCB concentrations in most killer whales that exceed PCB toxicity threshold concentrations reported for marine mammals. Results further indicate that current PCB sediment quality and prey tissue residue criteria for fish-eating wildlife are not protective of killer whales and are not appropriate for assessing risks of PCB-contaminated sediments to high trophic level biota. We present a novel methodology for deriving sediment quality criteria and tissue residue guidelines that protect biota of high trophic levels under various PCB management scenarios. PCB concentrations in sediments and in prey that are deemed protective of resident killer whale health are much lower than current criteria values, underscoring the extreme vulnerability of high trophic level marine mammals to persistent and bioaccumulative contaminants.

  8. Uptake and depuration of PCB-153 in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians and human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilo, T F; Cardoso, P G; Pato, P; Duarte, A C; Pardal, M A

    2014-03-01

    A medium-term mesocosm exposure study was conducted to elucidate bioaccumulation and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153) in edible shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Over the 15-day exposure period, shrimp under different exposure concentrations exhibited a significant increase in PCB-153 concentration compared with control organisms. Distinct bioaccumulation patterns and uptake rates were observed depending on the exposure concentrations. For low PCB-153 exposure levels (0.25μgL(-1)), accumulation followed a saturation model, reaching an apparent steady state after fifteen days exposure. For intermediate (2.5μgL(-1)) and high PCB-153 levels (25μgL(-1)), accumulation was faster and linear. In addition, the bioaccumulation rate was not proportional to PCB-153 concentration, and the bioaccumulation was higher at intermediate exposure concentrations. Regarding the depuration phase, P. varians lost up to 30% of PCB-153 after 72h and levels continued slowly to decrease until the end of the 30-d experimental period. However, PCB-153 levels in shrimp did not reach background values, and those exposed to moderate and high PCB-153 concentrations presented contamination levels much higher than the regulatory limit for human food consumption (75ngg(-1) ww for Σ6 PCB).

  9. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Keir, Michael J.; Whittle, D. Michael; Noguchi, George E.

    2010-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 61 female lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and 71 male lake trout from Lake Ontario (Ontario, Canada and New York, United States). To estimate the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning, PCB concentrations in gonads and in somatic tissue of lake trout were also determined. In addition, bioenergetics modeling was applied to investigate whether gross growth efficiency (GGE) differed between the sexes. Results showed that, on average, males were 22% higher in PCB concentration than females in Lake Ontario. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 3% and 14% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in male lake trout. According to the bioenergetics modeling results, GGE of males was about 2% higher than adult female GGE, on average. Thus, bioenergetics modeling could not explain the higher PCB concentrations exhibited by the males. Nevertheless, a sexual difference in GGE remained a plausible explanation for the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of the lake trout.

  10. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  11. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts.

  12. Biological uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by Macoma balthica from sediment amended with activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Pamela B.; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J.; Luoma, S.N.; Luthy, R.G.

    2007-01-01

    This work characterizes the efficacy of activated carbon amendment in reducing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioavailability to clams (Macoma balthica) from field-contaminated sediment (Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, USA) Test methods were developed for the use of clams to investigate the effects of sediment amendment on biological uptake. Sediment was mixed with activated carbon for one month. Bioaccumulation tests (28 d) were employed to assess the relationships between carbon dose and carbon particle size on observed reductions in clam biological uptake of PCBs. Extraction and cleanup protocols were developed for the clam tissue. Efficacy of activated carbon treatment was found to increase with both increasing carbon dose and decreasing carbon particle size. Average reductions in bioaccumulation of 22, 64, and 84% relative to untreated Hunters Point sediment were observed for carbon amendments of 0.34, 1.7, and 3.4%, respectively. Average bioaccumulation reductions of 41, 73, and 89% were observed for amendments (dose = 1.7% dry wt) with carbon particles of 180 to 250, 75 to 180, and 25 to 75 ??m, respectively, in diameter, indicating kinetic phenomena in these tests. Additionally, a biodynamic model quantifying clam PCB uptake from water and sediment as well as loss through elimination provided a good fit of experimental data. Model predictions suggest that the sediment ingestion route contributed 80 to 95% of the PCB burdens in the clams. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human milk samples from two regions in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov, J; Dukić, B

    2014-03-01

    We analyzed 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and seven organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in milk samples collected during 2009-2011 from primiparae living in two different regions in Croatia. p,p'-DDE is the dominant organochlorine pesticide. α-HCH/γ-HCH and p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratios indicate that there is fresh input of γ-HCH in investigated population on both locations, while this is not applicable to p,p'-DDT. The PCB profile was dominated by higher chlorinated congeners. Non-ortho PCB congeners which have the highest TEF values were not detected in any of individual samples. Toxic equivalents for mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners indicated higher exposure to toxic PCBs in Zadar, but estimated daily intakes for both locations indicate that infants consuming mother's milk are not at risk of adverse effects caused by PCBs and OCPs. Our study builds on the previous research of human milk samples collected in Zagreb and reveals that over 10-year period, levels of investigated organochlorine compounds decreased significantly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioaccumulation of PCB-153 and effects on molecular biomarkers acetylcholinesterase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Liñán, Leticia; Bellas, Juan; Soriano, José Antonio; Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Muniategui, Soledad; Beiras, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, PCB-153 bioaccumulation kinetics and concentration-response experiments were performed employing wild Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels. In addition, the activity of three enzymatic biomarkers: glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), were measured in the mussel gills. The experimental data fitted well to an asymptotic accumulation model with a high bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 9324 L kg(-1) and a very limited depuration capacity, described by a low excretion rate coefficient (Kd = 0.083 d(-1)). This study reports by first time in mussels significant inhibition of GST activity and significant induction of GPx activity as a result of exposure to dissolved PCB-153. In contrast, AChE activity was unaffected at all concentrations and exposure times tested. The effects on both enzymes are time-dependent, which stresses the difficulties inherent to the use of these biomarkers in chemical pollution monitoring programs.

  15. Hypoxia perturbs aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 in human skin and liver-derived cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorrink, Sabine U. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Severson, Paul L. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Kulak, Mikhail V. [Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Futscher, Bernard W. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Domann, Frederick E., E-mail: frederick-domann@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Surgery, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an important mediator of toxic responses after exposure to xenobiotics including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Activation of AhR responsive genes requires AhR dimerization with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), a heterodimeric partner also shared by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. TCDD-stimulated AhR transcriptional activity can be influenced by hypoxia; however, it less well known whether hypoxia interferes with AhR transcriptional transactivation in the context of PCB-mediated AhR activation in human cells. Elucidation of this interaction is important in liver hepatocytes which extensively metabolize ingested PCBs and experience varying degrees of oxygen tension during normal physiologic function. This study was designed to assess the effect of hypoxia on AhR transcriptional responses after exposure to 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126). Exposure to 1% O{sub 2} prior to PCB 126 treatment significantly inhibited CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression in human HepG2 and HaCaT cells. CYP1A1 transcriptional activation was significantly decreased upon PCB 126 stimulation under conditions of hypoxia. Additionally, hypoxia pre-treatment reduced PCB 126 induced AhR binding to CYP1 target gene promoters. Importantly, ARNT overexpression rescued cells from the inhibitory effect of hypoxia on XRE-luciferase reporter activity. Therefore, the mechanism of interference of the signaling crosstalk between the AhR and hypoxia pathways appears to be at least in part dependent on ARNT availability. Our results show that AhR activation and CYP1A1 expression induced by PCB 126 were significantly inhibited by hypoxia and hypoxia might therefore play an important role in PCB metabolism and toxicity. - Highlights: • Significant crosstalk exists between AhR and HIF-1α signaling. • Hypoxia perturbs PCB 126 induced AhR function and

  16. Bioaccumulation and differential partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater, planktonic food webs

    OpenAIRE

    Berglund, Olof; Larsson, Per; Ewald, Göran; Okla, Lennart

    2000-01-01

    The planktonic food chain phytoplankton - zooplankton - young-of-the-year roach (Rutilus rutilus) was studied in 19 lakes in southern Sweden to investigate the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The Sigma PCB concentrations did not steadily increase with increasing trophic level. The Sigma PCB concentrations in zooplankton (400 ng.g lipid(-1)) were lower than in both phytoplankton (660 ng.g lipid(-1)) and fish (890 ng.g lipid(-1)), which did not differ significantly. Lipid c...

  17. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  18. Remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Risk analysis of biological in situ processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Arno

    2006-12-08

    Biological in situ measures can be efficient and cost effective options for the remediation of contaminated sites. However, the accepted application requires a detailed and reliable analysis of potential impacts. An important objective is to quantify the potential of contaminant degradation and metabolite formation. This thesis addresses a quantitative multimedia risk assessment. Methodologies and tools were developed for this objective and applied to evaluate in situ bioremediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil bacteria in conjunction with plant roots were addressed (rhizoremediation) with a focus on the use of genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs). PCBs are known to be harmful compounds that are ubiquitously distributed in the environment. PCB contaminations in soil and groundwater were identified as important problems. 209 different congeners are sterically possible, but not all are of environmental significance. PCB congeners of concern were evaluated with respect to their potential toxicity, environmental occurrence and mobility. For this objective, congener specific data on the toxicity potential and the frequency in environmental matrices were collected. To quantify the mobility potential, multimedia modelling was performed applying deterministic and probabilistic procedures. 56 PCB congeners of concern were evaluated, and multimedia risk assessments of PCB-contaminated soils should concentrate on this group. Kinetics parameters were specified for degradation experiments with individual PCB congeners in solution and different bacterial strains. These laboratory assays were performed with wild-type Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and the genetically modified Pseudomonas fluorescens strains F113pcb and F113L::1180. The F113 derivatives demonstrated a good survival ability in willow (Salix sp.) rhizosphere (mesocosm experiments). Therefore, and due to high depletion rates, rhizoremediation with F113L::1180 and willow

  19. Laser decontamination and decomposition of PCB-containing paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthofer, A.; Kögler, P.; Friedrich, C.; Lippmann, W.; Hurtado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of concrete surfaces contaminated with paint containing polychlorinated biphenyls is an elaborate and complex task that must be performed within the scope of nuclear power plant dismantling as well as conventional pollutant cleanup in buildings. The state of the art is mechanical decontamination, which generates dust as well as secondary waste and is both dangerous and physically demanding. Moreover, the ablated PCB-containing paint has to be treated in a separate process step. Laser technology offers a multitude of possibilities for contactless surface treatment with no restoring forces and a high potential for automation. An advanced experimental setup was developed for performing standard laser decontamination investigations on PCB-painted concrete surfaces. As tested with epoxy paints, a high-power diode laser with a laser power of 10 kW in continuous wave (CW) mode was implemented and resulted in decontamination of the concrete surfaces as well as significant PCB decomposition. The experimental results showed PCB removal of 96.8% from the concrete surface and PCB decomposition of 88.8% in the laser decontamination process. Significant PCDD/F formation was thereby avoided. A surface ablation rate of approx. 7.2 m2/h was realized.

  20. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  1. Identification of a sulfate metabolite of PCB 11 in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Fabian A; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Koh, Wen Xin; DeWall, Jeanne; Teesch, Lynn M; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Thorne, Peter S; Robertson, Larry W; Duffel, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence for a major role for sulfation in the metabolism of lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro and in vivo, and initial evidence for potential bioactivities of the resulting sulfate ester metabolites, the formation of PCB sulfates in PCB exposed human populations had not been explored. The primary goal of this study was to determine if PCB sulfates, and potentially other conjugated PCB derivatives, are relevant classes of PCB metabolites in the serum of humans with known exposures to PCBs. In order to detect and quantify dichlorinated PCB sulfates in serum samples of 46 PCB-exposed individuals from either rural or urban communities, we developed a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based protocol using 4-PCB 11 sulfate as a model compound. The method also allowed the preliminary analysis of these 46 human serum extracts for the presence of other metabolites, such as glucuronic acid conjugates and hydroxylated PCBs. Sulfate ester metabolites derived from dichlorinated PCBs were detectable and quantifiable in more than 20% of analyzed serum samples. Moreover, we were able to utilize this method to detect PCB glucuronides and hydroxylated PCBs, albeit at lower frequencies than PCB sulfates. Altogether, our results provide initial evidence for the presence of PCB sulfates in human serum. Considering the inability of previously employed analytical protocols for PCBs to extract these sulfate ester metabolites and the concentrations of these metabolites observed in our current study, our data support the hypothesis that total serum levels of PCB metabolites in exposed individuals may have been underestimated in the past.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  3. Effects of furazolidone, PCB77, PCB126, Aroclor 1248, paraquat and p,p'-DDE on transketolase activity in embryonal chicken brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roode, de D.F.; Vuorinen, P.J.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of in ovo exposure to PCBs, DDE and paraquat on transketolase activity was measured in 19-day-old chicken embryos. Furazolidone was used as a positive control for decreased activity of the enzyme. The potency of contaminants to interact with transketolase was also tested in an in vitro sy

  4. Differential effects of environmental chemicals and food contaminants on adipogenesis, biomarker release and PPARγ activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taxvig, Camilla; Sørensen, Karin Dreisig; Boberg, Julie

    2012-01-01

    and resistin from the cells. Butylparaben activated PPARγ as well, which may be a mediator of the adipogenic effect. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)153 also stimulate adipogenesis and biomarker release, but did not affect PPARs. The data indicates that PPARγ activating chemicals often stimulate adipocyte...

  5. Effect of reaction environments on the reactivity of PCB (2-chlorobiphenyl) over activated carbon impregnated with palladized iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hyeok [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, 416 Yates Drive, Arlington, TX 76019-0308 (United States); Al-Abed, Souhail R., E-mail: al-abed.souhail@epa.gov [National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 West Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with palladized iron nanoparticles has been developed to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated the effects of various reaction environments on the adsorption-mediated dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl (2-ClBP) in the RAC system. The results were discussed in close connection to the implementation issue of the RAC system for the remediation of contaminated sites with PCBs. Adsorption event of 2-ClBP onto RAC limited the overall performance under condition with a 2-ClBP/RAC mass ratio of less than 1.0 x 10{sup -4} above which dechlorination of 2-ClBP adsorbed to RAC was the reaction rate-determining step. Acidic and basic conditions were harmful to 2-ClBP adsorption and iron stability while neutral pH showed the highest adsorption-promoted dechlorination of 2-ClBP and negligible metal leaching. Coexisting natural organic matter (NOM) slightly inhibited 2-ClBP adsorption onto RAC due to the partial partitioning of 2-ClBP into NOM in the liquid phase while the 2-ClBP absorbed into NOM, which also tended to adsorb onto RAC, was less available for the dechlorination reaction. Common anions slowed down 2-ClBP adsorption but adsorbed 2-ClBP was almost simultaneously dechlorinated. Some exceptions included strong inhibitory effect of carbonate species on 2-ClBP adsorption and severe detrimental effect of sulfite on 2-ClBP dechlorination. Results on treatment of 2-ClBP spiked to actual sediment supernatants implied site-specific reactivity of RAC.

  6. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  7. The use of the dr calux bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Traag, W.A.; Hoogerbrugge, R.; Baumann, B.; Portier, L.; Weg, van der G.; Vries, de J.

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX® bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX® assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a

  8. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win A; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; Weg, Guido van de; Vries, Jaap de

    2006-01-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a scr

  9. Reduced cytotoxicity in PCB-exposed Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells pretreated with vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murati, Teuta; Šimić, Branimir; Pleadin, Jelka; Vukmirović, Maja; Miletić, Marina; Durgo, Ksenija; Kniewald, Jasna; Kmetič, Ivana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of vitamin E (50 -150 μM) in ovary cells upon cytotoxic effects induced by two structurally distinct PCB congeners - planar "dioxin-like" PCB 77 and non-planar di-ortho-substituted PCB 153 with an emphasis on identifying differences in the mechanism of vitamin E action depending on the structure of congeners. Application of three bioassays confirmed that PCBs decrease ovarian cell proliferation with slightly profound effects of PCB 77. PCB - induced ROS production and lipid peroxidation were significant for both congeners with also more noticeable effect for PCB 77. Vitamin E pre-incubation has improved viability of cells, reduced ROS formation and lipid peroxidation induced by PCBs' treatment. Preincubation with vitamin E was more effective when cells where treated with non-planar PCB 153. Altogether, vitamin E action was protective, congener specific and more effective when ovary cells were exposed to ortho-substituted PCB congener.

