WorldWideScience

Sample records for biphenyl compounds

  1. Effective inhibition of hydroxyl radicals by hydroxylated biphenyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, J; Ikemoto, T; Mimura, K; Hagi, A; Murakami, A; Makino, K

    1993-01-01

    In aqueous media, approximate rate constants for the reactions between hydroxyl radicals (.OH) and biphenyl compounds such as dehydrodieugenol, magnolol, honokiol, dehydrodidihydroeugenol, dehydrodivanillyl alcohol, and dehydrodicreosol were estimated by competition reactions for .OH between these biphenyls and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). By measuring the decrease in the height of the EPR signals of the .OH spin adduct, rate constants in the order of 10(9) to 10(10) M were measured. PMID:8282234

  2. Mechanistic insights on the hydrodesulfurization of biphenyl-2-thiol with nickel compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Nieto, Jorge; Brennessel, William W; Jones, William D; García, Juventino J

    2009-03-25

    The reactivity of the nickel(I) dimer [(dippe)Ni(mu-H)](2) (1) with biphenyl-2-thiol was explored with the aim of clarifying the key step of sulfur extrusion during the hydrodesulfurization process using dibenzothiophene (DBT). These reactions were monitored by variable temperature NMR experiments which allowed the complete characterization and isolation of [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-H)(mu-S-2-biphenyl)] (3). The latter compound evolves to the terminal nickel-hydride [(dippe)Ni (eta(1)-C-2-biphenyl)(H)] (4) and transient [(dippe)NiS] (5), to ultimately yield [(dippe)(2)Ni(2)(mu-S)] (2) and biphenyl as the resulting HDS products. The reactivity of 1 and biphenyl-2-thiol was examined using different ratios of reactants, which allowed preparation of [(dippe)Ni(eta(1)-S-biphenyl-2-thiolate)(2)] (6) when using an excess of this substrate. The reactivity of 6 with 1 was addressed, yielding compound 2 and an equivalent amount of biphenyl. PMID:19292493

  3. Isolation of bioactive biphenyl compounds from the twigs of Chaenomeles sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung Sub; Subedi, Lalita; Kwon, Oh Kil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-01-15

    Investigation of the MeOH extract of Chaenomeles sinensis twigs resulted in the isolation of seven biphenyl compounds (1-7) including a new compound, chaenomin (1). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR data ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC and HMBC), specific optical rotation, and chemical reaction. Compounds 2 and 6 showed potent cytotoxic activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT15), and compound 7 exhibited potent anti-neuroinflammatory and NGF-potentiating activity. PMID:26706168

  4. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen J. Genuis; Sanjay Beesoon; Detlef Birkholz

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to f...

  5. Plant compounds that induce polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, E S; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Plant compounds that induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were identified by a screening assay based on the formation of a 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl ring fission product. A chemical component of spearmint (Mentha spicata), l-carvone, induced Arthrobacter sp. strain B1B to cometabolize Aroclor 1242, resulting in significant degradation of 26 peaks in the mixture, including selected tetra- and pentachlorobiphenyls. Evidence for PCB biodegradation incl...

  6. Separation of Biphenyl Nitrile Compounds by Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography with Mixed Surfactants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xuan GONG; Tao BO; Lan HUANG; Ke An LI; Hu Wei LIU

    2004-01-01

    A mixture of nine biphenyl nitrile compounds with high hydrophobicity and similar structures was successfully separated by microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) within 30 min. The buffer system contained 100 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), 80 mmol/L sodium cholate (SC), 0.81% heptane, 7.5% n-butanol, 10% acetonitrile and 10 mmol/L borate. The addition of SC, organic modifiers, sample preparation and temperature all showed remarkable effect on the separation. Meanwhile, the MEEKC method was briefly compared with micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method.

  7. Biphenyl compounds are hydroxyl radical scavengers: their effective inhibition for UV-induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S; Taira, J

    1994-09-01

    In our previous study, we found several hydroxylated biphenyl compounds have a great scavenging effect for hydroxyl radicals (.OH). In this study, to elucidate the relationship between generation of the .OH and photo-mutagenesis, six biphenyl compounds such as dehydrodieugenol, dehydrodivanillyl alcohol, dehydrodidihydroeugenol, dehydrodicreosol, magnolol and honokiol, respectively, were examined for their ability to inhibit UV-induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA102. The relative mutagenic activities (RMA, %) indicated the mutation frequency of treated cells divided by the mutation frequency of control cells times 100%. The RMA (%) are as follows: 28 +/- 1, 31 +/- 1, 33 +/- 1, 41 +/- 2, 62 +/- 1, and 62 +/- 4 at concentrations of 5 micrograms per plate for dehydrodieugenol, dehydrodivanillyl alcohol, dehydrodidihydroeugenol, dehydrodicreosol, magnolol, and honokiol, respectively. These values indicate that low concentrations of these biphenyl compounds effectively suppress UV-induced mutagenesis. Also, these compounds acted as effective antimutagens in a dose-dependent manner (0.00005-5 micrograms per plate). These compounds are effective .OH scavengers. Consequently, the results obtained above suggest that these compounds could inhibit against UV-induced mutations by scavenging of .OH generated by UV irradiation. The results also suggest that .OH are associated with UV-induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium TA102. PMID:7982632

  8. Measurement and estimated health risks of volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in air at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of radioactive and nonradioactive chemicals have been released in effluent streams and discharged to waste disposal facilities during the nuclear materials production period at the Hanford Site. Extensive environmental surveillance for radioactive materials has occurred at Hanford; however, only limited information is available on the types and concentrations of organic pollutants potentially present. This report describes work performed to provide the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project with representative air concentration data for volatile organic compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) volatile organic compound sampling methods evaluated for Hanford Site use were carbon-based adsorbent traps (TO-2) and Summa air canisters (TO-14). Polychlorinated biphenyls were sampled using USEPA method (TO-4), which uses glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam adsorbent beds to collect the PCBS. This report also presents results for environmental surveillance samples collected for volatile organic compound and PCB analyses from 1990 to 1993. All measured air concentrations of volatile organic compounds and PCBs were well below applicable maximum allowable concentration standards for air contaminants. Because of the lack of ambient air concentration standards, a conservative estimate is provided of the potential human health impacts from exposure to the ambient air concentrations measured on the Hanford Site

  9. Tri-n-butyltin hydride-mediated radical reactions of ortho-and meta-iodobenzamides to synthesize benzomacrolactams: surprising formation of biphenyl compounds from meta-regioisomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactions of methyl 4-O-allyl-2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-deoxy-6-(3-iodobenzoylamino) -α-D-galactopyranoside, its gluco epimer, methyl 2,3-di-O-benzyl-6-deoxy-6-(3-iodobenzoylamino)- 4-O-(1-pentenyl)-α-D-glucopyranoside and its ortho-regioisomer with tri-n-butyltin hydride were performed in different conditions. Depending on reaction conditions the three meta-iodo isomers gave a surprising amount of biphenyl compounds. The 2-iodo isomer led only to the undesired but expected hydrogenolysis product. No cyclized products were isolated in all the reactions. The structures of the new biphenyl products were elucidated by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, DEPT, COSY, HMQC and HMBC experiments and ESI-MS/MS. Mechanisms for the formation of these new biphenyl derivatives and hypotheses to explain the different outcomes for radical reactions of 3- or 2-iodobenzamides were presented. (author)

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in arctic marine food chains: accumulation of specific polychlorinated biphenyls and chlordane-related compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.C.G.; Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M.

    1988-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (S-PCB) and chlordane-related compounds (S-CHLOR) as well as DDT, hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene, and chlorobenzenes were determined in pooled arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) muscle and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) fat and in the blubber and liver of 59 ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from the east-central Canadian Arctic. S-PCB concentrations ranged from 0.0037 mg/kg (wet wt) in cod muscle to 0.68 mg/kg in male seal blubber and 4.50 mg/kg in bear fat. Tri- and tetrachloro PCB homologues were the dominant PCBs in fish, while pentachloro/hexachloro and hexachloro/heptachloro congeners predominated in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. Chlordane compounds detected in seal blubber were oxychlordane, cis- and trans-nonachlor, and cis-chlordane as well as nine minor components of technical chlordane, including nonachlor-III (a nonachlor isomer). Toxaphene and HCH isomers were the major organochlorines in cod muscle with mean concentrations of 0.018 and 0.010 mg/kg, respectively. S-CHLOR/S-PCB ratios ranged from 0.6 in fish muscle and bear fat to 0.7-0.9 in seal blubber, much higher than observed in more southerly marine environments, suggesting a proportionally greater input of chlordane into the Arctic.

  11. Tunability of optical nonlinear response through twisting of conjugation paths in push-pull biphenyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeglin, Alex; Fort, Alain F.; Mager, Loic; Combellas, Catherine; Thiebault, Andre; Rodriguez, Vincent

    2001-12-01

    Charge separated molecules with strong zwitterionic character make especially interesting species for quadratic Non Linear Optical (NLO) doped materials because of their large dipole moments and rather large quadratic hyperpolarizabilities. Furthermore, their sensitivity to the dielectric environment brands them as good candidates for checking the validity of formalisms relating geometrical structure and NLO properties. We have carried out an experimental and theoretical study on two phenoxide pyridinium derivatives with different inter ring twist angle, combining UV-visible, IR and NLO spectroscopies supplemented by semi-empirical and density functional calculations. Experimentally, changing the polarity of the solvent allows us to explore only a small range of twist angles. However, changing the pyridinium nitrogen atom from para to meta position gives essentially the same compound but with a larger twist angle. Changes in solvent polarity and position substitution give rise to a combined enhancement of the quadratic response by an order of magnitude, showing experimentally the possibility of tuning NLO properties of chromophores to be used as doping agents in NLO applications.

  12. Construction of a Bioluminescent Reporter Strain To Detect Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Layton, A C; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M. M.; Sayler, G. S.

    1998-01-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307(pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/lit...

  13. Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Genes and Formation of Phytoalexin Compounds in Three Fire Blight-Infected Pyrus communis Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Swiddan, Asya K.; Abdelaziz, Sahar; Gaid, Mariam; Richter, Klaus; Fischer, Thilo C.; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis) is an economically important fruit crop. Drops in yield and even losses of whole plantations are caused by diseases, most importantly fire blight which is triggered by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In response to the infection, biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed as phytoalexins, biosynthesis of which is initiated by biphenyl synthase (BIS). Two PcBIS transcripts were cloned from fire blight-infected leaves and the encoded enzymes were characterized regarding substrate specificities and kinetic parameters. Expression of PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 was studied in three pear cultivars after inoculation with E. amylovora. Both PcBIS1 and PcBIS2 were expressed in ‘Harrow Sweet’, while only PcBIS2 transcripts were detected in ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’. Expression of the PcBIS genes was observed in both leaves and the transition zone of the stem; however, biphenyls and dibenzofurans were only detected in stems. The maximum phytoalexin level (~110 μg/g dry weight) was observed in the transition zone of ‘Harrow Sweet’, whereas the concentrations were ten times lower in ‘Conference’ and not even detectable in ‘Alexander Lucas’. In ‘Harrow Sweet’, the accumulation of the maximum phytoalexin level correlated with the halt of migration of the transition zone, whereby the residual part of the shoot survived. In contrast, the transition zones of ‘Alexander Lucas’ and ‘Conference’ advanced down to the rootstock, resulting in necrosis of the entire shoots. PMID:27410389

  14. Antifungal activity of schinol and a new biphenyl compound isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius against the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Betania B; Cisalpino Patricia S; Lima Luciana ARS; Sá Nívea P; Johann Susana; Alves Tânia MA; Siqueira Ezequias P; Zani Carlos L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the antifungal compounds from the extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae) against clinical isolates of the pathogenic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Methods The hexane and dichlomethane fractions from leaves and stems of S. terebinthifolius were fractionated using several chromatography techniques to afford four compounds. Results The compounds isolated from S. terebinthifolius were identified as schinol...

  15. Structural and electron charge density studies of a nonlinear optical compound 4,4 di-methyl amino cyano biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 4,4 dimethyl amino cyano biphenyl crystal (DMACB) is characterized by its nonlinear activity. The intra molecular charge transfer of this molecule results mainly from the electronic transmission of the electro-acceptor (cyano) and electro-donor (di-methyl-amino) groups. An accurate electron density distribution around the molecule has been calculated based on a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The data were collected at 123 K using graphite-monochromated Mo K α radiation to sin(β)/λ = 1.24 Å−1. The integrated intensities of 13796 reflections were measured and reduced to 6501 independent reflections with I ≥ 3σ(I). The crystal structure was refined using the experimental model of Hansen and Coppens (1978). The crystal structure has been validated and deposited at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre with the deposition number CCDC 876507. In this article, we present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement based on F2 and the electron density distribution obtained from the multipolar model. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  16. Structural and electron charge density studies of a nonlinear optical compound 4,4 di-methyl amino cyano biphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naima, Boubegra; Abdelkader, Chouaih; Mokhtaria, Drissi; Fodil, Hamzaoui

    2014-01-01

    The 4,4 dimethyl amino cyano biphenyl crystal (DMACB) is characterized by its nonlinear activity. The intra molecular charge transfer of this molecule results mainly from the electronic transmission of the electro-acceptor (cyano) and electro-donor (di-methyl-amino) groups. An accurate electron density distribution around the molecule has been calculated based on a high-resolution X-ray diffraction study. The data were collected at 123 K using graphite-monochromated Mo K α radiation to sin(β)/λ = 1.24 Å-1. The integrated intensities of 13796 reflections were measured and reduced to 6501 independent reflections with I >= 3σ(I). The crystal structure was refined using the experimental model of Hansen and Coppens (1978). The crystal structure has been validated and deposited at the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre with the deposition number CCDC 876507. In this article, we present the thermal motion and the structural analysis obtained from the least-square refinement based on F2 and the electron density distribution obtained from the multipolar model.

  17. Tracing the biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in common carp (Cryprinus carpio): Enantiomeric fraction and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bin; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Sun, Run-Xia; Chen, Hua-Shan; Li, Zong-Rui; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-09-01

    Metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish are difficult to detect in vivo due to the complexity of biometabolism. In the present study, atropisomeric fraction analysis of chiral PCB congeners and compound-specific isotopic analysis (CSIA) were applied to trace the biotransformation of PCBs in fish by exposure of common carp (Cryprinus carpio) to the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. Stereoselective elimination of the chiral PCB congeners 91, 95, and 136 was observed, indicating a stereoselective biotransformation process. The δ(13)C values of PCBs 5/8, 18, and 20/33 in fish were increased compared with those in the spiked food, while PCBs 47/48 and 49 showed significant heavy isotope depletion. These results suggested a significant biotransformation of the corresponding individual PCB congeners although the potential PCB metabolites, hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfone PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs), were not detected in the fish tissue samples throughout this experiment. The results of the present study demonstrated that a combination of chiral analysis and CSIA is a promising new approach for investigating the biotransformation of PCBs in biota. PMID:27341148

  18. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  19. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  20. Micrometeorological measurement of hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyl compound air-water gas exchange in Lake Superior and comparison to model predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rowe

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Air-water exchange fluxes of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT substances are frequently estimated using the Whitman two-film (W2F method, but micrometeorological flux measurements of these compounds over water are rarely attempted. We measured air-water exchange fluxes of hexachlorobenzene (HCB and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on 14 July 2006 in Lake Superior using the modified Bowen ratio (MBR method. Measured fluxes were compared to estimates using the W2F method, and to estimates from an Internal Boundary Layer Transport and Exchange (IBLTE model that implements the NOAA COARE bulk flux algorithm and gas transfer model. We reveal an inaccuracy in the estimate of water vapor transfer velocity that is commonly used with the W2F method for PBT flux estimation, and demonstrate the effect of use of an improved estimation method. Flux measurements were conducted at three stations with increasing fetch in offshore flow (15, 30, and 60 km in southeastern Lake Superior. This sampling strategy enabled comparison of measured and predicted flux, as well as modification in near-surface atmospheric concentration with fetch, using the IBLTE model. Fluxes estimated using the W2F model were compared to fluxes measured by MBR. In five of seven cases in which the MBR flux was significantly greater than zero, concentration increased with fetch at 1-m height, which is qualitatively consistent with the measured volatilization flux. As far as we are aware, these are the first reported ship-based micrometeorological air-water exchange flux measurements of PCBs.

  1. Microbial transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the potential of microorganisms to transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In anaerobic environments, higher chlorinated biphenyls can undergo reductive dehalogenation. Meta- and para-chlorines in PCB congeners are more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines. Anaerobes catalyzing PCB dechlorination have not been isolated in pure culture but there is strong evidence from enrichment cultures that some Dehalococcoides spp. and other microorganisms within the Chloroflexi phylum can grow by linking the oxidation of H2 to the reductive dechlorination of PCBs. Lower chlorinated biphenyls can be co-metabolized aerobically. Some aerobes can also grow by utilizing PCB congeners containing only one or two chlorines as sole carbon/energy source. An example is the growth of Burkholderia cepacia by transformation of 4-chlorobiphenyl to chlorobenzoates. The latter compounds are susceptible to aerobic mineralization. Higher chlorinated biphenyls therefore are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products. - Higher chlorinated biphenyls are potentially fully biodegradable in a sequence of anaerobic reductive dechlorination followed by aerobic mineralization of the lower chlorinated products

  2. Estrogenicity of selected biphenyls evaluated using a recombinant yeast assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, T.W.; Kraut, D.H.; Sayler, G.S.; Layton, A.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The estrogenic activity of biphenyl and 4-hydroxylated derivatives with varied levels of chloro- and/or hydroxyl substitution was measured in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based lac-Z ({beta}-galactosidase) reporter assay, {beta}-Galactosidase activity was compared with competitive binding to soluble mouse uterine estrogen receptor protein. The comparison of relative potency for biphenyls hydroxylated on one ring and chlorinated on the other ring (n = 5) revealed excellent correlation between the two systems (r{sup 2} = 0.995). However, estrogenicities of biphenyls hydroxylated and chlorinated on the same ring were not in agreement. Although weak ligand binding was demonstrated for these compounds, {beta}-galactosidase activity was not observed. Rather, these compounds were shown to be cytotoxic to yeast. The results of this study further support the hypothesis that both an unhindered phenolic ring and molecular symmetry are structural features associated with estrogenicity.

  3. Thermic decomposition of biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid and vapour phase pyrolysis of very pure biphenyl obtained by methods described in the text was carried out at 400 C in sealed ampoules, the fraction transformed being always less than 0.1 per cent. The main products were hydrogen, benzene, terphenyls, and a deposit of polyphenyls strongly adhering to the walls. Small quantities of the lower aliphatic hydrocarbons were also found. The variation of the yields of these products with a) the pyrolysis time, b) the state (gas or liquid) of the biphenyl, and c) the pressure of the vapour was measured. Varying the area and nature of the walls showed that in the absence of a liquid phase, the pyrolytic decomposition takes place in the adsorbed layer, and that metallic walls promote the reaction more actively than do those of glass (pyrex or silica). A mechanism is proposed to explain the results pertaining to this decomposition in the adsorbed phase. The adsorption seems to obey a Langmuir isotherm, and the chemical act which determines the overall rate of decomposition is unimolecular. (author)

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  5. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sorption and Availability in Field-Contaminated Sediments†

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, David; Hale, Sarah E.; Ghosh, Upal; Luthy, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional and new relationships of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution among the solid phases, the free aqueous phase, and biolipids are comprehensively reviewed using seven well-characterized freshwater and marine sediments polluted with PCBs. The traditional relationship relating free aqueous concentration and biolipid concentration to sediment total organic carbon, compound octanol−water partitioning coefficient, and solid-phase contaminant concentration overestimates measured fr...

  6. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are generally disposed of by incineration, an expensive and hazardous method. Moreover, in cases where the PCBs are a minor component of a nontoxic fluid, such as a dielectric fluid, incineration causes loss of the nontoxic fluid as well as the PCB. An alternative method for destroying PCBs is disclosed which is not only capable of detoxification of PCB-contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments, but can also remove PCBs from solution in a wide range of concentrations, permitting full recovery of the bulk of the solution free of PCBs. The process of the invention may be operated in a batch, continuous, or semicontinuous mode, and is advantageously used to detoxify organic liquids such as transformer oils. According to the invention, PCBs are chemically degraded by contact with a Lewis acid catalyst in a nonaqueous liquid medium, in the presence of a cation which combines with the chlorine on the PCB to form a solid chloride of the cation which will precipitate out from the liquid medium. Preferred Lewis acids are metal halides, particularly a combination of aluminum chloride and ferric chloride, and the preferred cation is potassium in the form of KOH. The Lewis acids may be supplied to the process by the adventitious corrosion of a vessel containing the PCB-contaminated matter. Experiments are described to illustrate the process of the invention. 3 figs

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and neurological development in children: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Fito, N; Sala, M.; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are complex mixtures of persistent contaminants that are widespread in the environment. Newborns are exposed across the placenta and through breast feeding. Experimental animal studies have indicated that PCBs are neurotoxic. The neurological effects of these compounds on children are not clear. Methods—A systematic review of literature on the relation between neurological development in children and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.
RESULTS—Se...

  8. Directed Evolution of Biphenyl Dioxygenase: Emergence of Enhanced Degradation Capacity for Benzene, Toluene, and Alkylbenzenes

    OpenAIRE

    Suenaga, Hikaru; Mitsuoka, Mariko; Ura, Yuko; Watanabe, Takahito; Furukawa, Kensuke

    2001-01-01

    Biphenyl dioxygenase (Bph Dox) catalyzes the initial oxygenation of biphenyl and related compounds. Bph Dox is a multicomponent enzyme in which a large subunit (encoded by the bphA1 gene) is significantly responsible for substrate specificity. By using the process of DNA shuffling of bphA1 of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia cepacia LB400, a number of evolved Bph Dox enzymes were created. Among them, an Escherichia coli clone expressing chimeric Bph Dox exhibited extremely...

  9. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  10. Thermal decomposition of biphenyl (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rates of formation of the decomposition products of biphenyl; hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, as well as triphenyl have been measured in the vapour and liquid phases at 460 deg. C. The study of the decomposition products of biphenyl at different temperatures between 400 and 460 deg. C has provided values of the activation energies of the reactions yielding the main products of pyrolysis in the vapour phase. Product and Activation energy: Hydrogen 73 ± 2 kCal/Mole; Benzene 76 ± 2 kCal/Mole; Meta-triphenyl 53 ± 2 kCal/Mole; Biphenyl decomposition 64 ± 2 kCal/Mole; The rate of disappearance of biphenyl is only very approximately first order. These results show the major role played at the start of the decomposition by organic impurities which are not detectable by conventional physico-chemical analysis methods and the presence of which accelerates noticeably the decomposition rate. It was possible to eliminate these impurities by zone-melting carried out until the initial gradient of the formation curves for the products became constant. The composition of the high-molecular weight products (over 250) was deduced from the mean molecular weight and the dosage of the aromatic C - H bonds by infrared spectrophotometry. As a result the existence in tars of hydrogenated tetra, penta and hexaphenyl has been demonstrated. (author)

  11. An efficient synthesis, X-ray and spectral characterization of biphenyl derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra R Kamble; Dharesh B Biradar; Gangadhar Y Meti; Tasneem Taj; Tegginamath Gireesh; Imthiyaz Ahmed M Khazi; Sundar T Vaidyanathan; Raju Mohandoss; Balasubramanian Sridhar; Viraraghav Parthasarathi

    2011-07-01

    Derivatives of 1,3-thiazolidin-2,4-dione appended to biphenyl ring viz., 7-9, 16-18 were prepared. The newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR (1H and 13C) MS and elemental analyses. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study was carried out for one of the final compounds 9.

  12. Thermal decomposition of biphenyl (1963); Decomposition thermique du biphenyle (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerc, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The rates of formation of the decomposition products of biphenyl; hydrogen, methane, ethane, ethylene, as well as triphenyl have been measured in the vapour and liquid phases at 460 deg. C. The study of the decomposition products of biphenyl at different temperatures between 400 and 460 deg. C has provided values of the activation energies of the reactions yielding the main products of pyrolysis in the vapour phase. Product and Activation energy: Hydrogen 73 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Meta-triphenyl 53 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; Biphenyl decomposition 64 {+-} 2 kCal/Mole; The rate of disappearance of biphenyl is only very approximately first order. These results show the major role played at the start of the decomposition by organic impurities which are not detectable by conventional physico-chemical analysis methods and the presence of which accelerates noticeably the decomposition rate. It was possible to eliminate these impurities by zone-melting carried out until the initial gradient of the formation curves for the products became constant. The composition of the high-molecular weight products (over 250) was deduced from the mean molecular weight and the dosage of the aromatic C - H bonds by infrared spectrophotometry. As a result the existence in tars of hydrogenated tetra, penta and hexaphenyl has been demonstrated. (author) [French] Les vitesses de formation des produits de decomposition du biphenyle: hydrogene, methane, ethane, ethylene, ainsi que des triphenyles, ont ete mesurees en phase vapeur et en phase liquide a 460 deg. C. L'etude des produits de decomposition du biphenyle a differentes temperatures comprises entre 400 et 460 deg. C, a fourni les valeurs des energies d'activation des reactions conduisant aux principaux produits de la pyrolyse en phase vapeur. Produit et Energie d'activation: Hydrogene 73 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Benzene 76 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Metatriphenyle, 53 {+-} 2 kcal/Mole; Decomposition du biphenyle 64 {+-} 2

  13. Synthesis, structural, spectroscopic and thermal characteristics of disubstituted biphenyl derivative: Biphenyl-4,4‧-diacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz-Gromiuk, Justyna; Głuchowska, Halina; Tarasiuk, Bogdan; Mazur, Liliana; Rzączyńska, Zofia

    2014-07-01

    A novel 4,4‧-disubstituted biphenyl derivative featuring two acetic acid side arms symmetrically attached to a biphenyl system, that is biphenyl-4,4‧-diacetic acid (H2bpda), has been successfully synthesized by means of the three-stage organic strategy. The synthesis product was characterized by elemental analysis, various spectroscopic techniques including FT-IR, Raman, 1H and 13C NMR as well as thermogravimetric and TG-FT-IR coupled measurements. The phase purity of material was verified on the basis of the X-ray powder diffraction. The studied compound crystallizes in the monoclinic P21/c space group with half of the molecule in the asymmetric unit. Structural studies indicate intermolecular Osbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the carboxylic groups of the adjacent molecules of H2bpda. The occurrence of intermolecularly associated carboxylic groups can also be clearly seen in the vibrational spectra of the acid. On thermal analysis both in air and nitrogen an anhydrous compound demonstrates considerable thermal stability.

  14. Synergistic Processing of Biphenyl and Benzoate: Carbon Flow Through the Bacterial Community in Polychlorinated-Biphenyl-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-02-01

    Aerobic mineralization of PCBs, which are toxic and persistent organic pollutants, involves the upper (biphenyl, BP) and lower (benzoate, BZ) degradation pathways. The activity of different members of the soil microbial community in performing one or both pathways, and their synergistic interactions during PCB biodegradation, are not well understood. This study investigates BP and BZ biodegradation and subsequent carbon flow through the microbial community in PCB-contaminated soil. DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) was used to identify the bacterial guilds involved in utilizing 13C-biphenyl (unchlorinated analogue of PCBs) and/or 13C-benzoate (product/intermediate of BP degradation and analogue of chlorobenzoates). By performing SIP with two substrates in parallel, we reveal microbes performing the upper (BP) and/or lower (BZ) degradation pathways, and heterotrophic bacteria involved indirectly in processing carbon derived from these substrates (i.e. through crossfeeding). Substrate mineralization rates and shifts in relative abundance of labeled taxa suggest that BP and BZ biotransformations were performed by microorganisms with different growth strategies: BZ-associated bacteria were fast growing, potentially copiotrophic organisms, while microbes that transform BP were oligotrophic, slower growing, organisms. Our findings provide novel insight into the functional interactions of soil bacteria active in processing biphenyl and related aromatic compounds in soil, revealing how carbon flows through a bacterial community.

  15. Synthesis and properties of a new diarylethene having thiazole and biphenyl moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel photochromic diarylethene bearing thiazole and biphenyl moieties has been synthesized. Its properties, including photochromism and fluorescence were investigated in detail. It underwent reversible cyclization and cycloreversion reactions upon alternating irradiation with UV and visible light in hexane. The results showed that this compound exhibited reversible photochromism and good fluorescent switching in solution after irradiation with UV light and visible light.

  16. Synthesis and properties of a new diarylethene having thiazole and biphenyl moieties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hui; Pu Shouzhi; Liu Gang; Liu Weijun, E-mail: pushouzhi@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A novel photochromic diarylethene bearing thiazole and biphenyl moieties has been synthesized. Its properties, including photochromism and fluorescence were investigated in detail. It underwent reversible cyclization and cycloreversion reactions upon alternating irradiation with UV and visible light in hexane. The results showed that this compound exhibited reversible photochromism and good fluorescent switching in solution after irradiation with UV light and visible light.

  17. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300 degrees C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB's utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium

  18. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  19. Study of tritium labeling of complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for tritium labeling of technical mixture (commercial mark - SOVOL, USSR) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was developed. The influence of procedure of labeling by thermally activated tritium on the nativity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was studied. The method of labeling by thermally activated tritium has some factors, which are able to destroy organic compounds - photodegradation, thermo-degradation and degradation caused by reaction of substitution of organic compounds hydrogen atoms by activated tritium atoms. To develop a method of labeling of every organic compound by thermally activated tritium it is necessary to determine and optimize the conditions of labeling. In our case procedure of labeling is complicated because of technical mixture of PCBs consist from more than 20 isomers, chlorinated with different degree. We studied the dependence of appearance of products of degradation PCBs from duration of labeling procedure. It was found that some part of PCBs and product of its degradation were evaporated under vacuum and were collected on the glass flask cooled by liquid nitrogen. It was found that correlation between labeled of PCBs and products of degradation did not changed with increasing time of labeling, and radiochemical yield of tritium labeled of PCBs was stable - about 15-20 %. The optimum regime of labeling was selected. It was found that purification of labeled PCBs by TLC on silica gel with hexane allows obtaining tritium-labeled PCBs purified from by-products. Thus, TLC purification seems inexpensive, fast and suitable for purification of tritium-labeled PCBs

  20. Options for PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) analysis reviewed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S

    1990-04-01

    Types of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis can be divided into two categories: specific and non-specific methods. Specific methods include gas chromatogrphy and mass spectrometry, which test for PCB molecules in particular. Non-specific methods identify classes of compounds, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, to which PCBs belong. These non-specific methods include Chlor-N-Oil PCB screening kits, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and microcoulemetric titration. In general, PCB-specific methods are more accurate than non-specific methods, but are also more expensive, more lengthy to run, and less portable. Non-specific methods test for the presence of chlorine in the sample, and as a result other chlorinated componds will cause false positive results, however false negative results should not occur. Although false positive results can cause unnecessary secondary testing, they can be very economical when used on samples such as transformer oil, which contains few sources of chlorine other than PCB. Used crank case and cutting oils almost always give false positive results with non-specific tests. Details are presented of a new non-specific test, the L2000 PCB Analyzer, which can be used on transformer oil, soil samples, and for testing of total organic chlorine levels in waste oils. 1 fig.

  1. Hybrid pseudomonads engineered by two-step homologous recombination acquire novel degradation abilities toward aromatics and polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Hikaru [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Bioproduction Research Inst.; Nonaka, Kazuhiko; Goto, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Bioscience and Biotechnology; Fujihara, Hidehiko; Furukawa, Kensuke [Beppu Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Fermentation and Food Science

    2010-10-15

    Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707 possesses a chromosomally encoded bph gene cluster responsible for the catabolism of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls. Previously, we constructed chimeric versions of the bphA1 gene, which encodes a large subunit of biphenyl dioxygenase, by using DNA shuffling between bphA1 genes from P. pseudoalcaligenes KF707 and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. In this study, we demonstrate replacement of the bphA1 gene with chimeric bphA1 sequence within the chromosomal bph gene cluster by two-step homologous recombination. Notably, some of the hybrid strains acquired enhanced and/or expanded degradation capabilities for specific aromatic compounds, including single aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. (orig.)

  2. Molecular Descriptors Family on Structure Activity Relationships 6. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz JÄNTSCHI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Octanol-water partition coefficient of two hundred and six polychlorinated biphenyls was model by the use of an original method based on complex information obtained from compounds structure. The regression analysis shows that best results are obtained in four-varied model (r2 = 0.9168. The prediction ability of the model was studied through leave-one-out analysis (r2cv(loo = 0.9093 and in training and test sets analysis. Modeling the octanol-water partition coefficient of polychlorinated biphenyls by integration of complex structural information provide a stable and performing four-varied model, allowing us to make remarks about relationship between structure of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated octanol-water partition coefficients.

  3. 2,2,6,6-Tetrakis(biphenyl-2-yl-4,4,8,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. A. Couzijn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [–Si(C12H92OSi(CH32O–]2, was obtained unintentionally as the product of an attempted crystallization of caesium bis(biphenyl-2,2′-diylfluorosilicate from dimethylformamide. In the crystal, the molecule is located on an inversion center and the siloxane ring adopts a twist-chair conformation with the two dimethyl-substituted Si atoms lying 0.7081 (5 Å out of the plane defined by the two bis(biphenyl-2-yl-substituted Si atoms and the four O atoms. In each Si(C12H92 unit, the orientation of one terminal phenyl ring relative to the phenylene ring of the other biphenyl moiety suggests a parallel displaced π–π stacking interaction [centroid distance = 4.2377 (11 Å and dihedral angle = 15.40 (9°].

  4. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring

  5. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity of 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen 2',4'-difluoro-3-(carbamoyl)biphenyl-4-yl benzoates were synthesized from diflunisal in three steps with total yields from 72% to 86%. All compounds were identified by IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity and analgesic activity for 18 compounds were evaluated. The preliminary assay results showed that compounds 4a and 4p exhibited potent anti-inflammatory-analgesic activity.

  6. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). 129... Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). (a) Specialized definitions. (1) PCB Manufacturer means a manufacturer who produces polychlorinated biphenyls. (2) Electrical capacitor manufacturer means a manufacturer who...

  7. Synthesis of new biphenyl-substituted quinoline derivatives, preliminary screening and docking studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nellisara D Shashikumar; Ganganaika Krishnamurthy; Halehatti S Bhojyanaik; Mayasandra R Lokesh; Kaginalli S Jithendrakumara

    2014-01-01

    New quinoline derivatives containing biphenyl ring were synthesized and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectral studies. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial, anthelmintic activities as well as free radical scavenging property against the DPPH radical. The minimum inhibition concentration values showed promising inhibiting activity and are potent biological agents. The compounds showed minimum binding energy towards -tubulin. The compounds 11a, 11c, 13c and 13d have good affinity towards the active pocket and may be considered as a good inhibitor of -tubulin.

  8. Determination of in vitro relative potency (REP) values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls after purification with active charcoal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.K.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Zhao, B.; Bergman, A.; Denison, M.S.; Berg, van den M.

    2006-01-01

    The TEF system for dioxin-like compounds has included assignment of TEF values for mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (MO-PCBs). Small traces of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-active impurities could result in artifactually higher relative potency (REP) values. MO-PCBs -105, -118, -156, and -167

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls fractioning assessment in aqueous bioremediation assy with phanerochaete chrysosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Sangely, Matthieu; Sablayrolles, Caroline; Vialle, Claire; Strehaiano, Pierre; Thannberger, Laurent; Vignoles, Mireille

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to growing environmental concerns in public opinion, bioremediation processes are more and more used to decontaminate soils from organic compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be world wide spread persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is able to degrade PCBs in water, and soil As POPs, PCBs can also be adsorbed onto organic matter, such as Phanerochaete chrysosporium mycelium. This study aims at estimating the fractioni...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of these compounds in humans (Rogan et al. 1986). This is a logical hypothesis, given the well-described effects of PCBs on plasma thyroid hormone levels in adult animals, and ...

  11. Kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning to marine Chrysophyte Isochrysis galbana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focused on the uptake kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by the Chrysophyte, Isochrysis galbana. A gas-purging experimental system was used to maintain constant dissolved PCB concentrations. Three phases of absorption were observed: first, a rapid absorption phase within the first 15 min, second, a first order process reaching the maximum concentration within 48 h of exposure, and third, a plateau phase as yet to be determined with very slight increases in concentration. In this study, the percentage of the maximum concentration reached within the first phase varied from 10% to 67%, depending on the size of the PCB (as determined by molecular weight and total surface area), whereas the uptake rate (ku) during the second phase was more comparable across different PCBs. In addition, for the first phase, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PCBs deviated from its expected relationship with hydrophobicity, as determined by Kow, and was instead related to the molecular structure of the compound.

  12. Plant enzymes in metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chromá, L.; Moeder, M.; Kučerová, P.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 291-295. ISSN 1018-4619 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 498 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * plants * peroxidases Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  13. Analysis the mixtures of polyphenyls by gas chromatrogaphie. 1.- Area response for biphenyl and terphenyls relative to triphenylmethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative performances of the thermal conductivity and flame ionization detectors towards triphenylmethane were investigated for each one of the components of biphenyl of biphenyl and terphenyl mixtures. The influence of the concentration of the considered compound as well as the influence derived from the present of all other components on the above-mentioned relative performance were studied. A 2 m long column filled with 50-70 mesh stomacher containing 20% apiezon L was used to carry out the study with the thermal conductivity detector by keeping the column at 300 degree centigree using helium gas as carrier. (Author) 13 refs

  14. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of eugenol-related biphenyls on malignant melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dettori Maria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive skin cancer and chemotherapeutic agents currently in use are still unsatisfactory. Prevention and early diagnosis are the only effective tools against this tumour whose incidence and mortality rates are highly increased during the last decades in fair skin populations. Therefore the search for novel therapeutic approaches is warranted. Aim of this work was to identify and test new compounds with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on melanoma cells. We tested eugenol together with six natural and synthetic eugenol-related compounds for their capability to inhibit cell growth on primary melanoma cell lines established from patients' tissue samples. Results Eugenol and isoeugenol monomers and their respective O-methylated forms did not show to inhibit melanoma cells proliferation. Conversely, the dimeric forms (biphenyls showed some antiproliferative activity which was mild for dehydrodieugenol, higher for its O,O'-methylated form (O,O'-dimethyl-dehydrodieugenol, and markedly pronounced for the racemic mixture of the brominated biphenyl (6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol (S7, being its enantiomeric form (S the most effective compared to the other compounds. Such activity resulted to be selective against tumour cells, without affecting cultured normal human skin fibroblasts. Dose and time dependence curves have been obtained for the enantiomeric form S7-(S. Then IC50 and minimal effective doses and times have been established for the melanoma cell lines tested. TUNEL and phosphatidylserine exposure assays demonstrated the occurrence of apoptotic events associated with the antiproliferative activity of S7-(S. Cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induced by treating melanoma cells with eugenol-related biphenyls was partially dependent by caspase activation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that the eugenol related biphenyl (S-6,6'-dibromo-dehydrodieugenol elicits specific

  15. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Human occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with varying chlorine content has been reported by several investigators, using analyses of blood or adipose samples or skin wipes to evaluate levels in the body. The intensity of occupational exposure is related to both duration and intensity of exposure. The qualitative nature of occupational exposure, as well as casual environmental exposure, has been shown to consist of less readily metabolized PCB congeners. The pattern of P...

  16. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Preda; Radu Lăcătuşu; Dumitru Marian Motelică; Nicoleta Vrînceanu; Veronica Tănase

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directl...

  17. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D.; Kania-Korwel, I.; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and ...

  18. Metabolic and health consequences of occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, A B; Schloemer, J; Lowry, L K; Smallwood, A W; Ligo, R N; Tanaka, S.; Stringer, W; Jones, M; Hervin, R; Glueck, C J

    1982-01-01

    In surveys of three groups of workers occupationally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) serum PCB concentrations were quantitated as lower chlorinated biphenyls (L-PCBs) and higher chlorinated biphenyls (H-PCBs). Serum L-PCB and H-PCB concentrations were many times greater among workers employed in power capacitor manufacturing than exposed areas. Statistically significant positive correlations of symptoms suggestive of mucous membrane and skin irritation, of systemic malaise, and al...

  19. 77 FR 42181 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Disposition of Request Submitted Under TSCA Section 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Chapter I Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Disposition of Request Submitted Under TSCA... certain actions to protect human health and the marine environment from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs... Sinking Exercise). List of Subjects Environmental protection, Polychlorinated biphenyls, SINKEX....

  20. Toxicity mechanisms and interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonijević Biljana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs, are widespread environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic activities and due to their persistency and resistance to degradation. Both groups of chemicals are placed on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, covered by the Stockholm convention which is aimed to limit or ban the production, use, emission, import and export of POPs in order to protect human health and the environment. Taking into account the structural similarity between PCBs and PBDEs, and the known effects of PCBs, these two groups of chemicals could have similar mechanisms of action. Also, because of real simultaneous exposure to these compounds, an examination of possible interactions is of great importance. Interactions of the compounds from these groups are likely at the system level of hormones, particularly thyroid and reproductive ones. As there are mechanisms of adverse effects of both groups of chemicals on the nervous system, including functional, neurological and behavioral changes, there are influences on neurotransmiters, changes in signal transduction and apoptosis. There are interactions affecting the occurrence of metabolic disorders as well. Data on the toxicity of mixtures of PCBs and PBDEs, as well as interactions of these chemicals would contribute to the processes of risk evaluation and risk characterisation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  1. Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in hen eggs – a new source of hazard for consumers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piskorska-Pliszczyńska Jadwiga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of testing eggs for the content of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, determination of the sources that caused the presence of high concentrations of these compounds which exceeded the acceptable contamination levels, and assessment of consumer health risk caused by the consumption of eggs with excessive contents of investigated compounds. In about 9% of free range eggs and 17% of organic eggs, the content of PCDD/Fs was two- or threefold higher than the acceptable limits, and in some samples the concentration of investigated compounds exceeded the maximum concentration levels. Based on the profile of the compounds, it was confirmed in several cases that their main source was the soil or unsecured refuse. The consumers of eggs and meat produced under these conditions constitute the risk groups, and their dioxin and PCB intake may exceed toxicological reference values.

  2. Radiochemical decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in hexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) decomposition are analyzed with the aim of determining whether polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or dibenzafurans (PCDF) are formed during radition-chemical decomposition. It is shown that under irradiation of PCB Arochlor 1260 mixture with 10-2 mass % concentration decomposition degree equals 90.4 % at radiaion dose more than 6 Mrad. As the result of irradiation the content of relatively light PCB in the mixture increases and the content of irradiated mixture becomes close to the content of Arochlor 1242 mixture. Neitgher PCDD nor PCDE is detected on the products of PCB decomposition

  3. 78 FR 48156 - Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... also provides limited estimates for releases of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In... polychlorinated biphenyls to the air, land, and water of the United States. The inventory suggested that there was... of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (CDF) compounds present...

  4. Biphenyl 4-Hydroxylases Involved in Aucuparin Biosynthesis in Rowan and Apple Are Cytochrome P450 736A Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sircar, Debabrata; Gaid, Mariam M; Chizzali, Cornelia; Reckwell, Dennis; Kaufholdt, David; Beuerle, Till; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Flachowsky, Henryk; Liu, Benye; Hänsch, Robert; Beerhues, Ludger

    2015-06-01

    Upon pathogen attack, fruit trees such as apple (Malus spp.) and pear (Pyrus spp.) accumulate biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins, with aucuparin as a major biphenyl compound. 4-Hydroxylation of the biphenyl scaffold, formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), is catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 (CYP). The biphenyl 4-hydroxylase (B4H) coding sequence of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) was isolated and functionally expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). SaB4H was named CYP736A107. No catalytic function of CYP736 was known previously. SaB4H exhibited absolute specificity for 3-hydroxy-5-methoxybiphenyl. In rowan cell cultures treated with elicitor from the scab fungus, transient increases in the SaB4H, SaBIS, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase transcript levels preceded phytoalexin accumulation. Transient expression of a carboxyl-terminal reporter gene construct directed SaB4H to the endoplasmic reticulum. A construct lacking the amino-terminal leader and transmembrane domain caused cytoplasmic localization. Functional B4H coding sequences were also isolated from two apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars. The MdB4Hs were named CYP736A163. When stems of cv Golden Delicious were infected with the fire blight bacterium, highest MdB4H transcript levels were observed in the transition zone. In a phylogenetic tree, the three B4Hs were closest to coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylases involved in lignin biosynthesis, suggesting a common ancestor. Coniferaldehyde and related compounds were not converted by SaB4H. PMID:25862456

  5. ADSORPTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Preda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil is determined by several factors including adsorption, mobility and degradation. Adsorption, directly or indirectly, influences the other factors. Adsorption process is generally evaluated by using adsorption isotherms representing the relationship between the quantity of substance adsorbed per unit weight and concentration of the substance in solution at equilibrium. They allow determination of the adsorption constant, which is directly proportional to the adsorption of PCBs in soil. PCBs are very insoluble in water, so they tend to accumulate in the lipids. This is the reason why polychlorinated biphenyls are more strongly adsorbed in soils with higher organic matter content. To obtain the adsorption isotherm were used standard solutions of PCB 101with initial concentrations: 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 g/ml. The adsorption constants were in order: 3072 ml/g for chernozem, 2943 mg/l for chromic luvisol, 998 mg/l for aluviosol and 1443 mg/l for anthrosol. The values of adsorption constants depend on the organic matter and clay content.

  6. Discovery of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a Lake Michigan waterway and original commercial Aroclors

    OpenAIRE

    Marek, Rachel F.; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or co-eluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated ...

  7. Oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls by Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, D T; Cruden, D. L.; Haddock, J D; Zylstra, G J; Brand, J M

    1993-01-01

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in the substrate specificity of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenases from both organisms.

  8. Rapid separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from DDT and its analogues on silica gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Diane; Reinert, Robert E.

    1971-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), which are used in industry worldwide (i), have been found as residues in numerous wildlife species (2-7). Because of the similarity in chemical characteristics, PCB compounds interfere with gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) analysis of certain chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides (8). In the present study, we sought a rapid microanalytical procedure for separation of PCB's from DDT and its analogues before analysis with GLC. A small silica gel column was found to be suitable for removing two of the Aroclor series of PCB's (1254 and 1260) from DDT and its analogues.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue as determinants of abdominal obesity in the Elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana;

    2013-01-01

    explain the epidemic. Evidence from animal experiments suggests that exposure to endocrine disruptors such as PCBs is associated with the development of obesity but our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is limited. Our objective was to investigate the association between...... circumference 5 years after enrolment. We examined ten polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) as potential determinants. All PCBs included were positively associated with increased abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data do not support the hypotheses of a link...

  10. 1-[(Biphenyl-4-yl(phenylmethyl]-1H-imidazole (bifonazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Taylor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C22H18N2, the dihedral angles formed by the imidazole ring with the phenyl ring and the benzene ring of the biphenyl group are 87.02 (5 and 78.20 (4°, respectively. In the crystal, molecules interact through intermolecular C—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the b axis. These chains are further linked into a three-dimensional network by C—H...π stacking interactions

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  12. Biphenyls from the Twigs of Garcinia multiflora and their AntiTobacco Mosaic Virus Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingmeng Xu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For more bioactive compounds, p hytochemical investigations of the acetone extract of the twigs G arcinia multiflora resulted in the isolation of two new bipheny ls, multiflorabiphenyls A and B (1 and 2 , along with four known biphenyl derivatives (3-6 . Structural elucidations of 1 and 2 were performed by spectral methods such as 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, in addition to high resolution mass spectrometry. Compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated for their anti-tobacco mosaic virus (Anti-TMV activity. The results showed that compound s 1 and 2 showed high anti-TMV activit ies with inhibition rate s of 25.4 % and 28.3%, respectively, which is close d to that of Ningnanmycin ( 3 3.5 %.

  13. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: a novel and robust isolated biphenyl- and polychlorinated biphenyls-degrading bacterium without dead-end intermediates accumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Hu

    Full Text Available Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs. Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, which could degrade biphenyl and PCBs without dead-end intermediates accumulation, was isolated from PCBs-contaminated soil and identified as Sphingobium fuliginis. Benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate (3-CBA transformed from biphenyl and 3-chlorobiphenyl (3-CB could be rapidly degraded by HC3. This strain has strong degradation ability of biphenyl, lower chlorinated (mono-, di- and tri- PCBs as well as mono-CBAs, and the biphenyl/PCBs catabolic genes of HC3 are cloned on its plasmid. It could degrade 80.7% of 100 mg L -1 biphenyl within 24 h and its biphenyl degradation ability could be enhanced by adding readily available carbon sources such as tryptone and yeast extract. As far as we know, HC3 is the first reported that can degrade biphenyl and 3-CB without accumulation of benzoate and 3-CBA in the genus Sphingobium, which indicates the bacterium has the potential to totally mineralize biphenyl/PCBs and might be a good candidate for restoring biphenyl/PCBs-polluted environments.

  14. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A.; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily...

  15. Effects of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Human Liver Cell Models (in vitro) and in Mice (in vivo)

    OpenAIRE

    Lohr, Christiane

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent environmental pollutants which ubiquitously occur as complex mixtures and accumulate in the food and feed chain due to their high lipophilic properties. Of the 419 possible congeners, only 29 share a common mechanism of action and cause similar effects, the so called dioxin-like compounds. Dioxin-like compounds evoke a broad spectrum of biochemical and toxic responses, i.e. enzyme induction, dermal ...

  16. Adaptation mechanisms of bacteria during the degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes as potential degradation inducers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoradova-Murinova, Slavomira; Dudasova, Hana; Lukacova, Lucia; Certik, Milan; Dercova, Katarina [Slovak Univ. of Technology, Bratislava (Slovakia). Inst. of Biotechnology and Food Science; Silharova, Katarina; Vrana, Branislav [Water Research Institute, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-06-15

    In this study, we examined the effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of natural and synthetic terpenes and biphenyl on biomass production, lipid accumulation, and membrane adaptation mechanisms of two PCB-degrading bacterial strains Pseudomonas stutzeri and Burkholderia xenovorans LB400. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that natural terpenes, mainly those contained in ivy leaves and pine needles, decreased adaptation responses induced by PCBs in these strains. The adaptation processes under investigation included growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, composition of fatty acids, cis/trans isomerization, and membrane saturation. Growth inhibition effect decreased upon addition of these natural compounds to the medium. The amount of unsaturated fatty acids that can lead to elevated membrane fluidity increased in both strains after the addition of the two natural terpene sources. The cells adaptation changes were more prominent in the presence of carvone, limonene, and biphenyl than in the presence of natural terpenes, as indicated by growth inhibition, lipid accumulation, and cis/trans isomerization. Addition of biphenyl and carvone simultaneously with PCBs increased the trans/cis ratio of fatty acids in membrane fractions probably as a result of fluidizing effects of PCBs. This stimulation is more pronounced in the presence of PCBs as a sole carbon source. This suggests that PCBs alone have a stronger effect on bacterial membrane adaptation mechanisms than when added together with biphenyl or natural or synthetic terpenes. (orig.)

  17. Sphingobium fuliginis HC3: A Novel and Robust Isolated Biphenyl- and Polychlorinated Biphenyls-Degrading Bacterium without Dead-End Intermediates Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jinxing; Qian, Mingrong; Zhang, Qian; Cui, Jinglan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Hashmi, Muhammad Z.; Shi, Jiyan

    2015-01-01

    Biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical environmental pollutants. However, these pollutants are hard to be totally mineralized by environmental microorganisms. One reason for this is the accumulation of dead-end intermediates during biphenyl and PCBs biodegradation, especially benzoate and chlorobenzoates (CBAs). Until now, only a few microorganisms have been reported to have the ability to completely mineralize biphenyl and PCBs. In this research, a novel bacterium HC3, whi...

  18. Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) blue多sh collected in the vicinity...

  19. Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bioaccumulation dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides was examined in young-of-the-year bluefish from seven sub-estuaries of...

  20. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  1. Syntheses,Crystal Structures and Fluorescence Properties of Two Triazolyl Derivatives with Biphenyl Links

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Yun; LI Jing; HU Ai-Xi; ZHANG Lei

    2009-01-01

    Two novel triazolyl derivatives with biphenyl links,namely 4,4-bis(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl-methyl)biphenylene 1 and 4,4-bis(3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)biphenylene 2,have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.Compounds 1·H2O·HCl and 2·2H2O·2HCl crystallize in the monoclinic system with spacegroup C2/c and P21/c,respectively.he dihedral angles of the two phenyl rings are 30.26(6)° in 1·H2O·HCl,while co-planar(0.00(7)°)in 2·2H2O·2HCl.In 1'H2O·HCl,the N-H…O hydrogen bonds link 1 to form chain-like structures which are further connected by O-H…Cl,C-H…Cl,C-H…O and π-π supramolecular interactions.The hydrogen bonds of O-H…Cl in 2·2H2O·2HCl provide distinguishing P/M helical chains along the baxis,and these chains are further connected by N-H…O hydrogen bonds to generate a 2D structure.Compounds 1 and 2 in methanol solution show much stronger emission bands at 319 nm than biphenyl at 3 16 nm under excitation at 260 nm.

  2. ENANTIOMER SEPARATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL RETENTION BEHAVIOR ON MODIFIED CYCLODEXTRIN CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COLUMNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven commercially-available chiral capillary gas chromatography columns containing modified cyclodextrins were evaluated for their ability to separate enantiomers of the 19 stable chiral polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, and for their ability to separate these enantio...

  3. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) inTilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fishwater fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in the mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation between the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results came concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recorded concentrations of these studied pollutants still do not exceed the international hazardous levels. (author)

  4. Poly(meta-phenylene) Derivative with Rigid Twisted Biphenyl Units in Backbone: Synthesis, Structural Characterization,Photophysical Properties and Electroluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yan; YANG Bing; ZHANG Hai-quan; LU Ping; SHEN Fang-zhong; LIU Lin-lin; XU Hai; YANG Guang-di; MA Yu-guang

    2007-01-01

    A soluble poly(meta-phenylene) derivative with rigid twisted biphenyl unit was synthesized by the Yamamoto coupling reaction. The polymer is soluble in common organic solvents, and the number-average molecular weight is about 6500. The UV-Vis and quantum chemical calculation indicate that the different conformation segments named "conformers" exist in the polymer backbones; it was also further confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction study of the dimeric model compound. The π-π* transition of biphenyl segments of twisted and planar conformations made the polymer exhibit a strong absorption around 256 nm and a weak absorption at about 300 nm. Furthermore,the polymer exhibits a strong UV photoluminescence at 372 nm when the excitation wavelengths are longer than 300 nm. The ultraviolet-emitting electroluminescence(EL) device with the single layer structure shows EL λmax of the derivative at 370 nm.

  5. Structural characterization of Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 biphenyl dioxygenase reveals features of potent polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enzymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Colbert

    Full Text Available The oxidative degradation of biphenyl and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs is initiated in Pandoraea pnomenusa B-356 by biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO(B356. BPDO(B356, a heterohexameric (αβ(3 Rieske oxygenase (RO, catalyzes the insertion of dioxygen with stereo- and regioselectivity at the 2,3-carbons of biphenyl, and can transform a broad spectrum of PCB congeners. Here we present the X-ray crystal structures of BPDO(B356 with and without its substrate biphenyl 1.6-Å resolution for both structures. In both cases, the Fe(II has five ligands in a square pyramidal configuration: H233 Nε2, H239 Nε2, D386 Oδ1 and Oδ2, and a single water molecule. Analysis of the active sites of BPDO(B356 and related ROs revealed structural features that likely contribute to the superior PCB-degrading ability of certain BPDOs. First, the active site cavity readily accommodates biphenyl with minimal conformational rearrangement. Second, M231 was predicted to sterically interfere with binding of some PCBs, and substitution of this residue yielded variants that transform 2,2'-dichlorobiphenyl more effectively. Third, in addition to the volume and shape of the active site, residues at the active site entrance also apparently influence substrate preference. Finally, comparison of the conformation of the active site entrance loop among ROs provides a basis for a structure-based classification consistent with a phylogeny derived from amino acid sequence alignments.

  6. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-12-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs > PCBs > HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p'-DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. PMID:11827119

  7. Persistent organochlorine residues and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls in sharks from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storelli, M.M.; Marcotrigiano, G.O. [Bari Univ., Dip. Farmaco-Biologico, Bari (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Persistent organochlorines such as polychlorinated biphenyls including coplanar congeners, DDT compounds and HCB were measured in different tissues (muscle, liver and eggs) of two Mediterranean shark species: namely Centrophorus granulosus and Squalus blainvillei. The concentrations of organochlorines in the tissues and organs of both species were in the order DDTs>PCBs>HCB. The highest values of DDTs, PCBs and HCB were found in liver followed by eggs and muscle. Among DDTs the compound found in greatest concentration was p,p -DDE. The PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, and 180. The isomers with higher TEQs values were non- and mono-ortho congeners than di-ortho ones in muscle, liver and eggs of both species. Among the non-ortho, PCB 126 was the major contributing individual to the total TEQs in both species. (Author)

  8. A new biphenyl from Clusia melchiorii and a new tocotrienol from C. obdeltifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.; Moreira, Luciana de M.; Cruz, Frederico G. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: fguare@ufba.br; Guedes, Maria L. da S. [Bahia Univ., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2006-08-15

    Chromatographic purification of the dichloromethane extract of Clusia melchiorii trunk leading to the isolation of a new biphenyl, 2,2-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-7-phenylchromene, along with the known compounds 2,2-dimethyl-5,10-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione (xyloidone), betulinic acid, friedelin, friedelinol, euphol, sitostenone, stigmastenone and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The hexane extract of Clusia obdeltifolia trunk yielded, after chromatographic fractionation, a new {delta}-tocotrienilic alcohol 2Z, 6E, 10E-13-(6-hydroxy- 2,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,2-chromenyl)-2,6,10-trimethyl- 2,6,10-tridecatrien-1-ol, along with 2Z and 2E-{delta}-tocotrienoloic acids, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, betunilic aldehyde, glutinol, friedelin, sitostenone and a mixture of {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined from spectral data and comparison with data from previously reported compounds. (author)

  9. A new biphenyl from Clusia melchiorii and a new tocotrienol from C. obdeltifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatographic purification of the dichloromethane extract of Clusia melchiorii trunk leading to the isolation of a new biphenyl, 2,2-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-7-phenylchromene, along with the known compounds 2,2-dimethyl-5,10-dihydro-2H-benzo[g]chromene-5,10-dione (xyloidone), betulinic acid, friedelin, friedelinol, euphol, sitostenone, stigmastenone and a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The hexane extract of Clusia obdeltifolia trunk yielded, after chromatographic fractionation, a new δ-tocotrienilic alcohol 2Z, 6E, 10E-13-(6-hydroxy- 2,8-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H,2-chromenyl)-2,6,10-trimethyl- 2,6,10-tridecatrien-1-ol, along with 2Z and 2E-δ-tocotrienoloic acids, betulinic acid, betulonic acid, betunilic aldehyde, glutinol, friedelin, sitostenone and a mixture of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were determined from spectral data and comparison with data from previously reported compounds. (author)

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in adipose tissue and abdominal obesity in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana;

    2013-01-01

    cessation of smoking, but these do not fully explain the epidemic. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) are endocrine-disrupting chemicals and evidence from animal experiments suggests an association with obesity development. Our knowledge of the effects of these compounds on weight gain in humans is...... PCBs as potential determinants of abdominal obesity. Adipose tissue was collected upon enrolment and PCBs were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Median levels of the included PCBs were lower in women, except for PCB118 and all PCBs were positively associated with increased...... abdominal circumference, although this association was not significant. These data indicate a positive link between PCBs and obesity. More work is needed to fully elucidate the complex role of compounds such as PCBs in the present obesity epidemic....

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 μg/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 μg/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudo, Antonio, E-mail: a.agudo@iconcologia.net [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Goni, Fernando [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Etxeandia, Arsenio [Laboratorio de Salud Publica de Vizcaya, 48010 Bilbao (Spain); Vives, Asuncion [Laboratorio Unificado Donostia, Hospital N. S. Aranzazu, 20014 San Sebastian (Spain); Millan, Esmeralda [Departamento de Quimica Aplicada, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Facultad de Quimica, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Lopez, Raul [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Amiano, Pilar [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica de Navarra, 31003 Pamplona (Spain); Dolores Chirlaque, M. [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Dorronsoro, Miren [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Jakszyn, Paula [Unit of Nutrition, Environment, and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), IDIBELL, Av. Gran Via no 199-203, 08907 L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Larranaga, Nerea [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Direccion de Salud de Guipuzcoa, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Escuela Andaluza de Salud Publica, 18080 Granada (Spain); Navarro, Carmen [CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Consejeria de Sanidad, 3008 Murcia (Spain); Rodriguez, Laudina [Consejeria de Salud y Servicios Sanitarios de Asturias, 33001 Oviedo (Spain); and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  13. Ability of bacterial biphenyl dioxygenases from Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356 to catalyse oxygenation of ortho-hydroxychlorobiphenyls formed from PCBs by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacterial dioxygenases are useful in breakdown of PCB products associated with plants. - Capacity of enzymes of the biphenyl/chlorobiphenyl pathway, especially biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) of two polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) degrading bacteria, Burkholderia sp. LB400 and Comamonas testosteroni B-356, to metabolize ortho-substituted hydroxybiphenyls was tested.,These compounds found among plant products of PCB metabolism, are carrying chlorine atoms on the hydroxyl-substituted ring. The abilities of His-tagged purified LB400 and B-356 BPDOs to catalyze the oxygenation of 2-hydroxy-3-chlorobiphenyl, 2-hydroxy-5-chlorobiphenyl and 2-hydroxy-3,5-dichlorobiphenyl were compared. Both enzyme preparations catalyzed the hydroxylation of the three chloro-hydroxybiphenyls on the non-substituted ring. Neither LB400 BPDO nor B-356 BPDO oxygenated the substituted ring of the ortho-hydroxylated biphenyl. The fact that metabolites generated by both enzymes were identical for all three hydroxychlorobiphenyls tested; exclude any other mode of attack of these compounds by LB400 BPDOs than the ortho-meta oxygenation

  14. Formation of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins in the transition zones of fire blight-infected stems of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Khalil, Mohammed N A; Beuerle, Till; Schuehly, Wolfgang; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-05-01

    In the rosaceous subtribe Pyrinae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), pathogen attack leads to formation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans. Accumulation of these phytoalexins was studied in greenhouse-grown grafted shoots of Malus domestica cv. 'Holsteiner Cox' and Pyrus communis cv. 'Conference' after inoculation with the fire blight bacterium, Erwinia amylovora. No phytoalexins were found in leaves. However, both classes of defence compounds were detected in the transition zone of stems. The flanking stem segments above and below this zone, which were necrotic and healthy, respectively, were devoid of detectable phytoalexins. The transition zone of apple stems contained the biphenyls 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyaucuparin, aucuparin, noraucuparin and 2'-hydroxyaucuparin and the dibenzofurans eriobofuran and noreriobofuran. In pear, aucuparin, 2'-hydroxyaucuparin, noreriobofuran and in addition 3,4,5-trimethoxybiphenyl were detected. The total phytoalexin content in the transition zone of pear was 25 times lower than that in apple. Leaves and stems of mock-inoculated apple and pear shoots lacked phytoalexins. A number of biphenyls and dibenzofurans were tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against some Erwinia amylovora strains. The most efficient compound was 3,5-dihydroxybiphenyl (MIC=115 μg/ml), the immediate product of biphenyl synthase which initiates phytoalexin biosynthesis. PMID:22377689

  15. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  16. Consolidated PCBs [polychlorinated biphenyls] improves waste control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consolidation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes is recommended for improving ownership control of wastes, eliminating PCB storage sites, and increasing cost-effectiveness of waste management. In Ontario, sites receiving the waste must be owned by the waste generator and registered as a PCB site. All PCBs must be removed from a site with no contaminated materials or wastes left behind, which requires a thorough site assessment to identify wastes prior to removal, a sampling and analytical scheme if necessary, and an approved plan for site cleanup. If large volumes of PCB-contaminated oil are involved, it may be cost-effective to put oil from several sites into bulk tanks and thus avoid the need to handle and decontaminate a large number of drums. With low volumes of oil, it may be possible to move the waste to another site where mobile PCB destruction is taking place. It also may be possible to get approval to blend high-level PCB liquids with mineral oil to reduce the PCB concentration to a level where chemical decontamination is allowed. For large volumes of high-level PCB wastes, consolidation will be necessary simply because of the high costs of mobilizing an incinerator and the requirement for public hearings for each incineration project. To make such a project cost-effective, PCB wastes will have to be concentrated from a large geographic area. 1 fig

  17. Thermal and Cure Kinetics of Epoxy Molding Compounds Cured with Thermal Latency Accelerators

    OpenAIRE

    Chean-Cheng Su; Chien-Huan Wei; Bo-Ching Li

    2013-01-01

    The cure kinetics and mechanisms of a biphenyl type epoxy molding compounds (EMCs) with thermal latency organophosphine accelerators were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Although the use of triphenylphosphine-1,4-benzoquinone (TPP-BQ) and triphenylphosphine (TPP) catalysts in biphenyl type EMCs exhibited autocatalytic mechanisms, thermal latency was higher in the TPP-BQ catalyst in EMCs than in the TPP catalyst in EMCs. Analyses of thermal characteristics indicated that...