  10. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Heuvel_Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of

  11. Effects of microplastic on fitness and PCB bioaccumulation by the lugworm Arenicola marina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besseling, E.; Wegner, A.; Foekema, E.M.; Heuvel_Greve, van den M.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that marine microplastics may cause negative effects on benthic marine organisms and increase bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we provide the first controlled study of plastic effects on benthic organisms including transfer of POPs. The effects of

  12. Research progress of the endocrine disrupting activities of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jingming; QIN Zhanfen; CONG Lin; XU Xiaobai

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are global persistent organic pollutants. Almost all commercial PCBs mixtures, single PCB congener, and their metabolites possess endocrine disrupting activities. They can disrupt the estrogen/androgen system, thyroid hormone system and other endocrine systems by interfering with the synthesis, transport, storage, metabolism, and feedback regulation of hormones. The newest data related to the endocrine disrupting activities of PCBs and their mechanisms are reviewed and the research perspectives are also discussed.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and risk of testicular germ cell tumors

    OpenAIRE

    McGlynn, Katherine A.; Quraishi, Sabah M.; Graubard, Barry I.; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Rubertone, Mark V; Erickson, Ralph L.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may alter hormonal balance and thereby, increase risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). To study the relationship of PCBs to TGCT, pre-diagnostic serum samples from 736 cases and 913 controls in the Servicemen’s Testicular Tumor Environmental and Endocrine Determinants study were analyzed. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using logistic regression. PCB levels...

  14. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites on prostaglandins secretion from epithelial cells of bovine oviduct, in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Michal H; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2010-04-11

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) markedly stimulate bovine uterine contractions and prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha secreted from both, myometrial and endometrial cells is essentially involved in this process. Since contractions of the oviduct are crucial for gametes and embryo transport, therefore the goal of this study was to investigate the influence of PCBs on PGF2alpha and PGE2 secretion from oviductal epithelium. Epithelial cells of the oviduct, from cows and heifers on days 1-5 of estrous cycle, were treated with PCBs: technical mixture (Aroclor 1248; Ar 1248), individual congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 153) and hydroxylated metabolites (PCB 30-OH and PCB 50-OH). Viability of the cells after treatment with PCBs (10 and 100 ng/ml) was determined after 24, 48 and 72 h. The concentration of PGFM (metabolite of PGF2alpha) and PGE2 in culture medium was determined after 2 and 48 h of incubation with PCBs (0.1, 1 and 10 ng/ml). None of the PCBs affected (P>0.05) cell viability, whereas all of them, except PCB 30 after 48 h of treatment, increased (P<0.05-0.01) PGF2alpha secretion from epithelial cells. All PCBs also stimulated (P<0.05) the PGE2 secretion after 2h of incubation, but this effect was less evident or there was no effect after 48 h of treatment. We conclude that oviductal secretion of PGF2alpha and PGE2 is affected by PCBs and this can be a part of the mechanism by means of which PCBs may affect the contractions of bovine oviduct.

  15. Impact of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) and vitamin C on antioxidant system of rat ventral prostate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Sridhar; P.Venkataraman; S.Dhanammal; A.Arunkumar; M.M.Aruldhas; N.Srinivasan; J.Arunakaran

    2004-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and vitamin C on ventral prostatic antioxidant system in adult male rats.Methods:A group of 20 adult male rats were administered ip Aroclor 1254 in corn oil at a dose of 2 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 30 days.Ten control rats were administered only the vehicle.After 30 days the treated rats were divided at random into 2 sub-groups of 10 animals each.One sub-group received vitamin C at a dose of 500 mg.kg-1·day-1 for 10 days.The other group was maintained as Aroclor 1254 control.Twenty-four hours after the last treatment the rats were killed by decapitation.Ventral prostatic homogenate was prepared and used for the estimation of enzymatic antioxidants,including superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2),lipid peroxidation (LPO) and prostatic acid phosphatase.The serum levels of total T3,total T4,TSH,testosterone and estradiol were also assayed.Results:The body weight and ventral prostatic weight were reduced in PCB treated rats.The activities of SOD,CAT,GST and acid phosphatase were decreased while the levels of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation were increased in the ventral prostate of PCB treated rats.Administration of vitamin C restored these parameters.Serum levels of thyroid hormones,estradiol and testosteron ewere decreased in PCB treated animals.Administration of vitamin C restored the thyroid hormone levels.Conclusion:PCB induces oxidative stress and decreases the antioxidant enzymes in the ventral prostate of adult male rats;the effects could be reversed by the administration of vitamin C.(Asian J Androl 2004 Mar;6:19-22)

  16. PCB's take a stroll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Castillo Rodríguez

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bioaccumulable organochlorine compounds is a reality, not only because of the known presence in tissues of the residue of historic contaminants such as DDT and other pesticides, but also because of the risk of current exposure to compounds still in use, such as lindane, endosulphan and polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, among others. The case of the PCBs is of particular importance. Although their production was prohibited due to their hazardous nature, persistence and environmental toxicity, a large number of equipments that contain considerable volumes of PCBs continue functioning. These equipments will reach the residual stage in the next few years, if not already, so that their correct disposal is necessary to avoid their release into the environment. A National Plan for the decontamination and elimination of polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, polychloroterphenyls (PCTs and the equipments that contain them was launched in Spain in 2001. This plan must be implemented taking full account of the possible effects of PBCs on the environment and human health and with the knowledge of those responsible for public health.

  17. PCB-153 shows different dynamics of mobilisation from differentiated rat adipocytes during lipolysis in comparison with PCB-28 and PCB-118.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Louis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic pollutants. Due to their lipophilic character, they are preferentially stored within the adipose tissue. During the mobilisation of lipids, PCBs might be released from adipocytes into the bloodstream. However, the mechanisms associated with the release of PCBs have been poorly studied. Several in vivo studies followed their dynamics of release but the complexity of the in vivo situation, which is characterised by a large range of pollutants, does not allow understanding precisely the behaviour of individual congeners. The present in vitro experiment studied the impact of (i the number and position of chlorine atoms of PCBs on their release from adipocytes and (ii the presence of other PCB congeners on the mobilisation rate of such molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Differentiated rat adipocytes were used to compare the behaviour of PCB-28, -118 and -153. Cells were contaminated with the three congeners, alone or in cocktail, and a lipolysis was then induced with isoproterenol during 12 hours. Our data indicate that the three congeners were efficiently released from adipocytes and accumulated in the medium during the lipolysis. Interestingly, for a same level of cell lipids, PCB-153, a hexa-CB with two chlorine atoms in ortho-position, was mobilised slower than PCB-28, a tri-CB, and PCB-118, a penta-CB, which are both characterised by one chlorine atom in ortho-position. It suggests an impact of the chemical properties of pollutants on their mobilisation during periods of negative energy balance. Moreover, the mobilisation of PCB congeners, taken individually, did not seem to be influenced by the presence of other congeners within adipocytes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results not only highlight the obvious mobilisation of PCBs from adipocytes during lipolysis, in parallel to lipids, but also demonstrate that the structure of congeners defines their rate of release

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in human milk: effects on growth, morbidity, and duration of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogan, W.J.; Gladen, B.C.; McKinney, J.D.; Carreras, N.; Hardy, P.; Thullen, J.; Tingelstad, J.; Tully, M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen between breast-fed and bottle-fed children, with bottle-fed children being heavier and having more frequent gastroenteritis and otitis media. Children of mothers with higher levels of DDE were breast-fed for markedly shorter times, but adjustments for possible confounders and biases did not change the findings. In absence of any apparent effect on the health of the children, they speculate that DDE may be interfering with the mother's ability to lactate, possibly because of its estrogenic properties.

  19. Sexual difference in PCB concentrations of walleyes (Sander vitreus) from a pristine lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hanchin, P.A.; Chernyak, S.M.; Begnoche, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in 15 adult female walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 15 adult male walleyes from South Manistique Lake (Michigan, United States), a relatively pristine lake with no point source inputs of PCBs. By measuring PCB concentration in gonads and in somatic tissue of the South Manistique Lake fish, we also estimated the expected change in PCB concentration due to spawning for both sexes. To determine whether gross growth efficiency differed between the sexes, we applied bioenergetics modeling. Results showed that, on average, adult males were 34% higher in PCB concentration than adult females in South Manistique Lake. Results from the PCB determinations of the gonads and somatic tissues revealed that shedding of the gametes led to 1% and 5% increases in PCB concentration for males and females, respectively. Therefore, shedding of the gametes could not explain the higher PCB concentration in adult male walleyes. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the sexual difference in PCB concentrations of South Manistique Lake walleyes was attributable, at least in part, to a sexual difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE). Adult female GGE was estimated to be up to 17% greater than adult male GGE.

  20. Enantio-alteration of gene transcription associated with bioconcentration in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to chiral PCB149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tingting; Cui, Feng; Mu, Pengqian; Yang, Yang; Xu, Nana; Yin, Zhiqiang; Jia, Qi; Yang, Shuming; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Chengju

    2016-01-01

    Enantioselective enrichment of chiral PCB149 (2,2’,3,4’,5’,6-hexachlorobiphenyl) was analysed in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to the racemate, (‑)-PCB149, and (+)-PCB149. Greater enrichment of (‑)-PCB149 compared to (+) PCB149 was observed following 0.5 ng/L exposure; however, as the exposure time and concentration increased, racemic enrichment was observed in adult fish exposed to the racemate. No biotransformation between the two isomers was observed in fish exposed to single enantiomers. When zebrafish were exposed to different forms of chiral PCB149, enantioselective expression of genes associated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was observed in brain and liver tissues and enantioselective correlations between bioconcentration and target gene expression levels were observed in brain and liver tissues. The strong positive correlations between expression levels of target genes (alox5a and alox12) and PCB149 bioconcentration suggest that prolonged exposure to the racemate of chiral PCB149 may result in inflammation-associated diseases. Prolonged exposure to (‑)-PCB149 may also affect metabolic pathways such as dehydrogenation and methylation in the brain tissues of adult zebrafish. Hepatic expression levels of genes related to the antioxidant system were significantly negatively correlated with bioconcentration following exposure to (+)-PCB149.

  1. Adsorption of DDT and PCB by Nanomaterials from Residual Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mohd Raihan; Mobasser, Shariat

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on adsorption of dichlorodiphenythreechloroethen (DDT) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on three nanomaterials including Multi walled Carbon Nanotube (MWNT), nano-clay and nano-alumina. DDT and PCBs are of significant concern due their high toxicity and long environmental half-lives. Experiments were conducted using batch adsorption procedures at different DDT and PCBs concentrations, from 10 to 60 mg/L. The amounts of MWNT, nano-clay and Nano-alumina used were 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2% and 10%. The adsorption of PCBs solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which eventually became constant within 22, 20, and 17 hours, respectively. The adsorption of DDT solution onto the MWNT, nano-clay and nano-alumina was also characterized by an initial rapid adsorption which gradually became constant within 22, 22 and 16 hours, respectively. Results of this study indicated that MWNT was a better adsorbent material compared to nano-clay and nano-alumina for both contaminants in this study. While at 10% of MWNT 88.9% and 77% of DDT and PCB were removed by MWNT, respectively. The effect of pH and temperature were also investigated.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Great Slave Lake are very low but vary by sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Stapanian, Martin A.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Total polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations (ΣPCBs) in whole fish were determined for 18 ripe female burbot Lota lota and 14 ripe male burbot from Great Slave Lake, a lake with no known point sources of PCBs. In addition, ΣPCBs were determined both in the somatic tissue and in the gonads for a randomly selected subset of five females and five males. Mean ΣPCBs for females and males were 2.89 and 3.76 ng/g, respectively. Thus, males were 30 % greater in ΣPCB than females. Based on ΣPCB determinations for somatic tissue and gonads, ΣPCBs of females and males would be expected to decrease by 18 % and increase by 6 %, respectively, immediately after spawning due to release of gametes. Results from a previous study in eastern Lake Erie indicated that males were 28 and 71 % greater in ΣPCB than females from populations of younger (ages 6-13) and older (ages 14-17) burbot, respectively. Thus, although younger burbot from Lake Erie were about 50 times greater in ΣPCB than Great Slave Lake burbot, the relative difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes was remarkably similar across both populations. Our results supported the contention that the widening of the difference in ΣPCBs between the sexes in older burbot from Lake Erie was attributable to a “hot spot” effect operating on older burbot, as Lake Erie has received PCB point source loadings. Our results also supported the contention that male fish expend energy at a rate between 15 and 30 % greater than that of females. Eventually, these results will be useful in developing sex-specific bioenergetics models for fish.

  3. Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Sietske A; Soechitram, Shalini D; Sauer, Pieter J J; Bos, Arend F

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental chemicals which are potentially toxic to the developing brain. Their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) are suggested to be even more toxic. Knowledge about the health effects of prenatal OH-PCB exposure is limited. We aimed to determine whether prenatal background exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is associated with neurological functioning in 3-month-old boys and girls. In a Dutch observational cohort study, we measured 10 PCBs and 6 OH-PCBs in maternal blood samples of 98 pregnant women. We assessed their infants neurologically with Touwen examination at 3 months and calculated an Optimality Score (OS, range 0-53, low-high optimality). We calculated correlation coefficients between compound levels and OS. Subsequently, we tested whether levels were associated with specific clusters and whether levels differed between infants with "normal" (dysfunction on ≤1 cluster) and "non-optimal" development (dysfunction on ≥2 clusters). The mean OS was 48 (range 44-52). Higher exposure to PCB-146 correlated significantly with higher OS (r = 0.209; p = 0.039). In boys, higher exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 correlated with lower OS (r = -0.305; p = 0.030). Higher exposure to 9 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs was associated with better visuomotor and/or better sensorimotor function. Infants classified as "non-optimal" (n = 36) had significantly lower prenatal exposure to 6 PCBs and the sum of all PCBs (p < 0.05) compared with infants classified as "normal" (n = 62). In conclusion, higher prenatal exposure to Dutch background PCB levels is associated with better neurological functioning in 3-month-old infants. Prenatal exposure to 4-OH-PCB-107 is associated with less optimal neurological functioning in boys.

  4. Mercury Accumulation, and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction, in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles P. Madenjian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We determined whole-fish Hg concentrations of 26 female and 34 male adult lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis from northern Lake Huron captured during November 2010. Subsampling from these 60 fish, Hg concentration was also determined in both somatic tissue and ovaries (n = 5, while methylmercury (MeHg concentration was determined in whole fish (n = 18. Bioenergetics modeling was used to assess the growth dilution effect on the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. Mean whole-fish Hg concentration in females (59.9 ng/g was not significantly different from mean whole-fish Hg concentration in males (54.4 ng/g. MeHg accounted for 91% of the mercury found in the lake whitefish. Bioenergetics modeling results indicated that the growth dilution effect did not contribute to the difference in Hg concentrations between the sexes. We estimated that females increased in Hg concentration by 17.9%, on average, immediately after spawning due to release of eggs. Using polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB data for the same 60 lake whitefish from a previous study, we detected a significant interaction between sex and contaminant type (Hg or PCBs, which was attributable to males being significantly higher in PCB concentration than females. Males may be eliminating Hg at a faster rate than females.

  5. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) from seawater sediments and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, W. A. M.; Langston, W. J.