  18. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., Hazardous substances, Labeling, Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Reporting and recordkeeping requirements..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the...

  19. Identification of a novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl bioaccumulating in marine mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, G.; Athanasiadou, M.; Bergman, Aa.; Athanassiadis, I. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm (Sweden); Endo, Tetsuya [Health Sciences Univ. of Hokkaido (Japan). Fac. of Pharmaceutical Sciences; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    The screening of persistent halogenated organic pollutants has in recent years ended up with findings of numerous compounds being natural products. These compounds have preferably been reported from the marine environment and comprise, several hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) including monochlorinated ditto, a dimethoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ether i.e. 2',6-dimethoxy-2,3',4,5'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether, four halogenated dimethylated bipyrroles (HDBPs) with a 2,2'-bipyrrole backbone, a heptachlorinated 1,2'-bipyrrole i.e. heptachloro-1'-methyl-1,2'-bipyrrole (Q1)6 and a halogenated monoterpene holding two bromine and three chlorine atoms. We have taken interest in an organobrominated compound with an unknown structure but with a molecule ion of m/z = 526 and a four bromine isotope pattern according to mass spectrometry (MS), detected in marine mammal samples of which the majority were collected from Japanese coastal waters. This compound has recently been reported from several marine mammals collected on the Southern hemisphere, but neither the chemical structure nor the type of substance group were established. We here report the structure of this organobrominated compound, a dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl, which likely is of natural origin. The identification was done by the comparison of relative retention time (RRT) on two GC columns with different polarities and by comparing mass spectra from three different ionization techniques i.e. PICI, ECNI and EI, of the unknown compound from the samples with an authentic reference compound. Levels of the novel dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl are reported as well as the levels (for comparison) of some other known polybrominated compounds, both brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and natural products i.e. BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), 6-MeO-BDE-47, 2

  20. Complete Reductive Dehalogenation of Brominated Biphenyls by Anaerobic Microorganisms in Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi M.

    1998-01-01

    We sought to determine whether microorganisms from the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated sediment in Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) could dehalogenate brominated biphenyls. The PCB dechlorination specificities for the microorganisms in this sediment have been well characterized. This allowed us to compare the dehalogenation specificities for brominated biphenyls and chlorinated biphenyls within a single sediment. Anaerobic sediment microcosms were incubated separately at 25°C with 16 dif...

  1. Hydroxy and methylsulfone metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls in the human blood and tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, Yoshito; Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of chlorinated compounds which have polluted the global environment, persistently retained in wildlife and humans, and eventually affected the human health. PCBs are biotransformed to mainly hydroxy (HO-) and methylsulfone (MeSO{sub 2}-) metabolites in the animal and human tissues. About ten thousands of chemical and biological researches on PCBs, HOPCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs have been reported and reviewed so far. Letcher et al. cleverly reviewed the HO-PCBs and MeSO2-PCBs in 2000. We review the contamination of HO-PCBs and MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in human tissues and their possible effects to human health. Different positional numberings of Cl-, HO- and MeSO{sub 2}- on biphenyl rings were used by different authors. Then, nomenclature of PCB metabolite was assessed by Maervoet et al. and they suggested to use the IUPAC chemical name and number of parent PCB congener with the subsequent assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the HO- or MeSO{sub 2}- substituent number afterward.

  2. The associations between the environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and breast cancer risk and progression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) are chlorinated biphenyl compounds with wide applications in the industry.In spite of a ban on their production in the late 1970s,PCBs,as a group of POPs,are still persistent and widely spread in the environment,posing potential threats to human health.The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo,animal and epidemiologic studies.Initial investigations indicated higher levels of PCBs in mammary tissues or sera corresponded to the occurrence of breast cancer,but later studies showed no positive association between PCB exposure and breast cancer development.More recent data suggested that the CYP1A1 m2 polymorphisms might add increased risk to the etiology of breast cancer in women with environmental exposure to PCBs.PCBs are implicated in advancing breast cancer progression,and our unpublished data reveals that PCBs activate the ROCK signaling to enhance breast cancer metastasis.Therefore,the correlation between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk warrants further careful investigations.

  3. The proton nuclear magnetic shielding tensors in biphenyl: experiment and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönborn, Frank; Schmitt, Heike; Zimmermann, Herbert; Haeberlen, Ulrich; Corminboeuf, Clémence; Grossmann, Gisbert; Heine, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Line-narrowing multiple pulse techniques are applied to a spherical sample crystal of biphenyl. The 10 different proton shielding tensors in this compound are determined. The accuracy level for the tensor components is 0.3 ppm. The assignment of the measured tensors to the corresponding proton sites is given careful attention. Intermolecular shielding contributions are calculated by the induced magnetic point dipole model with empirical atom and bond susceptibilities (distant neighbours) and by a new quantum chemical method (near neighbours). Subtracting the intermolecular contributions from the (correctly assigned) measured shielding tensors leads to isolated-molecule shielding tensors for which there are symmetry relations. Compliance to these relations is the criterion for the correct assignment. The success of this program indicates that intermolecular proton shielding contributions can be calculated to better than 0.5 ppm. The isolated-molecule shielding tensors obtained from experiment and calculated intermolecular contributions are compared with isolated-molecule quantum chemical results. Expressed in the icosahedral tensor representation, the rms differences of the respective tensor components are below 0.5 ppm for all proton sites in biphenyl. In the isolated molecule, the least shielded direction of all protons is the perpendicular to the molecular plane. For the para proton, the intermediate principal direction is along the C-H bond. It is argued that these relations also hold for the protons in the isolated benzene molecule. PMID:15949748

  4. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. PMID:26889751

  5. 75 FR 4759 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for Veolia ES Technical Solutions, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... commerce of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Under TSCA section 3(7), ``manufacture'' is defined to... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2050-AG42 Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption for...'s request in the proposed rule, Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Manufacturing (Import) Exemption...

  6. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400 AND PSEUDOMONAS PSEUDOALCALIGENES KF707

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biphenyl-grown cells and cell extracts prepared from biphenyl-grown cells of Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 oxidize a much wider range of chlorinated biphenyls than do analogous preparations from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes KF707. These results are attributed to differences in th...

  7. OXIDATION OF BIPHENYL BY A MULTICOMPONENT ENZYME SYSTEM FROM PSEUDOMONAS SP. STRAIN LB400

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas sp. strain LB400 grows on biphenyl as the sole carbon and energy source. This organism also cooxidizes several chlorinated biphenyl congeners. Biphenyl dioxygenase activity in cell extract required addition of NAD(P)H as an electron donor for the conversion of bipheny...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Residue Effects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The PCB Residue Effects (PCBRes) Database was developed to assist scientists and risk assessors in correlating PCB and dioxin-like compound residues with toxic...

  9. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure and were shown to be 0.03 and 0.12 mg/m3, respectively. In addition, the carcinogenic risk of biphenyl as determined by risk assessment was 0.14 × 10−4 (central tendency exposure and 0.56 × 10−4 (reasonable maximum exposure, which is below the acceptable risk value of 1.0 × 10−4. Furthermore, the central tendency exposure and reasonable maximum exposure hazard quotients were 0.01 and 0.06 for oral toxicity, 0.05 and 0.23 for inhalation toxicity, and 0.08 and 0.39 for reproduction toxicity, respectively, which are all lower than the acceptable hazard quotient of 1.0. Therefore, exposure to biphenyl was found to be safe in current workplace environments. Because occupational exposure limits are based on socioeconomic assessment, they are generally higher than true values seen in toxicity experiments. Based on the results of exposure monitoring of biphenyl, the current occupational exposure limits in Korea could be reviewed.

  10. (Solid + liquid) phase equilibria and heat capacity of (diphenyl ether + biphenyl) mixtures used as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A DSC calorimeter for measuring (solid + liquid) phase equilibrium and heat capacities is presented. • (Diphenyl ether + biphenyl) system presents a eutectic (solid + liquid) phase diagram with complete immiscibility in solid phase. • The T, x conditions of the eutectic point are x = (0.705 and 285.6) K, while 93.2 J · g−1 · K−1 is the latent heat of fusion. • The Wilson and NRTL equations, and the predictive UNIFAC model describes adequately the solid liquid phase equilibrium data. • The system exhibits high and positive excess heat capacities which can be correlated by using a Redlich–Kister equation. - Abstract: The (solid + liquid) phase equilibrium for eight {x diphenyl ether + (1 − x) biphenyl} binary mixtures, including the eutectic mixture were studied by using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique. A good agreement was found between previous literature and experimental values here presented for the melting point and enthalpy of fusion of pure compounds. The well-known equations for Wilson and the non-random two-liquid (NRTL) were used to correlate experimental solid liquid phase equilibrium data. Moreover, the predictive mixture model UNIFAC has been employed to describe the phase diagram. With the aim to check this equipment to measure heat capacities in the quasi-isothermal Temperature-Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry method (TMDSC), four fluids of well-known heat capacity such as toluene, n-decane, cyclohexane and water were also studied in the liquid phase at temperatures ranging from (273.15 to 373.15) K. A good agreement with literature values was found for those fluids of pure diphenyl ether and biphenyl. Additionally, the specific isobaric heat capacities of diphenyl ether and biphenyl binary mixtures in the liquid phase up to T = 373.15 K were measured

  11. Incidence of thyroid disease following exposure to polybrominated biphenyls and polychlorinated biphenyls, Michigan, 1974-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E; Terrell, Metrecia L; Hunt, Danielle Rentz; Cameron, Lorraine L; Small, Chanley M; McGeehin, Michael A; Marcus, Michele

    2011-08-01

    Thyroid hormones, which influence body metabolism and development, could be affected by persistent organic pollutants. We sought to examine the relationship between polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid disease. We employed incidence density sampling to perform a nested case control analysis of the Michigan Long-Term PBB Cohort. Cohort members (n=3333) were exposed to PBBs through contaminated cattle feed in 1973-1974 and to PCBs through daily life. Those with detectable serum PBB and PCB concentrations at enrollment were categorized into tertiles of PBB and PCB exposure. Case-patients were cohort members answering "Yes" to "Has a healthcare provider ever told you that you had a thyroid problem?" during follow-up interviews; control-patients were cohort members answering "No". We used odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare odds of thyroid disease by PBB and PCB exposure and by various risk factors. Total cumulative thyroid disease incidence after 33 years was 13.9% among women and 2.6% among men. After adjusting for body mass index, we found no statistically significant differences in odds of any type of thyroid disease among women or men with elevated PBB or PCB exposure. Compared to control-patients, women with thyroid disease had increased odds of being overweight/obese (OR=2.82, 95% CI: 1.94-4.11) and developing infertility (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.08-2.69), diabetes (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.04-2.51), or arthritis (OR=1.71, 95% CI: 1.18-2.50) during follow-up. Additional research should explore potential associations between PBBs/PCBs and thyroid disease among children exposed in utero. PMID:21737118

  12. Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB’s), Chlorinated Pesticides, and Heavy Metals and Other Elements in Tissues of Belugas, Delphinapterus leucas, from Cook Inlet

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Paul R.; Krahn, Margaret M.; Mackey, Elizabeth A.; Demiralp, Rabia; Schantz, Michele M.; Epstein, Michael S.; Donais, Mary Kate; Porter, Barbara J.; Muir, Derek C. G.; Wise, Stephen A.

    2000-01-01

    Tissues from Cook Inlet beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, that were collected as part of the Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB’s), chlorinated pesticides, and heavy metals and other elements. Concentrations of total PCB’s (ΣPCB’s), total DDT (ΣDDT), chlordane compounds, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, mirex, toxaphene, and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) measured in Cook Inlet beluga blubber were compared with those reported for b...

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamontova, E. A.; Tarasova, E. N.; Goreglyad, A. V.; Tkachenko, L. L.; Mamontov, A. A.; Kuzmin, M. I.

    2015-10-01

    Results of the study of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the listing of the Stockholm Convention in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region at the base of the "Khankh" stationary, Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2008-2013 in the absence of clear sources of these compounds are considered. Quantitative and qualitative changes in the concentration of PCB and OCP in atmospheric air of the Northern Hovsgol region in 2008-2013 characterizing the influence of natural (annual temperature variations) and anthropogenic (atmospheric transportation from the territories of neighboring countries) are shown.

  14. A new analytical protocol for the determination of 62 endocrine-disrupting compounds in indoor air

    OpenAIRE

    Laborie, Stéphanie; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Desportes, Annie; Oziol, Lucie; Chevreuil, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new analytical protocol for simultaneous determination of 62 semi-volatile organic compounds in both phases of indoor air. Studied compounds belong to several families: polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, phthalates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, parabens, tetrabromobisphenol A, bisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, triclosan, alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, synthetic mus...

  15. Organochlorine Pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Tilapia zillii from Lake El-Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fresh water fish species, (Tilapia zillii) from Lake El-Manzala was analyzed for concentrations of several Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and Polychlorine piphenyl's (PCBs) in liver, gonads, mesenteric fat, flesh and the digestive tract in mature fish during the breeding season. Polychlorinated piphenyls (PCBs) and Organochloripe pesticides (OCs) were calculated in (ng/g) dry weight (dw) in homogenized samples. The obtained results revealed differences in lipid content between these different organs. The females showed higher lipid content than males. There was significant positive correlation the lipid content and organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The results come concomitant with the lipophilicity of studied compounds. However, the recoded concentration of these studied pollutants still does not exceed international hazardous levels. (author)

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and glucose metabolism in Danish children aged 9 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina K; Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Rossing, Laura I;

    2014-01-01

    Context: Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been associated to type 2 diabetes in adults. Objectives: To determine whether concurrent serum PCB concentration was associated with markers of glucose metabolism in healthy children. Design: Cross-sectional study. Settings and...... amounts available for PCB and analyses. Main outcome measures: Fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin were measured and a homeostasis assessment model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-B) calculated. Serum PCB congeners and other persistent compounds were measured and ΣPCB...... calculated. Results: PCBs were present in serum at low concentrations, median 0.19μ g/g lipid (interquartile range, IQR: 0.12-0.31). After adjustment for putative confounding factors, the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles of total PCB were significantly inversely associated with serum insulin (-14...

  17. Temperature of hydrogen radio frequency plasma under dechlorination process of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Y., E-mail: inada@hvg.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Abe, K.; Kumada, A.; Hidaka, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Amano, K.; Itoh, K.; Oono, T. [R and D Center, Tokyo Electric Power Company, 4-1 Egasaki-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-8510 (Japan)

    2014-10-27

    It has been reported that RF (radio frequency) hydrogen plasmas promote the dechlorination process of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) under irradiation of MW (microwave). A relative emission intensity spectroscope system was used for single-shot imaging of two-dimensional temperature distributions of RF hydrogen plasmas generated in chemical solutions with several mixing ratios of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and insulation oil under MW irradiation. Our experimental results showed that the plasma generation frequencies for the oil-contaminating solutions were higher than that for the pure IPA solution. In addition, the plasma temperature in the compound liquids including both oil and IPA was higher than that in the pure IPA and oil solutions. A combination of the plasma temperature measurements and plasma composition analysis indicated that the hydrogen radicals generated in a chemical solution containing the equal volumes of IPA and oil were almost the same amounts of H and H{sup +}, while those produced in the other solutions were mainly H.

  18. Applications of ionizing radiation to the remediation of materials contaminated with heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the removal from water of heavy metals and chelated heavy metal compounds using electron beam and gamma radiation. Parameter analyses include the effect of dissolved oxygen and the influence of adding various buffers and radical scavengers. Complete removal (>99%) of mercury, lead and cadmium ions, both free and chelated within EDTA, was achieved using radiation doses ranging from 3-100 kGy. We have also studied the radiation induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous-organic and aqueous micellar systems. Rates and extent of dechlorination have been quantified in different solution matrices; reaction by-products and intermediate species have been identified; and the influences of dissolved oxygen and pH have been evaluated. The presence of a carbonate buffer was observed to significantly enhance PCB dechlorination yields by reducing concentrations of H3O+. Ionizing radiation was effective in degrading PCBs in micellar solutions but scavenging of eaq- by the surfactant lowered reaction efficiencies

  19. Soil-Air Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Total Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Zhang; Erping Bi; Honghan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Soil-air partitioning is an important diffusive process that affects the environmental fate of organic compounds and human health. In this review, factors affecting the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (p,p’-and o,p’-isomers of DDT, DDD, and DDE) are discussed. Hydrophobicity is an important factor that influences soil-air partition coefficients (KSA), and its effect can be explained through enthalpy of phase change for soil-air partitioning transfer (ΔHSA). For more hydrophobic compounds, a sharp increase in the KSA of PCBs and organochlorines can be seen in the early aging period. During the aging period, the temperature has a significant effect on the more hydrophobic organic compounds. The content and properties of soil or-ganic matter influence the KSA of the target compounds. Generally, KSA decreases with increasing rela-tive humidity in soils. The linear trend between KSA and temperature (T) changes at 0 °C. Freezing the air or soil in experiments would change the research results. On the basis of factors influencing soil-air partitioning, a multipleparameter (T, organic carbon fraction (fOC), and octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA)) model is put forward to predict the KSA values for PCBs and total DDTs.

  20. Danish emission inventory for hexachlorobenzene and polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten;

    This report documents the improved air emission inventories for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The emission inventories now include all sources covered by the EMEP/EEA Guidebook. The completeness and accuracy of the inventories for these pollutants have been signifi...

  1. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2050-AG71 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting... manifesting requirements for PCBs under TSCA to the manifesting requirements for hazardous waste under RCRA... bring into alignment, as much as possible, the manifesting requirements for PCBs to those of...

  2. FIBER OPTIC FLUOROIMMUNOSENSOR FOR THE DETECTION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    There currently exists a critical and growing need for cost-effective, real-time, and in situ methods for detection of environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). erein reported is a evanescent wave Fluoroimmunosensor for measurement of PCBS. 2,4-5-Trichlor...

  3. 2-(Biphenyl-4-ylacetic acid (felbinac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Taylor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C14H12O2, displays the expected intermolecular hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic acid groups, forming dimers. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings is 27.01 (7°.

  4. Biphenyl-utilizing bacteria and their functional genes in a pine root zone contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leigh, M. B.; Pellizari, V. H.; Uhlík, Ondřej; Sutka, R.; Rodrigues, J.; Ostrom, N. E.; Zhou, J.; Tiedje, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 134-148. ISSN 1751-7362 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyls * rhizosphere * aromatic dioxygenase * bioremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides

  5. Vertical distribution of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment core from Thane Creek area of Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a growing concern all over the globe about the marine pollution due to persistent organic pollutants. Sediments, which is an important component of marine environment can serve as sorbent or concentrator for various persistent organic pollutants including Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). Transport and fate of PCB congeners in sediment depends on their physicochemical characteristics. In this study, the depth profile of accumulated PCBs in Thane Creek sediments of Mumbai, India, was studied. The sediment core samples were collected using a gravity corer, processed and analysed for different PCB congeners. Analysis of PCBs in the sediment samples were carried out using gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector. The study on vertical distribution of PCBs in sediment could reflect the geochemical history including changes due to anthropogenic releases into the system. The surface segment shows the downward trend for these compounds, indicating slow phase out of PCBs after ban. The concentration and composition of different homologues varies at different depth. An attempt has also been made to find out the various sources of PCBs which could have contributed to these compounds by performing factor analysis over the observed concentrations of the PCB compounds in the core sediment.

  6. Occurrence, distribution and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in nine water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyi; Xie, Qilai; Liu, Xinyu; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Water quality of water sources is a critical issue for human health in South China, which experiences rapid economic development and is the most densely populated region in China. In this study, the pollution of organohalogen compounds in nine important water sources, South China was investigated. Twenty six organohalogen compounds including seventeen polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and nine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected using gas chromatograph analysis. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.93 to 13.07ngL(-1), with an average value of 7.06ngL(-1). The total concentrations of nine PBDE congeners were found in range not detected (nd) to 7.87ngL(-1) with an average value of 2.59ngL(-1). Compositions of PCBs and PBDEs indicated the historical use of Aroclors 1248, 1254 and 1260, and commercial PBDEs may be the main source of organohalogen compounds in water sources in South China. The nine water sources could be classified into three clusters by self-organizing map neural network. Low halogenated PCBs and PBDEs showed similar distribution in the nine water sources. Cancer risks of PCBs and PBDEs via water consumption were all below 10(-6), indicating the water quality in the nine water sources, South China was safe for human drinking. PMID:25681605

  7. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosa Faniband

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends.

  8. Dehalorespiration with Polychlorinated Biphenyls by an Anaerobic Ultramicrobacterium▿

    OpenAIRE

    May, Harold D.; Miller, Greg S.; Birthe V. Kjellerup; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic microbial dechlorination is an important step in the detoxification and elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but a microorganism capable of coupling its growth to PCB dechlorination has not been isolated. Here we describe the isolation from sediment of an ultramicrobacterium, strain DF-1, which is capable of dechlorinating PCBs containing double-flanked chlorines added as single congeners or as Aroclor 1260 in contaminated soil. The isolate requires Desulfovibrio spp. in...

  9. The Influence of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination on Soil Protein Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Xi Zhang; Feng Li; Tingting Liu; Cheng Peng; Dechao Duan; Chen Xu; Shenhai Zhu; Jiyan Shi

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical representative of chlorinated organic pollutants. Given the toxicity of PCBs, there is an urgent need to select an appropriate indicator to monitor their biological effects on soil ecosystems. For this purpose, we investigated the impacts of PCBs on soil protein and the potential of using protein as a biological indicator to assess soil contamination due to PCBs. This study demonstrated that soil protein concentration and expression were negatively...

  10. Anaerobic Dehalogenation of Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegel, Juergen; Zhang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qingzhong

    1999-01-01

    Ten years after reports on the existence of anaerobic dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment slurries, we report here on the rapid reductive dehalogenation of para-hydroxylated PCBs (HO-PCBs), the excreted main metabolites of PCB in mammals, which can exhibit estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in humans. The anaerobic bacterium Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans completely dehalogenates all flanking chlorines (chlorines in ortho position to the para-hydroxyl group) ...

  11. Toxicity mechanisms and interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers

    OpenAIRE

    Antonijević Biljana; Milovanović Vesna; Ćurčić Marijana; Janković Saša; Jaćević Vesna; Vučinić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), are widespread environmental contaminants as a result of anthropogenic activities and due to their persistency and resistance to degradation. Both groups of chemicals are placed on the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), covered by the Stockholm convention which is aimed to limit or ban the production, use, emission, import and export of POPs i...

  12. Analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Luotamo, M; Järvisalo, J; Aitio, A

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Occupational exposure to PCBs takes place, e.g., in manufacture and repair of capacitors and transformers. A special type of exposure of workers to PCBs may occur in connection with accidents where capacitors or transformers containing PCBs products are damaged, as in the case of a fire or electric arcing. The quantitation of PCBs poses several problems: There are 209 different homologs and isomers of PCBs. The isomers ...

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdo...

  14. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    OpenAIRE

    Kafafi, S A; Afeefy, H Y; A. H. Ali; Said, H K; Kafafi, A G

    1993-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicities, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that ...

  15. Gas chromatographic separation of methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyl atropisomers

    OpenAIRE

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Song, Yang; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites display axial chirality. Here we describe an enantioselective, gas chromatographic separation of methylated derivatives of hydroxylated (OH-)PCB atropisomers (MeO-PCB) using a chemically bonded β-cyclodextrin column (Chirasil-Dex). The atropisomers of several MeO-PCBs could be separated on this column with resolutions ranging from 0.42–0.87 under isothermal or temperature-programmed conditions. In addition, the enanti...

  16. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ...

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed; Hesham Dahshan; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall; Mariam Hassan Elbana; Ehab Nabawy; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB cong...

  18. ACCUMULATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIROĞULLARI, Gül

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were discovered in the late of the 19th century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The PCBs have been used commercially, since 1930, as dielectric and heat-exchange fluids and in a variety of other applications. They have become widely distributed in the environment throughout the world, and are persistent and accumulate in food webs. PCBs accumulate in the fatty tissues of humans and other animals an...

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  20. Menstrual function among women exposed to polybrominated biphenyls: A follow-up prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Lorraine L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in menstrual cycle function is suggested among rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs and structurally similar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The feedback system for menstrual cycle function potentially allows multiple pathways for disruption directly through the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and indirectly through alternative neuroendocrine axes. Methods The Michigan Female Health Study was conducted during 1997–1998 among women in a cohort exposed to PBBs in 1973. This study included 337 women with self-reported menstrual cycles of 20–35 days (age range: 24–56 years. Current PBB levels were estimated by exponential decay modeling of serum PBB levels collected from 1976–1987 during enrollment in the Michigan PBB cohort. Linear regression models for menstrual cycle length and the logarithm of bleed length used estimated current PBB exposure or enrollment PBB exposure categorized in tertiles, and for the upper decile. All models were adjusted for serum PCB levels, age, body mass index, history of at least 10% weight loss in the past year, physical activity, smoking, education, and household income. Results Higher levels of physical activity were associated with shorter bleed length, and increasing age was associated with shorter cycle length. Although no overall association was found between PBB exposure and menstrual cycle characteristics, a significant interaction between PBB exposures with past year weight loss was found. Longer bleed length and shorter cycle length were associated with higher PBB exposure among women with past year weight loss. Conclusion This study suggests that PBB exposure may impact ovarian function as indicated by menstrual cycle length and bleed length. However, these associations were found among the small number of women with recent weight loss suggesting either a chance finding or that mobilization of PBBs from lipid stores may be important

  1. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  2. Reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunova, Tatyana I., E-mail: gorbunova@ios.uran.ru [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Subbotina, Julia O. [Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N. Yeltsin, Mira St., 19, Ekaterinburg 620002 (Russian Federation); Saloutin, Viktor I.; Chupakhin, Oleg N. [I. Ya. Postovskii Institute of Organic Synthesis, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Kovalevskoy St., 22, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Quantum chemical calculations were carried out for PCBs congeners. • Calculated descriptors were used to explain the PCBs reactivity in S{sub N} and S{sub E} substitutions. • Obtained data were used to estimate the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub N} reactions. • Calculated descriptors were insufficient to explain the PCBs reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions. • New neutralization methods of the large-capacity PCBs were discussed. - Abstract: To explain the chemical reactivity of polychlorinated biphenyls in nucleophilic (S{sub N}) and electrophilic (S{sub E}) substitutions, quantum chemical calculations were carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of the Density Functional Theory in gas phase. Carbon atomic charges in biphenyl structure were calculated by the Atoms-in-Molecules method. Chemical hardness and global electrophilicity index parameters were determined for congeners. A comparison of calculated descriptors and experimental data for congener reactivity in the S{sub N} and S{sub E} reactions was made. It is shown that interactions in the S{sub N} mechanism are reactions of the hard acid–hard base type, these are the most effective in case of highly chlorinated substrates. To explain the congener reactivity in the S{sub E} reactions, correct descriptors were not established. The obtained results can be used to carry out chemical transformations of the polychlorinated biphenyls in order to prepare them for microbiological destruction or preservation.

  3. Role of rhizosphere microorganisms in phytoremediation of biphenyl in a contaminated groundwater plume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discussed a pump and treat technology used in combination with a phytoremediation technology to remediate a biphenyl contaminated groundwater plume. Biphenyl is used in industrial applications as fungicide and heat transfer agent. It is highly toxic, has poor water solubility and sorbs strongly to soils. Costs for the project were estimated at $860,000 over a period of 20 years, while it was estimated that the addition of phytoremediation would cost only $125,000 over a period of 20 years. The phytoremediation containment area was added to the site which was comprised of a pump and treat system and landfill lagoons. In situ biodegradation of biphenyl was evaluated using microorganisms in poplar and willow rhizospheres. Basal salts were used as a culture medium. Methods to enhance biphenyl degradation were also investigated. Aerobic growth on biphenyl at temperatures of 8 degrees C were measured, and microbial populations were identified. The consortium with the highest biphenyl degradation was then analyzed. Major members were identified as Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and a strain of Burkholderia xenovorans. Nitrate reduction, sulphate reduction, and methanogens were measured. Enrichment of anaerobic biphenyl degraders. Anaerobic biphenyl degradation was measured after 90 days. Details of anaerobic mineralization experiments were also provided. It was concluded that anaerobic biphenyl degradation was enhanced by TEA and fertilizer addition, as well as by poplar root exudate. tabs., figs

  4. Role of rhizosphere microorganisms in phytoremediation of biphenyl in a contaminated groundwater plume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B.; Ramsay, J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This presentation discussed a pump and treat technology used in combination with a phytoremediation technology to remediate a biphenyl contaminated groundwater plume. Biphenyl is used in industrial applications as fungicide and heat transfer agent. It is highly toxic, has poor water solubility and sorbs strongly to soils. Costs for the project were estimated at $860,000 over a period of 20 years, while it was estimated that the addition of phytoremediation would cost only $125,000 over a period of 20 years. The phytoremediation containment area was added to the site which was comprised of a pump and treat system and landfill lagoons. In situ biodegradation of biphenyl was evaluated using microorganisms in poplar and willow rhizospheres. Basal salts were used as a culture medium. Methods to enhance biphenyl degradation were also investigated. Aerobic growth on biphenyl at temperatures of 8 degrees C were measured, and microbial populations were identified. The consortium with the highest biphenyl degradation was then analyzed. Major members were identified as Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 and a strain of Burkholderia xenovorans. Nitrate reduction, sulphate reduction, and methanogens were measured. Enrichment of anaerobic biphenyl degraders. Anaerobic biphenyl degradation was measured after 90 days. Details of anaerobic mineralization experiments were also provided. It was concluded that anaerobic biphenyl degradation was enhanced by TEA and fertilizer addition, as well as by poplar root exudate. tabs., figs.

  5. Biogeochemical processes governing exposure and uptake of organic pollutant compounds in aquatic organisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Farrington, J W

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge of biogeochemical cycles of pollutant organic chemicals in aquatic ecosystems with a focus on coastal ecosystems. There is a bias toward discussing chemical and geochemical aspects of biogeochemical cycles and an emphasis on hydrophobic organic compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated organic compounds used as pesticides. The complexity of mixtures of pollutant organic compounds, their various modes of...

  6. Metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls by marine bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been no reports of laboratory studies of PCB metabolism by marine organisms. A few workers have analyzed marine animals for products of PCB metabolism. A search for hydroxylated PCBs in marine fish proved inconclusive. Phenolic metabolites of PCBs have been identified in seals and guillemot. PCBs that had been hydroxylated and excreted by marine organisms would most likely be found in the sediments, so in our laboratory we conducted a search for these compounds in marine sediments. Two kilograms of organic-rich surface sediment from Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, were extracted. The phenolic fraction was isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Neither wide mass scans nor selected mass searches produced any evidence of hydroxylated PCB derivatives. It was felt that if any marine organisms were capable of metabolism of PCBs, some marine bacteria should have that capability. Thus a series of laboratory experiments was conducted to test this possibility. Reported here is the finding of PCB metabolism by marine bacteria in batch culture

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in milk from an agroindustrial zone of Tuxpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, J Jesús; León, Salvador Vega Y; Gutiérrez, Rey; López, Yanet; Faure, Roberto; Escobar, Arturo

    2012-10-01

    The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are zones exposed to the exploration and exploitation of petroleum sources, and the products generated in agricultural zones may become contaminated by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the presence of polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) in milk from dairy production units near sources of environmental pollutants. It was confirmed that the seven congeners of nondioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) are present in milk where compounds PCB101, PCB118, PCB153 and PCB180 appear in 100% of the samples analyzed, the rank of concentration for the sum of the seven congeners fluctuating between 2.6 and 26 ng g(-1) with a median of 6 ng g(-1). None of the samples surpassed the provisional value established by the EU of 40 ng g(-1) of milk fat for the sum of the seven congeners, indicator that was not affected by the season of the year (pmilk do not represent a problem for human health; however, they alert the existence of spontaneously generated, uncontrolled sources that may represent a potential danger for human and animal health. PMID:22739542

  8. Biofilms at work: Bio-, phyto- and rhizoremediation approaches for soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merily Horwat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been released into the environment for decades due to anthropogenic activities, but are also naturally produced in small amounts through volcanic eruptions and geochemical processes. Although toxic to humans and other organisms, the natural production of these compounds has resulted in the evolution of naturally occurring organohalide-respiring bacteria that possess the enzymes necessary to degrade PCB compounds to non-toxic products. The efficiency of PCB degradation can be improved by facilitating the formation of organohalide-respiring biofilms. During biofilm colonization on a surface or interface, bacteria are encased in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS or “slime,” which allows them to share nutrients and remain protected from environmental stresses. Effective bioremediation of PCBs involves facilitation of biofilm growth to promote cooperation between bacteria, which can be further enhanced by the presence of certain plant species. This review aims to give an overview of biofilm processes involved in the detoxification of PCBs including anaerobic and aerobic PCB degradation by bacteria as well as the ability of plants to stimulate microbial activity and degradation (rhizoremediation and phytoremediation.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in urban air of Konya, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Senar; Aydin, Mehmet Emin

    2009-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in urban air samples of Konya, Turkey between August 2006 and May 2007. The concentrations of pollutants in both the gas and particulate phase were separately analysed. The average total (gas + particulate) concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs were determined as 206 ng m - 3 , 0.106 ng m - 3 , 4.78 ng m - 3 respectively. All of the investigated target compounds were dominantly found in the gas phase except OCPs. Higher air concentrations of PAHs were found at winter season while the highest concentrations of PCBs were determined in September. The highest OCPs were detected in October and in March. In urban air of Konya, PCB 28 and PCB 52 congeners represent 46% and 35% of total PCBs while Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Pyrene accounted for 29%, 13%, 10% of total PAHs. HCH compounds (α + β + γ + δ-HCH), total DDTs ( p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT), Endosulfan compounds (Endosulfan I, Endosulfan II, Endosulfan sulfate) were dominantly determined as 30%, 21%, 20% of total OCPs respectively. Considering the relation between these compounds with temperature, there was no significant correlation observed. Despite banned/restricted use in Turkey, some OCPs were determined in urban air. These results demonstrated that they are either illegally being used in the course of agricultural activity and gardens in Konya or they are residues of past use in environment. According to these results, it can be suggested that Konya is an actively contributing region to persistent organic pollutants in Turkey.

  10. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Solid Samples by Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry Using ³⁷Cl-Labeled Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano-Blanco, Lourdes; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; García Fonseca, Sergio; Alonso, J Ignacio Garcia

    2015-08-01

    This work describes the first application of (37)Cl-labeled compounds to isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The synthesis of 12 (37)Cl-labeled polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out by the chlorination of biphenyl with isotopically enriched chlorine gas, generated by the direct oxidation of Na(37)Cl with potassium peroxymonosulfate. After an exhaustive purification due to the presence of other congeners, the concentration and the isotopic enrichment of all (37)Cl-labeled PCBs in the mixture was determined. The proposed procedure allows the simultaneous quantification of every isotope diluted PCB congener in a single gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) injection without resorting to a methodological calibration graph. The results obtained here demonstrate that the use of (37)Cl-labeled analogues provides results in agreement with the certified values of three different Certified Reference Materials (marine sediment SRM 1944, fish tissue 1947, and loamy soil CRM 962-50) and analytical figures of merit comparable to those obtained using regular IDMS procedures based on the use of commercially available (13)C-labeled analogues. PMID:26165349

  11. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyls in residents of 91 PCB-contaminated and 108 non-contaminated dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Harald William; Frederiksen, Marie; Göen, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings.......In the1950s-1970s polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in several countries as plasticizers in elastic sealants in buildings....

  12. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  13. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; May, Thomas W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample, and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 20 to 1,200 nanograms per gram. Chlordanes and DDT-related chemicals constituted the primary classes of pesticides present at elevated concentrations in most samples, and ranged from 5 to 340 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of about 5 to about 410 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of total technical chlordane ranged from less than 5 to 260 nanograms per gram. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers were all greatest in samples of blue catfish from Cape Girardeau and Weldon Spring.

  14. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Selected Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides, and Polybrominated Flame Retardants in Fillets of Fishes from the 2007 Missouri Department of Conservation Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert W.; Orazio, Carl E.; McKee, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticide, and polybrominated diphenylether flame retardant concentrations in selected fishes from lakes and streams across Missouri. Fillets were collected from each fish sample and after homogenization, compositing, and preparation, analyte concentrations were determined with dual column capillary gas chromatography-electron-capture detection. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in samples ranged from background levels of about 50 to 300 nanograms per gram. In samples with elevated contaminant concentrations, chlordanes, DDT-related chemicals, and dieldrin constituted the primary classes of pesticides present, and ranged from 5 to 75 nanograms per gram. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in samples ranged from background levels of 5 to 86 nanograms per gram. Channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River and lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton exhibited different polybrominated diphenyl ethers ratios. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordanes, DDT-related compounds, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers all were greatest in samples of channel catfish from the upper and lower Blue River, and in samples of lake sturgeon from the Mississippi River at Saverton.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and effects in transformer repair workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Emmett, E A

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-five present and past transformer repair workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 56 unexposed comparison workers were evaluated in a clinical-epidemiologic study. The groups were similar in most demographic variables. Adipose tissue lipid and serum PCBs concentrations were higher in current exposed workers (geometric means adipose 2.1 ppm, serum 12.2 ppb). Concentrations in comparison (0.6 ppm and 4.6 ppb) and previously exposed (0.83 ppm and 5.9 ppb) workers were lower....

  16. Half-life of polybrominated biphenyl in human sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, D H; Flanders, W. D.; Friede, A.; Humphrey, H E; Sinks, T H

    1995-01-01

    Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), a flame-retardant material, was introduced into the food chain in Michigan in 1973 due to a manufacturing and distribution mistake. Following public concern about the long-term health effects of PBB in humans, a cohort of PBB-exposed Michigan residents was assembled in 1975. We initiated this study to determine the half-life of PBB in human sera and to understand how continued body burden relates to the possible adverse health consequences of PBB exposure. To de...

  17. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls on the growth of chicken embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Yasuhiko; Hatano, Akira [Chub Women`s College, Gifu-ken (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Incubation of chicken embryos with either 0.01 or 0.03 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 12, 15, or 18 d resulted in a significant decrease in liver and body weight associated with enhanced mortality. Teratological examination revealed an increased frequency of malformations including hydrops, eventration, wry neck, and brevicollis. PCB exposure was also found to produce histologic damage to liver and cutaneous tissue. Our data demonstrate that exposure of chicks to PCBs during development results in a retardation of growth, an increased incidence of malformations, and histopathologic damage. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Isolation and characteristics of a novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain, Dyella ginsengisoli LA-4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ang; QU Yuanyuan; ZHOU Jiti; GOU Min

    2009-01-01

    A novel biphenyl-degrading bacterial strain LA-4 was isolated from activated sludge. It was identified as Dyella ginsengisoli according to phylogenetic similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate could utilize biphenyl as sole source of carbon and energy, which degraded over 95 mg/L biphenyl within 36 h. The major metabolites formed from biphenyl, such as 2-hydroxy-6-oxo-6-phenylhexa-2,4-dienoic acid (HOPDA) and benzoic acid, were identified by LC-MS. The crude cell extract of strain LA-4 exhibited the activity of 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (2,3-DHBD) and the kinetic parameters were Km= 26.48 μmol/L and Vmax= 8.12 μmol/mg protein. A conserved region of the biphenyl dioxygenase gene bphA1 of strain LA-4 was amplified by PCR and confirmed by DNA sequencing.

  19. Decomposition of lignin model compounds by Lewis acid catalysts in water and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guvenatam, Burcu; Heeres, Erik H.J.; Pidko, Evgeny A.; Hensen, Emiel J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of benzyl phenyl ether, diphenyl ether, diphenyl methane and biphenyl as representative model compounds for alpha-O-4, 5-O-4, alpha(1) (methylene bridges) and 5-5' lignin linkages was investigated. We compared the use of metal chlorides and acetates. The reactions were studied in sub-

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan; Yang, Zhong-Zhi; Li, Ke; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2008-10-01

    Sandstorms, which distribute many particles, are a special atmospheric occurrence and are frequent in northern China. We conducted this study to determine, for the first time, the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sandstorm depositions. We collected 13 samples from urban areas of Beijing, and we measured a total of 144 PCB congeners. Thirteen samples all contained PCB residues. The total PCB concentration ranged from 1.6 to 15.6ngg(-1) (median, 4.8ngg(-1), dry weight), with trichlorinated biphenyls as the predominant homologue (>50.4%). Furthermore, we observed increasing PCB contamination from northwest to east Beijing. We later explored possible factors affecting contamination of the sandstorm depositions, which revealed a significant correlation between SigmaPCBs and the minimum particle size of the sandstorm deposition samples. Principal-component analysis revealed that the major source of PCBs in Beijing may be potentially associated with the number-one commercial PCB through the long-range transmission. In previous results, PCBs were not a severe component of contamination in sandstorm depositions of Beijing. However, this study suggested that sandstorm deposition may be a potential source of exposure to PCBs for the residents of Beijing, China. PMID:18674798

  1. Crystal structure of 5,5′-di­bromo-3,3′-di-tert-butyl-6,6′-di­methyl­biphenyl-2,2′-diol

    OpenAIRE

    Obata, Rika; Ohba, Shigeru; Einaga, Yasuaki; Nishiyama, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The whole mol­ecule of the title compound, C22H28Br2O2, is generated by twofold rotation symmetry. The dihedral angle of the biphenyl moiety is 85.05 (11)°. The hy­droxy groups show intra­molecular O—H⋯π inter­actions without any other hydrogen-bond acceptors. In the crystal, there are no other significant inter­molecular inter­actions present.

  2. Cloning of a Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 Gene Encoding a Novel Oxygenase That Cleaves Lignin-Related Biphenyl and Characterization of the Enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Xue; Egashira, Takashi; Hanashiro, Kaoru; Masai, Eiji; Nishikawa, Seiji; Katayama, Yoshihiro; Kimbara, Kazuhide; Fukuda, Masao

    1998-01-01

    Sphingomonas paucimobilis SYK-6 transforms 2,2′-dihydroxy-3,3′-dimethoxy-5,5′-dicarboxybiphenyl (DDVA), a lignin-related biphenyl compound, to 5-carboxyvanillic acid via 2,2′,3-trihydroxy-3′-methoxy-5,5′-dicarboxybiphenyl (OH-DDVA) as an intermediate (15). The ring fission of OH-DDVA is an essential step in the DDVA degradative pathway. A 15-kb EcoRI fragment isolated from the cosmid library complemented the growth deficiency of a mutant on OH-DDVA. Subcloning and deletion analysis showed tha...

  3. Crystalline Complexes of 2,2'-Bis(9-hydroxy-9-fluorenyl)biphenyl Host with Oligofunctional and Conjugate Functional Group Guests

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Edwin

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Four crystalline inclusion compounds of the 2,2'-bis(9-hydroxy-9-fluorenyl)biphenyl host 1, containing diethylene glycol (1:1) (1a), bis(2-aminoethyl)amine (1:1) (1b), methacrylic acid (1:1) (1c) and 2-cyclopenten-1-one (1:2) (1d), have been studied by X-ray diffraction analysis from single crystals. Departure from the expectation, the multifunctional and conjugate functional guest molecules, potentially being able to offer multiple H donor-/acceptorships or other modes of...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian Coast. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo e Silva, C.E.; Azeredo, A.; Meire, R.; Torres, J.P. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos E.P.F., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, UFRJ; Brito Jr., J.L.; Malm, O. [Projeto Mamiferos Aquaticos, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Oceanografia, UERJ

    2004-09-15

    There is conclusive evidence showing that, in general, fish in meals human diet contributes with a significant proportion of the total intake of PCBs and others organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat content. Thus, human exposure to PCBs is predominantly via diet, and especially from fish and seafood products. Comparatively, little is know about organochlorine contaminants in elasmobranch species, although they are also top predators. Characteristically, sharks are live longer, with comparatively slow rates of growth that in conjuction with their high trophic position may contribute to the accumulation of high concentrations of pollutants. Blue shark and swordfish are carnivorous fishes of great economic importance. This study investigate the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in samples of muscle tissues of blue shark (Prionace glauca) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from Brazilian Coast.

  5. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil by miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass-selective detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction procedure was developed for the determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples by gas chromatography-mass-selective detection by using 23 factorial experimental design. Recoveries of PCBs from fortified soil samples are over 90% for three different fortification levels between 40 and 120 μg kg-1, and relative standard deviations of the recoveries are below 7%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.006 μg kg-1. The performance of the proposed method was compared to traditional shake flask extraction method on the spiked real soil sample and extraction methods showed comparable efficiencies. Proposed miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction offers several advantages, i.e., reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compound, less solvent consumption and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal

  6. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, phthalic acid esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine substances in the Moscow River, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eremina, Natalia; Paschke, Albrecht; Mazlova, Elena A; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), phthalic acid esters (PAE), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorine substances (OCP) in the Moscow River water. Some studies have reported the occurrence of these substances in the soil of the Moscow region; however, no study has yet established an overview for these compounds in the Moscow River water. In this study the Moscow River water contamination with PAEs, PAHs and OCPs was determined. Obtained results were associated with the resident area located on the river bank, and the possible contamination sources were considered. The obtained data were compared with the data on the contamination of the different world-wide rivers. This research indicates the further study necessity of the Moscow region to cover more contaminated sites and environmental compartments. PMID:26807987

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT in swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and blue shark (Prionace glauca) from Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo e Silva, Claudio Eduardo; Azeredo, Antonio; Lailson-Brito, José; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Malm, Olaf

    2007-04-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDT may bioaccumulate in the aquatic food web and have been of great concern due to their toxic effects on wildlife and human health. There is evidence showing that fish in the human diet contributes at a significant proportion to the total intake of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, particularly fish with higher fat levels. This study investigated the concentration of PCBs and DDTs in muscle tissues of samples of the blue shark (Prionace glauca) and a swordfish (Xiphias gladius) from east Brazilian coast and estimate the human exposure to total DDTs through the consumption of both the species. Samples of the each species were caught between August and September 2001. The mean concentration for summation operator PCBs in P. glauca was 3.15 ng/g w.w. and the summation operator DDTs was 0.93 ng/g w.w. The mean concentration of summation operator PCBs in X. gladius was 6.50 ng/g and the mean of summation operator DDTs was 2.47 ng/g. The estimated daily intake of summation operator DDT through X. gladius or P. glauca consumption can be considered safe since it contributes to less than 0.1% of the limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) of summation operator DDT proposed by WHO. PMID:17223179

  8. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirinck, Eveline; Dirtu, Alin C.; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxin (fT4), 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight) and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites. PMID:27089353

  9. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  10. Assessment of atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using polyparameter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turk-Sekulić Maja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of partial or total destruction of industrial plants, military targets, infrastructure, uncontrolled fires and explosions during the conflict period from 1991 to 1999, at the area of Western Balkans, were large amounts of hazardous organic matter that have been generated and emitted in the environment. In order to assess gas/particle partition of seven EPA polychlorinated biphenyls and sixteen EPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, twenty air samples have been collected at six urban, industrial and highly contaminated localities in Vojvodina. Hi-Vol methodology has been used for collecting ambiental air samples, that simultaneously collects gaseous and particulate phase with polyurethane foam filters (PUF and glass fiber filters (GFF. PUF and GFF filters have been analyzed, and concentration levels of gaseous PCBs and PAHs molecules in gaseous and particulate phase were obtained, converted and expressed through fraction of individual compounds sorbed onto particulate phase of the sample, in total detected quantity. Experimentally gained gas/particle partitioning values of PCBs and PAHs molecules have been compared with PP-LFER model estimated values. Significant deviation has been noticed during comparative analysis of estimated polyparameter model values for complete set of seven PCBs congeners. Much better agreement of experimental and estimated values is for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, especially for molecules with four rings. These results are in a good correlation with literature data where polyparameter model has been used for predicting gas/particle partition of studied group of organic molecules.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of the spider crab (Maja brachydactyla): influence of physiological and ecological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Nathalie; Caisey, Xavier; Abarnou, Alain; Loizeau, Véronique; Latrouite, Daniel; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Guillou, Monique

    2007-03-01

    Maja brachydactyla is a decapod crustacean widely distributed along the Northeast Atlantic coasts. The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of ontogenic factors, such as growth, aging, seasonal migrations, and reproduction, on the contamination of this species by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Two populations were studied: One in the Seine Bay (Eastern English Channel), which is exposed to greatly contaminated discharges from the Seine River, and one in the Iroise Sea (Western Brittany), which is little contaminated by such man-made compounds. At both sampling areas, PCB analysis revealed concentrations in hepatopancreas that were 10- and 50-fold higher than concentrations in gonads and muscle, respectively. Levels of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB153) increased with the age of the spider crabs, whereas their seasonal migrations had no direct effect. No significant sex effect was observed with regards to CB153 levels, but adult females exhibited PCB fingerprints different from those of males, probably because of the influence of the reproductive cycle on enzymatic system activity. Finally, spawning gave rise to a higher CB153 decontamination of female body burdens for specimens from the Iroise Sea than for those from the Seine Bay. PMID:17373508

  12. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline Dirinck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and Methods: In a group of 180 subjects, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxin (fT4, 29 PCBs (expressed both in lipid weight and in wet weight and 18 HO-PCBs were measured in serum. Results: In regression models, adjusted for gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels, serum levels of 3HO-PCB118 and 3HO-PCB180, and PCB95lw, PCB99lw and PCB149lw were independent, significant predictors of fT4. A stepwise, multiple regression with gender, age, current smoking behavior, BMI and total lipid levels and all five previously identified significant compounds retained age, BMI, PCB95lw, PCB99lw and 3HO-PCB180 as significant predictors of fT4. TSH levels were not predicted by serum levels of any of the PCBs or HO-PCBs. Conclusions: Our study indicates that in vivo, circulating fT4 levels can be linked to serum levels of several PCBs and hydroxylated PCB metabolites.

  13. Mathematical modeling of human dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, J.; Vojinovic-Miloradov, M.; Jovetic, S.; Buzarov, D. [Univ. of Novi Sad, Chemistry Dept. (Czechoslovakia)

    2004-09-15

    In this paper a mathematical model for human dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls is postulated, based on the calculation of human exposure factors to PCBs via different members of the terrestrial food chain. On the basis of postulated model and experimental values for the atmospheric and soil concentration of PCBs it is possible to calculate the average daily exposure of a human organism to these ubiquitous environmental toxicants, which represent a constant threat to human health due to various chronic, developmental and genetic effects. Proposed model is the contribution to the development of exposure analysis, which is a part of a complex process of risk assessment, which gains its importance in the current situation of rapid development of industry and technology and the existence of innumerable anthropogenic hazardous chemicals.

  14. Vapor solvent decontamination of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is provided to recover reclaimable material from discarded transformers containing PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) insulating oils and to minimize the volume of materials which are subject to environmental regulation upon disposal. According to the invention, the transformer is drained and given an initial cleaning. The internal parts are removed and cleaned a second time as is the empty transformer casing. Recoverable materials such as aluminum and copper are cleaned to less than 10 μg of PCB per 100 cm2, allowing these materials to be recycled rather than buried. Almost all of the remaining nonmetallic materials are combustible solids or liquids which can be destroyed by incineration. The cleaning is accomplished using trichloroethylene solvent, chosen for its low boiling point which makes it easy to recycle using an isothermal separator. The removed transformer parts are cleaned in a secondary cleaning station consisting of 3 separate sections including tumbling baskets. 2 figs

  15. Classical molecular dynamics investigations of biphenyl-based carbon nanomembranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mrugalla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-standing carbon nanomembranes (CNM with molecular thickness and macroscopic size are fascinating objects both for fundamental reasons and for applications in nanotechnology. Although being made from simple and identical precursors their internal structure is not fully known and hard to simulate due to the large system size that is necessary to draw definite conclusions.Results: We performed large-scale classical molecular dynamics investigations of biphenyl-based carbon nanomembranes. We show that one-dimensional graphene-like stripes constitute a highly symmetric quasi one-dimensional energetically favorable ground state. This state does not cross-link. Instead cross-linked structures are formed from highly excited precursors with a sufficient amount of broken phenyls.Conclusion: The internal structure of the CNM is very likely described by a disordered metastable state which is formed in the energetic initial process of electron irradiation and depends on the process of relaxation into the sheet phase.

  16. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  17. Nitroaromatic compounds: Environmental toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, therapy and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2014-08-01

    Vehicle pollution is an increasing problem in the industrial world. Aromatic nitro compounds comprise a significant portion of the threat. In this review, the class includes nitro derivatives of benzene, biphenyls, naphthalenes, benzanthrone and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plus nitroheteroaromatic compounds. The numerous toxic manifestations are discussed. An appreciable number of drugs incorporate the nitroaromatic structure. The mechanistic aspects of both toxicity and therapy are addressed in the context of a unifying mechanism involving electron transfer, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and antioxidants. PMID:24532466

  18. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls increase reactive oxygen species formation and induce cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in the body, however, they can be metabolized to more water-soluble products. Although they are more readily excreted than the parent compounds, some of the metabolites are still hydrophobic and may be more available to target tissues, such as the brain. They can also cross the placenta and reach a developing foetus. Much less is known about the toxicity of PCB metabolites than about the parent compounds. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of eight hydroxylated (OH) PCB congeners (2'-OH PCB 3, 4-OH PCB 14, 4-OH PCB 34, 4'-OH PCB 35, 4-OH PCB 36, 4'-OH PCB 36, 4-OH PCB 39, and 4'-OH PCB 68) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and cell viability in rat cerebellar granule cells. We found that, similar to their parent compounds, OH-PCBs are potent ROS inducers with potency 4-OH PCB 14 < 4-OH PCB 36 < 4-OH PCB 34 < 4'-OH PCB 36 < 4'-OH PCB 68 < 4-OH PCB 39 < 4'-OH PCB 35. 4-OH PCB 36 was the most potent cell death inducer, and caused apoptotic or necrotic morphology depending on concentration. Inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase with U0126 reduced both cell death and ROS formation, suggesting that ERK1/2 activation is involved in OH-PCB toxicity. The results indicate that the hydroxylation of PCBs may not constitute a detoxification reaction. Since OH-PCBs like their parent compounds are retained in the body and may be more widely distributed to sensitive tissues, it is important that not only the levels of the parent compounds but also the levels of their metabolites are taken into account during risk assessment of PCBs and related compounds.

  19. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, P.; Trapp, Stefan;

    2009-01-01

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for beta-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF...

  20. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, October 1984 and 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the removal of polychlorinated biphenyl PCB from Kenai National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska during October 1984 and 1985. Atlantic Ritchfield...

  2. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL EMISSIONS FROM INCINERATION AND CAPACITOR AND TRANSFORMER FILLING PLANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Described are methods to measure the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from the stacks of municipal waste, industrial waste, and sewage sludge incinerators and from capacitor and transformer filling plants. The PCB emissions from the incineration plants are collected by im...

  3. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... Residue (77 FR 74006). Additional background information on recycling activities that would be affected by... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the...

  4. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); S. Patandin (Svati); G.A. Berbers; T.C.J. Sas (Theo); P.J.J. Sauer (Pieter); H. Hooijkaas (Herbert); P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to P

  5. Antitrypanosomal activity of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Maria V; Bloomer, William D; Rosenzweig, Howard S; Wilkinson, Shane R; Szular, Joanna; Kaiser, Marcel

    2016-07-19

    A small series of 5-nitro-2-aminothiazole-based amides containing arylpiperazine-, biphenyl- or aryloxyphenyl groups in their core were synthesized and evaluated as antitrypanosomatid agents. All tested compounds were active or moderately active against Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes in infected L6 cells and Trypanosoma brucei brucei, four of eleven compounds were moderately active against Leishmania donovani axenic parasites while none were deemed active against T. brucei rhodesiense. For the most active/moderately active compounds a moderate selectivity against each parasite was observed. There was good correlation between lipophilicity (clogP value) and antileishmanial activity or toxicity against L6 cells. Similarly, good correlation existed between clogP values and IC50 values against T. cruzi in structurally related subgroups of compounds. Three compounds were more potent as antichagasic agents than benznidazole but were not activated by the type I nitrorectusase (NTR). PMID:27092415

  6. Brominated Biphenyls Prime Extensive Microbial Reductive Dehalogenation of Aroclor 1260 in Housatonic River Sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Donna L.; Van Dort, Heidi; DeWeerd, Kim A.

    1998-01-01

    The upper Housatonic River and Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.), a shallow impoundment on the river, are contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the residue of partially dechlorinated Aroclor 1260. Certain PCB congeners have the ability to activate or “prime” anaerobic microorganisms in Woods Pond sediment to reductively dehalogenate the Aroclor 1260 residue. We proposed that brominated biphenyls might have the same effect and tested the priming activities of 14 mono-, di-, and tribromin...

  7. Novel Ring Cleavage Products in the Biotransformation of Biphenyl by the Yeast Trichosporon mucoides

    OpenAIRE

    Sietmann, Rabea; Hammer, Elke; Specht, Michael; Carl E Cerniglia; Schauer, Frieder

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Trichosporon mucoides, grown on either glucose or phenol, was able to transform biphenyl into a variety of mono-, di-, and trihydroxylated derivatives hydroxylated on one or both aromatic rings. While some of these products accumulated in the supernatant as dead end products, the ortho-substituted dihydroxylated biphenyls were substrates for further oxidation and ring fission. These ring fission products were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-m...

  8. Regional analysis of potential polychlorinated biphenyl degrading bacterial strains from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Jianjun; Yu, Xurun; Zhang, Jing; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Xiong, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorinated derivatives of biphenyl, are one of the most prevalent, highly toxic and persistent groups of contaminants in the environment. The objective of this study was to investigate the biodegradation of PCBs in northeastern (Heilongjiang Province), northern (Shanxi Province) and eastern China (Shanghai municipality). From these areas, nine soil samples were screened for PCB-degrading bacteria using a functional complementarity method. The genomic 16S rDNA locus was amplified and the products were sequenced to identify the bacterial genera. Seven Pseudomonas strains were selected to compare the capacity of bacteria from different regions to degrade biphenyl by HPLC. Compared to the biphenyl content in controls of 100%, the biphenyl content went down to 3.7% for strain P9-324, 36.3% for P2-11, and 20.0% for the other five strains. These results indicate that a longer processing time led to more degradation of biphenyl. PCB-degrading bacterial strains are distributed differently in different regions of China. PMID:27140507

  9. 4-[(4′-Chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl]bis(dimethylglyoximato-κ2N,N′(pyridine-κNcobalt(IIIThis article is dedicated to late Professor B. D. Gupta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvendra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C14H14Cl(C4H6N2O22(C5H5N], is a model compound for the more complex cobalamines like vitamins B12. The CoIII atom is coordinated by a (4′-chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl group, an N-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethylglyoximate ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The glyoximate ligands exhibit intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which is very common in cobaloxime derivatives.

  10. 4-[(4′-Chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]bis(dimethylglyoximato-κ2N,N′)(pyridine-κN)cobalt(III)This article is dedicated to late Professor B. D. Gupta.

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvendra Kumar; Suresh Thapa

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, [Co(C14H14Cl)(C4H6N2O2)2(C5H5N)], is a model compound for the more complex cobalamines like vitamins B12. The CoIII atom is coordinated by a (4′-chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl group, an N-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethylglyoximate ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The glyoximate ligands exhibit intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which is very common in cobaloxime derivatives.

  11. Biphenyl and Benzoate Metabolism in a Genomic Context: Outlining Genome-Wide Metabolic Networks in Burkholderia xenovorans LB400

    OpenAIRE

    Denef, V. J.; Park, J; Tsoi, T. V.; Rouillard, J.-M.; Zhang, H; Wibbenmeyer, J. A.; Verstraete, W; Gulari, E.; Hashsham, S. A.; Tiedje, J. M.

    2004-01-01

    We designed and successfully implemented the use of in situ-synthesized 45-mer oligonucleotide DNA microarrays (XeoChips) for genome-wide expression profiling of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, which is among the best aerobic polychlorinated biphenyl degraders known so far. We conducted differential gene expression profiling during exponential growth on succinate, benzoate, and biphenyl as sole carbon sources and investigated the transcriptome of early-stationary-phase cells grown on biphenyl....

  12. Structural insight into the expanded PCB-degrading abilities of a biphenyl dioxygenase obtained by directed evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Pravindra; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Viger, Jean-François; Barriault, Diane; Gomez-Gil, Leticia; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 is a multicomponent Rieske-type oxygenase (RO) that catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and many polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The structural bases for the substrate specificity of the enzyme’s oxygenase component (BphAELB400) are largely unknown. BphAEp4, a variant previously obtained through directed evolution, transforms several chlorobiphenyls, including 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl, more efficiently than BphAELB400 yet differs f...

  13. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramu, Karri [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kajiwara, Natsuko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Isobe, Tomohiko [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Takahashi, Shin [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kim, Eun-Young [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Min, Byung-Yoon [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701, South Korea (Korea, Republic of); We, Sung-Ug [Environmental Engineering, Kyungnam University, 449 Wolyoung-dong, Kyungnam 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-15

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants.

  14. Spatial distribution and accumulation of brominated flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from coastal waters of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 20 locations along the coastal waters of Korea were analyzed to elucidate the characteristic distribution and contamination status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the contamination status of HBCDs from Korea. PBDEs and HBCDs were found in mussels at levels ranging from 6.6 to 440 and from 6.0 to 500 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. Concentrations of PBDEs in mussels from Korea were higher or comparable to available data in mussels from other countries. Among the organochlorine compounds (OCs) analyzed, levels of PCBs and DDTs were the highest followed by CHLs, HCHs and hexachlorobenzene. For all the compounds, higher concentrations were found in mussels from southeastern coast of Korea. The present study shows the importance of mussels as bioindicators for monitoring contaminants in coastal waters. - Mussels are good bioindicators for monitoring organohalogen contaminants

  15. X-ray induced phase transitions in 4-((4-(dibutylamino)phenyl)diazenyl)-biphenyl-2,3‧,4‧-tricarbonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selivanova, G. A.; Tretyakov, E. V.; Amosov, E. V.; Bagryanskaya, I. Yu.; Vasiliev, V. G.; Vasilyev, E. V.; Tikhova, V. D.; Karpova, E. V.; Basova, T. V.; Stass, D. V.; Shteingarts, V. D.

    2016-03-01

    Phase transitions in a glassy film of 4-((4-(dibutylamino)phenyl)diazenyl)-biphenyl-2,3‧,4‧-tricarbonitrile was initiated by a monochromatic X-ray microbeam with λ = 0.71 Å (MoKα). At the site of the film that was directly impacted by irradiation noticeable morphological changes immediately occurred with subsequent crystal formation. From the site of irradiation, the front of transition of the glassy film into a liquid crystal phase propagated isotropically in all directions. This phenomenon is reproducible and clearly observed in the film prepared by heating the azo compound until melting and cooling it down to room temperature. These results highlight the fact that X-rays can be used as a tool to stimulate phase transitions in glassy azo compounds, which could also give birth to new and unexpected discoveries.

  16. Distribution of selected halogenated organic compounds among suspended particulate, colloid, and aqueous phases in the Mississippi River and major tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostad, C.E.; Daniel, S.R.