    1980-03-01

    Juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.), were exposed to 0.58 µg 1-1 Aroclor 1254 in seawater, to sediments containing 100, 60 and 1 ppm or fed with cockle containing 20 ppm PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls). Concentration factors for liver and muscle were 104 and 103, respectively, for uptake of PCB from seawater. Contamination of muscle was similar to that of sediments containing 1 and 60 ppm PCB to which turbot were exposed, but less than the 20 ppm in their experimental diet. Contamination of flatfish in the North Sea area is compared with the levels of PCB in the flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), in the River Thames and predictable values for uptake of PCB from different pathways discussed.

  6. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...... temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius–Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = −H/RT + a0, where...... changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R2>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels...

  7. Patterns in stream fish assemblage structure and function associated with a PCB gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Thomas P; Morris, Charles C; Sparks, Daniel W

    2013-08-01

    Stream fish assemblage structure and function were examined for significant response along a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) gradient from two PCB-contaminated streams (Clear Creek and Richland Creek watershed) at three locations and a control stream (Little Indian Creek), Indiana, USA. Fish were sampled in the summer months of 1995 and from 1999 to 2002. 51 fish assemblage attributes-including structure (i.e., fish composition) and function (i.e., trophic, reproductive, condition guilds), biomass, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) metric scores-were evaluated for significance according to an increasing PCB gradient. Eight biomass attributes of fish assemblages decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species biomass, number of sunfish biomass, percent sunfish biomass, number of sucker biomass, percent sucker biomass, biomass of sensitive species, percent sensitive species biomass, and percent carnivore biomass. Three biomass attributes increased with PCB concentration: percent minnow biomass, percent pioneer species biomass, and percent tolerant species biomass. Seven species composition and relative abundance characters decreased with increasing PCB concentration: number of species; number of darter, madtom, and sculpin; number of darter; number of sunfish; number of sucker; number of sensitive species; and percent individuals as carnivores. Percent individuals as pioneer species increased with increasing PCB concentration. Two IBI metrics, percent individuals as headwater species and number of minnow species, increased as PCB concentrations increased, whereas number of sucker species and percent individuals as pioneer species decreased with increasing PCB concentration class. We observed a direct response between decreased relative abundance and biomass of carnivores and increased relative abundance minnows as the PCB gradient increased. Total IBI score did not detect subtle changes to the fish community that were observed along a PCB gradient

  8. Insight in the PCB-degrading functional community in long-term contaminated soil under bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petric, Ines; Hrsak, Dubravka; Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina [Ruder Boskovic Inst., Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Zagreb (Croatia); Fingler, Sanja [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Bru, David; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice [INRA, Univ. der Bourgogne, Soil and Environmental Microbiology, Dijon (France)

    2011-02-15

    A small-scale bioremediation assay was developed in order to get insight into the functioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) degrading community during the time course of bioremediation treatment of a contaminated soil. The study was conducted with the aim to better understand the key mechanisms involved in PCB-removal from soils. Materials and methods Two bioremediation strategies were applied in the assay: (a) biostimulation (addition of carvone as inducer of biphenyl pathway, soya lecithin for improving PCB bioavailability, and xylose as supplemental carbon source) and (b) bioaugmentation with selected seed cultures TSZ7 or Rhodococcus sp. Z6 originating from the transformer station soil and showing substantial PCB-degrading activity. Functional PCB-degrading community was investigated by using molecular-based approaches (sequencing, qPCR) targeting bphA and bphC genes, coding key enzymes of the upper biphenyl pathway, in soil DNA extracts. In addition, kinetics of PCBs removal during the bioremediation treatment was determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results and discussion bphA-based phylogeny revealed that bioremediation affected the structure of the PCB-degrading community in soils, with Rhodococcus-like bacterial populations developing as dominant members. Tracking of this population further indicated that applied bioremediation treatments led to its enrichment within the PCB-degrading community. The abundance of the PCB-degrading community, estimated by quantifying the copy number of bphA and bphC genes, revealed that it represented up to 0.3% of the total bacterial community. All bioremediation treatments were shown to enhance PCB reduction in soils, with approximately 40% of total PCBs being removed during a 1-year period. The faster PCB reduction achieved in bioaugmented soils suggested an important role of the seed cultures in bioremediation processes. Conclusions The PCBs degrading community was modified in response to

  9. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is enantioselectively oxidized to hydroxylated metabolites by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W; Hrycay, Eugene G; Bandiera, Stelvio M; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-12-19

    Developmental exposure to multiple ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB)-, dexamethasone (DEX)- and corn oil (VEH)-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzyme. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer did not affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of PCBs and their metabolites in wildlife

  10. The relation of polychlorinated biphenyls to birth weight and gestational age in the offspring of occupationally exposed mothers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Stelma, J.M.; Lawrence, C.E. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-02-01

    The authors studied the relation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to birth weight and gestational age among the live offspring of women occupationally exposed to PCBs during the manufacture of capacitors in Upstate New York. Interviews were conducted in 1982 with 200 women who had held jobs with direct exposure and 205 women who had never held a direct-exposure job in order to ascertain information on reproductive history and other factors influencing reproductive outcome. Exposure was assessed as high-homolog PCB (Aroclor 1254), a continuous exposure variable estimated from an independently derived prediction model. After adjustment for variables other than gestational age known to influence birth weight, a significant effect of high-homolog exposure is seen for birth weight. For gestational age, a small but significant decrease is also observed with an increase in estimated exposure. When gestational age is accounted for in addition to other variables related to birth weight, estimated serum PCB is no longer a significant predictor of birth weight. The authors conclude that these data indicate that there is a significant relation between increased estimated serum PCB level and decreased birth weight and gestational age, and that the decrease in birth weight is at least partially related to shortened gestational age. The magnitude of these effects was quite small compared with those of other known determinants of gestational age and birth weight, and the biologic importance of these effects is likely to be negligible except among already low birth weight or short gestation infants.

  11. PCB153 reduces telomerase activity and telomere length in immortalized human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) but not in human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthilkumar, P.K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Robertson, L.W. [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Ludewig, G., E-mail: Gabriele-ludewig@uiowa.edu [Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Human Toxicology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are characterized by long term-persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the food chain. Exposure to PCBs may cause various diseases, affecting many cellular processes. Deregulation of the telomerase and the telomere complex leads to several biological disorders. We investigated the hypothesis that PCB153 modulates telomerase activity, telomeres and reactive oxygen species resulting in the deregulation of cell growth. Exponentially growing immortal human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and normal human foreskin keratinocytes (NFK) were incubated with PCB153 for 48 and 24 days, respectively, and telomerase activity, telomere length, superoxide level, cell growth, and cell cycle distribution were determined. In HaCaT cells exposure to PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity, telomere length, cell growth and increased intracellular superoxide levels from day 6 to day 48, suggesting that superoxide may be one of the factors regulating telomerase activity, telomere length and cell growth compared to untreated control cells. Results with NFK cells showed no shortening of telomere length but reduced cell growth and increased superoxide levels in PCB153-treated cells compared to untreated controls. As expected, basal levels of telomerase activity were almost undetectable, which made a quantitative comparison of treated and control groups impossible. The significant down regulation of telomerase activity and reduction of telomere length by PCB153 in HaCaT cells suggest that any cell type with significant telomerase activity, like stem cells, may be at risk of premature telomere shortening with potential adverse health effects for the affected organism. -- Highlights: ► Human immortal (HaCaT) and primary (NFK) keratinocytes were exposed to PCB153. ► PCB153 significantly reduced telomerase activity and telomere length in HaCaT. ► No effect on telomere length and

  12. PCB concentrations and dioxin-like activity in blood samples from Danish school children and their mothers living in urban and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Flemming; Siersma, Volkert D; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the AhR transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were significantly higher in schoolchildren living in the urban area compared with the rural, and for AhR-TEQ, a strong correlation between the mothers and children was observed. We found a significant negative correlation between BMI and PCB concentrations in the children. Finally, in the mothers, there was a positive association between age and PCB concentration. These results show that both PCBs and dioxin-like activity can be measured as biomarkers of exposure and effects in blood samples from children and women. The results indicate that people living in urban areas may be exposed to higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, which may lead to a greater risk of adverse effects for urban populations.

  13. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekusa, Yoshinori; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Teshima, Reiko; Hachisuka, Akiko; Watanabe, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    We determined the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in 101 marine fish obtained from tsunami-stricken areas following the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. In particular, to determine the degree of PCB contamination in the fish, we investigated the concentration of total PCB (∑PCB) and the proportions of 209 individual PCB congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ∑PCB concentration was 1.7-33 ng/g in fat greenling (n = 29), 0.44-25 ng/g in flounder (n = 36), and 1.6-86 ng/g in mackerel (n = 36), all values being much lower than the provisional regulatory limit in Japan. In the congener analysis, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners dominated in all samples (comprising over 86% of the ∑PCB). The proportions of the chlorinated PCB congeners were similar to the contamination patterns derived from Kanechlor in the environment, implying that the marine fish were not contaminated with fresh PCBs.

  14. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL COMPLIANCE ISSUES IN THE 21ST CENTURY: POORLY RECOGNIZED AND POTENTIALLY DEVASTATING-8162

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, N

    2007-11-20

    Thirty-one years have passed since the United States Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) [1]. The 1976 law essentially eliminated future production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) within the United States and greatly limited the use of previously manufactured PCBs and PCB products. The ultimate objective of the law was the complete elimination of these chemicals due to concerns about their potentially toxic effects on health and the environment. PCBs were manufactured in the United States between 1929 and 1977. They were highly valued for their fire and heat-resistance properties and for their chemical stability. As a result, PCBs were used in a variety of thermally and/or chemically stressful applications. They did not conduct electricity and therefore were particularly well-suited for use as insulating fluids in high-voltage electric equipment. PCBs were also used in various other applications, such as in hydraulic and heat transfer fluids. Strict controls on the use and disposal of PCBs were imposed by the TSCA implementing regulations at 40 CFR 761 [2]. As a result, most heavy users of PCB products worked hard to curtail their PCB use. Many organizations that once used substantial amounts of PCBs, subsequently declared themselves ''PCB free''. Unfortunately, in many cases, these ''PCB-free'' declarations were premature, as PCBs were used in many more applications than insulating fluids. From the 1990s and to the present day, PCBs increasingly have been discovered in non-liquid forms. These materials were used or installed in facilities constructed before the 1979 ''PCB ban''. Examples include applied paints and coatings, caulking, pre-formed joint filler, and plastic or rubber wire and cable insulation. Proper identification of these materials is necessary for appropriate and compliant waste management during decommissioning and deactivation (D&D) activities. PCBs can pose other

  15. Association between exposure to dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and miR-191 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Maurizio; Marra, Maria Luisa; Marra, Marialuisa; Zullo, Fulvio; Guida, Marco; Trifuoggi, Marco; Biffali, Elio; Borra, Marco; De Mieri, Giovanna; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; De Felice, Bruna

    2013-04-30

    Accumulating evidence shows an association between deregulation of miRNAs and exposure to environmental chemicals; miRNAs play a unique regulatory role in gene expression. Among environmental pollutants, dioxins are a family of compounds that are known to have multiple hazardous effects. Also, in utero exposure of the fetus to dioxins has been shown to cause impaired psychomotor development, decreased immune function and skin disease. miR-191 is a microRNA that has been found to be up-regulated by dioxin in hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro. Our study provides the first molecular evidence in vivo of a positive relationship between levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and miR-191 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. miR-191 expression was significantly correlated with blood concentrations of total PCB and, in particular, of 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169, a coplanar congener). Blood concentrations of PCB 169 correlated significantly with miR-191 expression in pregnant women living in a PCB-polluted area, who underwent therapeutic abortion due to fetal malformations. These data suggest that miRNAs could be potential biomarkers to clarify the mechanisms of environmental disease.

  16. Laboratory test of source encapsulation for decreasing PCB concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Markowicz, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of encapsulation of tertiary PCB sources with PERMASORB™ Adsorber Wallpaper and the surface emissions trap (cTrap) on indoor air concentration of PCBs and on the PCB content in the source. The 40 weeks long laboratory investigation shows reduction of the air...

  17. Growth abnormalities in the population exposed in utero and early postnatally to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueliang L. Guo; Chen-Chin Hsu [National Cheng Kung Univ. Medical College, Tainan (Taiwan, Province of China); Lambert, G.H. [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This article reviews the findings in children exposed to various levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds in utero and early postnatally. Yu-Cheng ({open_quotes}oil-disease{close_quotes}) mothers were Taiwanese women exposed to PCBs and their heat-degradation products form the ingestion of contaminated rice oil in 1979. Children of these mothers were born growth retarded, with dysmorphic physical findings, and delayed cognitive development compared with unexposed children. In this article, findings in Yu-Cheng children born between 1978 and 1985 are summarized and compared with two other well-documented cohorts of children prenatally exposed to different levels of PCBs. Results of the investigation in Yu-Cheng children will provide important information about the toxicities, health effects, and mechanisms of PCB/PCDF exposure and demonstrate that the developing human is more sensitive than the adult to the toxic effects of these chemicals. 53 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. ESTIMATION OF GIBBS FREE-ENERGIES OF FORMATION FOR POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOLMES, DA; HARRISON, BK; DOLFING, J

    1993-01-01

    Gibbs free energies of formation for gas, subcooled liquid, and aqueous solution phases were estimated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners at 298.15 K and 100 000 Pa. A literature search was conducted to locate experimental data or predicted data for PCBs. Where other data were not

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls in adipose tissue, liver, and brain from nine stillborns of varying gestational ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Paauw, CG; Essed, CE; Boersma, ER

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in s.c. adipose tissue, liver, and brain of nine fetuses who died in utero. Their median (range) gestational ages and birth weights were 34 (17-40) wk and 2050 (162-3225) g. Three fetuses were small for gestational age. The levels of PCB congener nos. 118

  20. Dermal toxicity studies of technical polychlorinated biphenyls and fractions thereof in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.; Beems, R.B.

    1971-01-01

    A significant difference in toxicity between 3 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) preparations was found in a prior study: Clophen A 60 and Phenoclor DP6 showing the highest, Aroclor 1260 the lowest, toxicity (Vos and Koeman, 1970). A subsequent study revealed the presence of tetra- and pentachlorodiben

  1. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 in bobwhite quail hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie P; Farmahin, Reza; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-07-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) toxic equivalency factors are used to calculate toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of complex mixtures of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for mammals, fish and birds. The TEQ concept assumes that all species of a taxa respond with similar sensitivity to individual DLCs, but several reports do not support this assumption for birds. Our laboratory is conducting research to attempt to uncover the fundamental mechanism(s) underlying the reasons why avian species differ in sensitivity to DLCs. The present study determined concentration-dependent effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in primary cultures of northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) hepatocytes. Bobwhite quail were studied because (1) this species is used in the laboratory for toxicity testing and (2) the amino acids at all locations within the ligand binding domain (LBD) of aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1) in bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) are identical. Because earlier work indicated the importance of the identity of amino acids at key sites within the AHR1 LBD, we hypothesized that bobwhite quail and ring necked pheasant hepatocytes should have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by DLCs. ECthreshold-based relative sensitivity of the bobwhite quail compared to chicken for TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126 was 0.11, 0.17 and 0.02, respectively. The rank order of potency was PeCDF > TCDD > PCB 126. The results confirm that bobwhite quail and ring-necked pheasant hepatocytes have similar sensitivity to EROD induction by TCDD, PeCDF and PCB 126.

  2. Effect of nutrient availability on the uptake of PCB congener 2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl by a diatom (Stephanodiscus minutulus) and transfer to a zooplankton (Daphnia pulicaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Scott G; Price, David J; Birge, Wesley J; Kilham, Susan S

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of nutrient status of a diatom (Stephanodiscus minutulus) to the uptake of PCB congener #54 (2,2',6,6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and the subsequent transfer of PCB to a pelagic grazing zooplankton (Daphnia pulicaria). The algae, which were grown under different nutrient treatments, were then fed to a zooplankton to examine the subsequent food chain transfer of PCB. Algal cultures were grown for at least 2 weeks in a steady state condition in (1) non-limiting, (2) low-Si, (3) low-N or (4) low-P media. Steady state algal cultures were dosed with 0.2 microg L(-1) PCB and were sampled for PCB uptake after 24h. D. pulicaria were allowed to graze on these same cultures for 48 h before being analyzed for PCB body burdens. Low-Si (68% or 0.135 microg L(-1) of PCB) and low-P cultures (62%) had significantly higher percentage uptake of total PCB than the non-limiting (55%) or low-N (52%) treatments. When these values were divided by biochemical or elemental parameters, PCB per lipids (microg microg(-1)) had one of the lowest coefficients of variation (CV) across the four treatments, indicating their importance in PCB uptake. When equal biovolumes of the four different treatment cultures were fed to zooplankton, both the low-N (13.9 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) and the low-P (9.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) grazing D. pulicaria had significantly higher PCB per wet weight than the low-Si (5.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) and non-limited (2.6 ng PCB mg wet weight(-1)) grazing D. pulicaria. There were no significant differences between algal nutrient treatments in PCB per wet weight of zooplankton grazing on clean algal food in PCB contaminated media. This study indicates that uptake of PCB by phytoplankton can be significantly altered by nutrient availability which subsequently affects transfer to zooplankton, potentially through such responses as grazing rate and lipid assimilation.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana

    2013-01-01

    cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans...... is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between exposure to PCBs experienced by a general Danish population and development of obesity. We randomly selected 204 persons (113 obese and 91 overweight), aged ≥ 50 years, from a prospective Danish cohort of 57,053 persons and examined ten...... PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased...

  4. Evaluating daily exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish oil supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, J T F; Ward, J S; Schafer, M W; Stapleton, H M; Velinsky, D J

    2010-08-01

    Fish oil supplements have become a popular means of increasing one's dietary intake of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, there is growing concern that the levels and potential health effects of lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) may diminish some of the health benefits associated with the daily consumption of fish oil supplements. In this study, ten over-the-counter fish oil supplements available in the United States were analysed for PCBs and PBDEs and daily exposures calculated. Based on manufacturers' recommended dosages, daily intakes of PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 5 to 686 ng day(-1) and from 1 to 13 ng day(-1), respectively. Daily consumption of fish oil supplements expose consumers to PCBs and PBDEs. However, in comparison with fish ingestion, fish supplements may decrease daily PCB exposure and provide a safer pathway for individuals seeking to maintain daily recommended levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  5. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L.; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Davison, Nicholas J.; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D.; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L.; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB “hotspots” for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  6. PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D; Deaville, Rob; Barber, Jonathan L; Aguilar, Àlex; Borrell, Asunción; Murphy, Sinéad; Barry, Jon; Brownlow, Andrew; Barnett, James; Berrow, Simon; Cunningham, Andrew A; Davison, Nicholas J; Ten Doeschate, Mariel; Esteban, Ruth; Ferreira, Marisa; Foote, Andrew D; Genov, Tilen; Giménez, Joan; Loveridge, Jan; Llavona, Ángela; Martin, Vidal; Maxwell, David L; Papachlimitzou, Alexandra; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W; Smith, Brian; de Stephanis, Renaud; Tregenza, Nick; Verborgh, Philippe; Fernandez, Antonio; Law, Robin J

    2016-01-14

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and the more persistent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have well-established dose-dependent toxicities to birds, fish and mammals in experimental studies, but the actual impact of OC pollutants on European marine top predators remains unknown. Here we show that several cetacean species have very high mean blubber PCB concentrations likely to cause population declines and suppress population recovery. In a large pan-European meta-analysis of stranded (n = 929) or biopsied (n = 152) cetaceans, three out of four species:- striped dolphins (SDs), bottlenose dolphins (BNDs) and killer whales (KWs) had mean PCB levels that markedly exceeded all known marine mammal PCB toxicity thresholds. Some locations (e.g. western Mediterranean Sea, south-west Iberian Peninsula) are global PCB "hotspots" for marine mammals. Blubber PCB concentrations initially declined following a mid-1980s EU ban, but have since stabilised in UK harbour porpoises and SDs in the western Mediterranean Sea. Some small or declining populations of BNDs and KWs in the NE Atlantic were associated with low recruitment, consistent with PCB-induced reproductive toxicity. Despite regulations and mitigation measures to reduce PCB pollution, their biomagnification in marine food webs continues to cause severe impacts among cetacean top predators in European seas.

  7. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  8. PCB AND DIOXIN LEVELS IN PLASMA AND HUMAN-MILK OF 418 DUTCH WOMEN AND THEIR INFANTS - PREDICTIVE VALUE OF PCB CONGENER LEVELS IN MATERNAL PLASMA FOR FETAL AND INFANTS EXPOSURE TO PCBS AND DIOXINS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOOPMANESSEBOOM, C; HUISMAN, M; WEISGLASKUPERUS, N; VANDERPAAUW, CG; TUINSTRA, LGMT; BOERSMA, ER; SAUER, PJJ

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined i

  9. PCB and dioxin levels in plasma and human milk of 418 Dutch women and their infants : predictive value of PCB congener levels in maternal plasma for fetal and infant's exposure to PCBs and dioxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman-Esseboom, C.; Huisman, M.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Paauw, C.G. van der; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Boersma, E.R.; Sauer, P.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are potentially hazardous compounds in the environment for human beings. In order to investigate PCB and dioxin exposure of Dutch women and their neonates, levels were examined i

  10. PCB153, TCDD and estradiol compromise the benzo[a]pyrene-induced p53-response via FoxO3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anati, Lauy; Kadekar, Sandeep; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2014-08-05

    TCDD, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) coexist in the environment. However, there are few studies on combined effects of these compounds. We have studied the effect of TCDD, PCB153 and estradiol on p53 signaling induced by PAHs. We show that all three compounds amplified the accumulation of nuclear p53, elicited by benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) or dibenzo[al]pyrene (DBP). This effect was associated with an attenuated PAH-induced apoptosis and with decreased levels of phosphorylated FoxO3a Thr32. Thr32 phosphorylation of FoxO3a may promote a translocation of FoxO3a-p53 complex from nucleus to the cytoplasm, and the role of FoxO3a dephosphorylation was further studied. We found that inhibition of PP2A phosphatase restored levels of phosphorylated FoxO3a, led to cytosolic translocation of p53, and activated BaP-induced p53-mediated apoptosis. These results were confirmed by silencing FoxO3a with siRNA or by inhibiting 14-3-3 protein; also these treatments trapped BaP-induced p53 in the nucleus. Our data indicate interplay between p53, FoxO3a and 14-3-3 leading to an attenuated BaP induced apoptosis in cells co-exposed to TCDD, PCB 153 or estradiol.

  11. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and pemission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors as Potential Targets for Carcinogenic Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmad; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Beg, Mohd Amin

    2016-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environment-contaminating synthetic chemicals that have been associated with increased risk of hepatic cancer, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancer of many other body organs. Structural binding analyses of PCB 77 and PCB 118 with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ) was performed to predict the association of PCBs with potential disruption of PPAR signaling pathways. The crystal structures of human PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Structures of PCB 77 and PCB 118 were obtained from PubChem database. Docking was performed using glide (Schrodinger) induced fit docking (IFD) module. The PCB 77 and PCB 118 interacted with PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ showing an overlapping of 40-58% interacting amino acid residues with synthetic co-complex agonists of the three PPARs. The binding affinity was higher for PCB 118 than for PCB 77 during docking interactions with each of the three PPARs. The consistent commonality of interacting residues for PCB 77 and PCB 118 with co-complex synthetic agonists of the PPARs together with good binding affinity suggested that the PPAR signaling pathway is a potential target for toxicologic activity of PCBs. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  13. 浅谈改善湿气对CAF测试的影响%The effect of moisture on PCB CAF test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周定忠; 庾文武; 李伟保

    2013-01-01

    湿气对PCB的CAF测试结果影响,往往被大多数人忽视,本文详细研究了影响CAF测试的各种因数及测试结果状况,通过增加线路板烤板流程与改变包装条件基本解决湿气对绝缘性能的影响,从而使得CAF测试结果不因湿气而失效。%Moisture as the potential factor of influence PCB CAF test results is often ignored by most people. This paper studied the effects of various factors and the status of the test results of CAF test, by increasing the PCB baking plate process and changing the packaging conditions basically to solve the moisture influence on insulation performance, so as to make the CAF test results no failure influence by moisture.

  14. Low-Chlorinated Non-Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Blood and Breast Milk Induce Higher Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neutrophil Granulocytes than High-Chlorinated Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, Sven Ivar; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    Despite their ban several decades ago, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still pose a health threat to human beings due to their persistent and accumulative nature and continued presence in the environment. Non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs have earlier been found to have effects on the immune system, including human neutrophil granulocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between ortho-chlorinated NDL-PCBs with a low or high degree of chlorination in their capability to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We used some of the congeners occurring at the highest levels in blood, breast milk and food: PCB 52 representing the low-chlorinated congeners and PCB 180 the high-chlorinated congeners. In addition, the extensively studied PCB 153 was included as a reference compound. ROS production was assessed with the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and DCF fluorescence assays. The involvement of intracellular signalling mechanisms was investigated using different pharmacological substances. At high concentrations (10-20 μM), PCB 52 induced more ROS than PCB 153 and PCB 180. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and/or ERK 5 signalling in PCB-induced ROS production was implicated through the reduction in ROS in the presence of the specific inhibitor U0126, whereas reduced ROS production after the use of SB203580 and SP600125 indicated the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, respectively. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the antioxidant vitamin E reduced the levels of ROS. The intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in ROS production in human neutrophil granulocytes appeared to be similar for PCB 52, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Based on the results from the present and previous studies, we conclude that for abundant ortho-chlorinated PCBs

  15. Investigations of potential endocrine disruption and sexual dimorphism in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) with a range of PCB body burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorks, A.L.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Bakst, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) elicit endocrine disruptive effects in many species, including birds. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at eight sites, located in Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, with a range of PCB contamination to determine effects on gender and gonadal development of nestling offipring. Blood samples were collected from nestlings and genetic sex was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of sex chromatin in nucleated red blood cells. Gonads were excised and fixed for subsequent gross and histologic examination. PCB analyses of twelve-day old nestlings indicated that residue concentrations varied considerably among the eight sites. Of the 145 nestlings examined anatomically, the phenotypic sex ratio was 53% female and 47% male. No intersexes were observed. Histological observations revealed some variation such as numbers of spermatogonia and stages of follicular development among individuals. Genotypic evaluation of the 145 nestlings revealed complete concordance with phenotypic observations. Although there were significant differences in PCB exposure among study sites, there was no evidence of abnormal gonadal development or anatomical gender alteration in nestling Tree swallows.

  16. Electron ionization mass spectral fragmentation study of sulfation derivatives of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Larry W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that can be metabolized via hydroxylated PCBs to PCB sulfate metabolites. The sensitive and selective analysis of PCB sulfate monoesters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS requires their derivatization, for example, as PCB 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE sulfate monoesters. To aid in the identification of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from biological samples, the electron impact MS fragmentation pathways of selected PCB TCE sulfate diesters were analyzed and compared to the fragmentation pathways of the corresponding methoxylated PCBs. Results The most abundant and characteristic fragment ions of PCB TCE sulfate diesters were formed by releasing CHCCl3, SO3, HCl2 and/or CCl3 from the TCE sulfate moiety and Cl2, HCl, ethyne and chloroethyne from an intermediate phenylcyclopentadienyl cation. The fragmentation pattern depended on the degree of chlorination and the position of the TCE sulfate moiety (i.e., ortho vs. meta/para to the second phenyl ring, but were independent of the chlorine substitution pattern. These fragmentation pathways are similar to the fragmentation pathways of structurally related methoxylated PCBs. Conclusion Knowledge of the fragmentation patterns of PCB TCE sulfate diesters will greatly aid in determining the position of sulfate moiety (ortho vs. meta/para of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from environmental or laboratory samples.

  17. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  18. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Shuai

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province, northern (Shanxi Province and eastern China (Shanghai municipality. From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China.

  19. Reduction of PCDD, PCDF and PCB during co-combustion of biomass with waste products from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Lisa; Gomez-Rico, Maria Francisca; Forsberg, Christer; Nordenskjöld, Carl; Jansson, Stina

    2013-05-01

    The use of waste wood as an energy carrier has increased during the last decade. However, elevated levels of alkali metals and chlorine in waste wood compared to virgin biomass can cause increased deposit formation and higher concentrations of organic pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of the ChlorOut technique on concentrations of organic pollutants. Ammonium sulfate was injected into the combustion system to inhibit formation of KCl (which causes deposits) and persistent organic pollutants, namely polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). The results showed that concentrations of the toxic congeners of PCDD, PCDF and PCB decreased in the presence of ammonium sulfate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  1. Egg incubation position affects toxicity of air cell administered PCB 126 (3,3?4,4?,5- pentachlorobiphenyl) in chicken (Gallus domesticus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, M.A.; Rattner, B.A.; Hale, R.C.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    The avian egg is used extensively for chemical screening and determining the relative sensitivity of species to environmental contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, polyhalogenated compounds). The effect of egg incubation position on embryonic survival, pipping, and hatching success was examined following air cell administration of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl [PCB 126]; 500?2,000 pg/g egg) on day 4 of development in fertile chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs. Depending on dose, toxicity was found to be up to nine times greater in vertically versus horizontally incubated eggs. This may be due to enhanced embryonic exposure to the injection bolus in vertically incubated eggs compared to more gradual uptake in horizontally incubated eggs. Following air cell administration of PCB 126, horizontal incubation of eggs may more closely approximate uptake and toxicity that has been observed with naturally incorporated contaminants. These data have implications for chemical screening and use of laboratory data for ecological risk assessments.

  2. PCB126暴露对斑马鱼胚胎发育及氧化应激的影响%Developmental toxicity and oxidative stress of PCB126 to zebrafish embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘寒; 林红英; 聂芳红; 孔庆波; 马驿; 巨向红; 宋春雨; 陈进军; 蔡吉榛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To probe into the embryotoxic mechanism mediated by oxidative stress of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls ( DIPCBs). Methods A range of zebrafish ( Danio rerio) embryos were waterbornely exposed to PCB126 at different concentrations of 0, 16, 32, 64 and 128 μg/L, respectively. The survival rate, pericardium and yolk sac edema rate, heart rate as well as activities of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) , catalase (CAT) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) of the embryos in different hours of poster-fertilization (hpf) were measured. Results The embryonic survival rate significantly decreased (P<0. 05) since 144 hpf as the concentrations of PCB126 increased, and all of the embryos exposed to 128 μg/L of PCB126 died at 168 hpf; The pericardium and yolk sac edema rate significantly increased (P <0. 01) since 96 hpf and the edema rate at 32 μg/L of PCB126 was 100% at 144 hpf; The heart rate at 128 μ/L of PCB126 significantly decreased at 96 hpf and 132 hpf ( P <0. 01) , respectively. At 24 hpf, the activities of CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups had no change while MDA of the embryos exposed to 64 μg/L of PCB126 increased; At 72 hpf, the activity of CuZn-SOD of the embryos in all of the exposure groups was enhanced, especially by far higher at 16 μg/ L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure (P < 0. 01) , while the activity of CAT at 64 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure was lowered (P<0. 05) , and MDA at 32 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 exposure increased (P < 0. 05) , respectively. At 96 hpf, the activities of ? CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased (P < 0. 01) while MDA of the embryos exposed to 32 μg/L and 128 μg/L of PCB126 increased, respectively; At 132 hpf, the activities of CuZn-SOD and CAT of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased (P < 0. 01 ) and MDA of the embryos in all of the exposure groups significantly decreased ( P < 0. 01

  3. EFFECTS OF LOW DOSE MIXTURES OF PCB126 AND PERCHLORATE ON THE HYPTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-THYROID (HPT) AXIS IN THE MALE RAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchlorate (ClO4) and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126) are environmental contaminants known to disturb thyroid hormone homeostasis by well defined modes of action that lead to hypothyroidism in the rat. PCB126 increases phase II conjugation of T4 (T4-glucuronide) by indu...