    2007-01-01

    Suspended particulate, colloid, and aqueous phases were separated and analyzed to determine spatial variation of specific organic compound transport associated with each phase in a dynamic river system. Sixteen sites along the Mississippi River and its major tributaries were sampled at low-flow conditions to maximize the possibility of equilibrium. Across the solubility range studied, the proportion transported by each phase depended on the compound solubility, with more water-soluble compounds (dacthal, trifluralin) transported predominantly in the aqueous phase and less-water soluble compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, chlordane-related compounds) transported predominantly in the particulate and colloid phases. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  17. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Young Don; Cho, Geumjoon; Suh, Eunsook; Kim, Sung Koo; Eun, So-Hee; Eom, Soyong; Kim, Seunghyo; Kim, Gun-Ha; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2014-02-01

    Data on the residue levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in baby food samples are scarce. This is the first study to explore current contamination status and exposure assessment of organochlorines (OCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), in baby food from Korea. In this study, the concentrations of OCs were determined in homemade baby food samples (n=100) collected from 6-, 9-, 12- and 15-month-old infant groups. The average concentrations of PCBs, dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordanes (CHLs) in baby food samples were 37.5, 96.6, 26.0, and 13.2 pg/g fresh weight, respectively. The major compounds were CBs 28, 153, 52, and 33 for PCBs and p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and β-HCH for OCPs. The contribution of DDTs to the total OC concentrations increased from 30% (6-month-old infants) to 67% (15-month-old infants) with increasing infant age, while the concentrations of PCBs, HCHs and CHLs gradually decreased with increasing infant age, suggesting that highest priority for risk reduction of DDTs. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of OCs in Korean infants from baby food consumption were lower than the thresholds proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and Health Canada, implying limited potential health risks. However, considering simultaneous exposure from baby food and breast milk consumption, chlordanes and heptachlor epoxide posed potential health risks. Considering the importance of early development and the vulnerability of infants, it is essential to perform systematic monitoring and management programs of OCs in baby food for risk reduction in Korean infants. PMID:23954213

  18. Chronic treatment with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) during pregnancy and lactation in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pollutants detected in animal tissues and breast milk. The experiments described in the present paper were aimed at evaluating whether the four PCB congeners most abundant in animal tissues (PCB-138, -153, -180 and -126), administered since fetal life till weaning, can induce long-term alterations of GH-axis activity and bone mass in the adult rat. We measured PCB accumulation in rat brain and liver, somatic growth, pituitary GH expression and plasma hormone concentrations at different ages. Finally, we studied hypothalamic somatostatin expression and bone structure in adulthood, following long-term PCB exposure. Dams were treated during pregnancy from GD15 to GD19 and during breast-feeding. A constant reduction of the growth rate in both male and female offspring from weaning to adulthood was observed in exposed animals. Long-lasting alterations on hypothalamic-pituitary GH axis were indeed observed in PCB-exposed rats in adulthood: increased somatostatin expression in hypothalamic periventricular nucleus (both males and females) and lateral arcuate nucleus (males, only) and decreased GH mRNA levels in the pituitary of male rats. Plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in PCB-exposed male and female animals as compared with controls at weaning and tended to be higher at PN60. Plasma testosterone and thyroid hormone concentrations were not significantly affected by exposure to PCBs. In adulthood, PCBs caused a significant reduction of bone mineral content and cortical bone thickness of tibiae in male rat joint to increased width of the epiphyseal cartilage disk. In conclusion, the developmental exposure to the four selected PCB compounds used in the present study induced far-reaching effects in the adult offspring, the male rats appearing more sensitive than females.

  19. Sulfate radical-based degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls: Effects of chloride ion and reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A kinetic model was used to predict the radical species and their distributions. ► The generated radical species were identified by EPR. ► The second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined. - Abstract: Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radical (SO4·−) have been recently used for soil and groundwater remediation. The presence of chloride ion in natural or wastewater decreases the reactivity of sulfate radical system, but explanations for this behavior were inconsistent, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. Therefore, in this paper we investigated the effect of chloride ion on the degradation of 2,4,4′-CB (PCB28) and biphenyl (BP) by persulfate, based on the produced SO4·−. The results showed that the presence of chloride ion greatly inhibited the transformation of PCB28 and BP. Transformation intermediates of BP were monitored, suggesting that the chloride ion can react with SO4·− to produce chlorine radical, which reacts with BP to generate chlorinated compounds. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these processes, a kinetic model was developed for predicting the effect of chloride ion on the types of radical species and their distributions. The results showed that chloride ion could influence the selectivity of radical species and their distribution, and increase the concentration of the sum of radical species. In addition, the second-order rate constants of sulfate radical with PCBs were determined, and quantum-chemical descriptors were introduced to predict the rate constants of other PCBs based on our experimental data.

  20. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen Zhang

    Full Text Available Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk.Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic, group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like, and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent.Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.40 and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09-1.43 PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97-1.24 PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97-1.22.Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk.

  1. A cohort study of in utero polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB exposures in relation to secondary sex ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Jean A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous industrial chemicals that persist in the environment and in human fatty tissue. PCBs are related to a class of compounds known as dioxins, specifically 2,3,7,8-TCDD (tetrachloro-dibenzodioxin, which has been implicated as a cause of altered sex ratio, especially in relation to paternal exposures. Methods In the 1960's, serum specimens were collected from pregnant women participating in the Child Health and Development Study in the San Francisco Bay Area. The women were interviewed and their serum samples stored at -20°C. For this study, samples were thawed and a total of eleven PCBs were determined in 399 specimens. Secondary sex ratio, or sex ratio at birth, was evaluated as a function of maternal serum concentrations using log-binomial and logistic regression, controlling for hormonally active medications taken during pregnancy. Results The relative risk of a male birth decreased by 33% comparing women at the 90th percentile of total PCBs with women at the 10th percentile (RR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48–0.94; p = 0.02, or by approximately 7% for each 1 μg/L increase in total PCB concentration. Although some congener-specific associations with sex ratio were only marginally statistically significant, all nine PCB congeners with Conclusion Maternal exposure to PCBs may be detrimental to the success of male sperm or to the survival of male embryos. Findings could be due to contaminants, metabolites or PCBs themselves.

  2. Atmospheric occurrence, transport and deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene in the Mediterranean and Black Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Berrojalbiz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean and Black Seas are unique marine environments subject to important anthropogenic pressures due to direct and indirect loads of atmospheric inputs of organochlorine compounds (OCl from primary and secondary sources. Here we report the results obtained during two east-west sampling cruises in June 2006 and May 2007 from Barcelona to Istanbul and Alexandria, respectively, where gas phase and aerosol samples were collected. Both matrices were analyzed for 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, including dioxin-like congeners, and hexachlorobencene (HCB. The values reported in this study for gas phase HCB and ∑41PCB (LOD to 418.3 pg m−3 and from 81.99 to 931.6 pg m−3 respectively are in the same range of those reported in former studies, possibly suggesting a limited decline in their atmospheric concentrations during the last decade for the Mediterranean region due to land base OCl sources. There is a clear influence of the direction of the air-mass on the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs, with higher concentrations when the air mass was from southern Europe, and the lowest concentrations for air masses coming from the SW Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean. PCBs and HCB are close to air–water equilibrium for most sampling periods, thus resulting in low atmospheric deposition fluxes at open sea. This is consistent with the oligotrophic character of the Mediterranean Sea with a small influence of the biological pump capturing atmospheric PCBs. Therefore, degradation of gas-phase PCBs by OH radicals is estimated to be the main loss process of atmospheric PCBs during their transport over the Mediterranean Sea. Conversely, atmospheric residence times of HCB are predicted to be very long due to a lack of atmospheric degradation and low depositional fluxes due to concentrations at air–water equilibrium.

  3. Predicting the bioaccumulation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in benthic animals in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, A I; Leppänen, M T; Akkanen, J; Sormunen, A J; Leonards, P E G; van Hattum, B; van Vliet, L A; Brack, W; Smedes, F; Kukkonen, J V K

    2016-09-01

    There were two main objectives in this study. The first was to compare the accuracy of different prediction methods for the chemical concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the organism, based on the measured chemical concentrations existing in sediment dry matter or pore water. The predicted tissue concentrations were compared to the measured ones after 28-day laboratory test using oligochaeta worms (Lumbriculus variegatus). The second objective was to compare the bioaccumulation of PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory test with the in situ bioaccumulation of these compounds. Using the traditional organic carbon-water partitioning model, tissue concentrations were greatly overestimated, based on the concentrations in the sediment dry matter. Use of an additional correction factor for black carbon with a two-carbon model, significantly improved the bioaccumulation predictions, thus confirming that black carbon was important in binding the chemicals and reducing their accumulation. The predicted PAH tissue concentrations were, however, high compared to the observed values. The chemical concentrations were most accurately predicted from their freely dissolved pore water concentrations, determined using equilibrium passive sampling. The patterns of PCB and PAH accumulation in sediments for laboratory-exposed L. variegatus were similar to those in field-collected Lumbriculidae worms. Field-collected benthic invertebrates and L. variegatus accumulated less PAHs than PCBs with similar lipophilicity. The biota to sediment accumulation factors of PAHs tended to decrease with increasing sediment organic carbon normalized concentrations. The presented data yields bioconcentration factors (BCF) describing the chemical water-lipid partition, which were found to be higher than the octanol-water partition coefficients, but on a similar level with BCFs drawn from relevant literature. In conclusion, using the two-carbon model method

  4. Latitudinal and seasonal capacity of the surface oceans as a reservoir of polychlorinated biphenyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oceans play an important role as a global reservoir and ultimate sink of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). However, the physical and biogeochemical variables that affect the oceanic capacity to retain PCBs show an important spatial and temporal variability which have not been studied in detail, so far. The objective of this paper is to assess the seasonal and spatial variability of the ocean's maximum capacity to act as a reservoir of atmospherically transported and deposited PCBs. A level I fugacity model is used which incorporates the environmental variables of temperature, phytoplankton biomass, and mixed layer depth, as determined from remote sensing and from climatological datasets. It is shown that temperature, phytoplankton biomass and mixed layer depth influence the potential PCB reservoir of the oceans, being phytoplankton biomass specially important in the oceanic productive regions. The ocean's maximum capacities to hold PCBs are estimated. They are compared to a budget of PCBs in the surface oceans derived using a level III model that assumes steady state and which incorporates water column settling fluxes as a loss process. Results suggest that settling fluxes will keep the surface oceanic reservoir of PCBs well below its maximum capacity, especially for the more hydrophobic compounds. The strong seasonal and latitudinal variability of the surface ocean's storage capacity needs further research, because it plays an important role in the global biogeochemical cycles controlling the ultimate sink of PCBs. Because this modeling exercise incorporates variations in downward fluxes driven by phytoplankton and the extent of the water column mixing, it predicts more complex latitudinal variations in PCBs concentrations than those previously suggested. - Model calculations estimate the latitudinal and seasonal storage capacity of the surface oceans for PCBs

  5. Remediation of PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] -contaminated soils from scrapyards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of the recent attention on contamination of the environment by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) has focused on liquid PCB spills from electrical equipment. A new, and possibly more serious, source of PCB contamination is the scrap yard, typically located in or near major urban centers, where the local scrap dealer would purchase used transformers or other PCB-containing electrical equipment, recover copper and other metals, and dump the PCB-containing oils on the ground. With the rising value of urban and suburban lands, these scrap yards may be slated for redevelopment, making the cleanup of contaminated soils necessary. The heterogeneous distribution of scrap yard contaminants requires a very detailed site assessment, and the heterogeneous mixture of typical scrap yard contaminants (not only PCB) cannot be treated in a simple fashion. These problems are illustrated for the case of the assessment and cleanup of a scrap yard site in Nova Scotia. A grid block system was used to sample soil at the site, and samples were analyzed for PCB, metals, and hydrocarbons. The most severely contaminated spots were mapped; groundwater patterns were also examined. The remediation process can be divided into 5 phases: physical separation of uncontaminated material; three stages of separation of materials into those having single, several-but-similar, and multicomponent mixed contaminations; and selection of appropriate process technologies. Since there is currently no approved PCB destruction facility in Atlantic Canada, excavated soils containing PCB are stored securely on the site to await approval for some type of incineration process

  6. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and lipemia on serum analytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, K.K.; Freni-Titulaer, L.W.J.; Rogers, T.N.; Burse, V.W.; Mueller, P.W.; Stehr, P.A.; Miller, D.T.; Steele, G.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve serum analytes (triglycerides, cholesterol, total and conjugated bilirubin, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) alkaline phosphatase (AP), gammaglutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ..beta..-glucoronidase (..beta..-glu), alanine aminopeptidase (AAP), and 5'-nucleotidase (5'nuc)) were measured to investigate their correlation with exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT). The relationship between serum lipids, lipophilic toxicants, and the analytes was also evaluated. The ..beta..-glue, 5'nuc, triglycerides, cholesterol, and total bilirubin correlated positively and significantly with log concentrations of serum total PCBs and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), a metabolite of DDT. The more highly chlorinated PCBs had significant, positive correlations with several serum analytes, but the less chlorinated PCBs correlated significantly and negatively only with HDL-cholesterol. Triglyercide- and cholesterol-rich lipoproteins were added to serum to determine the effects of lipids on these assays. Several were spuriously elevated. AP and ..beta..-glu were not affected by lipoprotein addition with the methods used in this study. AAP was increased significantly only at triglyceide concentrations exceeding 400 mg/dl.

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  8. The internal barriers of rotation for the 209 polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, P L; Haglund, P; Tysklind, M

    1997-01-01

    The internal barrier of rotation (Erot) was calculated for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by using a semi-empirical method, viz. the Austin Model 1 (AMI) Hamiltonian. The difference in total energy between a forced planar state and an optimised twisted structure was defined as Erot. The Erot values were in the range of 8.33 to 483 kJ/mol, and were significantly influenced by the number of chlorine atoms in ortho position. An additional structural characteristic of the PCBs influencing Erot of ortho substituted congeners was substitution by chlorine atoms in vicinal meta positions, which is assumed to prevent outward bending of ortho substituents. This so-called buttressing effect contributed with 4 to 31 kJ/mol per added chlorine atom. In conclusion, the internal barrier of rotation, calculated for all 209 PCBs, provides an important structure dependent physico-chemical parameter for multivariate modelling of future quantitative structure-activity and structure-property relationships (QSARs/QSPRs). PMID:19005788

  9. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio

  10. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination. PMID:26805927

  11. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few μg/g to several hundreds of μg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several μg/g on a lipid weight basis

  12. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation. PMID:20183511

  13. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners. PMID:11345453

  14. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Le Boeuf, B.J.; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few {mu}g/g to several hundreds of {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several {mu}g/g on a lipid weight basis.

  15. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process. PMID:26562772

  16. Combined effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls congeners in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, I. [Environmental Science Bureau, Ottawa (Canada); Valli, V.E. [Coll. of Veterinary Medicine, Urbana (United States)

    2004-09-15

    There has been considerable interest in conducting toxicity studies on mixtures since this approach represents realistic human exposure and would provide a better model to predict the health impacts of environmental chemicals. However, risk assessment of the chemicals is largely based on the toxicity data of individual compounds by assuming simple additive effects of these compounds. This practice has been accepted by regulatory agencies provided that the concentrations of chemicals are extremely low, and there are no interactions. The existence of interactions among the chemicals co-administered to test animals may under or over estimate the effects of a mixture if the simple additive rule is applied. Previously, we demonstrated an antagonistic effect in rats when tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was co-administered with polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs). The hepatic microsomal EROD, MROD and UDPGT activities of TCDD were decreased when co-administered with PCB congeners. To further explore the combined effects of these pollutants, we examined and report results on tissue residue levels of TCDD and histopathological changes in target organs of rats exposed to TCDD, PCBs and mixtures of both.

  17. Multipurpose Compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  18. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  19. Human receptor activation by aroclor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A; States, J Christopher; Coslo, Denise M; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Cave, Matthew C

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  20. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  1. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajo Haase

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180, and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189 with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects, and one (218 subjects, and two (177 subjects years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls in serum and time to pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may affect the female reproductive system in both animals and humans. In Sweden, a main exposure source to PCBs is consumption of fatty fish from the Baltic Sea. From 165 female consumers of such fish (fishermen's sisters), information on time to pregnancy (TTP) and miscarriages was collected, blood was drawn, and serum was analyzed for 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153), a biomarker for total PCB exposure. TTP and miscarriage data, as well as plasma CB-153 concentrations, for 121 fishermen's wives were available from previous studies. Thus, information on 286 women was available for investigation of whether a high exposure to PCB affects fertility negatively by increasing the TTP. The concentrations of CB-153 at the time of conception were estimated and trichotomized into low, medium, and high exposure groups. When we analyzed the joint data set of fishermen's wives and fishermen's sisters, a decrease rather than an increase in TTP was indicated for women in the medium (fecundability ratio 1.27 [95% confidence interval 0.89-1.82]) and high (fecundability ratio 1.42 [0.99-2.03]) exposure groups compared to those in the low exposure group. Similar results were found when we stratified on the original data set (fishermen's wives and fishermen's sisters) or childhood exposure. Women with miscarriages had lower estimated past CB-153 concentrations than women with live births. Our data provide no evidence of a hazardous effect associated with CB-153 concentration in the exposure range assessed. The exposure levels found in the fishermen's families, although high compared to that in the general Swedish population, may not be high enough to negatively affect fertility

  3. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H.; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction ( ϕoil)=30 vol.%; solid concentration ( χ)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 μm, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  4. [Development of Self-assembled Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 Micro/nanomaterial for Application in Thermocatalytic Degradation of Polybrominated Biphenyls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-chen; Zong, Gang; Liu, Ye-xuan; Lu, Hui-jie; Li, Qian-qian; Li, Bin-ke; Zhao, Yan-hui; Su, Gui-jin

    2016-02-15

    Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) are a group of new persistent organic pollutants, which have high toxicity and long-term bioaccumulation, and cause potential risks to human beings and aquatic ecosystem. Self-assembled dumbbell-like Fe3O4 was synthesized via ethylene-glycol mediated method to degrade PBBs, using BB209 as a model compound. The results showed that the growth process of dumbbell-like Fe3O4 precursor had two stages involving a fast nucleation of amorphous primary particles followed by a slow aggregation and crystallization of primary particles. Dumbbell-like Fe3O4 showed high activity for degradation of BB209 at the reaction time of 30 min with the degradation efficiency of nearly 100% at 300 degrees C. A whole series of nonabromobiphenyl to monobromobiphenyl and biphenyls were detected as the degradation products of BB209 by dumbbell-like Fe3O4, indicating the occurrence of successive hydrodebromination reaction. Furthermore, the amounts of three NoBB isomers followed the order of BB207 > BB208 > BB206, indicating that the reactivity of C--Br of BB209 was in order of meta- > para- > ortho-positions. PMID:27363171

  5. Synthesis, radiosynthesis, in vitro and preliminary in vivo evaluation of biphenyl carboxylic and hydroxamic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors as potential tumor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oltenfreiter, Ruth [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: ruth.oltenfreiter@ugent.be; Staelens, Ludovicus [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hillaert, Ulrik [Laboratory for Medicinal Chemistry, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Heremans, An; Noel, Agnes [Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liege, Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Frankenne, Francis [Laboratory of Tumor and Developmental Biology, University of Liege, Sart-Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Slegers, Guido [Laboratory of Radiopharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-06-01

    Excess matrix degradation is one of the hallmarks of cancer and is an important factor in the process of tumor progression. It is implicated in invasion, metastasis, growth, angiogenesis and migration. Many characteristics of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) make them attractive therapeutic and diagnostic targets. MMP expression is upregulated at the tumor site, with localization of activity in the tumor or the surrounding stroma, providing a target for medical imaging techniques. Radioiodinated carboxylic and hydroxamic MMP inhibitors 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I] iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methyl-butyric acid (9) and 2-(4'-[{sup 123}I] iodo-biphenyl-4-sulfonylamino)-3-methyl-butyramide (11), their unlabelled standards and precursors were synthesized. Radioiodination was conducted by electrophilic aromatic substitution of the tributylstannyl precursors and resulted in radiochemical yields of 70+/-5% (n=6) and 60+/-5% (n=4), respectively. In vitro zymography and enzyme assays showed for both hydroxamic acid and carboxylic acid compounds a good inhibition activity and a high selectivity for MMP-2. In vivo biodistribution in NMRI mice showed no long-term accumulation in organs and the possibility to accumulate in the tumor in a later phase of this study.

  6. Solid-state fluorescence property and crystal structure of biphenyl derivatives with carboxyl and n-alkyl groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Yoshitane, E-mail: y-imai@apch.kindai.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Kamon, Kensaku [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Tajima, Nobuo [First-Principles Simulation Group, Computational Materials Science Center, NIMS, Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Kinuta, Takafumi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan); Sato, Tomohiro [JST ERATO-SORST Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, 4-7-6 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0041 (Japan); Kuroda, Reiko [JST ERATO-SORST Kuroda Chiromorphology Team, 4-7-6 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-0041 (Japan); Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Matsubara, Yoshio, E-mail: y-matsu@apch.kindai.ac.j [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Osaka 577-8502 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    By introducing carboxyl and n-alkyl groups into a biphenyl molecule, we can increase the photoluminescence quantum yields of biphenyl derivatives in the solid state. The solid-state fluorescence maxima (lambda{sub em}) of 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid derivatives change according to the n-alkyl group introduced.

  7. Spermaturia and serum hormone concentrations at the age of puberty in boys prenatally exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Nanette M; Sørensen, Nicolina; Weihe, Pal;

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty.......To determine whether prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with possible hormone-disrupting effects is capable of affecting sexual differentiation in boys at the age of puberty....

  8. Isolation of antithrombotic phenolic compounds from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shao-Jiang; Li, Ling-Zhi; Gao, Pin-Yi; Yuan, Yan-Qiang; Wang, Ru-Ping; Liu, Ke-Chun; Peng, Ying

    2012-12-01

    Four novel phenolic compounds (1-4) were isolated from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida, along with three known ones (5-7). Their structures were elucidated as: methyl 4-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-[(2E,6E)-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienyl] benzoate (1), biphenyl-5-ol-3-O-β-D-glucoside (2), 3,4'-dimethoxy-biphenyl-5-ol-4-O-β-D-glucoside (3), (E)-6-(benzoyloxy)-1-hydroxyhex-3-en-2-O-β-D-glucoside (4), shanyenoside A (5), eriodectyol (6), and 2″-O-rhamnosyl vitexin (7), using a combination of mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. The antithrombotic activity of the isolated compounds was investigated on the transgenic zebra fish system. Among them, eriodectyol (6) potently inhibited the production of thrombus. PMID:23115017

  9. NV- Polychlorinated biphenyls at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — PCBs or other organochlorine compounds were not detected in water from any site sampled during this study. Detection limits reported by the analytical laboratory...

  10. Long-time measurements of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF) and biphenyls (PCB) in deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls from one and the same sample were first separated by chromatography, then determined by mass spectroscopy. Sampling was in accordance with VDI method No. 2119, sheet 2, for the measurement of particulate precipitations. The annual means of PCDD/PCDF deposition ranged from 10 to 83 pg TE/(m2.d). The annual means of the deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (tri and decachlorobiphenyls combined) varied between 23 and 257 ng/(m2.d). The annual mean for coplanar PCBs No. 77, 126 and 169 was less than 1 ng/(m2.d). (orig./DG)

  11. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas have been extensively reported in the dental literature, and the term refers to tumors of odontogenic origin. Though the exact etiology is still unknown, the postulated causes include: local trauma, infection, inheritance and genetic mutation. The majority of the lesions are asymptomatic; however, may be accompanied with pain and swelling as secondary complaints in some cases. Here, we report a case of a compound odontome in a 14 year old patient.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  13. Foetal uptake of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier studies have shown that the Ah-receptor binding polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC number CB-77) accumulated as hydroxy and methylsulphone metabolites in late gestational mice foetuses. In the present paper the foetal accumulation potential in mice of other dioxin-like PCB congeners was studied: 3,3'4,4',4-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3'4,4'5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC numbers CB-126, CB-169, CB-105, to some extent dioxin-like) were compared to results of CB-77 (all congeners 14C-labelled and in equimolar doses (2.0 μmol/kg body wt.)). CB-77 resulted in the comparatively strongest foetal 14C-accumulation, when measured in plasma or whole body homogenate four days after administration (day 17 of pregnancy); the plasma 14C-values (calculated as pmol/g wet wt.) were 760, 130, 60 and 40 for CB-77, -126, 105 and -169, respectively, and the CB-77 derived radioactivity in the foetal compartment was 3.6% of administered dose (i.e. a considerable portion of the remaining maternal body radioactivity). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) results, suggesting extensive CB-77 metabolism and foetal metabolite uptake, support earlier findings. The effects of CB-77 and CB-169 on foetal 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities (day 17 of gestation; two days after 5 mg/kg body wt. dose (14.0-17.0 μmol/kg body wt.)) was about 20 times lower than of CB-126. In the dam, high radioactivity levels were observed int he liver and fat (highest concentrations found in CB-126 and CB-105, respectively). Strain comparison - foetal 14C-uptake (four days after administration of CB-77) in C57BL mice was almost five times higher than in NMRI - may be correlated to earlier observed differences in EROD activities between these strains. The present results indicate that congener and strain differences exist regarding both foetal and maternal distribution patterns of coplanar PCB congeners and point out the

  14. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  15. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. PMID:22464860

  16. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  17. Magnetic property and thermal analysis of a Mn(II) complex with [Mn(CO2)]n chains based on 4,4‧-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl-methyl)biphenyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Dao; Zheng, Bao-Hui; Wang, Zhe; Jiao, Yan; Chen, Min-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Magnetic coordination polymers have attracted considerable interest due to their novel structures and potential applications. In this paper, one new 2D magnetic manganese coordination polymer {[Mn(bimb)(OBA)]}n (1) was synthesized under solvothermal conditions based on 4,4‧-bis(1H-imidazol-1-yl-methyl)biphenyl (bimb) and 4,4‧-oxybis(benzoate) (H2OBA). Complex 1 contains [Mn(CO2)]n 1D chains and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 1 exhibits an antiferromagnetic coupling interaction. In addition, complex 1 exhibits solid-state photoluminescence and high thermal stability.

  18. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennaceur, S; Gandoura, N; Driss, M R

    2008-09-01

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pmilk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines. PMID:18614165

  19. Mineralization of low-chlorinated biphenyls by Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 and by a two-membered consortium upon directed interspecies transfer of chlorocatechol pathway genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potrawfke, T.; Loehnert, T.H.; Timmis, K.N.; Wittich, R.M. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany). Bereich Mikrobiologie

    1998-12-31

    The biphenyl-mineralizing bacerium Burkholderia sp. strain LB400 also utilized 3-chloro-, 4-chloro-, 2,3`-dichloro- and 2,4`-dichlorobiphenyl for growth. By the attack of the initial enzyme a chlorine was eliminated dioxygenolytically from position 2 of one of the aromatic rings when hydrogens of both were substituted by chlorine. The strain mineralized 3-chloro- and 2,3`-dichlorobiphenyl via the central intermediate 3-chlorobenzoate through its chlorocatechol pathway enzymes, but excreted stoichiometric amounts of 4-chlorobenzoate from 4-chloro- and 2,4-dichlorobiphenyl. These two compounds were mineralized by a co-culture of strain LB400 and a derivative of the (methyl-)benzoate-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (TOL). The complete degradation was achieved upon transfer of a cluster of at least five genes, encoding the regulated chlorocatechol pathway operon, from strain LB400 to strain mt-2. This transfer was demonstrated by the polymerase chain reaction. (orig.)

  20. Simultaneous separation of chlorinated/brominated dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their methoxylated derivatives from hydroxylated analogues on molecularly imprinted polymers prior to gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2015-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important contaminants in the environment. In recent years also polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) have been reported as emerging environmental stressors. It has been suggested that hydroxylated polybrominated biphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are important - may be even the most important - precursors of brominated dioxins/furans. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, time-saving analytical procedure to collectively separate in animal tissues such compounds prior to determination of individual substances with a gas/liquid chromatograph coupled to an ion trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC/IT-MS or UPLC/TOF-MS). Two OH-CB/BDE separation methods including alkaline extraction and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) were compared. Performance of both methods was validated: absolute recovery values were in the 47-90% range depending on the compound, while recovery relative standard deviation was below 20% in most cases. Levels of the studied compounds have been assessed in some real life samples. PMID:26452807

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals in cultured and harvested bivalves from the eastern Adriatic coast (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milun, Vesna; Lušić, Jelena; Despalatović, Marija

    2016-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides and trace metals were determined in tissues of bivalve molluscs (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Ostrea edulis, Venus verrucosa, Arca noae and Callista chione), collected from 11 harvesting and 2 cultured locations along the eastern Adriatic coast, in May and November 2012. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry weight) of organochlorines ranged from 1.53 to 21.1 for PCBs and 0.68 to 5.21 for p,p'-DDTs. HCB, lindane, heptachlor and aldrin-like compounds were found in lower levels or were not detected. Metal concentrations (mg kg(-1) dry weight) ranged from 0.23 to 4.03 for Cd, 0.87-3.43 for Cr, 3.69-202.3 for Cu, 0.06-0.26 for HgT, 0.62-9.42 for Ni, 0.95-4.64 for Pb, and 55.76-4010.3 for Zn. Established organochlorine and trace metal levels were lower than the maximum allowable levels in seafood set by the European Commission. PMID:27010163

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  3. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-09-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37-70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms.

  4. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk of women from Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuhmacher, M.; Domingo, L.L. [Lab. of Toxicology and Environmental Health (Spain); Kiviranta, H. [National Public Health Inst. (Finland); Vartiainen, T. [Univ. of Kuopio (Finland)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely distributed environmental contaminants derived from their extensive use as coolants and lubricants in transformers, capacitors, and other electrical equipment. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used as flame retardant in plastics, textiles and are also persistent organic pollutants (POPs). These compounds are lipophilic and difficult to metabolize. Therefore, environmental exposure of living organism results their accumulation in fat tissues via food. Although incineration has demonstrated to be a commercially available technology for hazardous waste (HW) disposal, the stack emission from HW incinerators (HWI) of a number of inorganic and organic substances has raised an important concern about the environmental and health consequences of this process of treating HW. In 1996, the construction of the first and to date only HWI in Spain was initiated in Constanti(Catalonia, Spain). Regular operations started in 1999. In order to establish the potential health risks of exposure on the general population living near the new HWI, a biological monitoring program was designed. To establish baseline levels of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), and PCBs in human milk, samples were collected from women living in the neighborhood of the facility before starting regular operations. The purpose of the present study was to determine the concentrations of PCBs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of the HWI after four years of regular operations in the facility. The levels of PBDEs were also measured.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago. PMID:21529852

  6. Matrix effects on the de novo synthesis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekárek, Vladimír; Weber, Roland; Grabic, Roman; Solcová, Olga; Fiserová, Eva; Syc, Michal; Karban, Jindrich

    2007-05-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and benzenes in de novo synthesis experiments have been studied on model fly ashes with a wide range of matrices. The model fly ash consisted of 18 selected matrices with the addition of CuCl(2) x 2H(2)O, activated charcoal and NaCl. The studied matrices were not restricted to the commonly investigated matrices with defined chemical composition (silica gel, alumina, florisil) and industrially produced adsorbents with silicate structures (diatomaceous earths), but also included natural occurring matrices (clays, kaolin, bentonite and feldspars). In addition fly ashes from a hazardous waste incinerator were included in the study for comparison. Differences in the isomer composition (homologue profiles and isomer patterns) of the substances formed by de novo synthesis experiments are discussed in dependence on the chemical composition of the studied matrices. The de novo synthesis experiments on matrices with silicate structures resulted in high concentration of mainly perchlorinated aromatic compounds while for other matrices in particular alkaline matrices a homologue shift to lower chlorinated homologues and lower formation rates were found. The paper discusses the resulting PCDD/PCDF pattern and compares them to the PCDD/PCDF profile found in naturally occurring kaolin and ball clay (illite). PMID:17291561

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)-degrading bacteria associated with the trees in a PCB-contaminated site

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leigh, M. B.; Prouzová, P.; Macková, Martina; Macek, Tomáš; Nagle, D. P.; Fletcher, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 4 (2006), s. 2331-2342. ISSN 0099-2240 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : polychlorinated biphenyl Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 3.532, year: 2006

  8. Preparation of plants containing bacterial enzyme for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Francová, K.; Surá, M.; Macek, Tomáš; Szekeres, M.; Bancos, S.; Demnerová, K.; Sylvestre, M.; Macková, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2003), s. 309-313. ISSN 1018-4619 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : transgenic plants * polychlorinated biphenyls * phytoremediation Subject RIV: DK - Soil Contamination ; De-contamination incl. Pesticides Impact factor: 0.325, year: 2003

  9. Genomic characterization of three unique Dehalococcoides that respire on persistent polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shanquan; Chng, Kern Rei; Wilm, Andreas; Zhao, Siyan; Yang, Kun-Lin; Nagarajan, Niranjan; HE, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the sediments of lakes, rivers, and harbors. Although the PCB detoxification through microbial reductive dechlorination has been extensively studied for more than 20 y, the difficulty in cultivating PCB dechlorinators in pure culture impedes further characterization, optimization, and application in in situ bioremediation. By combining traditional culture techniques with next-generation sequencing technology, ...