  4. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  6. Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls at toxic waste sites: investigations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehr-Green, P.A.; Welty, E.; Burse, V.W.

    1988-11-01

    Beginning in 1982, environmental and population data were evaluated from waste sites contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Pilot exposure assessment studies were conducted at 12 sites where risks of human exposure were thought to be greatest. Serum PCB levels in persons at highest risk of nonoccupationally related exposures (because of their self-reported frequencies and types of activities in contaminated areas) at 10 sites were within background ranges, even though environmental contamination levels as high as 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) in monitoring well water samples and 330,000 ppb in soil samples were measured. At the 2 remaining sites, elevated serum levels were found in these high-risk persons, which require further evaluation by community surveys. These results illustrate that, despite elevated environmental contaminant levels, unless uptake of chemicals above background exposure levels can be demonstrated, adverse health effects cannot be attributed to waste site chemicals. However, health risks due to background exposure levels, as well as in populations with elevated PCB body burdens need further study.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Xenobiotic Nuclear Receptor Interactions Regulate Energy Metabolism, Behavior, and Inflammation in Non-alcoholic-Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Prough, Russell A; Falkner, K Cameron; Hardesty, Josiah E; Song, Ming; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; States, J Christopher; Arteel, Gavin E; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental pollutants associated with non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis (NASH), diabetes, and obesity. We previously demonstrated that the PCB mixture, Aroclor 1260, induced steatohepatitis and activated nuclear receptors in a diet-induced obesity mouse model. This study aims to evaluate PCB interactions with the pregnane-xenobiotic receptor (Pxr: Nr1i2) and constitutive androstane receptor (Car: Nr1i3) in NASH. Wild type C57Bl/6 (WT), Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice were fed the high fat diet (42% milk fat) and exposed to a single dose of Aroclor 1260 (20 mg/kg) in this 12-week study. Metabolic phenotyping and analysis of serum, liver, and adipose was performed. Steatohepatitis was pathologically similar in all Aroclor-exposed groups, while Pxr(-/-) mice displayed higher basal pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Pxr repressed Car expression as evident by increased basal Car/Cyp2b10 expression in Pxr(-/-) mice. Both Pxr(-/-) and Car(-/-) mice showed decreased basal respiratory exchange rate (RER) consistent with preferential lipid metabolism. Aroclor increased RER and carbohydrate metabolism, associated with increased light cycle activity in both knockouts, and decreased food consumption in the Car(-/-) mice. Aroclor exposure improved insulin sensitivity in WT mice but not glucose tolerance. The Aroclor-exposed, Pxr(-/-) mice displayed increased gluconeogenic gene expression. Lipid-oxidative gene expression was higher in WT and Pxr(-/-) mice although RER was not changed, suggesting PCB-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, Pxr and Car regulated inflammation, behavior, and energy metabolism in PCB-mediated NASH. Future studies should address the 'off-target' effects of PCBs in steatohepatitis.

  8. Dioxin/polychlorinated biphenyl body burden, diabetes and endometriosis: findings in a population-based study in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierens, Sébastien; Mairesse, Hélène; Heilier, Jean-François; De Burbure, Claire; Focant, Jean-François; Eppe, Gauthier; De Pauw, Edwin; Bernard, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants widely distributed in the food chain, which is the main source of human exposure. Their effects on human health at background exposure levels are still poorly understood. Recent epidemiological evidence suggests a possible association between these pollutants and diabetes. We report here the results of a population-based study in Belgium on 257 (142 women and 115 men) environmentally exposed subjects, including 10 cases of endometriosis and nine cases of diabetes. Seventeen 2,3,7,8-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs or dioxins), four coplanar PCBs (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry [IUPAC] nos 77, 81, 126 and 169) and 12 PCB markers (IUPAC nos 3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, 206 and 209) were quantified in serum fat from fasting blood samples in order to estimate the body burden of these pollutants. Whilst no difference was found between women with endometriosis and their controls, diabetic patients had significantly increased serum levels of dioxins, coplanar PCBs and the 12 PCB markers. After adjustment for age and other covariates, serum total toxic equivalent activity (sum of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs) and 12 PCB marker concentrations in diabetics were 62% (p = 0.0005) and 39% (p = 0.0067) higher, respectively, than in controls. The risk of diabetes was significantly increased in subjects in the top decile for adjusted concentrations of dioxins (odds ratio 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-21.7), coplanar PCBs (odds ratio 13.3, 95% CI 3.31-53.2) or 12 PCB markers (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.58-36.3). These findings warrant further studies to assess the significance of the associations between diabetes and environmental exposure to polychlorinated pollutants.

  9. Quantification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Commercial Cows’ Milk from California by Gas Chromatography–Triple Quadruple Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    We determined 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in eight different brands of commercial whole milk (WM) and fat free milk (FFM) produced and distributed in California. Congeners were extracted using a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method, purified by gel permeation chromatography, and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry. PBDEs and PCBs were detected in all FFM and WM samples. The most prevalent PBDE congeners in WM were BDE-47 (geometric mean: 18.0 pg/mL, 0.51 ng/g lipid), BDE-99 (geometric mean: 9.9 pg/mL, 0.28 ng/g lipid), and BDE-49 (geometric mean: 6.0 pg/mL, 0.17 ng/g lipid). The dominant PCB congeners in WM were PCB-101(geometric mean: 23.6 pg/mL, 0.67 ng/g lipid), PCB-118 (geometric mean: 25.2 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid), and PCB-138 (geometric mean: 25.3 pg/mL, 0.72 ng/g lipid). The sum of all 19 PCB congeners in FFM and WM were several orders of magnitude below the U.S. FDA tolerance. The sum of PBDEs in milk samples suggest close proximity to industrial emissions, and confirm previous findings of elevated PBDE levels in California compared to other regions in the United States. PMID:28085917

  10. 1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory EPA Region VI, January 1, 1993 through December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wechsler, R.J.; Sandoval, T.M.; Bryant, D.E.; Hupke, L.; Esquibel, L.

    1995-12-31

    This document, the {open_quotes}1993 Annual PCB Document for Los Alamos National Laboratory{close_quotes} was prepared to fulffill the requirements of the federal PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyl) regulation: 40 CFR 761 Subpart J General Records and Reports. The PCB Management Program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Environmental Protection Group, compiled this 1993 Annual PCB Document. The overall format generally follows the sequence of the applicable regulations. Subsection 1.2 cross references those regulatory requirements with the applicable Document Section. The scope of this document also includes status summaries of various aspects of LANL`s PCB Management Program. The intent of this approach to the Annual Document is to provide an overview of LANL`s PCB Management Program and to increase the usefulness of this document as a management tool. Section 2.0, {open_quotes}Status of the PCB Management Program{close_quotes}, discusses the use, generation of waste, and storage of PCBs at LANL. Section 3.0 is the 1993 Annual Document Log required by 761.180(a). This Section also discusses the PCB Management Program`s policies for reporting under those regulatory requirements. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 contain the 1993 Annual Records for off-site and on-site disposal as required by 761.180(b). There is a tab for each manifest and its associated continuation sheets, receipt letters, and certificates of disposal.

  11. The Rising Clamor about PCB's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Although designated a long term environmental hazard, polychlorinated biphenyls are still finding their way to certain streams, lakes, stream and lake sediments and fresh-water biota. Useful though they may be, the Environmental Protection Agency will seek a halt to all polychlorinated biphenyls production and use in the United States. (BT)

  12. Eliminate Galvanic effect of ENIG PCB board%选择性化学镍金板贾凡尼效应改善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲松

    2012-01-01

    Galvanic effect has been discussed many times in PCB.According to the real process and by using galvanic cell theory,this article summarized a method to solve the BGA Pad size reduction and hole edge breaks problem.%贾凡尼效应在PCB业界已讨论过很多,本文从实际生产选择性化金板工艺流程出发,应用原电池理论,总结出一套解决因为贾凡尼效应而产生BGA焊盘缩小、孔口无铜等缺陷的方法。

  13. Decontamination solutions for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raw fish oils from environmentally contaminated sea fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-01-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed products. In this study, PCB adsorption from fish oil onto activated carbon (AC), other sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood waste ashes) and organic solvent such as ethanol were compared and optimized. Regarding to adsorbents, PCBs were extracted from fish oil by a 2.0% adsorbent material dose, during 6.0 h at 25 °C. Solvent extraction was carried out using 2 × 5.0 mL ethanol by manually stirring for 3.0 min, and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE) for 5.0 min. The results showed that removal rates obtained by using adsorbent materials ranged from 0.0 to 10% for marker PCBs, from 0.0 to 37% for mono-ortho-PCBs, from 0.0 to 74% for PCB11 and from 0.0 to 95% for non-ortho-PCBs. Regarding to solvent extraction, ethanol was used by manually stirring and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE). The samples were then centrifuged (2000 rpm/10 min) and the alcoholic phase was removed. With this method, removal efficiencies were much better (85-116%); nevertheless, high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) removal rates (70-78 and 71-79%, respectively) were detected. We can conclude that adsorption with adsorbents depends on the geometry of PCB congeners, as well as both type of adsorption material and their origin, and that several sorption cycles are needed. Adsorption with ethanol could be the most effective methodology but nutritional quality was impaired, what makes necessary to look for other not so polar removal solvents. © 2013.

  14. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls is associated with increased risk of stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergkvist, C; Kippler, M; Larsson, S C; Berglund, M; Glynn, A; Wolk, A; Åkesson, A

    2014-09-01

    The potentially beneficial effects of fish consumption on stroke may be modified by major food contaminants in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in particular are proposed to play a role in the aetiology of stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary PCB exposure and stroke risk with the intake of long-chain omega-3 fish fatty acids and fish consumption. The prospective population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort was examined. It was comprised of 34,591 women free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline in 1997 and followed up for 12 years. Validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure were obtained via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident cases of stroke were ascertained through register linkage. During 12 years of follow-up (397,309 person-years), there were 2015 incident cases of total stroke (1532 ischaemic strokes, 216 intracerebral haemorrhages, 94 subarachnoid haemorrhages and 173 unspecified strokes). Multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR), controlled for known stroke risk factors and fish consumption, were 1.67 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.29-2.17] for total stroke, 1.61 (95% CI, 1.19-2.17) for ischaemic stroke and 2.80 (95% CI, 1.42-5.55) for haemorrhagic stroke for women in the highest quartile of dietary PCB exposure (median 288 ng day(-1) ) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 101 ng day(-1) ). Dietary exposure to PCBs was associated with an increased stroke risk in women, especially haemorrhagic stroke. The results provide important information regarding the risk-benefit analysis of fish consumption, particularly for cerebrovascular disease prevention. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. The influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA, involved in oxytocin synthesis in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 153) and their technical mixture-Aroclor (Ar) 1248, as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; two individual isomers p,p'- and o,p'- or their mixture, 95% and 5%, respectively) at the dose of 10 ng/ml each, on the gene expression of (a) oxytocin (OT) precursor-neurophysin-oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and (b) peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA), the terminal enzyme in the pathway of OT synthesis, was studied. Granulosa cells from follicles >1cm in diameter, collected on days 19-21 of estrous cycle, and luteal cells from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle were used. The cells were incubated (6h) with these xenobiotics and the expression of NP-I/OT and PGA genes was determined. All PCBs increased (P<0.05) NP-I/OT gene expression in granulosa cells. Similarly, all PCBs but PCB 126 increased (P<0.05) PGA gene expression in these cells. DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) gene expression of NP-I/OT in granulosa cells, while gene expression of PGA in these cells was stimulated (P<0.05) by DDE only. The mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in luteal cells was increased (P<0.05) by PCB 77 and PCB 153. Both DDE isomers and mixture also stimulated (P<0.05) of NP-I/OT mRNA expression, while increase (P<0.05) of PGA mRNA expression was elicited by incubation of these cells with DDE mixture and Ar 1248. Obtained data suggest that PCBs, DDT and DDE can affect the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

  16. Idaho National Laboratory PCB Annual Document Log and Annual Records Report for calendar year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Deborah L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The requirements for the reporting of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-related activities are found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 761 Subpart J, "General Records and Reports." The PCB Annual Document Log is a detailed record of the PCB waste handling activities at the facility. The facility must prepare it each year by July 1 and maintain it at the facility for at least 3 years after the facility ceases using or storing PCBs and PCB items. While submittal of the PCB Annual Document Log to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is not required by regulation, EPA has verbally requested in telephone conversations that this report be submitted to them on an annual basis. The Annual Records are not required to be submitted to EPA and are not considered to be part of the Annual Document Log, but are included to provide the complete disposition history or status of all PCB activities during the year. The Annual Document Log section of this report (Section 2.0) meets the requirements of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(2), as applicable, while the Annual Records section (Section 3.0) meets the requirement of 40 CFR 761.180(a)(1).

  17. Fluorescence detection of trace PCB101 based on PITC immobilized on porous AAO membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meiling; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Qing; Li, Mingtao; Li, Zhongbo; Tang, Chaolong

    2011-01-21

    A sensitive and selective fluorescent membrane for rapid detection of trace 2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB101) has been achieved by immobilizing the fluorophore phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) onto porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane (denoted as PITC@AAO). The fluorescence of the PITC@AAO membrane is obviously enhanced after titrating the analyte PCB101 into the membrane, being ascribed to the halogen-bonding interaction between the fluorophore PITC and the analyte PCB101. The fluorescence intensity increases with the PCB101 concentration in the low range below 1 ppm, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity and the PCB101 concentration in the low range of 1-6 ppb. Moreover, the PITC@AAO membrane shows good selectivity; for example, it is insensitive to common structural analogs (polychlorinated aromatics). The mechanisms of the fluorescence enhancement and the better sensitivity and selectivity of the PITC@AAO membrane to PCB101 than that of PITC/n-hexane solution are also discussed. This work demonstrates that trace (in ppb range) PCBs can be detected by simple fluorescence measurement.

  18. [Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in 130 exposed elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisel, F; von Manikowsky, S; Schümann, M; Feindt, W; Hoppe, H W; Melchiors, U

    1999-03-01

    In the classroom air on a primary school polychlorinated biphenyls were present in a wide range extending to 10.220 ng/cbm; in a side room even 19.550 ng/cbm were measured. The school was closed down, a flame retardant paint was detected to be the main source of this contamination. 130 differently exposed persons gave blood specimens for measurement of PCB concentrations. Compared with a comparative reference collective of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory, the PCB blood concentrations of 92 actual pupils were even lower. A comparison with five near-representative child collectives of South Germany did not show any obvious difference. The reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were exceeded by 4 of 92 pupils for PCB 138, by 6 pupils for PCB 153 and by 6 pupils for PCB 180. In a group of 9 teachers and 1 cleaning person the median values of reference collectives of equal age reported by the analysing laboratory were exceeded by 8 persons for PCB 138, 7 persons for PCB 153 and 8 persons for PCB 180. The 95. Percentiles of these reference collectives and the reference values of the German Human Biomonitoring Commission were not exceeded. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses the data of 92 actual pupils showed positive associations between blood levels of PCB and age as well as nursing period, a negative association between PCB blood concentrations and body-mass index and a weak influence by gender (boys had lower blood concentrations). In addition, the results of multiple regression analyses showed (with the exception of the analyses of PCB 180 without controlling for gender) a significant influence of PCB concentrations in indoor air on PCB blood concentrations. This association could not be detected in bivariate analyses, and in comparison to the mentioned main influence variables it was obviously weaker. But basing on the results of the multiple regression analyses one can calculate an increase of PCB blood concentration

  19. Remediation of PCB contaminated soils at Saglek, Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskell, B.; Bordin, D. [Bennett Environmental Inc., Oakville, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated soils were discovered in Saglek in 1986. This paper describes a contract awarded to Bennett Environmental Inc., by the Department of National Defense for the removal of all contaminated soils and debris in the area. Key tasks included removal of all stockpiles of PCB contaminated soil; collection, cleaning and sorting of debris for containerization and removal; remediation of potential contaminated soils beneath the stockpiles; and reinstatement of the staging and clean stone deposition zone area to its natural state. Planning of the project was outlined, including details of partnering sessions and workshops, as well as details of community meetings held in Nain. Details of startup and pre-environmental monitoring were also provided. An outline of the containerization unit used during the project was presented, as well as ship cycle times and soil sampling procedures. Washing and water treatment procedures were reviewed, as well as details of the on-site laboratory, equipped with personal exposure monitoring; an ambient air monitoring network; water sampling and analysis; and continuous monitoring to assess potential exposure to PCB to conform to alarm levels and implement mitigation measures. Shipping procedures were reviewed as well as soil treatment processes at a facility in Cornwall, Ontario. It was concluded that the remediation of the site was successful. All contaminated material was removed and treated. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  20. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Preda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directly proportional to the adsorption of PCBs in soil. PCBs are very insoluble in water, so they tend to accumulate in the lipids. This is the reason why polychlorinated biphenyls are more strongly adsorbed in soils with higher organic matter content. To obtain the adsorption isotherm were used standard solutions of PCB 101with initial concentrations: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/ml. The adsorption constants were in order: 3072 ml/g for chernozem, 2943 mg/l for chromic luvisol, 998 mg/l for aluviosol and 1443 mg/l for anthrosol. The values of adsorption constants depend on the organic matter and clay content.

  1. Dietary exposure to the PCB mixture aroclor 1254 may compromise osmoregulation by altering central vasopressin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coburn, C.G. [Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States); Gillard, E.; Curras-Collazo, M. [Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Univ. of California at Riverside, CA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    Despite the importance of systemic osmoregulation, the potential deleterious effects of persistent organochlorines, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on body fluid regulation has not been thoroughly investigated. In an effort to ameliorate this deficit, the current study explores the toxic effects of PCBs on osmoregulation, and in particular, on the activity of the magnocellular neuroendocrine cell (MNC) system of the hypothalamus. MNCs of the supraoptic nucleus (SON) release oxytocin (OXY) and vasopressin (VP) from terminals in the neurohypophysis in response to dehydration. The latter is released to effect water conservation in response to dehydration via its action upon the kidney and through extra-renal actions. MNCs also secrete VP from their cell bodies and dendrites locally i.e., into the extracellular space of the SON. Although it has been shown that both intranuclear and systemic release rise in response to dehydration the physiological significance of intranuclear release has not been fully elucidated. We chose to use voluntary ingestion as the route of PCB exposure since it is more reflective of natural exposure compared to ip injection. One unexpected observation that resulted from pilot studies using ip injection of PCBs was the deleterious effects of the vehicle (corn oil) resulting in pooling of lipid within the abdominal cavity, mottling of the liver, fatty liver and general discoloration of all abdominal viscera at time of sacrifice. Therefore, all work described in this series of experiments have employed voluntary ingestion of the toxin. Work described in this paper suggests that PCBs in concentrations reflecting realistic lifetime exposure levels may negatively impact homeostatic mechanisms responsible for body water balance by altering somatodendritic (intranuclear) VP secretion in response to dehydration in vivo. The downstream consequences of such influence is currently under investigation, and preliminary evidence suggests that the

  2. Heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) sedimentation in the Lianhua Mountain Reservoir, Pearl River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Amuzu-Sefordzi, Basil; Li, Ming

    2015-05-01

    The Pearl River Delta is one of the biggest electronics manufacturing regions in the world. Due to the presence of abandoned industrial sites and the proliferation of large-scale electronics companies in the past four decades, it is therefore imperative to investigate the extent of heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in the region. Spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and PCBs (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB118, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180) in the Lianhua Mountain reservoir in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan City, China were examined based on a sedimentary profile analysis. Higher concentrations of the heavy metals detected were recorded in bottom sediments whereas 70% of the detected PCBs recorded maximum concentrations in top sediments. The geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) indicate that the study area is uncontaminated to moderately contaminated. Also, the integrated pollution indices (IPI) were above 1, except Pb, which shows that the study area is contaminated with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources. The concentrations of individual heavy metals and PCBs over a period of 60 years were also analyzed in order to establish a historical trend of pollution in the study area. This study provides baseline information on the level and historical trend of heavy metals and PCBs pollution in the study area.

  3. Levels and distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls in sewage sludge of urban wastewater treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Li; ZHANG Bing; XIAO Ke; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHENG Minghui

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been measured in sewage sludge samples from 8 urban wastewater treatment plants in Beijing, China. The PCB congeners were analyzed by isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 65.6 to 157 ng/g dry weight (dw), with a mean value of 101 ng/g dw. The dioxin-like PCB WHO-TEQs (World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalents) of the sludge were lower than 1 pg /g dw. Consequently, all the concentrations of PCBs in sludge samples were below the upper limit for land application according to the Chinese legislation law for agriculture use. The PCB homologue profiles in sludge samples were dominated by tri-CBs and tetra-CBs. Similar distributions have been found in one of the Chinese PCB commercial products. The patterns of dioxin-like and indicator congeners observed in this study were quite similar in all samples. The predominant congener for dioxin-like and indicator PCBs were PCB-118 and PCB-28, respectively, while PCB-126 had the highest TEQ value.

  4. Trends in the enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Nagayoshi, Haruna; Nakano, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    For the precise estimation of the risk to human health caused by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), it is important to discuss enantiomer fraction value (EF value) because it is reported that behaviors such as stability and toxicity of enantiomers are quite different in human body. Among POPs, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is known as one of the most persistent compounds in human breast milk samples. The main exposure source of PCB for human body is mostly from food especially in seafood. The contamination of fish and shellfish has been a serious problem for the Japanese, who consume a large amount of fish in their diet. PCBs have 19 congeners which are chlorine-substituted in 3- or 4- ortho positions are known to have enantiomers. In this study, we analyzed PCB 183 (2,2',3,4,4',5',6-hepta CB) in human breast milk and fish samples enantioselectively and revealed the time trends of the EF value. Though EF value of PCB 183 in fish samples sustained close to racemate (EF = 0.5) from 1982 to 2012, that in breast milk increased over time. This fact indicates that (+)-PCB-183 has greater bioaccumulation potential than (-)-PCB-183 in human body; therefore, the toxicity of (+)-PCB-183 should be emphasized.

  5. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  6. Sex difference in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations of burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Stapanian, M.A.; Rediske, R.R.; O’Keefe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined for 25 female and 25 male burbot Lota lota from Lake Erie. Bioenergetics modeling was used to investigate whether the sex difference in growth rate resulted in a difference in gross growth efficiency (GGE) between the sexes. For ages 6–13 years, male burbot averaged 28 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. The sex difference in PCB concentrations widened for ages 14–17 years, with male burbot having, on average, 71 % greater PCB concentrations than female burbot. Bioenergetics modeling results showed that the faster growth rate exhibited by female burbot did not lead to greater GGE in female individuals of the younger burbot and that the faster growth by female fish led to female GGE being only 2 % greater than male GGE in older burbot. Although our bioenergetics modeling could not explain the observed sex difference in PCB concentrations, we concluded that a sex difference in GGE was the most plausible explanation for the sex difference in PCB concentrations of burbot ages 6–13 years. Not only are male fish likely to be more active than female fish, but the resting metabolic rate of male fish may be greater than that of female fish. We also concluded that the widening of the sex difference in PCB concentrations for the older burbot may be due to many of the older male burbot spending a substantial amount of time in the vicinity of mouths of rivers contaminated with PCBs.

  7. Modeling water column partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls to natural organic matter and black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Richard W; Di Toro, Dominic M; Farley, Kevin J; Phillips, Kathy L; Tomey, Cynthia

    2013-06-18

    High volume in situ surface water samples were collected from a tidal tributary of the Delaware Estuary using an Infiltrex sampling system equipped with a 1 μm particle filter and a XAD-2 resin column. Particulate and dissolved phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain detection levels in the femtograms per liter range. The data were fit to a four-phase equilibrium partitioning model including freely dissolved PCB, PCB bound to particulate organic carbon (POC), PCB bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and PCB bound to black carbon (BC). Isotherms were assumed to be linear for POC and DOC and nonlinear for BC. The partition coefficient between BC and dissolved PCB was assumed to depend on the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings. Following parameter optimization, the correlation coefficient between the log of the modeled and measured apparent distribution coefficient Kp,app was 0.94, and the RMSE was 0.189 log units. Including BC in the model reduces the dissolved PCB phase concentration in the water column for all congeners, especially for the non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted congeners.

  8. Persistent or not persistent? Polychlorinated biphenyls are readily depurated by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jennie R; Letcher, Robert J; Ross, Peter S

    2009-10-01

    Major pharmacokinetic processes influencing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) accumulation in mammals include uptake, biotransformation, respiration, and excretion. We characterized some of the factors underlying PCB accumulation/loss by evaluating PCB concentrations and patterns in pre- and posthibernation grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and their prey. The PCB congeners with vicinal meta- and para-chlorine unsubstituted hydrogen positions consistently showed loss both before and during hibernation, supporting the idea of a dominant role for biotransformation. Retention of all other studied congeners relative to that of PCB 194 varied widely (from bears do not eat or excrete. We estimate that grizzly bears retain less than 10% of total PCBs taken up from their diet. Our results suggest that for grizzly bears, depuration of PCBs via biotransformation is important (explaining approximately 40% of loss), but that nonbiotransformation processes, such as excretion, may be more important (explaining approximately 60% of loss). These findings, together with the approximately 91% loss of the persistent PCB 153 congener relative to PCB 194 in grizzly bears, raise important questions about how one defines persistence of PCBs in wildlife and may have bearing on the interpretation of food-web biomagnification studies.

  9. Reproductive hormone profile and pubertal development in 14-year-old boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Grønlund, Ciea; Kjær, Ina M;

    2012-01-01

    Because polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to cause endocrine disruption, we examined 438 adolescent boys from a birth cohort in the Faroe Islands, where PCB exposures are elevated. We measured PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in cord blood and in serum from clinical...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...

  11. Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities and polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in shrews as biomarkers in environmental risk assessments: sensitivity and specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Bosveld, A.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Alkoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (AROD) biomarkers are useful indicators of the exposure of organisms to dioxin-like compounds. In the current study, an in vivo validation of the use of such biomarkers in shrews was conducted. Furthermore, the use of changes in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) patterns as

  12. Coplanar PCB congeners increase uterine weight and frontal cortical dopamine in the developing rat: implications for developmental neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegal, Richard F; Brosch, Karl O; Okoniewski, Richard J

    2005-07-01

    We show that developmental exposure of the laboratory rat to the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) and the structurally similar congener 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (PtCB) elevates dopamine (DA) concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To determine whether these coplanar congeners are estrogenic, and may thus contribute to the elevations in PFC DA, we measured uterine wet weight (UWW) in prepubertal rats exposed to TCB or PtCB. For comparison, additional animals were exposed to either the ortho-substituted congener 2,4,2',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (o-TCB) or 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB), a coplanar congener highly resistant to metabolism. Both TCB and PtCB increased UWW, but this effect was blocked after exposure to the anti-estrogen ICI 182,780. Neither o-TCB nor HCB altered UWW. These results demonstrate that certain coplanar PCB congeners and/or their metabolites, are estrogenic, and suggest that exposure during critical periods of neuronal development may increase central DA concentrations, and by inference, alter behavior.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls: persistent pollutants with immunological, neurological, and endocrinological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J

    2011-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are considered "persistent organic pollutants;" fat-soluble compounds that bioaccumulate in individuals and bio-magnify in the food chain. PCBs were the first industrial compounds to experience a worldwide ban on production because of their potent toxicity. These compounds are still present in our food supply (fish, dairy, hamburger, and poultry being the most contaminated) and our bodies. Once in the body, they can cause long-term problems, especially for those exposed in utero. PCB bioaccumulation can lead to reduced infection fighting ability, increased rates of autoimmunity, cognitive and behavioral problems, and hypothyroidism. Some research also links PCBs to increased rates of type 2 diabetes. Testing is currently available for some of the most damaging PCBs. The testing compares individual levels to national reference values and can be interpreted to determine current exposure. Dietary measures can be enacted that will reduce PCB half-lives in humans by increasing excretion.

  14. Fluorescence characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers in cyclodextrin media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Femia, R.A.; Scypinski, S.; Love, L.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The fluorescence characteristics of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) isomers in ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin (CD) are discussed and contrasted. The steric hindrance of PCBs imposed by the positions of the chlorine atoms on the rings determines the overall stability of the resulting inclusion complexes with cyclodextrin which is reflected in the fluorescence intensities. Less substituted homologues include into the CD cavity equally well in both cyclodextrins, but very heavily substituted molecules show drastic differences between their fluorescence intensities in the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-cyclodextrin solutions. This behavior can be employed as a method for spectral fractionation of PCB isomers. Spectral separation is demonstrated here for two variably substituted molecules, and the photophysical limitations of this approach are discussed.

  15. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in insulating oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, S.; Goda, Y.; Hirobe, M. [Japan EnvironChemicals Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Tomita, J.; Nishikiori, M.; Nakajima, T. [Tokyo Electric Power Environmental Engineering Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Rubio, F. [Abraxis LLC, Warminster, PA (United States); Takigami, H. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakai, S. [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan); Ike, M.; Fujita, M. [Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a newly developed cocktail polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed as a pretreatment method for determining levels of PCBs in insulating oils. Standard and pretreated PCBs were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and mixed. The diluted mixture was then combined with a horseradish peroxidase conjugate combined with an anti-PCB antibody coupled with magnetic particles. A comparison of the method with standard ELISA processes indicated that the cocktail showed that cross reactivity patterns were improved. Twenty-six insulating oil samples contaminated with PCBs were then analyzed using the method. Values obtained using the cocktail method correlated with gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectroscopy (MS) analyses conducted on the same samples. It was concluded that the cocktail ELISA technique is a reliable and simple analytical method for determining PCBs in insulating oils. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Characterisation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Coastal Inland Seawater, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nsikak U.; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H.; Adedapo, Adebusayo E.; Anake, Winifred U.

    2017-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in samples of surface seawater collected from five (5) different locations along the coastline of a tropical lagoon. The surface water samples were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with fifteen (15) PCB congeners detected across the studied area. The chlorobiphenyls levels are in the order Ebute Ero > Oko Baba > Ijora > Lagos Island > Unilag lagoon front with levels 107.89, 53.15, 34.90, 27.78, and 2.15 mg/L, respectively. The enhanced average concentration of PCBs at the Ebute Ero site is due to the predominance of PCB-180 and PCB-185. A negative correlation was found between the total PCB concentration and the level of dissolved oxygen. Although, the results indicated fairly high levels of PCBs, the anthropogenic contributions from industrial releases and domestic activities may be largely associated with the detected concentrations of the di-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-chlorobiphenyls.