  10. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  11. A method for the chemical modification of polychlorinated biphenyls for improved affinity towards noble metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present application discloses a method for the modification and analysis of a field sample suspected of containing contaminant(s) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The invention also relates to a corresponding kit for the modification of samples suspected of containing such contaminant(s)....

  12. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoeters, G.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentra

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morse, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    IntroductionThe work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsibl

  14. Effect of highly bioaccumulated polychlorinated biphenyl congeners on estrogen and androgen receptor activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, E.C.; Andersen, H. R.; Rasmussen, T.H.;

    2001-01-01

    in transiently co-transfected Chinese Hamster Ovary cells with an IC50, of 6.2 muM. In summary, this study indicate that the di-ortho, multiple-chloro substituted biphenyls, PCB # 138, PCB # 153 and PCB # 180, can compete with the binding of the natural ligand to two nuclear receptors and thus...

  15. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Satish Kumar Singh; Meenu Mishra; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and ...

  16. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisglas-Kuperus, N; Patandin, S; Berbers, GAM; Sas, TCJ; Mulder, PGH; Sauer, PJJ; Hooijkaas, H

    2000-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with the pre

  17. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six...

  18. Radiological tracing for historical patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls in creek ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The marine sediments act like sink for most of the pollutants entering the aquatic environment. It becomes more critical in the case of creek ecosystem due to its landlocked and relatively stagnant nature. Various persistent organic pollutants (POPs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are brought into the creek in the form of dissolved and particulate fluxes from industrial effluents, sewerage discharge, urban runoff from the city, spillage, disposal and chemical weathering. PCBs cycle between sediment, water, air and soil. Studying the historical patterns of these toxic pollutants depositions in sediment cores have several applications. They throw light on the chronological inputs of the pollutants in the marine body. Natural radionuclides like 210Pb act as tracers for determining the historical patterns of these pollutants in different sediment layers. Determining the activities of these radionuclides is useful for determining the age of sediment layers from the sedimentation rates. The unsupported 210Pb activity of the Thane creek sediments was determined and modeled for assigning the age to different layers of the cores contaminated with PCBs. The unsupported activity of 210Pb tracer was found to decrease with the increase in depth of the sediment layers. This pattern of the 210Pb activity was used for determining the sedimentation rate and age of the core layers. The CRS model with 210Pb activity traced the average sedimentation rate in Thane Creek to 0.67 cm/yr. This helped in labeling the age of formation of the deep core sediment layers. The vertical profile of different PCB congener concentrations in the core samples depicts a gradient from top to bottom, which indicates the influence of industrial contributions over the period. Peak concentrations for the congeners were observed at 13-24 depth, which indicates excessive loading of sediment with these compounds during 1970s (20-30 cm) which was the period of the maximum use and production of these

  19. Structural investigations of the ferredoxin and terminal oxygenase components of the biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Sphingobium yanoikuyae B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson David T

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial step involved in oxidative hydroxylation of monoaromatic and polyaromatic compounds by the microorganism Sphingobium yanoikuyae strain B1 (B1, previously known as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strain B1 and Beijerinckia sp. strain B1, is performed by a set of multiple terminal Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases. These enzymes share a single electron donor system consisting of a reductase and a ferredoxin (BPDO-FB1. One of the terminal Rieske oxygenases, biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO-OB1, is responsible for B1's ability to dihydroxylate large aromatic compounds, such as chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. Results In this study, crystal structures of BPDO-OB1 in both native and biphenyl bound forms are described. Sequence and structural comparisons to other Rieske oxygenases show this enzyme to be most similar, with 43.5 % sequence identity, to naphthalene dioxygenase from Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. While structurally similar to naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase, the active site entrance is significantly larger than the entrance for naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase. Differences in active site residues also allow the binding of large aromatic substrates. There are no major structural changes observed upon binding of the substrate. BPDO-FB1 has large sequence identity to other bacterial Rieske ferredoxins whose structures are known and demonstrates a high structural homology; however, differences in side chain composition and conformation around the Rieske cluster binding site are noted. Conclusion This is the first structure of a Rieske oxygenase that oxidizes substrates with five aromatic rings to be reported. This ability to catalyze the oxidation of larger substrates is a result of both a larger entrance to the active site as well as the ability of the active site to accommodate larger substrates. While the biphenyl ferredoxin is structurally similar to other Rieske ferredoxins, there are distinct changes in the amino acids near

  20. Intermetallic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  1. EQUILIBRATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND TOXAPHENE WITH AIR AND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vapor pressure and solubility (as subcooled liquids) and Henry's Law constants (HLCs) for the individual chlorobiphenyl compounds (CBC) in Aroclor 1242, 1254, and 1260, as well as the HLCs for toxaphene, have been determined with an equilibrium technique. The results were obt...

  2. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  3. Phytoremediation of soils co-contaminated by organic compounds and heavy metals: Bioassays with Lupinus luteus L. and associated endophytic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez-Gines, M. J.; Hernandez, A. J.; Perez-Leblic, M. I.; Pastor, J.; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2014-01-01

    In the central part of the Iberian Peninsula there are old sealed landfills containing soils co-contaminated by several heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, As, Cr, Fe, Al, Mn) and organic pollutants of different families (hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides and other organochlorinated compounds, phenols and volatile compounds), which this work will address. We have focused on phytoremedial plants that are able to deal with this type of complex p...

  4. Compound odontoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Vargas Pinto

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontomas are the most common types of odontogenic tumors, as they are considered more as a developmental anomaly (hamartoma than as a true neoplasia. The aim of the present study is to describe a clinical case of compound odontoma, analyzing its most commonsigns, its region of location, the decade of life and patient’s gender, disorders that may occur as well as the treatment proposed. In order to attain this objective, the method was description of the present clinical case and bibliographic revision, arriving at the result that the treatment for this type of lesion invariably is surgical removal (enucleation and curettage and the prognosis is excellent. The surgical result was followed up in the post-operative period by radiographic exam, and it was possible to conclude that there was complete cicatrization and tissue repair.

  5. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    OpenAIRE

    Munteanu Constantin; Hoteteu Mihai

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides) are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inf...

  6. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AS INITIATING AGENTS IN HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludewig, Gabriele; Robertson, Larry W.

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are carcinogens, but for many decades it was assumed that PCBs may not possess initiating activity. Initiation is a process that involves changes in the DNA sequence, often, but not exclusively produced through DNA adduction by a reactive compound or reactive oxygen species (ROS). DNA adducts can be detected by 32P-postlabeling, a method that Dr. Ramesh Gupta co-developed and refined. Today these types of assays together with other mechanistic studies provide convincing evidence that spe...

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Dechlorinating Dehalococcoides mccartyi Strain SG1, Which Carries a Circular Putative Plasmid

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shanquan; Chng, Kern Rei; Wu, Chen; Wilm, Andreas; Nagarajan, Niranjan; HE, Jianzhong

    2014-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain SG1, isolated from digester sludge, dechlorinates polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to lower congeners. Here we report the draft genome sequence of SG1, which carries a 22.65 kbp circular putative plasmid.

  8. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  9. Mixed function oxidase dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls by different species of fish from the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrtens, G.; Laturnus, F.

    1999-01-01

    Mixed function oxidase (MFO) dependent biotransformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in three different fish species from the North Sea. Liver microsomes of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda) and cod (Gadus morhua) were isolated and incubated with different...

  10. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins : Consequences for longterm neurological and cognitive development of the child lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, ER; Lanting, Caren; Koletzko, B; Michaelsen, KF; Hernell, O

    2000-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are environmental pollutants. Prenatally, as well as postnatally through breast feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential developmental neurotoxicity, we investigated

  11. Production of metabolites from chloro biphenyls by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400 after growth on different carbon sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), when exposed to microorganisms, into chlorobenzoic acid metabolites was studied. PCBs are widely used in electrical transformers and have become widely dispersed in the environment. A proposed system for clean up of PCBs involves the combined use of anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of highly chlorinated congeners followed by aerobic degradation of moderately chlorinated PCBs, mediated by oxidative ring attack. Much of this work focused on biphenyl-grown cells, in particular Pseudomonas strain LB400 grown on biphenyl, which contains a multicomponent enzyme system. It was shown that resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB400, grown on glycerol or glucose, could also transform purified PCB congeners and mixtures of PCBs in Aroclors, however, transformation rates were less than those observed with biphenyl-grown cells. 29 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  12. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Zhengjun Zhang; Yu Huang; Zhengcao Li; Xian Zhang; Qin Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls ...

  13. Stimulation of contraction of pregnant rat uterus in vitro by non-dechlorinated and microbially dechlorinated mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    OpenAIRE

    BAE, J.; Mousa, M A; Quensen, J F; Boyd, S A; Loch-Caruso, R

    2001-01-01

    A previous study of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners showed that PCBs with four or fewer chlorines and ortho substitution stimulate uterine contraction frequency in vitro, whereas congeners with a greater number of chlorines or non-ortho substitution are inactive in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PCB mixtures stimulate uterine contractions in a manner inversely related to the degree of chlorination and the presence of chlorines in the ortho- position of the biphenyl constitu...

  14. Intake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from the Finnish diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of seven single PCB indicator congeners were measured in 99 food samples. These concentrations were converted into a total PCB content and used for estimating total PCB intake among Finns. The average intake from food is 15 μg/day or 0,25 μ/kg body weight per day, which showed no change during the late 1980s. Approximately half of the intake comes from fish. The composition of the PCB mixture varies a lot in different sample types, which emphasizes the importance of single compound determination. (orig.)

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediments of the Inner Oslofjord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.I. (Univ. of Oslo, Norway); Ringstad, O.; Kveseth, N.J.

    1982-11-01

    Sediment cores (16) from the Inner Oslofjord were analyzed for PCB's and DDT. Although localized high content of PCB's is observed, the data show even distribution of these compounds - a consequence of removal by particulate and detrital matter and the sedimentation of this material. Significant modification of the profiles of PCB's in the sedimentary column together with fractionation of the PCB's according to their chlorine content are observed. The extent of these changes is shown to be related to the physico-chemical conditions in the sediments and hence the extent of biological mediation.

  16. Immune cell counts and risks of respiratory infections among infants exposed pre- and postnatally to organochlorine compounds: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Darnerud Per; Johannisson Anders; Aune Marie; Thuvander Ann; Glynn Anders; Ronquist Gunnar; Cnattingius Sven

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Early-life chemical exposure may influence immune system development, subsequently affecting child health. We investigated immunomodulatory potentials of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-DDE in infants. Methods Prenatal exposure to PCBs and p,p'-DDE was estimated from maternal serum concentrations during pregnancy. Postnatal exposure was calculated from concentrations of the compounds in mother's milk, total number of nursing days, and percentage of full nursing e...

  17. Two new luminescent Zn(II) compounds constructed from guanazole and aromatic polycarboxylate ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixiang; Dong, Yanli; Liu, Haiping

    2016-02-01

    Two new Zn(II) compounds, namely [(CH3)2NH2]2n[Zn3(bpt)2(datrz)2]n (1) and [(CH3)2NH2)]n[Zn2(bptc)(datrz)]n·n(H2O) (2) (H3bpt = biphenyl-3,4‧,5-tricarboxylic acid, H4bptc = biphenyl-3,3‧,5,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid, Hdatrz = 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole), have been obtained by the self-assemble reactions of Zn(NO3)2, 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole, aromatic polycarboxylate ligands under solvothermal conditions. Single crystal X-ray structural analyses reveal that both compounds display three-dimensional (3D) frameworks. Compound 1 features a trinodal (3, 4, 6)-connected topological network with the point symbol of {4.62}2{4.64.8}{46.64.85}. Compound 2 displays a binodal (4, 6)-connected topological network with the point symbol of {32.62.72}{34.42.64.75}. In addition, the thermal stabilities and luminescent properties of compounds 1 and 2 were also investigated in the solid state at room temperature.

  18. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 to DeCaprio AP, Jacobs A; Akwesasne Task Force on the Environment. 2014. Relationships of polychlorinated biphenyls and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE) with testosterone levels in adolescent males. Environ Health Perspect 122:304–309; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1205984 PMID:24398050

  19. Studies on the transformation of selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by Pseudomonas strain LB 400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the main factors influencing the degradation of certain PCB congeners by resting cells of Pseudomonas strain LB 400 were characterized. The significance of the carbon source used for growth was studied by comparison of rates of PCB transformation by cells grown on biphenyl and other carbon sources. PCB transformation was studied in resting cells grown on glucose and glycerol. Supplementation of the degradation medium with biphenyl significantly decreased the rate of PCB congener transformation. The presence of glycerol or glucose did not affect PCB transformation rates. The study showed that in the treatment of contaminated soils, resting cells lose their viability and PCB transforming ability, such that, in the absence of a growth substrate, soil would have to be reinoculated to maintain PCB biodegradation. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyl-77 Induces Adipocyte Differentiation and Proinflammatory Adipokines and Promotes Obesity and Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenescu, Violeta; Arsenescu, Razvan I; King, Victoria; Swanson, Hollie; Cassis, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Obesity, an inflammatory condition linked to cardiovascular disease, is associated with expansion of adipose tissue. Highly prevalent coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77) accumulate in adipose tissue because of their lipophilicity and increase with obesity. However, the effects of PCBs on adipocytes, obesity, and obesity-associated cardiovascular disease are unknown. Objectives In this study we examined in vitro and in vivo effect...

  1. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAELB400) metabolizes PCBs. ► Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. ► We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAELB400 variants. ► The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAELB400 variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAELB400) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAERR41, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAELB400, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAELB400. Hence, BphAERR41 was able to metabolize 2,6,2′,6′-, 3,4,3′,5′- and 2,4,3′,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAELB400 is unable to metabolize. BphAERR41 was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAELB400 to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  2. Metabolism of chlorobiphenyls by a variant biphenyl dioxygenase exhibiting enhanced activity toward dibenzofuran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viger, Jean-Francois; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Barriault, Diane [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada); Sylvestre, Michel, E-mail: Michel.Sylvestre@iaf.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec, Canada H4K 1C2 (Canada)

    2012-03-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 biphenyl dioxygenase (BphAE{sub LB400}) metabolizes PCBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Asn338Gln/Leu409Phe double mutation speeds up electron transfer of enzyme reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested how the mutations affect the PCB-degrading abilities of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The same mutations also broaden the PCB substrate range of BphAE{sub LB400} variants. -- Abstract: The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) catalyzes the dihydroxylation of biphenyl and of several polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) but it poorly oxidizes dibenzofuran. In this work we showed that BphAE{sub RR41}, a variant which was previously found to metabolize dibenzofuran more efficiently than its parent BphAE{sub LB400}, metabolized a broader range of PCBs than BphAE{sub LB400}. Hence, BphAE{sub RR41} was able to metabolize 2,6,2 Prime ,6 Prime -, 3,4,3 Prime ,5 Prime - and 2,4,3 Prime ,4 Prime -tetrachlorobiphenyl that BphAE{sub LB400} is unable to metabolize. BphAE{sub RR41} was obtained by changing Thr335Phe336Asn338Ile341Leu409 of BphAE{sub LB400} to Ala335Met336Gln338Val341Phe409. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create combinations of each substitution, in order to assess their individual contributions. Data show that the same Asn338Glu/Leu409Phe substitution that enhanced the ability to metabolize dibenzofuran resulted in a broadening of the PCB substrates range of the enzyme. The role of these substitutions on regiospecificities toward selected PCBs is also discussed.

  3. Plasma Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Kohles, Sean S.; Freeman, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons that have extensively polluted the environment and bioaccumulated in the food chain. PCBs have been deemed to be probable carcinogens by the Environmental Protection Agency, and exposure to high levels of PCBs has been consistently linked to increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). In the present article we present a forensic epidemiologic evaluation of the causal relationship between NHL and elevated PCB levels via ...

  4. Ship-source pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants

    OpenAIRE

    ČULIN, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are groups of anthropogenic contaminants that have been routinely used in many applications for several decades. Prior to the discovery of their detrimental health effects and subsequent implementation of regulatory measures they were widely applied in shipbuilding. They are still found onboard active and inactive ships and pose a risk to human and environment. Therefore, it is important to continue to carry out preven...

  5. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on maternal odor conditioning in rat pups

    OpenAIRE

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Johnson, Asia; McKnight, Logan; Horinek, Maegan; Asbrock, Christina; Burt, Shannon; Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Meserve, Lee A.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that can have damaging effects on physiologic, motoric and cognitive function. Results from studies on PCBs and behavior have shown that exposure can alter learning and memory processes and that these shifts in cognitive abilities can be related to changes in hormonal and neural function. Little experimentation has been done on the impact of exposure to PCBs on social and emotional development. Previous work has shown t...

  6. Neurodevelopmental toxicity of prenatal polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chemical structure and activity: a birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Park Hye-Youn; Hertz-Picciotto Irva; Sovcikova Eva; Kocan Anton; Drobna Beata; Trnovec Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental toxins. Although there is growing evidence to support an association between PCBs and deficits of neurodevelopment, the specific mechanisms are not well understood. The potentially different roles of specific PCB groups defined by chemical structures or hormonal activities e.g., dioxin-like, non-dioxin like, or anti-estrogenic PCBs, remain unclear. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal ex...

  7. Alteration of rat fetal cerebral cortex development after prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Naveau, Elise; Pinson, Anneline; GERARD, Arlette; Nguyen, Laurent; Charlier, Corinne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Zoeller, Robert Thomas; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Parent, Anne-Simone

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants that persist in environment and human tissues. Perinatal exposure to these endocrine disruptors causes cognitive deficits and learning disabilities in children. These effects may involve their ability to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) action. We tested the hypothesis that developmental exposure to PCBs can concomitantly alter TH levels and TH-regulated events during cerebral cortex development: progenitor proliferation, cell...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Leukocyte Telomere Length: An Analysis of NHANES 1999–2002

    OpenAIRE

    Franco Scinicariello; Buser, Melanie C.

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce the expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc which has a role in cellular growth and proliferation programs. The c-myc up-regulates the telomerase reverse transcriptase which adds the telomeres repeating sequences to the chromosomal ends to compensate for the progressive loss of telomeric sequence. We performed multivariate linear regression to analyze the association of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran wi...

  9. Effects of Developmental Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and/or Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers on Cochlear Function

    OpenAIRE

    Poon, Emily; Powers, Brian E.; McAlonan, Ruth M.; Ferguson, Duncan C.; Schantz, Susan L

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes hearing loss that may be due to reduced thyroxine during cochlear development. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are structurally similar to PCBs and reduce thyroxine. This study utilized an environmental PCB mixture and a commercial PBDE mixture, DE-71, that represents the PBDEs found in humans to assess the potential for additive effects of PCBs and PBDEs on cochlear function. Female Long-Evans rats were dosed with corn ...

  10. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Lambiase, S; Zhang, Y.; P. Morbini; M. Fasola

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinat...

  11. A Preliminary Link between Hydroxylated Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Free Thyroxin in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Eveline Dirinck; Dirtu, Alin C.; Govindan Malarvannan; Adrian Covaci; Jorens, Philippe G.; Van Gaal, Luc F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated metabolites (HO-PCBs) interfere with thyroid hormone action both in vitro and in vivo. However, epidemiologic studies on the link between PCB exposure and thyroid function have yielded discordant results, while very few data are available for HO-PCBs. Objectives: Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between clinically available markers of thyroid metabolism and serum levels of both PCBs and HO-PCBs. Subjects and ...

  12. Effects of Chinese domestic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis.

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Zhan-Fen; Zhou, Jing-Ming; Chu, Shao-Gang; Xu, Xiao-Bai

    2003-01-01

    To determine whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) influence gonadal differentiation in Xenopus laevis, tadpoles were exposed to two Chinese domestic PCBs (PCB3 and PCB5 from Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 46/47 to complete metamorphosis. Gonads were characterized using a dissecting microscope. The control X. laevis had normal ovaries or testes in gross morphology, whereas obviously abnormal testes including ovotestes were found in PCB3- and PCB5-exposed groups. Ovotestes were characterized by ...

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Postnatal Growth: A Structural Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Matthew R.; Taylor, Sylvia; Liu, Xinhua; Wolff, Mary S.; Borrell, Luisa; Matte, Thomas D; Susser, Ezra S.; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2005-01-01

    Normal endocrine function in utero and early in childhood influences later height and weight attainment. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental contaminants with suspected endocrine-disrupting properties. PCBs may mimic or inhibit hormone and endocrine processes based in part on their structural configuration, with non-ortho-substituted PCBs having a coplanar orientation and ortho-substituted PCBs becoming increasingly noncoplanar. Coplanar and noncoplanar PCBs have kno...

  14. Oculodermatological findings in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbein, A; Rizzo, J N; Solomon, S J; Wolff, M S

    1985-01-01

    Oculodermatological findings, such as hypersecretion of the Meibomian glands, swelling of the upper eyelids and hyperpigmentation of the conjunctivae are considered typical of "PCB poisoning." They were common clinical manifestations of yusho and yu-cheng, two epidemics in Japan and Taiwan caused by the ingestion of rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. To investigate the prevalence of such abnormalities in a population with lon...

  15. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and child size at 24 months of age

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; McGuinness, Bridget M; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may result in decreased child growth, though the critical window(s) are unclear. We investigated the association between PCBs and child size at age 24 months (n=44). PCBs were measured in 1st trimester serum, breast milk, and child serum at age 24 months, and dichotomized at the median. Age- and gender-specific z-scores were calculated for anthropometric measures. Using linear regression, we observed no significant changes in...

  16. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins and its effect on neonatal neurological development

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Martijn; Koopman-Esseboom, Corine; Fidler, Vaclav; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Paauw, Cornelis; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Sauer, Pieter; Touwen, Bert C.; Boersma, Eric

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPolychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs)) are widespread environmental contaminants which are neurotoxic in animals. Perinatal exposure to PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs occurs prenatally via the placenta and postnatally via breast milk. To investigate whether such an exposure affects the neonatal neurological condition, the neurological optimality of 418 Dutch newborns was evaluated with the Prechtl neurological ex...

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls and reproductive hormones in female polar bears at Svalbard.

    OpenAIRE

    Haave, Marte; Ropstad, Erik; Derocher, Andrew E; Lie, Elisabeth; Dahl, Ellen; Wiig, Øystein; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2003-01-01

    High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in polar bears from Svalbard have increased concern for that population's reproductive health. We examined whether there were associations between the plasma concentrations of PCBs and reproductive hormones [progesterone (P4)] and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)] in free-living female polar bears from Svalbard. Concentrations of P4 depended on reproductive status, and concentrations were lowest in females with offspring--females with cubs and fem...

  18. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Geniece M.; Christensen, Krista; Maddaloni, Mark; Phillips, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some buildings are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by uncertainties related to the characterization and assessment of source, exposure, and exposure-response. Objectives: We briefly describe some common sources of PCBs in indoor air and estimate the contribut...

  19. Rhizospere Redox Cycling and Implications for Rhizosphere Biotransformation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congeners

    OpenAIRE

    Meggo, Richard E.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    Theoretically, sequential cycles of dechlorination followed by aerobic bio-oxidation are desirable to achieve complete degradation of a mixture of higher and lower chlorinated PCBs. In this research, soil was artificially contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mixture and as single congeners, aged, and planted with two different plant species. Alternating redox cycles were created in the root zone of plants by flooding and draining the soil. Over 32 weeks, switchgrass (Panicum ...

  20. Stimulatory effects of a microbially dechlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture on rat uterine contraction in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneta, Taeko; Loch-Caruso, Rita; Quensen, John F.; Boyd, Stephen A.; Hanna, Mona; Grindatti, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Microbially mediated reductive dechlorination has been advocated as the first part of a two-stage (anaerobic/aerobic) biotreatment process for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments, and is generally viewed as a detoxication process. However, previous studies suggest that microbial dechlorination increases ability to stimulate uterine contractions compared with the original PCB mixtures. Here, we investigate the composition and uterotonic activity of the commercial PCB mixture Aroclor ...

  1. CONTAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FISHES LEADING TO TOXICITY IN FISH CONSUMING POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; Madhuri S.; A.B. Shrivastav

    2012-01-01

    The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems. Similar to humans and other species of animals, fish have also been found to be polluted with a large number of pollutants/contaminants. Unintentionally added chemicals causing fish toxicity include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent chemicals in feed, chemicals in construction materials, and metabolites and degradation produc...

  2. Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl-dehalogenating enrichments that exhibit different para-dechlorination specificities.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Q; Wiegel, J

    1997-01-01

    Two anaerobic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating enrichments with distinct substrate specificities were obtained: a 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2346-CB) para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from Aroclor 1260-contaminated Woods Pond (Lenox, Mass.) sediment and a 2,4,6-trichlorobiphenyl (246-CB) unflanked para-dechlorinating enrichment derived from PCB-free Sandy Creek Nature Center (Athens, Ga.) sediment. The enrichments have been successfully transferred to autoclaved soil slurr...

  3. Potential for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Biodegradation in Sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Yi; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Mattes, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are carcinogenic, persistent, and bioaccumulative contaminants that pose risks to human and environmental health. In this study, we evaluated the PCB biodegradation of sediments from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), a PCB-contaminated site (average PCB concentration = 12,570 ng/g d.w.). PCB congener profiles and bacterial community structure in a core sediment sample (4.57 m long) were characterized. Analysis of vertical PCB congener profile patterns in s...

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the surficial sediment of Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, Lake Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Andres; Norström, Karin; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of the first intensive survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the surficial sediment of the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC) in East Chicago, Indiana, a part of the Calumet River tributary of Lake Michigan that will be dredged to maintain depth for ship traffic. The tributary has previously been reported to be a large source of PCBs to Lake Michigan. PCB congeners were measured using tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode, a method that ...

  5. (Biphenyl-2-yl)bromidobis(2-methyl-tetra-hydro-furan-κO)magnesium(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordschild, Simon; Wohlgemuth, D; Bolte, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the title Grignard reagent, [MgBr(C(12)H(9))(C(5)H(10)O)(2)], the Mg centre adopts a distorted tetra-hedral MgCO(2)Br arrangement. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings of the biphenyl residue is 44.00 (14)°. Each mol-ecule incorporates one R- and one S-configured 2-methyl-tetra-hydro-furan mol-ecule. PMID:21583743

  6. Relationships of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p’-DDE) with Testosterone Levels in Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Schell, Lawrence M.; Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; Nelder, Kyrie R.; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Jacobs, Agnes; ,

    2013-01-01

    Background: Concern persists over endocrine-disrupting effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on human growth and sexual maturation. Potential effects of toxicant exposures on testosterone levels during puberty are not well characterized. Objectives: In this study we evaluated the relationship between toxicants [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p´-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and lead] and testosterone levels among 127 Akwesasne Mohawk males 10 ...

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls in serum of the Siberian Yupik people from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, David O.; DeCaprio, Anthony P; O’Hehir, David; Akhtar, Farooq; Johnson, Glenn.; Scrudato, Ronald J.; Apatiki, Lucy; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Miller, Pamela K.; Eckstein, Lorraine

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. To determine serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Siberian Yupik adults from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, and to determine the relative contribution of atmospheric transport of PCBs and local contamination to body burdens. Study Design. Siberian Yupiks of various ages were recruited from three populations: residents of the village of Gambell, residents of the village of Savoonga who did not have family hunting camps near the Northeast Cape (NEC), a Formerly Used Def...

  8. Effect of Chemical Structure on the Isobaric and Isochoric Fragility in Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    OpenAIRE

    Roland, C. M.; Casalini, R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure-volume-temperature data, along with dielectric relaxation measurements, are reported for a series of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), differing in the number of chlorine atoms on their phenyl rings. Analysis of the results reveals that with increasing chlorine content, the relaxation times of the PCB become governed to a greater degree by density, rho, relative to the effect of temperature, T. This result is consistent with the respective magnitudes of the scaling exponent, gamma, yi...

  9. Metabolomic Analysis of the Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Xue; Wahlang, Banrida; Wei, Xiaoli; Yin, Xinmin; Falkner, K. Cameron; Prough, Russell A.; Kim, Seong Ho; Mueller, Eugene G.; McClain, Craig J.; Cave, Matthew; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants and have been associated with abnormal liver enzymes and suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in epidemiological studies. In epidemiological surveys of human PCB exposure, PCB 153 has the highest serum levels among PCB congeners. To determine the hepatic effects of PCB 153 in mice, C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet (CD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks, with o...

  10. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and environmental biotransformation products on aquatic nitrification.

    OpenAIRE

    Sayler, G S; Shiaris, M. P.; Beck, W.; Held, S.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on nitrification were examined for pure cultures and natural reservoir samples. PCBs at concentrations greater than 10 microgram liter-1 inhibited nitrification, principally ammonium oxidation, in one of two natural reservoir environments. However, this inhibition could not be reproduced in pure high-cell-density cultures or in previously contaminated reservoir waters. A PCB environmental biotransformation product, p-chlorophenylglyoxylic acid, ...

  11. Chlororganische Pestizide, polychlorierte Biphenyle und potentiell toxische Schwermetalle in Organproben von Seeadlern und Habichten

    OpenAIRE

    Kenntner, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we examined organs of 145 white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) from Germany and 5 specimen from Austria, as well as 62 northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) from different regions of Germany for their organ concentrations of chlorinated pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and potentially toxic heavy metals. We proved a significant decline of DDT concentrations in livers of 127 white-tailed eagles (WTE) collected between 1990 and 2001. Considering the final...

  12. Field-derived Henry's law constants for polychlorinated biphenyls in oceanic waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gioia, Rosalinda; Dachs, Jordi; Lohmann, Rainer; Jones, Kevin C.; Nizzeto, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of Henry's law constants (Kaw) is very important for fate and transport studies of organic chemicals. Here field-derived Kaw values for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCBs 28, 49, 52, 118, 138, 149, and 153) were determined in the open Atlantic Ocean, at locations where air and seawater were assumed to be at equilibrium. Field-based Kaw values were derived from air and seawater samples simultaneously collected at these locations, and their relationship with tempe...

  13. Immunologic effects of background exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Dutch preschool children.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Patandin, Svati; Berbers, G A; Sas, Theo; Sauer, Pieter; Hooijkaas, Herbert; Mulder, Paul

    2000-01-01

    textabstractPrenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins is associated with changes in the T-cell lymphocyte population in healthy Dutch infants. We investigated whether these changes persist into later childhood and whether background exposure to PCBs and dioxins is associated with the prevalence of infectious or allergic diseases and humoral immunity at preschool age. The total study group consisted of 207 healthy mother-infant pairs. We estimated prenatal exposure to P...

  14. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  15. Cometabolic oxidation of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil with a surfactant-based field application vector.

    OpenAIRE

    Lajoie, C. A.; Layton, A C; Sayler, G. S.

    1994-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degradative genes, under the control of a constitutive promoter, were cloned into a broad-host-range plasmid and a transposon. These constructs were inserted into a surfactant-utilizing strain, Pseudomonas putida IPL5, to create a field application vector (FAV) in which a surfactant-degrading organism cometabolizes PCB. By utilizing a surfactant not readily available to indigenous populations and a constitutive promoter, selective growth and PCB-degradative gene...

  16. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mengke [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Fangbai [Guangdong Institute of Eco-environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Jiang, Longfei [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Dayi [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation.