  17. Mechanochemical remediation of PCB contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhu; Hwang, Jisu; Huang, Jun; Xu, Ying; Yu, Gang; Li, Wenchao; Zhang, Kunlun; Liu, Kai; Cao, Zhiguo; Ma, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Quhui

    2017-02-01

    Soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a ubiquitous problem in the world, which can cause significant risks to human health and the environment. Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) has been recognized as a promising technology for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other organic molecules in both solid waste and contaminated soil. However, few studies have been published about the application of MCD technology for the remediation of PCB contaminated soil. In the present study, the feasibility of destroying PCBs in contaminated soil by co-grinding with and without additives in a planetary ball mill was investigated. After 4 h milling time, more than 96% of PCBs in contaminated soil samples were destroyed. The residual concentrations of PCBs decreased from 1000 mg/kg to below the provisional Basel Convention limit of less than 50 mg/kg. PCDD/F present in the original soil at levels of 4200 ng TEQ/kg was also destroyed with even a slightly higher destruction efficiency. Only minor dechlorinations of the PCBs were observed and the destruction of the hydrocarbon skeleton is proposed as the main degradation pathway of PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sonochemical Degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Aqueous Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is a kind of persistent and dangerous environmental pollutants. This paper presented the research result of sonochemical degradation of 2-chloro- biphenyl (2-CBP), 4-chlorobiphenyl (4-CBP) and 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl (4,4'-CBP)in water. The ultrasonic degradation kinetics of 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP in water were found to be first-order and the degradation rate coefficients are 3.69×10-2, 3.19×10-2 and 2.06×10-2 at 25±1°C for 2-CBP, 4-CBP and 4,4'-CBP respectively. The influence of initial concentrations, reaction temperature on the ultrasonic decomposition of 2-CBP were also investigated.

  19. Prediction of the Aqueous Solubilities of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Shen LIU; Shi Hai CUI; Lian Sheng WANG

    2004-01-01

    Using the molecular electronegativity distance vector descriptors derived directly from the molecular topological structures, the aqueous solubilities of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs)were predicted. A three-variable regression equation with correlation coefficient of 0.9739 and the root mean square errors of 0.26 was developed. The descriptors included in the equation represent three interactions between three pairs of atomic types,I.e.,atom-C=and>C=,-C=and-Cl,and-Cland-Cl.It has been proved that the aqueous solubilities of 137 PCB congeners can be accurately predicted as long as there are more than 65 calibration compounds.

  20. Evaluation of the toxicity of sediments from the Anniston PCB Site to the mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Allison; Sinclair, Jesse A.; MacDonald, Donald D.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kunz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    The Anniston Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Site is located in the vicinity of the municipality of Anniston in Calhoun County, in the north-eastern portion of Alabama. Although there are a variety of land-use activities within the Choccolocco Creek watershed, environmental concerns in the area have focused mainly on releases of PCBs to aquatic and riparian habitats. PCBs were manufactured by Monsanto, Inc. at the Anniston facility from 1935 to 1971. The chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) in sediments at the Anniston PCB Site include: PCBs, mercury, metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of PCB-contaminated sediments to the juvenile fatmucket mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and to characterize relationships between sediment chemistry and the toxicity of sediment samples collected from the Anniston PCB Site using laboratory sediment testing. Samples were collected in August 2010 from OU-4 of the Anniston PCB Site, as well as from selected reference locations. A total of 32 samples were initially collected from six test sites and one reference site within the watershed. A total of 23 of these 32 samples were evaluated in 28-day whole-sediment toxicity tests conducted with juvenile mussels (L. siliquoidea). Physical and chemical characterization of whole sediment included grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), nutrients, PCBs, parent and alkylated PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDD/PCDFs, total metals, simultaneously extracted metals (SEM), and acid volatile sulfide (AVS). Sediment collected from Snow Creek and Choccolocco Creek contained a variety of COPCs. Organic contaminants detected in sediment included PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PCDDs/PCDFs, and PAHs. In general, the highest

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  2. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six....... The results showed that one easured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also...

  3. Does Dietary Copper Supplementation enhance or diminish PCB126 Toxicity in Rodent Liver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ian K.; Klaren, William D.; Li, Miao; Wels, Brian; Simmons, Donald L.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Wang, Kai; Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2013-01-01

    Copper is essential for the function of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and several antioxidant proteins. However, in its free form copper can participate in Fenton-like reactions that produce reactive hydroxyl radicals. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, including the most potent polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), increase copper levels in rodent livers. This is accompanied by biochemical and toxic changes. To assess the involvement of copper in PCB toxicity, male Sprague Dawley rats were fed an AIN-93G diet with differing dietary copper levels: low (2 ppm), adequate (6 ppm), and high (10 ppm). After three weeks, rats from each group were given a single ip injection of corn oil (control), 1, or 5 μmol/kg body weight PCB126. Two weeks following injections, biochemical and morphological markers of hepatic toxicity, trace metal status, and hepatic gene expression of metalloproteins were evaluated. Increasing dietary copper was associated with elevated tissue levels of copper and ceruloplasmin. In the livers of PCB126-treated rats the hallmark signs of AhR activation were present, including increased cytochrome P-450 and lipid levels, and decreased glutathione. In addition a doubling of hepatic copper levels was seen and overall metals homeostasis was disturbed, resulting in decreased hepatic selenium, manganese, zinc and iron. Expression of key metalloproteins was either decreased (cytochrome c oxidase), unchanged (ceruloplasmin and CuZnSOD) or increased (tyrosinase, metallothionein 1 and 2) with exposure to PCB126. Increases in metallothionein may contribute/reflect the increased copper seen. Alterations in dietary copper did not amplify or abrogate the hepatic toxicity of PCB126. PCB126 toxicity, i.e. oxidative stress and steatosis, is clearly associated with disturbed metals homeostasis. Understanding the mechanisms of this disturbance may provide tools to prevent liver toxicity by other Ah

  4. Record high peaks in PCB concentrations in the Arctic atmosphere due to long-range transport of biomass burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckhardt

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Soils and forests in the boreal region of the northern hemisphere are recognised as having a large capacity for storing air-borne Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs, such as the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. Following reductions of primary emissions of various legacy POPs, there is an increasing interest and debate about the relative importance of secondary re-emissions on the atmospheric levels of POPs. In spring of 2006, biomass burning emissions from agricultural fires in Eastern Europe were transported to the Zeppelin station on Svalbard, where record-high levels of many air pollutants were recorded (Stohl et al., 2007. Here we report on the extremely high concentrations of PCBs that were also measured during this period. 21 out of 32 PCB congeners were enhanced by more than two standard deviations above the long-term mean concentrations. In July 2004, about 5.8 million hectare of boreal forest burned in North America, emitting a pollution plume which reached the Zeppelin station after a travel time of 3–4 weeks (Stohl et al., 2006. Again, 12 PCB congeners were elevated above the long-term mean by more than two standard deviations, with the less chlorinated congeners being most strongly affected. We propose that these abnormally high concentrations were caused by biomass burning emissions. Based on enhancement ratios with carbon monoxide and known emissions factors for this species, we estimate that 130 and 66 μg PCBs were released per kilogram dry matter burned, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study relating atmospheric PCB enhancements with biomass burning. The strong effects on observed concentrations far away from the sources, suggest that biomass burning is an important source of PCBs for the atmosphere.

  5. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish: optimisation and validation of a method based on accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottonello, Giuliana; Ferrari, Angelo; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    A simple and robust method for the determination of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish was developed and validated. A mixture of acetone/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) was selected for accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). After the digestion of fat, the clean-up was carried out using solid phase extraction silica cartridges. Samples were analysed by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) using three fragment ions for each congener (one quantifier and two qualifiers). PCB 155 and PCB 198 were employed as internal standards. The lowest limit of detection was observed for PCB 28 (0.4ng/g lipid weight). The accuracy of the method was verified by means of the Certified Reference Material EDF-2525 and good results in terms of linearity (R(2)>0.994) and recoveries (80-110%) were also achieved. Precision was evaluated by spiking blank samples at 4, 8 and 12ng/g. Relative standard deviation values for repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 8% and 16%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of PCBs in 80 samples belonging to four Mediterranean fish species. The proposed procedure is particularly effective because it provides good recoveries with lowered extraction time and solvent consumption; in fact, the total time of extraction is about 12min per sample and, for the clean-up step, a total solvent volume of 13ml is required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. In vitro antiestrogenic effects of aryl methyl sulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene on 17beta-estradiol-induced gene expression in several bioassay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Robert J; Lemmen, Josephine G; van der Burg, Bart; Brouwer, Abraham; Bergman, Ake; Giesy, John P; van den Berg, Martin

    2002-10-01

    Methylsulfonyl (MeSO(2)) metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (4,4'-DDE), itself a metabolite of the insecticide 4,4'-DDT, are emerging as a major class of contaminants in the tissues of wildlife and humans. We investigated the antiestrogenic capacity and potencies of 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-2,2',4,5,5'-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB101) and -2,2',4,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (CB49), which are among the most environmentally persistent MeSO(2)-PCBs, and 3-MeSO(2)-4,4'-DDE on estrogen receptor (ER)-dependent gene expression in four cell-based bioassay systems. Congener- and concentration-dependent antagonism of 17beta-estradiol (E2)-induced gene expression, rather than induction of ER-dependent gene expression, was observed for the MeSO(2)-PCBs on lucifierase activity in stably transfected human breast adenocarcinoma T47D cells (ER-CALUX) and vitellogenin (vtg) production in primary hepatocytes from male carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) (CARP-HEP/vtg). 4'-MeSO(2)-CB101 and -CB49 had the highest antagonistic potency (i.e., maximum inhibition of about 70%, LOECs of 1.0 microM and 2.5 microM), whereas 3'-MeSO(2)-CB101 and -CB49 were less antagonistic; the precursor CB101 and MeSO(2)-PCB analog MeSO(2)-2,5-dichlorobenzene had no effect. Relative to the 4-MeSO(2)-PCBs, tamoxifen (IC(50), 0.06 microM and 0.7 microM) was about 40 and 7 times more potent in the ER-CALUX and CARP-HEP/vtg assays, respectively. Congener- and concentration-dependent effects on aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated induction of EROD activity (carp hepatocytes), luciferase expression (H4IIE rat hepatoma [H4IIE.luc] cell line), or cell viability were not observed. 3-MeSO(2)-4,4'-DDE was neither estrogenic nor antiestrogenic in either of the bioassays. Inhibitory trends for the MeSO(2)-PCBs in a bioassay based on stably transfected human embryonic kidney cell (HEK293-ERalpha-ERE) were similar to the ER-CALUX and CARP-HEP/vtg bioassays, whereas the antagonism was

  7. Dioxin and PCB levels in human samples from the Greek population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leondiadis, L.; Vassiliadou, I.; Costopoulou, D.; Papadopoulos, A. [Mass Spectrometry and Dioxin Analysis Lab. - NCSR Demokritos, Athens (Greece)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are commercial chemical substances produced in a large scale since 1930, with a wide range of applications in industry, such as for coolant fluids in transformers and dielectric fluids in capacitors. After their health effects became apparent, PCB production was banned in the late 1970s. However, humans are still exposed through PCB leakage of old capacitors and transformers and disposal of contaminated materials. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs)), are formed as undesirable by-products mainly during the production of chlorinated chemicals and during the combustion of municipal and hazardous waste. Due to potential health hazard (dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, reproductive effects, teratogenicity, endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity), their monitoring in humans is of high general concern. Enough information on POP presence in human tissues from industrialized countries is available to suggest that the concentration of these compounds has decreased during the last 10 years. Monitoring of human exposure to PCBs and dioxins, contaminants that accumulate in lipid tissue, is most conveniently performed by analysis of blood plasma or blood serum. Monitoring of dioxins in human milk is of also great importance, since it is especially feared that lactational exposure to dioxins and related compounds may adversely affect brain development and the immune system of infants and children. The present study includes the analyses of non-ortho, mono-ortho, indicator PCBs, and PCDD/Fs in human blood and human milk samples collected between November 2002 and February 2004 and is the first study of this kind to be undertaken in Greece.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in harbor seal () livers from San Francisco Bay, California and Gulf of Maine

    OpenAIRE

    Park, June-Soo; Kalantzi, Olga Ioanna; Kopec, Dianne; Petreas, Myrto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bioaccumulation of endocrine disruptors in marine mammals positioned at the top of the food chain is of toxicological concern. Stranded four pup and ten adult harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) livers were collected from San Francisco Bay and the Gulf of Maine and analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs). We used GC-ECD and GC-NCI/MS to investigate the presence of 28 PCBs and 8 OH-PCB metabolites, respectively. ?28PCB concentrati...

  9. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar PCB congeners by egg injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Eisemann, J.D.; Klein, P.N. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States). Patuxent Environmental Science Center

    1995-12-31

    The utility of egg injection studies for predicting potential embryotoxicity of PCBs and TCDD compares favorably with feeding studies. The effects of PCB congeners 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-tetraCB (PCB 77), 2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentaCB (PCB 105), 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB (PCB 126) and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCB (PCB 153) were examined on embryonic development in chickens (Gallus gallus), northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), American kestrels (Falco sparverius), and common terns (Sterna hirundo) through hatching following air cell injections on day 4. The estimated LD{sub 50}s for these congeners in chickens were approximately 0.4 ppb, 2.6 ppb, 3326 ppb, and greater than 14,000 ppb, respectively; low effect levels (10--20% embryonic mortality) were 0.2 ppb, 1.2 ppb, 900 ppb, and 14,000 ppb respectively. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 126 was 48 ppb for bobwhite, 65 ppb for American kestrels, and 104 ppb for common terns. The estimated LD{sub 50} for PCB 77 was 688 ppb for American kestrels. one or more hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-linked monooxygenases including ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase was assayed for each species. For PCB 126, the order of responsiveness of cytochrome P450 induction was: chicken > common tern > American kestrel > bobwhite, with chicken being approximately 100 times more responsive than common tern. These values are compared to existing Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs) including bioassay-derived ones.

  10. Regulation of pregnane-X-receptor, CYP3A and P-glycoprotein genes in the PCB-resistant killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) population from New Bedford Harbor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gräns, Johanna; Wassmur, Britt; Fernández-Santoscoy, María [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zanette, Juliano; Woodin, Bruce R.; Karchner, Sibel I. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise; Jayaraman, Saro [Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 27 Tarzwell Drive, Narragansett, RI 02882 (United States); Hahn, Mark E.; Stegeman, John J. [Biology Department, MS #32, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States); Celander, Malin C., E-mail: malin.celander@gu.se [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Basal levels of PXR and Pgp mRNA are lower in liver of fish from NBH than from SC. • Hepatic PXR, CYP3A and Pgp mRNA levels are induced by PCB in fish from NBH. • Both non-dioxin-like and dioxin-like PCBs induce PXR, CYP3A and Pgp in NBH fish. • Branchial PXR and CYP3A mRNA levels are induced by PCB 126 in fish from SC. • There is possible cross-talk between AhR and PXR signaling in killifish. - Abstract: Killifish survive and reproduce in the New Bedford Harbor (NBH) in Massachusetts (MA), USA, a site severely contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for decades. Levels of 22 different PCB congeners were analyzed in liver from killifish collected in 2008. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in liver of NBH killifish were ∼400 times higher, and the levels of non-dioxin-like PCBs ∼3000 times higher than in killifish from a reference site, Scorton Creek (SC), MA. The NBH killifish are known to be resistant to the toxicity of dioxin-like compounds and to have a reduced aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) signaling response. Little is known about the responses of these fish to non-dioxin-like PCBs, which are at extraordinarily high levels in NBH fish. In mammals, some non-dioxin-like PCB congeners act through nuclear receptor 1I2, the pregnane-X-receptor (PXR). To explore this pathway in killifish, a PXR cDNA was sequenced and its molecular phylogenetic relationship to other vertebrate PXRs was determined. Killifish were also collected in 2009 from NBH and SC, and after four months in the laboratory they were injected with a single dose of either the dioxin-like PCB 126 (an AhR agonist) or the non-dioxin-like PCB 153 (a mammalian PXR agonist). Gills and liver were sampled three days after injection and transcript levels of genes encoding PXR, cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), AhR2 and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were measured by quantitative PCR. As expected, there was little effect of PCB exposure on mRNA expression of

  11. PCB annual report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory EPA Identification Number - TN 1890090003, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Finger, J.M.; Walker, I.A.

    1992-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons used extensively prior to 1979 as dielectric fluids in electrical equipment, heat transfer systems, fire retardants, and plasticizers. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems). ORNL operates research laboratories at the main ORNL/X-10 site and at the DOE/Y-12 Plant. ORNL manages PCBs and PCB-contaminated wastes that are generated at these sites in a manner that complies with state and federal regulations, as well as DOE and Energy Systems procedures. These wastes are stored on-site at ORNL prior to their treatment and disposal at EPA-approved facilities. In addition, PCB articles, PCB containers, and PCB-contaminated electrical equipment are in use at ORNL. The following report list the PCB transformers, PCB contaminated transformers, PCB capacitors, and miscellaneous equipment containing PCBs above 50 ppm.

  12. Effects of Intraperitoneal Injection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls During Pregnancy on Sexual Behavior of F1 Rats%妊娠期腹腔注射多氯联苯对大鼠性行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雄清; 代敏; 罗英

    2005-01-01

    将50只同期怀孕的大鼠分为5组, 在怀孕第7-18 d, 每天分别给两组大鼠腹腔注射1.00 和20.00 mg/kg体重2, 2′, 4, 4′-四氯联苯(PCB 47);分别给另两组注射0.25和1.00 mg/kg体重3, 3′, 4,4′-四氯联苯(PCB 77);对照组注射0.10 mL芝麻油. 幼鼠出生后第70-91 d、 97-101 d测试F1代雌鼠的接近时间(AL)、爬跨后返回时间(MRL)、插入后返回时间(IRL)、射精后不应期(PER)、脊柱前凸系数(LQ)和雄鼠的爬跨频率(MF)、爬跨等待时间(ML)、插入频率(IF)、插入等待时间(IL)、射精等待时间(EL)、射精后不应期(PEI)、插入率等性行为. 结果显示, 妊娠期腹腔注射PCB 47和PCB 77显著降低F1代雌鼠的LQ(对照组为84.4%;PCB 47组分别为76.0%、 67.8%;PCB 77组分别为64.4%、 53.3%;P>0.05), 但对雌鼠的AL、 MRL、 IRL、 PER和雄鼠的MF、 ML、 IF、 IL、 EL、 PEI和插入率无显著影响(P>0.05).%50 time-mated pregnant rats were divided into five groups and injected daily from gestational days 7 to 18 with either 2,2′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 47) at the dosage of 1.00 or 20.00 mg/kg body weight;or 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77) at the dosage of 0.25 or 1.00 mg/kg body weight;or sesame oil (control) to investigate the effects of fetal and lactational PCB exposure on reproductive behavior in male and female laboratory rats. Offspring were then tested for male sexual behavior: mount frequency, MF;mount latency, ML;intromission frequency, IF;intromission latency, IL;ejaculation latency, EL;post ejaculatory interval, PEI;hit rate and female sexual behavior;approach latency, AL;mount return latency, MRL;intromission return latency, IRL;post ejaculatory refractory period, PER;lordosis quotient, LQ. Measures were made at the age of postnatal days 70 to 91, and 97 to 101, respectively. The results showed that exposure to both PCB 77 and PCB 47 significantly reduced the LQ (84.4% for control, 76.0%, 67.8% for PCB 47 groups and 64.4%, 53

  13. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Da-lei; Mi, Yu-ling; Wang, Kai-Ming; Zeng, Wei-dong; Zhang, Cai-qiao

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAI) on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and ...

  14. Attenuating effect of daidzein on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced oxidative toxicity in mouse testicular cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-lei ZHANG; Yu-ling MI; Kai-ming WANG; Wei-dong ZENG; Cai-qiao ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The attenuating effect of daidzein (DAD on oxidative toxicity induced by Aroclor 1254 (A 1254) was investigated in mouse testicular cells. Cells were exposed to A1254 alone or with DAI. The oxidative damage was estimated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. Results show that A 1254 induced a decrease of germ cell number, an elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) but a decrease in SOD activity and GSH content. However, simultaneous supplementation with DAI decreased TBARS level and increased SOD activity and GSH content. Consequently, dietary DAI may restore the intracellular antioxidant system to attenuate the oxidative toxicity of A1254 in testicular cells.

  15. Degree of Contamination and Sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  16. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  17. PCB138, but not PCB153 and PCB180, acts as a weak antiandrogen in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinggaard, A.M.; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2000-01-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a group of persistent environmental chemicals including 209 possible congeners exhibiting a variety of chlorine substitution patterns. Due to their lipophilic nature and resistance toward biotransformation, PCBs accumulate in the food chain and all...

  18. Life Cycle Analysis for Treatment and Disposal of PCB Waste at Ashtabula and Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, M.I.

    2001-01-11

    This report presents the use of the life cycle analysis (LCA) system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites in Ohio--the Ashtabula Environmental Management Project near Cleveland and the Fernald Environmental Management Project near Cincinnati--in assessing treatment and disposal options for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and mixed waste. We will examine, first, how the LCA process works, then look briefly at the LCA system's ''toolbox,'' and finally, see how the process was applied in analyzing the options available in Ohio. As DOE nuclear weapons facilities carry out planned decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities for site closure and progressively package waste streams, remove buildings, and clean up other structures that have served as temporary waste storage locations, it becomes paramount for each waste stream to have a prescribed and proven outlet for disposition. Some of the most problematic waste streams throughout the DOE complex are PCB low-level radioactive wastes (liquid and solid) and PCB low-level Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) liquid and solid wastes. Several DOE Ohio Field Office (OH) sites have PCB disposition needs that could have an impact on the critical path of the decommissioning work of these closure sites. The Ashtabula Environmental Management Project (AEMP), an OH closure site, has an urgent problem with disposition of soils contaminated by PCB and low-level waste at the edge of the site. The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), another OH closure site, has difficulties in timely disposition of its PCB-low-level sludges and its PCB low-level RCRA sludges in order to avoid impacting the critical path of its D&D activities. Evaluation of options for these waste streams is the subject of this report. In the past a few alternatives for disposition of PCB low-level waste

  19. Unintentional PCB in chlorophenylsilanes as a source of contamination in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anezaki, Katsunori, E-mail: anezaki@hro.or.jp [Hokkaido Research Organization, Environmental and Geological Research Department, Institute of Environmental Sciences, N19W12, Kita, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Nakano, Takeshi [Center for Advanced Science and Innovation, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • PCB concentrations were studied in silicone-based adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • Congener patterns (CP) were studied in adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes. • High concentrations of PCBs were detected in dichlorodiphenylsilane. • In commercial adhesives, PCBs with similar CP to dichlorodiphenylsilane were found. • CP were affected by the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes. - Abstract: This paper discusses the concentrations and congener patterns of PCBs unintentionally present in chlorophenylsilanes. Chlorophenylsilanes are used in the production of silicone-based adhesives and phenyl silicones. The concentration of PCBs in adhesives was found to range from not-detectable concentrations to 40 mg/kg. The concentrations of PCBs in trichlorophenylsilane, dichlorodiphenylsilane, chlorotriphenylsilane, and diphenylsilanediol were 0.00072–2.7, 6.5–1,500, 0.019–1.1, and 0.12–120 mg/kg, respectively. Dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol, in particular, had high PCB concentrations. The PCB concentration of some specimens exceeded the 50 mg/kg limit set by the transportation regulations of the Stockholm Convention. In the adhesives and chlorophenylsilanes, mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls were detected in high proportions. The congeners detected in dichlorinated biphenyls had a structure in which one chlorine atom was substituted at each of the two aryls of the biphenyl backbone. This indicated that the chlorobenzene used for synthesizing chlorophenylsilanes undergoes dimerization. The congener and homologue patterns of the adhesives containing PCBs were similar to dichlorodiphenylsilane and diphenylsilanediol. It was concluded that the production of the adhesives is based on these substances. In addition, these results indicate that silicone-based products may become a source of PCBs in the environment, leading to irregular PCB values in environmental analysis.

  20. Estimation of PCB content in agricultural soils associated with long-term fertilization with organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolín-Rodríguez, Juan M; Sánchez-Báscones, Mercedes; Martín-Ramos, Pablo; Bravo-Sánchez, Carmen T; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) pollution related to the use of organic waste as fertilizers in agricultural soils is a cause of major concern. In the study presented herein, PCB concentration was studied through a field trial conducted in two agricultural soils in the province of Palencia (Spain) over a 4-year period, assessing the impact of irrigation and of different types of organic waste materials. The amounts of organic waste added to the soil were calculated according to the nitrogen needs of the crop, and the concentration of PCBs was determined before and after the application of the organic waste. The resulting persistence of the total PCB content in the agricultural soils, compared with the PCB concentration in the original soils, ranged from 27% to 90%, with the lowest value corresponding to irrigated soils treated with municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) and the highest value to non-irrigated soils treated with composted sewage sludge (CSS). An estimate of the PCB content in agricultural soils after the application of organic waste materials until year 2050 was obtained, resulting in a value below 5 ng·g(-1), considered a background value for soils in sites far away from potential pollution sources.

  1. Plasma Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Michael D.; Kohles, Sean S.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons that have extensively polluted the environment and bioaccumulated in the food chain. PCBs have been deemed to be probable carcinogens by the Environmental Protection Agency, and exposure to high levels of PCBs has been consistently linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In the present article we present a forensic epidemiologic evaluation of the causal relationship between NHL and elevated PCB levels via ...

  2. Validation of simple method for determination of penetration of PCB in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars; Witterseh, Thomas; Olesen, Kathrine Birkemark

    2014-01-01

    After extensive use of PCB containing polymeric materials in construction the knowledge about toxicity and biomagnification of PCB increased in the early seventies. This lead in Denmark to a ban on the use of PCB in building materials that was effective from 1 January 1977. Now much later...... an increased focus on indoor health risks caused by previous use of PCB containing building materials has sparked a need for large scale efficient sampling of materials for analysis of PCB content and penetration in materials adjoining the primary sources. Sampling in masonry and concrete is difficult because...... of strength and inhomogeneity of the materials. Much heat and dust may be generated while sampling from these mineral materials. It is furthermore suspected that the heat generation may mobilize the PCB and make the following analysis imprecise. The purpose of this paper...

  3. [Promotion effects of vitamin B12 on the degradation of 2, 4, 4'-trichlorobiphenyl by Nostoc PD-2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Yu; Xiao, Wen-Feng; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Hang-Jun

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are typical persistent chlorinated organic compounds in the environment. Bioremediation of PCB-contaminated environment has become one of the hot issues. In this study, vitamin B12 (VB12) and chlorine-free culture medium were applied to study the effects of VB12 on the degradation of 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) by Nostoc PD-2 and the gene expression during the PCB-degradation process. Results showed that addition of different concentrations of vitamin B12 could improve the PCB-biodegradation rates by Nostoc PD-2. Compared with the control group, the 7-day degradation rate in 10 microg x L(-1), 100 microg x L(-1), and 1 000 microg x L(-1) VB12-treated groups increased by 11.0%, 19.7%, and 21.9% , respectively. The degradation half-time decreased from 5.53 days (treated with 10 microg x L(-1) VB12) to 3.08 days (treated with 100 microg x L(-1) VB12). The expression of cytochrome b6f complex iron-sulfur protein gene and dioxygenase gene showed significant correlation with PCB28-degradation by Nostoc PD-2. While the expression of iron-sulfur protein gene showed more significant correlation with PCB28-degradation. Results in this study indicated that adding VB12 could promote PCB28-degradation by Nostoc PD-2. Moreover, VB12 addition improved the PCB-degradation activity of Nostoc PD-2 at the gene level. The above conclusions could provide a new choice for developing efficient bioremediation technology for PCB-contaminated environment and a new insight into the PCB-biodegradation mechanism by Nostoc PD-2.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffal, A. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Givaudan, N. [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France); Betoulle, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Terreau, A. [IPEV Institut Polaire Francais, F29280 Plouzane (France); Paris-Palacios, S.; Biagianti-Risbourg, S. [Laboratoire d' Eco-Toxicologie, EA 2069 Vignes et Vins de Champagne, Universite de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Beall, E. [ECOBIOP, UMR 1224 INRA-Universite de Pau-Pays de l' Adour F63310 St-Pee-sur-Nivelle (France); Roche, H., E-mail: helene.roche@u-psud.fr [UMR8079, CNRS, Orsay F-91405 (France); Univ Paris-Sud, Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2011-05-15

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49{sup o}S, 70{sup o}E) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g{sup -1} lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g{sup -1} lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: > First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. > PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. > Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. > Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  5. Environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and cytochromes P450 in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip N; Bandiera, Stelvio M; Skipper, Sherry L; Johnson, Kevin A; McMurry, Scott T

    2003-02-01

    An investigation involving raccoons as a sentinel species at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and Ballard Wildlife Management Area in western Kentucky (USA) delineated the extent of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three separate measures of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction were used to evaluate raccoon physiological responses to PCB exposure. Hepatic CYP induction was estimated via determination of total CYP, dealkylase activities, and immunoreactive proteins. There were no differences in raccoon biomarker responses between study sites. Significant relationships between and among PCB residues and biomarkers indicated that hepatic CYP induction had occurred in response to PCB exposure. Pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity, CYP1A1, and CYP1A2 were biomarkers most closely associated with PCB exposure. The rank order of responses was CYP1A1 > CYP1A2 > PROD > ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) as related to raccoon liver PCB concentrations, whereas the order was CYP1A1 > PROD > EROD > CYP1A2 when regressed with total PCB concentrations in abdominal fat.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 augments angiotensin II-induced atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms in male apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenescu, Violeta [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Arsenescu, Razvan [Digestive Diseases and Nutrition, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Parulkar, Madhura; Karounos, Michael [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Zhang, Xuan [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Baker, Nicki [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States); Cassis, Lisa A., E-mail: lcassis@uky.edu [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0200 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Infusion of angiotensin II (AngII) to hyperlipidemic mice augments atherosclerosis and causes formation of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Each of these AngII-induced vascular pathologies exhibit pronounced inflammation. Previous studies demonstrated that coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote inflammation in endothelial cells and adipocytes, two cell types implicated in AngII-induced vascular pathologies. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that administration of PCB77 to male apolipoprotein E (ApoE) -/- mice promotes AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. Male ApoE-/- mice were administered vehicle or PCB77 (49 mg/kg, i.p.) during week 1 and 4 (2 divided doses/week) of AngII infusion. Body weights and total serum cholesterol concentrations were not influenced by administration of PCB77. Systolic blood pressure was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (156 {+-} 6 vs 137 {+-} 5 mmHg, respectively). The percentage of aortic arch covered by atherosclerotic lesions was increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle (2.0 {+-} 0.4 vs 0.9 {+-} 0.1%, respectively). Lumen diameters of abdominal aortas determined by in vivo ultrasound and external diameters of excised suprarenal aortas were increased in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77 compared to vehicle. In addition, AAA incidence increased from 47 to 85% in AngII-infused mice administered PCB77. Adipose tissue in close proximity to AAAs from mice administered PCB77 exhibited increased mRNA abundance of proinflammatory cytokines and elevated expression of components of the renin-angiotensin system (angiotensinogen, angiotensin type 1a receptor (AT1aR)). These results demonstrate that PCB77 augments AngII-induced atherosclerosis and AAA formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) promotes AngII-induced hypertension. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCB77 augments Ang

  7. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism dampi