  17. Anaerobic degradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Ethers (PBDEs), and microbial community dynamics of electronic waste-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental contamination caused by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling is attracting increasing attention worldwide because of the threats posed to ecosystems and human safety. In the present study, we investigated the feasibility of in situ bioremediation of e-waste-contaminated soils. We found that, in the presence of lactate as an electron donor, higher halogenated congeners were converted to lower congeners via anaerobic halorespiration using ferrous ions in contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of terminal restriction fragments indicated that the three dominant strains were closely related to known dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB) and those able to perform dehalogenation upon respiration. The functional species performed the activities of ferrous oxidation to ferric ions and further ferrous reduction for dehalogenation. The present study links iron cycling to degradation of halogenated materials in natural e-waste-contaminated soil, and highlights the synergistic roles of soil bacteria and ferrous/ferric ion cycling in the dehalogenation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). - Highlights: • The biodegradation PCBs and PBDEs in e-waste contaminated soils was studied. • DIRB and arylhalorespiring bacteria were responsive to dehalogenation respiration. • Soil bacteria and Fe ion cycling play synergistic roles in dehalogenation

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D. [Clemson Univ., Pendleton, SC (United States); O`Quinn, M. [South Carolina Governor`s School for Science and Mathematics, Hartsville, SC (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  19. Interconversion between Methoxylated and Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Rice Plants: An Important but Overlooked Metabolic Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Su, Zhenzhu; Zhan, Yu; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    To date, there is limited knowledge on the methoxylation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the relationship between hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) in organisms. In this study, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was chosen as the model organism to determine the metabolism of PCBs in plants. Limited para-substituted 4'-OH-CB-61 (major metabolite) and 4'-MeO-CB-61 (minor metabolite) were found after a 5-day exposure to CB-61, while ortho- and meta-substituted products were not detected. Interconversion between OH-PCBs and MeO-PCBs in organisms was observed for the first time. The demethylation ratio of 4'-MeO-CB-61 was 18 times higher than the methylation ratio of 4'-OH-CB-61, indicating that formation of OH-PCBs was easier than formation of MeO-PCBs. The transformation products were generated in the roots after 24 h of exposure. The results of in vivo and in vitro exposure studies show that the rice itself played a key role in the whole transformation processes, while endophytes were jointly responsible for hydroxylation of PCBs and demethylation of MeO-PCBs. Metabolic pathways of PCBs, OH-PCBs, and MeO-PCBs in intact rice plants are proposed. The findings are important in understanding the fate of PCBs and the source of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:26928534

  20. Characterization of the biosorption and biodegradation properties of Ensifer adhaerens: A potential agent to remove polychlorinated biphenyls from contaminated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Chen, Xiong; Li, Huixin; Hu, Feng; Liang, Mingxiang

    2016-01-25

    Ensifer adhaerens is a soil bacterium known for its potential to remove pollutants from the environment. We investigated the contributions of biosorption and biodegradation to the process of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) removal from water by living or heat-killed E. adhaerens with different incubation times. We examined the physicochemical properties of E. adhaerens, including its membrane surface moieties, extracellular polymeric substances, and defense-related enzyme activities. In addition, we measured the biosorption and biodegradation of different PCB congeners. We found that removal of PCBs by heat-killed E. adhaerens was attributed to biosorption only, while both biosorption and biodegradation were responsible for the dissipation of PCBs by live E. adhaerens. Biosorption initially plays a major role in PCB removal, but biodegradation becomes increasingly important with increased incubation time. The results of infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that bacterial lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides, which offer abundant binding sites, are responsible for the biosorption of PCBs. Biodegradation was correlated with loosely bound polysaccharides and defense-related enzyme activities that could increase the pollutant's solubility and facilitate further degradation. The PCB congeners exhibited different biosorption and biodegradation patterns, and the patterns were correlated with the octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) of the congeners. The more hydrophobic organic compounds tended to have higher biosorption, but lower biodegradation capacities. These results indicate that E. adhaerens-mediated biosorption and biodegradation of PCBs are dependent on the status of the strain, the incubation time, and the PCB congener present, and suggest guidelines for PCB removal from water. PMID:26476319

  1. Stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha

    2016-07-15

    In present work, a new configuration of micro-solid phase extraction was introduced and termed as stir-bar supported micro-solid-phase extraction (SB-μ-SPE). A tiny stir-bar was packed inside the porous polypropylene membrane along with sorbent material and the edges of membrane sheet were heat sealed to secure the contents. The packing of stir-bar inside the μ-SPE device does not allow the device to stick with the wall or any corner of the sample vial during extraction, which is, however, a frequent observation in routine μ-SPE. Moreover, it enhances effective surface area of the sorbent exposed to sample solution through continuous agitation (motion and rotation). It also completely immerses the SB-μ-SPE device in the sample solution even for non-polar sorbents. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were selected as model compounds and the method performance was evaluated in human serum samples. After extraction, samples were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The factors that affect extraction efficiency of SB-μ-SPE were optimized. Under optimum conditions, a good linearity (0.1-100ngmL(-1)) with coefficients of determinations ranging from 0.9868 to 0.9992 was obtained. Limits of detections were ranged between 0.003 and 0.047ngmL(-1). Acceptable values for inter-day (3.2-9.1%) and intra-day (3.1-7.2%) relative standard deviations were obtained. The optimized method was successfully applied to determine the concentration of PCB congeners in human serum samples. PMID:27291862

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the baltic and coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Lerz, Astrid

    1996-03-01

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and organochlorine pesticides, e.g. the isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), p,p’-dichiorodiphenyitrichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolites DDE and DDD was investigated in surface sediments (0 2 cm) and sediment cores (0 45 cm) from the western Baltic Sea and the coastal waters of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Sediment sampling was carried out in the Belt Sea, the Arkona Basin, the Pomeranian Bight and in almost all Bodden and Haff areas of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in autumn 1993 and 1994. The highest concentrations of PCB and DDT compounds, measured in the innercoastal waters, reached 214 ng g-1 dry weight (d. w.). The values of HCH isomers ranged between 0.01 and 2.9 ng g-1 d.w., the highest levels being those of Β-HCH. Levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons, which varied depending on the sediment properties, indicated increased riverine inputs (Oder, Peene, and Uecker). Elevated levels in the Oderhaff and Peenestrom characterize that area as a sink and, due to remobilization of the upper sediment layer (fluffy layer) into the pelagic, also as a source of organic contaminants. Input from agriculture and industrial point sources (shipyards, shipbuilding) was observed in the coastal waters. The homogeneous PCB and DDT distribution (TOC standardization) observed in the surface sediments of some areas in the western Baltic indicates high sediment dynamics. This is supported by the results of sediment core analyses which showed a constant PCB and DDT distribution down to a depth of 15 to 20 cm.

  3. The Possible Ameliorative Effect Of Dimethyl Dicarboxylate Biphenyl (DDB Against Mancozeb­Induced Testicular Toxicity In Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manar Effat Selim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Mancozeb, an organocarbamate fungicide, has been widely used for several decades. Despite the wide scope of exposure to this compound, up till now, there is a scarcity in published studies on the toxicity of mancozeb and its impacts on cell structure and functions. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the possible counteracting effect of dimethyl dicarboxylate biphenyl (DDB in reducing the hazards caused by mancozeb in the testies. The effects of mancozeb given separately or simultaneously with DDB on rat testis were studied histologically and ultra structurally. Twenty-one male albino rats were divided into three groups, 7 rats each. The first group was given orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and served as control. Animals of the second group were given mancozeb orally at a dose level of 500 mg/kg b.wt for 15 consecutive days. Animals of the third group received the same dose of mancozeb as in the second group and simultaneously given DDB (50 mg/kg b.wt through the same route of administration. Mancozeb treatment induced cellular damage manifested as exfoliation and destruction of the spermatogenic lineage. Destructed spermatids and Leydig cells were also pronounced. The ultra structural observations revealed marked cytoplasmic vacuolation in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia. Some cytoplasmic organelles of the spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes were degenerated. Moreover, destructed spermatids were pronounced in most of the seminiferous tubules. The interstitial cells appeared devoid of lipid droplets and the mitochondria appeared with disintegrated cristae. Administration of DDB simultaneously with mancozeb ameliorated most of the testicular tissue damage. This was reflected as restoration of the normal appearance of the spermatogenic lineage. Numerous spermatids were demonstrated in the lumens of the seminiferous tubules, most of them showed similar structure to those of the control group. In conclusion, it is possible to

  4. Utilizing the partitioning properties of silicone for the passive sampling of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Odsbjerg, Lisbeth; Langeland, Majbrith; Mayer, Philipp

    2016-10-01

    The former use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in construction materials can lead to elevated indoor air concentrations. We studied the partitioning of PCB congeners between indoor air and silicone with a view to establish passive sampling of PCBs. The release of PCB congeners from silicone followed first order kinetics and confirmed air-side rate-limited mass transfer. Logarithmic elimination rate constants decreased linearly with the logKOA values of the PCB congeners, but varied in a non-linear way with air velocity. Linear uptake of PCBs was found for silicone disks (0.5 mm thickness) in a petri dish, while PCBs reached equilibrium in silicone-coated paper sheets (0.001 mm silicone on each side) exposed to indoor air for 1-2 weeks. The ratios of equilibrium concentrations in silicone and conventionally measured air concentrations were roughly comparable with silicone-air partition coefficients, but further research is required for the determination of silicone-air partition coefficients. Avoiding performance reference compounds (PRCs) because of the indoor setting, the two formats were calibrated against conventional active measurements. Comparisons of air concentrations derived from active and kinetic passive sampling showed a divergence by factors of 2.4 and 2.0 (median values) for the petri dishes and the silicone-coated paper, respectively. With promising results for sensitivity and precision, the calibration of kinetic passive samplers remains the main challenge and will need suitable, non-hazardous PRCs. Equilibrium sampling indicated promising alternatives. PMID:27389945

  5. Impact of size and sorption on degradation of trichloroethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls by nano-scale zerovalent iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► nZVIs were synthesized using a layer-by-layer or poly(acrylic acid) stabilization approach. ► These nZVIs were used to degrade TCE and PCB. ► nZVI coatings impacted reactivity by altering pollutants/particle interactions. ► Smaller nZVI particle size led to greater reactivity. - Abstract: Nano-scale zerovalent iron (nZVI) has been studied in recent years for environmental remediation applications such as the degradation of chlorinated organic contaminants. To overcome limitations related to the transport of nZVI, it is becoming common to add a polymer stabilizer to limit aggregation and enhance the particle reactivity. Another method investigated to enhance particle reactivity has been to limit particle size through novel synthesis techniques. However, the relative impacts of particle size and interactions of the chemicals with the coatings are not yet well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of particle size and polymer coating or polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) synthesis conditions on degradation of two common chlorinated contaminants: trichloroethylene (TCE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This was accomplished using two different synthesis techniques, a layer-by-layer approach at different pH values or iron reduction in the presence of varying concentrations of poly(acrylic acid). nZVI produced by both techniques yielded higher degradation rates than a traditional approach. The mechanistic investigation indicated that hydrophobicity and sorption to the multilayer impacts the availability of the hydrophobic compound to the nZVI and that particle size also had a large role with smaller particles having stronger dechlorination rates.

  6. Estrogenic compounds -endocrine disruptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disruptors (polychlorinated biphenyls, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], dioxin, and some pesticides are estrogen-like and anti-androgenic chemicals in the environment. They mimic natural hormones, inhibit the action of hormones, or alter the normal regulatory function of the endocrine system and have potential hazardous effects on male reproductive axis causing infertility. Although testicular and prostate cancers, abnormal sexual development, undescended testis, chronic inflammation, Sertoli-cell-only pattern, hypospadias, altered pituitary and thyroid gland functions are also observed, the available data are insufficient to deduce worldwide conclusions.

  7. Toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyl with special reference to porphyrin metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, S.; Kawanishi, S.; Seki, Y.

    1985-02-01

    Oral administration of a commercial PCB mixture to chickens caused a hepatic-type porphyria characterized by hepatic accumulation and urinary excretion of uroporphyrin. To clarify the mechanism of the porphyrinogenic activity of these PCBs, the authors studied the structural requirement of synthetic PCB for porphyrinogenic activities by using the cultured chick embryo liver cells and examined the relationship between induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetase and inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase. They established that the porphyrinogenic effect of PCBs exhibits a sharply defined structure-activity relationship in that only 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl produced a marked accumulation of uroporphyrin. They also demonstrated that in ALA-supplemented cultures, these same compounds lead to accumulation of a large amount of uroporphyrin III, whereas with other PCBs, which were weak inducers of porphyrin synthesis, the accumulated porphyrin was mostly protoporphyrin. Kinetic studies of the sequential decarboxylation of uroporphyrinogen with purified uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase were performed. The 3,4,3',4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 3,4,5,3',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl strongly inhibit uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase directly at two steps. The results confirmed that porphyrinogenic PCBs primarily inhibit uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, leading to a depletion of heme as a result of which synthesis of ALA synthetase increased.

  8. Background contamination by coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in trace level high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) analytical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C.; Dupuy, A. E. Jr

    1997-01-01

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. Most of these procedures are based on established sample preparation and analytical techniques employing high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS), which are used for the analyses of dioxin/furans at low parts-per-trillion (ppt) levels. A significant and widespread problem that arises when using these sample preparation procedures for the analysis of coplanar PCBs is the presence of background levels of these congeners. Industrial processes, urban incineration, leaking electrical transformers, hazardous waste accidents, and improper waste disposal practices have released appreciable quantities of PCBs into the environment. This contamination has resulted in the global distribution of these compounds via the atmosphere and their ubiquitous presence in ambient air. The background presence of these compounds in method blanks must be addressed when determining the exact concentrations of these and other congeners in environmental samples. In this study reliable procedures were developed to accurately define these background levels and assess their variability over the course of the study. The background subtraction procedures developed and employed increase the probability that the values reported accurately represent the concentrations found in the samples and were not biased due to this background contamination.

  9. Determination of Chlorinated Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Edible Oils and Fats using MSPD Extraction and Freeze Lipids-Filtration Cleanup with GC-ECD Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organo chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have numerous adverse effects on human health. Although their use have been banned or restricted, residues of these compounds can be found in foods, especially those with high fat content. The purpose of this study was to establish a rapid and simple analytical method for the determination of these compounds in edible oils and fats. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for the simultaneous extraction and purification of analytes from samples using an acetonitrile - acetone (19:1, v/v) mixture as eluting solvent. Lipids remaining in the extract were removed by freezing-lipid filtration, prior to analytes re-extraction with n-hexane. The measurement was performed using a gas chromatograph with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Spiking experiments were carried out to determine the recovery, precision and limits of detection (LODs) of the method. Recoveries were higher than 70% and detection limits were in the range of 20 ng/g to 90 ng/g. These LOD values are lower than the maximum permissible limit which makes this method useful for the purpose intended. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of vegetable oils and butters sampled from the market. (Author)

  10. K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision

  11. K Basin sludge polychlorinated biphenyl removal technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, S.C.

    1998-08-25

    The two Hanford K Basins are water-filled concrete pools that contain over 2,100 metric tons of N Reactor fuel elements stored in aluminum or stainless steel canisters. During the time the fuel has been stored, approximately 50 m3 of heterogeneous solid material have accumulated in the basins. This material, referred to as sludge, is a mixture of fuel corrosion products, metallic bits of spent fuel and zirconium clad iron and metal corrosion products and silica from migrating sands. Some of the sludges also contain PCBs. The congener group of PCBs was identified as Aroclor 1254. The maximum concentration of sludge PCBS was found to be 140 ppm (as settled wet basis). However, the distribution of the PCBs is non-uniform throughout the sludge (i.e., there are regions of high and low concentrations and places where no PCBs are present). Higher concentrations could be present at various locations. Aroclors 1016/1242, 1221, 1248, 1254, and 1260 were identified and quantified in K West (KW) Canister sludge. In some of these samples, the concentration of 1260 was higher than 1254. The sludge requires pre-treatment to meet tank farm waste acceptance criteria, Among the numerous requirements, the sludge should be retreated so that it does not contain regulated levels of Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) compounds. Because of their stable chemistry and relative insolubility in water, PCBs are difficult to treat. They also resist degradation from heat and electrical charges. This stability has resulted in environmental persistence which has prompted the development of a variety of new cleanup processes including supercritical processes, advanced oxidation, dehalogenation and others. Hopefully, most of the new processes are discussed herein. Information on new processes are being received and will be evaluated in a future revision.

  12. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  13. Crystal structures, fluorescent and magnetic properties of five new coordination polymers based on biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five new coordination polymers, {[Cd3(bpt)2(DMF)2]·(H2O)2}n (1), [Cd(Hbpt)(bipy)0.5(H2O)]n (2), [Cd2(bpt)(phen)2Cl]n (3), {[Cu2(bpt)(phen)(μ2–OH)(H2O)]·(H2O)2}n (4) and {[Mn5(Hbpt)4(phen)4(μ2–OH)2(H2O)2]·(H2O)2(CH3CN)2}n (5) have been prepared through hydro(solvo)thermal reactions of H3bpt (H3bpt=biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylic acid) with different pyridyl-containing auxiliary ligands (bipy=4,4′-bipyridine and phen=1,10-phenanthroline). Compound 1 represents a 3D ladder-like framework composed of rod-shaped infinite chains. In 2, the bridging ligand bipy links binuclear cadmium ions to generate a 2D layer. Compound 3 features a 1D ladder structure and further linked by π–π stacking interaction to form a 3D supramolecular network. Compound 4 exhibits a binodal 3-connected net which features the Schlafli symbol of (4·82). Compound 5 contains trimetallic cluster and binuclear unite which are further linked by Hbpt ligand to form a 2D layer. Moreover, photoluminescent properties of compounds 1–3 were studied in the solid state. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that compound 4 exhibits ferromagnetic exchange interactions, whereas compound 5 displays antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. - Graphical abstract: Five new coordination polymers have been prepared through reactions of H3bpt with different pyridyl-containing auxiliary ligands. The bpt exhibits four new kinds of coordination modes with “V or Y shape”. Highlights: ► 1 represents a unique (4·8)-connected network with a Schlafli symbol (46)(412·612·84). ► Compound 4 shows ferromagnetic interaction between the dimeric Cu2+ units. ► The bpt ligand exhibits four new kinds of coordination modes with “V or Y shape”.

  14. Optimizing Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation by Flavonoid-Induced Cells of the Rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Thanh My Pham

    Full Text Available There is evidence that many plant secondary metabolites may act as signal molecules to trigger the bacterial ability to metabolize polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs during the rhizoremediation process. However, the bases for the PCB rhizoremediation process are still largely unknown. The rhizobacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is unable to use flavanone as a growth substrate. However, on the basis of an assay that monitors the amount of 4-chlorobenzoate produced from 4-chlorobiphenyl by cells grown co-metabolically on flavanone plus sodium acetate, this flavonoid was previously found to be a potential inducer of the U23A biphenyl catabolic pathway. In this work, and using the same assay, we identified ten other flavonoids that did not support growth, but that acted as inducers of the U23A biphenyl pathway, and we confirmed flavonoid induction of the biphenyl catabolic pathway using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR on the bphA gene. We also examined the effect of the growth co-substrate on flavonoid induction. Sodium acetate was replaced by glucose, mannose, sucrose, or mannitol, which are sugars found in plant root exudates. The data showed that the level of induction of strain U23A biphenyl-degrading enzymes was significantly influenced by the nature and concentration of the flavonoid in the growth medium, as well as by the substrate used for growth. Sucrose allowed for an optimal induction response for most flavonoids. Some flavonoids, such as flavone and isoflavone, were better inducers of the biphenyl catabolic enzymes than biphenyl itself. We also found that all flavonoids tested in this work were metabolized by strain U23A during co-metabolic growth, but that the metabolite profiles, as well as the level of efficiency of degradation, differed for each flavonoid. To obtain insight into how flavonoids interact with strain U23A to promote polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degradation, we determined the concentration of

  15. Sex ratio in offspring of those affected by dioxin and dioxin-like compounds: the Yusho, Seveso, and Yucheng incidents

    OpenAIRE

    T. Yoshimura; Kaneko, S; Hayabuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    Sex ratios in the offspring of those affected by dioxins or dioxin-like compounds have been reported from Seveso, Italy and Yucheng, Taiwan. The sex ratio of live births in Yusho, Japan after a similar accidental massive exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 1968 are reviewed. Data on all births among parents exposed to the compounds from 1968 to 1977 in Fukuoka and a region of Nagasaki, the two areas affected, are reported. In total there w...

  16. Suppression of Peroxisomal Enzyme Activities and Cytochrome P450 4A Isozyme Expression by Congeneric Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry W. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of PCBs and PBBs on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α-(PPARα- associated enzyme activities or protein levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single IP injection (150 μmol/kg of either 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, 2′,3,3′,4,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl, or 3,3′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromobiphenyl in corn oil (10 ml/kg. One week later, the activities of catalase, peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, and peroxisomal beta-oxidation as well as cytochrome P450 4A (CYP4A protein content were determined in subcellular liver fractions. None of the peroxisomal enzyme activities were significantly increased by any of the halogenated biphenyl congeners tested. Except for minor (approx. 25% increases in the total CYP4A content following treatment with 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl and 3,3′,5,5′-tetrabromobiphenyl, CYP4A protein contents were not increased by any treatment. The two Ah receptor agonists, 3,3′,4,4′-tetrabromobiphenyl and 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl, significantly diminished the liver content of CYP4A proteins and activities of the peroxisomal enzymes studied. Since a range of congeners with different biologic and toxicologic activities were selected for this study, it may be concluded that the polyhalogenated biphenyls do not induce peroxisome proliferation in the male rat, but rather certain members of this class of compounds down regulate peroxisome-associated enzymes. Since PCBs and PBBs do not increase

  17. Inter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 1. Accumulation patterns in harbour seals and harbour porpoises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and sum of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were 23.1 μg/g lipid weight (lw) and 0.33 μg/g lw in blubber of harbour seals (n = 28) and 12.4 μg/g lw and 0.76 μg/g lw in blubber of harbour porpoises (n = 35), respectively. For both species, the highest PCB concentrations were observed in adult males indicating bioaccumulation. On the contrary, the highest PBDE concentrations were measured in juveniles, likely due to better-developed metabolic capacities with age in adults. A higher contribution of lower chlorinated and non-persistent congeners, such as CB 52, CB 95, CB 101, and CB 149, together with higher contributions of other PBDE congeners than BDE 47, indicated that harbour porpoises are unable to metabolize these compounds. Harbour seals showed a higher ability to metabolize PCBs and PBDEs. - Harbour porpoises and harbour seals present differences in the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers

  18. Inter-species differences for polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine top predators from the Southern North Sea: Part 1. Accumulation patterns in harbour seals and harbour porpoises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weijs, Liesbeth [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Dirtu, Alin C. [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, ' Al. I. Cuza' University of Iassy, Carol I Bvd. No 11, 700506 Iassy (Romania); Das, Krishna [Laboratory for Oceanology-MARE Center, University of Liege B6C, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Gheorghe, Adriana [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Soseaua Panduri 90-92, 050663 Bucharest (Romania); Reijnders, Peter J.H. [Institute for Marine Resources and Ecosystem Studies, Department of Ecology, PO Box 167, 1790 AD Den Burg (Netherlands); Neels, Hugo [Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Covaci, Adrian [Laboratory of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: adrian.covaci@ua.ac.be

    2009-02-15

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are two representative top predator species of the North Sea ecosystem. The median values of sum of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and sum of 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were 23.1 {mu}g/g lipid weight (lw) and 0.33 {mu}g/g lw in blubber of harbour seals (n = 28) and 12.4 {mu}g/g lw and 0.76 {mu}g/g lw in blubber of harbour porpoises (n = 35), respectively. For both species, the highest PCB concentrations were observed in adult males indicating bioaccumulation. On the contrary, the highest PBDE concentrations were measured in juveniles, likely due to better-developed metabolic capacities with age in adults. A higher contribution of lower chlorinated and non-persistent congeners, such as CB 52, CB 95, CB 101, and CB 149, together with higher contributions of other PBDE congeners than BDE 47, indicated that harbour porpoises are unable to metabolize these compounds. Harbour seals showed a higher ability to metabolize PCBs and PBDEs. - Harbour porpoises and harbour seals present differences in the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

  19. Mechanistic insights into the specificity of human cytosolic sulfotransferase 2A1 (hSULT2A1) for hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls through the use of fluoro-tagged probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekuase, E J; van 't Erve, T J; Rahaman, A; Robertson, L W; Duffel, M W; Luthe, G

    2016-02-01

    Determining the relationships between the structures of substrates and inhibitors and their interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes is of prime importance in predicting the toxic potential of new and legacy xenobiotics. Traditionally, quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) studies are performed with many distinct compounds. Based on the chemical properties of the tested compounds, complex relationships can be established so that models can be developed to predict toxicity of novel compounds. In this study, the use of fluorinated analogues as supplemental QSAR compounds was investigated. Substituting fluorine induces changes in electronic and steric properties of the substrate without substantially changing the chemical backbone of the substrate. In vitro assays were performed using purified human cytosolic sulfotransferase hSULT2A1 as a model enzyme. A mono-hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyl (4-OH PCB 14) and its four possible mono-fluoro analogues were used as test compounds. Remarkable similarities were found between this approach and previously published QSAR studies for hSULT2A1. Both studies implicate the importance of dipole moment and dihedral angle as being important to PCB structure in respect to being substrates for hSULT2A1. We conclude that mono-fluorinated analogues of a target substrate can be a useful tool to study the structure activity relationships for enzyme specificity. PMID:26165989

  20. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the frame of the dismantling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During construction and maintenance of nuclear facilities PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) containing paints were used in a large extent in the past. The WAK dismantling and disposal Company has dismantles such facilities and identified the PCB in the buildings. Besides the radionuclides the conventional hazardous material group of the PCBs has also to be disposed. The respective legal regulations have to be considered. In the frame of the contribution the radiological release of building structures with respect to re-use or demolition and residual PCB containing materials is discussed. The radiological disposal in final repositories and the conventional disposal regulations for releasable residual wastes are reported.

  2. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ryan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ,to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs.

  3. Remobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls from sediment and its consequences for their transport in river waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gdaniec-Pietryka, Monika; Mechlińska, Agata; Wolska, Lidia; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was performed to examine the remobilization of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (iPCBs) from sediments and its results were applied to the real-world data for explaining the transport of PCBs in river. Seven PCB concentrations were determined in three series of model water–sediment systems (3 g of river sediment, three different volumes of distilled water (0.5, 0.25, and 0.15 ml), and 5 mg of biocide) after 11 days of incubation. Solid-phase extraction was used for ...

  4. Population Dynamics of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Dechlorinating Microorganisms in Contaminated Sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J.; Rhee, G.

    1997-01-01

    The growth dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating microorganisms were determined for the first time, along with those of sulfate reducers and methanogens, by using the most-probable-number technique. The time course of Aroclor 1248 dechlorination mirrored the growth of dechlorinators; dechlorination ensued when the dechlorinating population increased by 2 orders of magnitude from 2.5 x 10(sup5) to 4.6 x 10(sup7) cells g of sediment(sup-1), at a specific growth rate of 6.7 d...

  5. Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in transformer oil and in marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolytic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and in marine sediments has been studied. At low PCB concentrations, complete degradation of the PCBs in transformer oil was achieved without degradation of the oil. Addition of an organic base, triethylamine, enhances the radiolytic dechlorination yield. The mechanism of dechlorination has been shown to involve electron transfer to PCBs from various aromatic radical anions formed in the irradiated oil. At high PCB concentrations, large amounts of triethylamine were necessary to achieve complete radiolytic dechlorination. Preliminary results on PCB-contaminated marine sediments demonstrate that addition of 2-propanol to the sediment/water slurry increases the effectiveness of the electron beam treatment

  6. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the significant management features for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes in the double-shell tank (DST) system, discussed in Sections 2.0 through 4.0. Section 2.0 delineates the decision limits for acceptance of PCB wastes into and within the DST system. Section 3.0 briefly discusses the process for obtaining a baseline PCB inventory. The PCB inventory tracking system for waste transfers into and within the DST system is described in Section 4.0. The implementation of this PCB management plan is described in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 names the organizations responsible for implementation of the plans elements

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in urban soils of Greater London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Vane, Christopher H.; Kim, Alexander W.; Beriro, Darren J.; Cave, Mark R.; Knights, Katherine; Moss-Hayes, Vicky; Nathanail, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Surface soils from a 19 km2 area in east London, UK were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (n = 76). ∑16 PAH ranged from 4 to 67 mg/kg (mean, 18 mg/kg) and ∑50 PAH ranged from 6 to 88 mg/kg (mean, 25 mg/kg). ∑7 PCB ranged from 1 to 750 μg/kg (mean, 22 μg/kg) and ∑tri-hepta PCB ranged 9 to 2600 μg/kg (mean, 120 μg/kg). Compared to other international cities concentrations were similar for PAH but higher for PCB. Normal background concentrat...

  8. Changes in patterns of persistent halogenated compounds through a pelagic food web in the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephansen, Diana; Svendsen, Tore Christian; Vorkamp, Katrin;

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations and patterns of persistent halogenated compounds (PHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, hexachlorohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were examined in a pelagic food web from the southern Baltic Sea consisting of......-normalized concentrations were found in brown trout. Salmon and brown trout were similar in their PHC pattern suggesting similar food sources. Variation in PHC patterns among trophic levels was not smaller than that among geographically distinct locations, confirming the importance of comparable trophic levels for the...

  9. Uptake and effects of dioxin like compounds in fish : in vitro in vivo and cross species extrapolation using physiologically based toxicokinetic models

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkmann, Markus; Hollert, Henner; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The past decades have witnessed an unparalleled interest of the public and of the scientific community in dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). DLCs belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, which are characterised by low environmental degradation rates and environmental half-lives ranging from months to decades. In the water c...

  10. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Alter Soil Bacterial Community and Enhance Polychlorinated Biphenyls Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C.; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in alternation of soil microbial community and Aroclor 1242 dissipation. A two-compartment rhizobox system with double nylon meshes in the central was employed to exclude the influence of Cucurbita pepo L. root exudates on hyphal compartment soil. To assess the quantitative effect of AMF hyphae on soil microbial community, we separated the hyphal compartment soil into four horizontal layers from the central mesh to outer wall (e.g., L1–L4). Soil total PCBs dissipation rates ranged from 35.67% of L4 layer to 57.39% of L1 layer in AMF inoculated treatment, which were significant higher than the 17.31% of the control (P biphenyls as well as the total PCBs were significantly correlated with soil hyphal length (P biphenyl dissipation, while taxa from the Oxalobacteraceae and Streptomycetaceae responded negatively to AMF and PCB congener dissipation. Our results suggested that the AMF hyphal exudates as well as the hyphae per se did have quantitative effects on shaping soil microbial community, and could modify the PCBs dissipation processes consequently. PMID:27379068

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► PCBs are still detectable in Gwangyang Bay in spite of their ban in 1980s. ► PCBs in the benthic ecosystem is enriched in lower chlorinated biphenyls. ► PCBs are released from a nearby local steel industry. ► Distribution of PCBs to the bay arises mostly from atmospheric transfer. - Abstract: Benthic ecosystem in Gwangyang Bay, a fast developing industrial area with steel production, port container handling, petroleum and other chemical processing in South Korea was studied. The average levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCB) in the benthic components were: seawater 2.99 ± 0.13 (ng/L); sediment 294 ± 118 (ng/g TOC); [biota = ng/g lipid] starfish 92; prawn 131 ± 2; mussels 127 ± 22; crab 182 ± 114; clam 187; polychaeta 215; sea cucumber 497 ± 90; squill 603 ± 38; fish 396 ± 159. Levels in the inner bay samples were higher than the outer bay samples suggesting land based pollution. Good correlation (r2 = 0.79; p < 0.05) existed between PCB concentration and lipid content indicating partitioning processes in action. PCB signature in the abiotic and biotic components shows enrichment of lower chlorinated congeners emitted by a unique source nearby, viz. steel manufacturing plant.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface soil in urban and background areas of Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in soil in some industrial towns (Ulaanbaatar, Suhbaatar, Erdenet, Darhan, Tsetserleg, Hovd, Ulaangom, Altay, Bayanhongor, Arvayheer, Saynshand, Choybalsan) and in background and rural areas of Mongolia. The average sum of all investigated PCB congeners in soil of Mongolia comes to 7.4 ng/g dry weight (DW) and varies from 0.53 ng/g DW till 114 ng/g DW. PCB levels in soil from towns are significantly higher than those in soil from background and rural areas. The PCB homological composition in soil sampled in highly-PCB-polluted sites is similar to the PCB homological pattern in Sovol and Aroclor 1254. Significant correlation between soil organic carbon and low chlorinated PCB both for towns and background sites was found. Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Highlights: •First study to measure PCBs in surface soil sampled throughout Mongolia. •The PCB patterns in polluted soil were similar to those in Sovol or Aroclor 1254. •Significant differences in PCB means in soil in different natural zones were found. -- Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in soils throughout Mongolia

  13. Tissue damage after acute intoxication by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in cockroaches Blattella germanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lambiase

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs represent a serious threat to the health of both vertebrates and invertebrates. As far as the former are concerned, especially as regards human beings, a broad literature describes the direct and indirect effects induced by the PCBs on their systems and organs. Among invertebrates, the information available is mostly related to arthropods and is, however, very scarce. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs on tissues and organs of individuals belonging to a species of Blattaria (Blattella germanica treated with various doses of this toxic material. The pathologies found became more serious as the dosage increased and were present throughout the entire digestive system, in the fat body and in the male gonads: in these areas cell and tissue breakdown and severely damaged spermiogenesis were observed. In particular, the testicles, Malpighian tubules and fat body accumulated an amorphous basophilic PAS-positive substance. Furthermore, the NOS-dependent NADPH diaphorase activity pattern in the retina and optic lobes was more evident in the treated than in the control insects.

  14. Ab initio study of long-range electron transfer between biphenyl anion radical and naphthalene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李象远; 肖顺清; 何福城

    1999-01-01

    After the separation of the donor, the aeceptor, and the σ-type bridge from the π-σ-π system, the geometries of biphenyl, biphenyl anion radical, naphthalene, and naphthalene anion radical are optimized, and then the reorganization energy for the intermolecular electron transfer (ET) at the levels of HF/4-31G and HF/DZP is calculated. The ET matrix elements of the self-exchange reactions of the π-σ-π systems have been calculated by means of both the direct calculation based on the variational principle, and the transition energy between the molecular orbitals at the linear coordinate R=0.5. For the cross reactions, the ET matrix element and the geometry of the transition state are determined by searching the minimum energy splitting △min along the reaction coordinate. In the evaluation of the solvent reorganization energy of the ET in solution, the Marcus’ two-sphere model has been invoked. A few of ET rate constants for the intramolecular ET reactions for the π-σ-π systems, which contain

  15. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, B.C.; Caldwell, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  16. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: Levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (±2200) pg/m−3 with a dominance of congeners with 4–7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. Highlights: •Unlike decreasing trend of PCBs in United States and European countries, high levels of PCBs remain in the Indian atmosphere. •Existing emission inventories cannot explain the high PCB concentrations in Indian atmosphere. •Electronic waste recycling, ship dismantling and open burning of municipal solid waste are implicated as potential sources. -- Measurement of atmospheric Polychlorinated biphenyls in seven major Indian cities

  17. Thermophysical properties of (diphenyl ether + biphenyl) mixtures for their use as heat transfer fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Densities at high pressure of mixtures of diphenyl ether and biphenyl were reported. ► The composition dependence on thermal conductivity and viscosity is very smooth. ► Crossing point in αp isotherms were detected around 38 MPa. ► MYEGA reproduces our experimental η(T) curves with deviations lower than 0.24%. ► The experimental devices were checked obtaining good agreements with literature. - Abstract: Experimental measurements of density, viscosity and thermal conductivity are reported for pure diphenyl ether and three different binary mixtures of diphenyl ether and biphenyl including the eutectic point. Density has been measured for the liquid phase at temperatures ranging from (298.15 to 363.15) K and for pressures up to 45 MPa using a high-pressure vibrating tube densimeter. A Tammann–Tait correlation of the experimental densities has been proposed for each composition. From these correlations, isothermal compressibility, isobaric thermal expansivity and internal pressure have been determined. Moreover, viscosity and thermal conductivity were experimentally determined at atmospheric pressure for several temperatures by using a rolling ball viscometer and a device based in the hot-wire technique, respectively. All the experimental devices used to determine the thermophysical properties were checked finding good agreements with previous literature data. The experimental viscosity values were correlated using the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann, Avramov–Milchev and MYEGA equation.

  18. Transcriptional Response of Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24 to Polychlorinated Biphenyl-Contaminated Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Puglisi, Edoardo

    2010-04-06

    We used a microarray targeting 3,524 genes to assess the transcriptional response of the actinomycete Rhodococcus aetherivorans I24 in minimal medium supplemented with various substrates (e. g., PCBs) and in both PCB-contaminated and non-contaminated sediment slurries. Relative to the reference condition (minimal medium supplemented with glucose), 408 genes were upregulated in the various treatments. In medium and in sediment, PCBs elicited the upregulation of a common set of 100 genes, including gene-encoding chaperones (groEL), a superoxide dismutase (sodA), alkyl hydroperoxide reductase protein C (ahpC), and a catalase/peroxidase (katG). Analysis of the R. aetherivorans I24 genome sequence identified orthologs of many of the genes in the canonical biphenyl pathway, but very few of these genes were upregulated in response to PCBs or biphenyl. This study is one of the first to use microarrays to assess the transcriptional response of a soil bacterium to a pollutant under conditions that more closely resemble the natural environment. Our results indicate that the transcriptional response of R. aetherivorans I24 to PCBs, in both medium and sediment, is primarily directed towards reducing oxidative stress, rather than catabolism. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  19. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorine compounds in duplicate diet samples from a Portuguese academic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Sónia D; Sousa, Ana C A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nogueira, António J A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-10-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordane compounds (CHLs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), were measured in duplicate diet samples from 21 volunteers at a Portuguese academic community (University of Aveiro). Overall, the levels of the target compounds were low, with detection frequencies varying widely depending on the compounds and with brominated flame retardants (BFRs) registering the lowest detection frequencies. Among PCB congeners, nondioxin-like PCBs were predominant and detected in the majority of the samples. Organochlorine pesticides were also detected in the majority of the samples, with 100% detection for DDTs and HCHs. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were calculated using lower and upper bound estimations, and in both cases values were far below the currently established tolerable daily intakes for PCBs and OCs and the reference doses for PBDEs and HBCDDs. PMID:27367176

  20. Halogenated organic compounds in archived whale oil: A pre-industrial record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuten, Emma L. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: emma.teuten@plymouth.ac.uk; Reddy, Christopher M. [Department of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 360 Woods Hole Road, Woods Hole, MA 02543 (United States)]. E-mail: creddy@whoi.edu

    2007-02-15

    To provide additional evidence that several halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) found in environmental samples are natural and not industrially produced, we analyzed an archived whale oil sample collected in 1921 from the last voyage of the whaling ship Charles W. Morgan. This sample, which pre-dates large-scale industrial manufacture of HOCs, contained two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), five halogenated methyl bipyrroles (MBPs), one halogenated dimethyl bipyrrole (DMBP), and tentatively one dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl (diMeO-PBB). This result indicates, at least in part, a natural source of the latter compounds. - Nine halogenated organic compounds have been detected in archived whale oil from the early 1920s.

  1. Halogenated organic compounds in archived whale oil: A pre-industrial record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide additional evidence that several halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) found in environmental samples are natural and not industrially produced, we analyzed an archived whale oil sample collected in 1921 from the last voyage of the whaling ship Charles W. Morgan. This sample, which pre-dates large-scale industrial manufacture of HOCs, contained two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), five halogenated methyl bipyrroles (MBPs), one halogenated dimethyl bipyrrole (DMBP), and tentatively one dimethoxylated polybrominated biphenyl (diMeO-PBB). This result indicates, at least in part, a natural source of the latter compounds. - Nine halogenated organic compounds have been detected in archived whale oil from the early 1920s

  2. 5′-([1,1′-Biphenyl]-4-yl-1′,1′′,3′′-trimethyldispiro[indane-2,2′-pyrrolidine-4′,5′′-[1,3]diazinane]-1,3,2′′,4′′,6′′-pentaone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanyahegde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C30H25N3O5, the central five-membered heterocyclic ring adopts an envelope conformation, with the N atom as the flap. The dihedral angles between this central ring and the pendant indane ring system, the trione and benzene rings are 87.49 (5, 82.95 (10 and 72.42 (10°, respectively. The dihedral angle between the rings of the biphenyl group is 45.99 (13°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into [101] C(12 chains.

  3. catena-Poly[[[aquasilver(I]-μ-1,1′-(butane-1,4-diyldi-1H-imidazole-κ2N3:N3′] hemi(biphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyu Zhang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Ag(C10H14N4(H2O](C14H8O40.5·2H2O}n, the AgI ion is three-coordinated by two N atoms from two independent 1,1′-(butane-1,4-diyldi-1H-imidazole (BBI ligands and one water O atom in a distorted T-shaped coordination geometry. The biphenyl-4,4′-dicarboxylate (BPDC dianions do not coordinate to AgI ions but act as counter-ions. The AgI ions are linked by BBI ligands, forming a zigzag chain. These chains are linked into a two-dimensional supramolecular architecture by O—H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions between water molecules and carboxylate O atoms of the BPDC dianions.

  4. Contamination of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in breast milk in Korea: time-course variation, influencing factors, and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, In-Seok; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-11-01

    Breast milk is a noninvasive specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In this study, 206 breast milk samples were collected from 87 participants during lactation, at residue levels of these contaminants measured in our study were relatively lower than those reported for European, African and Asian populations. Within a month postpartum typically after day seven the levels of ΣPCB and ΣOCP significantly increased. Some OCP compounds were correlated with maternal age, BMI, parity, and delivery mode. Certain types of dietary habits such as seafood and noodle consumption were significantly associated with ΣPCB and ΣOCP. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of ΣPCB and ΣOCP were 45.2-127 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) and 625-1259 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) during lactation, respectively, which are lower than the threshold values proposed by the US EPA and Health Canada. The exposure of Korean infants to chlordanes via breast milk had a potential health risk which deserves further investigation. PMID:24112654

  5. Enhanced phytoremediation potential of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soil from e-waste recycling area in the presence of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crude recycling of electronic and electric waste (e-waste) is now creating soil pollution problems with organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study aimed to compare the phytoremediation potential of four plant species (rice, alfalfa, ryegrass and tall fescue) for PCBs contaminated soil from Taizhou city, one of the largest e-waste recycling centers in China. In addition, the enhanced effects of randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (RAMEB) on PCBs phytoremediation potential were evaluated. Higher PCBs removal percentages of 25.6-28.5% in rhizosphere soil were observed after 120 days, compared with those of the non-rhizosphere (10.4-16.9%) and unplanted controls (7.3%). The average PCBs removal percentages of four plant species increased from 26.9% to 37.1% in the rhizosphere soil with addition of RAMEB. Meanwhile, relatively high microbial counts and dehydrogenase activity were detected in planted soils and a stimulatory effect by RAMEB addition was found. The present study indicated that all the plant candidates were feasible for phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil from the e-waste recycling area, and tall fescue with RAMEB amendment seemed as a promising remediation strategy. High PCBs removal percentage was due to the increased PCBs bioavailability as well as biostimulation of microbial communities after plantation and RAMEB addition.

  6. Seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk from a high altitude pasture in the Italian Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seasonal and spatial variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetation and cow milk was studied in a high altitude pasture in the Alps (1900 m a.s.l.). PCB contamination in vegetation shows a concentration peak in June, which is mainly interpreted as the consequence of a temporary PCB enrichment of the air layer above the ground due to net emission fluxes from the soil. A three compartment dynamic model was developed to test this hypothesis. The North/South enrichment factor in the vegetation was 1.5-1.6 for penta- and hexa-substituted congeners and 1.7 for hepta- and octa-PCBs, according to the effect of temperature on compounds having higher Koa values. Milk concentrations followed the vegetation seasonal trend. The congener abundance in milk is in agreement with the biotransformation susceptibility, absorption efficiency and residence time of the different congeners in dairy cows. - Highlights: → A PCB peak in vegetation was found at the end of June. → Higher PCB concentrations in vegetation were found in the Northern aspect. → A temperature-dependent bioaccumulation process was found in the vegetation. → A direct transfer of PCBs was found from vegetation to dairy milk. → Carry-over ratios and bioaccumulation factors were calculated for dairy cow. - In a mountain pasture, PCBs concentrations in vegetation were found to be related to emission flux from soil and to the mean temperature of the site, and a direct transfer to milk was also observed.

  7. Enhanced iodide sequestration by 3-biphenyl-5,6-dihydroimidazo 2,1-b thiazole in sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS)-expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of the sodium/iodide sym-porter (NIS) to take up iodide has long provided the basis for cyto-reductive gene therapy and cancer treatment with radio-iodide. One of the major limitations of this approach is that radio-iodide retention in NIS-expressing cells is not sufficient for their destruction. We identified and characterized a small organic molecule capable of increasing iodide retention in HEK293 cells permanently transfected with human NIS cDNA (hNIS-HEK293) and in the rat thyroid-derived cell line FRTL-5. In the presence of 3-biphenyl-4'-yl-5,6-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b)thiazole (ISA1), the transmembrane iodide concentration gradient was increased up to 4.5-fold. Our experiments indicate that the imidazo-thiazole derivative acts either by inhibiting anion efflux mechanisms, or by promoting the relocation of iodide into subcellular compartments. This new compound is not only an attractive chemical tool to investigate the mechanisms of iodide flux at the cellular level, but also opens promising perspectives in the treatment of cancer after NIS gene transfer. (authors)

  8. [Determination of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyl 153 using isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jianzhao; Xu, Xiuyan; Yu, Haibin; Chen, Ye; Tan, Li; Lü, Yibing

    2015-10-01

    Considering the features and demands of the environmental monitoring, an isotope dilution-high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls 153 (BB153) in the ambient air. PBDEs and BB153 were extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction apparatus with a mixture of hexane-dichloromethane (v/v, 1:1) and hexane, respectively. The concentrated extracts were loaded on the composite silica gel column for cleanup. The mean recoveries of native compounds at 10% and 90% of the highest levels of calibration curves were 100% and 104% with 5% and 6% of the mean relative standard deviations (n = 7), respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled surrogates for di- to deca-brominated diphenyl ethers and BB153 were in the range of 36.5%-133%. However, the recoveries of 13C-monobrominated diphenyl ethers were relatively low, maybe due to the different physicochemical properties compared with the other homologues. No breakthrough of pollutants was estimated under real sampling volume of 300 m3. The limits of detection were lower than 2 x 10(-4) ng/Nm3. The recoveries of 13C labeled surrogates were between 56% and 126%, except monoBDEs. The results demonstrated that the method is suitable for the analysis of di- to decabrominated diphenyl ethers and BB153 in the ambient air with precise quantification. PMID:26930965

  9. Distribution of free radicals and intermediates during the photodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls strongly affected by cosolvents and TiO₂ catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yujun; Qin, Wenxiu; Zhang, Shicheng; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pose potential ecological risk because of their high toxicity and carcinogenicity. Photodegradation, which is an important process for the removal of PCBs, is greatly influenced by the cosolvent and catalyst. Hence, it is important to explore their effects on the photodegradation behavior of PCBs. In this study, 2,4,4'-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB28) was selected as a model compound, and the effects of two typical cosolvents, namely acetone and ethanol, and TiO2 catalyst on the distributions of free radicals and intermediates were investigated. Interestingly, the TiO2 catalyst did not promote PCB28 photodegradation. Moreover, the free radical distribution was greatly influenced in the presence of the TiO2 catalyst, while was only slightly affected in its absence by the cosolvent kinds. The main photodegradation pathways are proposed on the basis of the distribution of detected intermediates, which were significantly regulated by both the cosolvent and TiO2 catalyst. The results provide novel insights into the photodegradation of PCBs and may have important implications for choosing cosolvent in desorbing soil PCBs and consequently enhancing PCBs degradation. PMID:26401639

  10. Poly[bis{3,3′-[(biphenyl-4,4′-diyldimethylene]diimidazol-1-ium} γ-octamolybdate(VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Liu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {(C20H20N42[Mo8O26]}n, the asymmetric unit contains half of an [Mo8O26]4− anion and one 3,3′-[(biphenyl-4,4′-diyldimethylene]diimidazol-1-ium dication. In the anion, four distorted [MoO6] octahedra are connected via edge-sharing, forming an [Mo4O13]2− building block, composed of Mo—O(t, Mo—O(μ2, Mo—O(μ3 and Mo—O(μ4 units, with Mo—O distances ranging from 1.6858 (15 to 2.4785 (13 Å. The γ-type [Mo8O26]4− anion is completed by crystallographic inversion symmetry and is linked into an infinite chain along [100] by corner-sharing. The anionic chains and the cations are joined by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating layers extending parallel to (001.

  11. Crystal structure of (2',3,6'-tri-chloro-biphenyl-2-yl)boronic acid tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durka, Krzysztof; Kliś, Tomasz; Serwatowski, Janusz

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, C12H8BCl3O2·C4H8O, crystallizes as a tetra-hydro-furan monosolvate. The boronic acid group adopts a syn-anti conformation and is significantly twisted along the carbon-boron bond by 69.2 (1)°, due to considerable steric hindrance from the 2',6'-di-chloro-phenyl group that is located ortho to the boronic acid substituent. The phenyl rings of the biphenyl are almost perpendicular to one another, with a dihedral angle of 87.9 (1)° between them. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O inter-actions to form centrosymmetric dimers with R 2 (2)(8) motifs, which have recently been shown to be energetically very favourable. The hy-droxy groups are in an anti conformation and are also engaged in hydrogen-bonding inter-actions with the O atom of the tetra-hydro-furan solvent mol-ecule. Cl⋯Cl halogen-bonding inter-actions [Cl⋯Cl = 3.464 (1) Å] link neigbouring dimers into chains running along [010]. Further aggregation occurs due to an additional Cl⋯Cl halogen bond [Cl⋯Cl = 3.387 (1) Å]. PMID:26870407

  12. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (pow such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines

  13. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS, DIBENZOFURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN FREGATA MAGNIFICENS FROM ILHA GRANDE BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to perform analyses in a fish-eating seabird species which is recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to its high position in the trophic web and to its low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Fregata magnificens were collected at Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (23°8'26"S, 44°14'50"W between February, 2009 and April, 2013. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, dibenzofurans (PCDFs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, were analyzed in tissue composites, being subsequently identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The concentrations were below the range of concern established by World Health Organization. The sum of PCB-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 968 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.9 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. The PCDD/F-congeners analyzed had the concentration of 331.04 pg/g lipid weight, and 13.4 pg TEQ/g lipid weight. This type of study aims to integrate information from analyses of seabirds with halogenated hydrocarbons and could also make contribution to the scientific support for political decisions on coastal zone management.

  14. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur. PMID:27061805

  15. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air originating from sealants in contaminated and uncontaminated apartments within the same housing estate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Marie; Meyer, Harald William; Ebbehøj, Niels Erik;

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-four congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 83 air samples and 20 elastic sealants samples of apartments with PCB-containing sealants. In addition, PCBs were measured in 21 air samples from reference apartments located in an uncontaminated section of the same estate...

  17. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  18. Environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins - Consequences for longterm neurological and cognitive development of the child. A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, ER

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl's (PCBs) and dioxins are environmental pollutants. Calculated on a body weight basis, prenatally as well as postnatally through breast-feeding, large amounts are transferred from mother to the child. Formula is free of these substances. Considering their potential developmen

  19. (Biphenyl-2-yl)bromidobis(2-methyl­tetra­hydro­furan-κO)magnesium(II)

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Bolte; D. Wohlgemuth; Simon Nordschild

    2009-01-01

    In the title Grignard reagent, [MgBr(C12H9)(C5H10O)2], the Mg centre adopts a distorted tetrahedral MgCO2Br arrangement. The dihedral angle between the two aromatic rings of the biphenyl residue is 44.00 (14)°. Each molecule incorporates one R- and one S-configured 2-methyltetrahydrofuran molecule.

  20. 21 CFR 500.45 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in the production, handling, and storage of animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: Aroclor (United States); Phenoclor (France); Colphen (Germany); and Kanaclor (Japan). PCB's are... persistent and ubiquitous contaminant in the environment, causing the contamination of certain foods. In... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in...

  1. 21 CFR 509.15 - Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. 509.15 Section 509.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.15 Use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) in establishments manufacturing food-packaging materials. (a)......

  2. ASSESSMENT OF PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) FROM PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL'S) TRANSFORMER AND CAPACITOR FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA, under the Toxic Substances Control Act, has been mandated to develop appropriate regulations for the control of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In light of this responsibility the EPA Office of Toxic Substances recently issued an Advance Notice of Proposed ...

  3. Kinetics and conductivity parameters of uptake and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Caco-2 intestinal cell line model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, W.J.; Govers, H.A.J.; Groten, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) over the food chain can be attributed to contaminant uptake from food. The effect of fatty acid absorption on net uptake and transport fluxes of a selection of 14 PCBs over the organismal gut epithelium has been determined in monolayers of

  4. Effect of Quercetin on Haematobiochemical and Histological Changes in the Liver of Polychlorined Biphenyls-Induced Adult Male Wistar Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy Selvakumar; Senthamilselvan Bavithra; Sekaran Suganya; Firdous Ahmad Bhat; Gunasekaran Krishnamoorthy; Jagadeesan Arunakaran

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls exposure damages the rat liver cells. Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, red-blood cells, white-blood cells, neutrophils, platelet counts, and RBC indices were significantly decreased. Polymorphs, eosinophil counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were significantly increased. Serum liver enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase were increased by PCBs treatment....

  5. First worldwide UNEP interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with data on polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Bavel, van B.; Boer, de J.

    2013-01-01

    The first worldwide interlaboratory study on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention was organized, with a participation of 103 laboratories from Asia, Europe, the Americas, Africa and Australia, of which the majority submitted data on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and

  6. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  7. Content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from Latvian lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V; Viksna, A

    2013-04-01

    Seventeen polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) of the highest priority as well as twelve dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were analyzed in the muscle tissues of the following freshwater fish species sampled from eleven Latvian freshwater lakes: perch (Perca flavescens), carp (Cyprinus carpio), eel (Anguilla rostrata), bream (Abramis brama), chub (Leuciscus cephalus), pike (Esox lucius), sheatfish (Silurus glanis) and roach (Rutilus). To analyze the selected persistent organic pollutants in fish matrices, an optimization of EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A clean-up procedures was carried out, followed by validation of the analytical procedure according to Commission Regulation (EC) No 1883/2006. The adopted analytical procedure was in compliance with requirements of the more recent Commission Regulation (EU) No 252/2012. Modifications of carbon column chromatography clean-up and separation steps were used for treatment of the fish samples. Other clean-up procedure stages were performed according to the methods EPA-1613 and EPA-1668A and involved gel permeation chromatography (GPC), as well as manual acidic silica and Florisil column chromatography for purification and fractionation of the samples. An isotope dilution method was used for the qualitative and quantitative determination of individual congeners. Analytes of interest were separated and detected using gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry. The concentration of PCDD/PCDFs and dl-PCBs in freshwater fish and eel samples ranged from 0.05 to 8.0 pg WHO(1998)-PCDD/PCDF-PCB-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight. These levels are below the EU maximum permissible limits although calculation of the content of these compounds relative to the weight of fat shows contamination levels similar to those found in Baltic herring and sprats, that are known to be highly contaminated. A difference in congener pattern between the Baltic Sea fish and freshwater fish was detected

  8. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  9. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly. PMID:26332829

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls, glycaemia and diabetes in a population living in a highly polychlorinated biphenyls-polluted area in northern Italy: a cross-sectional and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Zani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs have been found to be associated with diabetes in some, but not all, studies performed so far. The aim of this study was to assess the association between PCB serum levels and glycaemia and diabetes in people living in Brescia, a highly industrialised PCB-polluted town in Northern Italy. Design and Methods. 527 subjects were enrolled in a cross-sectional population-based study: they were interviewed face-to-face in 2003 and also provided a blood sample under fasting conditions. The concentration of 24 PCB congeners was determined using gas-chromatography (GC/MS. Subsequently, all subjects were included in a follow-up (cohort study. According to the Local Health Authority health-care database, subjects were considered to be diabetic if they had diabetes at interview time (prevalent cases or during a 7-year follow-up (incident cases. Results. A total of 53 subjects (10.0% were diabetics: 28 had dia- betes at enrolment and other 25 developed the disease subsequently. Diabetes frequency increased according to the serum concentrations of total PCBs and single PCB congeners, but no association was found when estimates were adjusted for education, body mass index, age and gender by logistic regression analysis. Accordingly, glycaemia increased with PCB serum levels, but no association was observed when multiple regression analysis, including confounding factors, was performed. Conclusions. This study does not support the hypothesis that PCB environmental exposure is strictly associated with diabetes or glycaemia.

  11. Selected organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in atmosphere at Ruoergai high altitude prairie in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and their source identifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Nan; Pan, Jing; Tang, Hua; Tan, Ke-Yan; Chen, Da-Zhou; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Lu, Guo-Hui; Chen, Shu; Huang, Yi; Yang, Yong-Liang

    2014-10-01

    Compared to the low-altitude areas, high-altitude regions have low air temperature and relatively high snow precipitation. These climatological characteristics will affect the environmental behavior of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in such a special geographical environment, leading to cold-trapping of certain POPs in these areas. Ruoergai highland prairie in the eastern edge of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was selected to study the distribution characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aerosols and gas phase samples collected in two seasons of 2011 and measured by isotope dilution-HRGC/HRMS method. OCPs and PCBs in the Ruoergai air were at low levels compared with the adjacent populated areas such as Lanzhou and Chengdu. Higher concentrations of POPs in aerosol and gas phase were observed in winter than in summer, showing the impact of monsoon on the transport of POPs to this region. Northwesterly winds in winter may transport OCPs and PCBs from industrial and agricultural areas in the northwestern China. HCB, α-HCH, and PCB 28 were the predominant compounds found in the air. Soil to air fugacity ratios show that Ruoergai soils behave as a secondary source of the relatively volatile compounds (HCHs, α-endosulfan, PCB 28 and 52) to the atmosphere during summer and behave as a sink of atmospheric DDTs due to the OC-rich soils as well as lower temperatures. Similar 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios in Ruoergai aerosols to those of aerosols of Lanzhou and ores in Qinghai, Xinjiang, Kazakhstan, and Russia may indicate that the aerosol sources were mainly related to air mass passing over the neighboring regions and countries.

  12. Gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Dawei; Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Dunstan, Jody; Hagberg, Jessika; Wang, Thanh; Ruzzin, Jerome; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; van Bavel, Bert

    2016-07-01

    A method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for coupling gas chromatography (GC/APCI) to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS/MS) for the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention is presented. One microliter injection of a six-point calibration curve of native PCBs and OCPs, ranging from 0.04 to 300pg/μL, was performed. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative response factors (RRFs) was less than 15% with a coefficient of determination (r(2))>0.995. Meanwhile, two calibration solutions (CS), CS 2 (0.4pg/μL) and CS 3 (4pg/μL) were analyzed to study the repeatability calculated for both area and RRFs. The RSD for RRF ranged from 3.1 to 16% and 3.6 to 5.5% for CS 2 and CS 3, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) determined by peak-to-peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 were compared between the GC/APCI/MS/MS and a GC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS) system. GC/APCI/MS/MS resulted in lower LOD for most of the compounds, except for PCB#74, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane. GC/APCI/MS/MS and GC/HRMS were also compared by performing analysis on 75 human serum samples together with eight QA/QC serum samples. The comparison between GC/APCI/MS/MS system and GC/HRMS system for 16 of the targeted compounds was carried out. No statistically significant difference was discovered. Due to increased sensitivity and user friendly operation under atmospheric pressure, GC/APCI/MS/MS is a powerful alternative technique that can easily meet the specification of GC/HRMS. PMID:27236485

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie;

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...... function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor...... did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha...

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil with iron nanoparticles and two different surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Helena I.; Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants (POP) that strongly adsorb in soils and sediments. There is a need to develop new and cost-effective solutions for the remediation of PCB contaminated soils. The suspended electrodialytic remediation combined with zero valent iron...... nanoparticles (nZVI) could be a competitive alternative to the commonly adapted solutions of incineration or landfilling. Surfactants can enhance the PCB desorption, dechlorination, and the contaminated soil cleanup. In this work, two different surfactants (saponin and Tween 80) were tested to enhance PCB...... desorption and removal from a soil sampled at a polluted site, in a two-compartment cell where the soil was stirred in a slurry with 1% surfactant, 10mL of nZVI commercial suspension, and a voltage gradient of 1Vcm(-1). The highest PCB removal was obtained with saponin. Higher chlorinated PCB congeners...

  15. Biodegradation Of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs):I The Case Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent organic pollutants are chemicals that are toxic to humans and wildlife, remain intact in the environment for long periods, accumulate in living organisms and can become widely distributed geographically by air, water or migrating species. As a result, these contaminants have been found all over the world including in places,such as the Polar Regions, which are very far from their application site. The Stockholm Convention was signed in 23/5/01 in order to cope with this international environmental problem. Although POPs were banned by most countries, there are still a lot of sites contaminated with these substances. The remediation of these sites is problematic and requires distinct considerations from those which are established for hydrocarbon remediation. This manuscript reviews the literature about anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and possible strategies to stimulate these processes. The degradation of the other POPs would be reviewed in additional texts.

  16. Spermatogenic capacity in fertile men with elevated exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Weihe, Pál;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endocrine disrupting industrial chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are suspected to adversely affect male reproductive functions. OBJECTIVES: The Faroe Islands community exhibits an unusually wide range of exposures to dietary contaminants, and in this setting we...... examined the possible association between PCB exposure and semen quality and reproductive hormones in fertile Faroese men. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study include 266 proven fertile men residing in the Faroe Islands. PCB levels and hormone profiles were measured in serum samples taken...... at the clinical examination that included semen quality parameters. RESULTS: A significant positive association was seen between serum-PCB and the testosterone/estradiol ratio (p=0.04). In the unadjusted analyses, elevated PCB exposure was associated with increased serum concentrations of SHBG (p=0...

  17. Exposure to 27 polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor environment of a workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Ebbehøj, N E; Göen, T;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the exposure to a broad-spectrum of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) from the indoor environment through bio-monitoring of people working in a building with PCB-containing materials and elevated PCB levels in the indoor air. METHODS: A cross-sectional study comparing the...... plasma concentration of 27 PCB congeners in 15 people working in a PCB-contaminated building and 30 matched controls. RESULTS: Median concentration of eight low-chlorinated PCB congeners was significantly higher in the exposed than in the control group. The sum of median concentrations of tri + tetra......-chlorinated PCB was almost ten times higher in the exposed group than in the unexposed, and sums of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like PCB were both relatively increased by 60 % in the exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: The occupational indoor environment may significantly add to PCB exposure, especially to the lower...

  18. Bis[2-(2,4-dinitrobenzylpyridinium] biphenyl-4,4′-disulfonate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title salt, 2C12H10N3O4+·C12H8O6S22−·3H2O, determined at 173 K, the biphenyl-4,4′-disulfonate dianions lie across crystallographic inversion centres with the sulfonate groups interacting head-to-head through centrosymmetric cyclic bis(water-bridged hydrogen-bonding associations [graph set R44(11], forming chains. The 2-(2,4-dinitrobenzylpyridinium cations are linked to these chains through pyridinium–water N—H...O hydrogen bonds and a two-dimensional network is formed through water bridges between sulfonate and 2-nitro O atoms, while the structure also has weak cation–anion π–π aromatic ring interactions [minimum ring centroid separation = 3.8441 (13 Å].

  19. Chromatographic Retention Times of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: from Structural Information to Property Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea V. Diudea

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a unitary approach of the use of a Molecular DescriptorsFamily in structure-property/activity relationships, particularly in modelling thechromatographic retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls. Starting from molecularstructure, viewed as a graph, and considering the bonds and bond types, atom types andoften the 3D geometry of the molecule, a huge family of molecular descriptors called MDFwas calculated. A preliminary selection of MDF members was done by simple linearregression (LR against the measured property. The best fitted MDF subset is thensubmitted to multivariate linear regression (MLR analysis in order to find the best pairs ofMDF members that produce a reliable QSPR (Quantitative Structure-PropertyRelationship model. The predictive capability was finally tested by randomly splitting ofdata into training and test sets. The best obtained models are presented and the results arediscussed.

  20. Distribution pattern and reduction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in bluefish fillets through adipose tissue removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, M.; Haynes, B.L.

    1988-11-01

    Bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, a migratory pelagic species of fish usually travel in large groups of like size along the Atlantic coast. Bluefish of all sizes are caught both commercially and recreationally for human consumption. Owing to its predacious nature, bluefish feed throughout the water column on a large variety of smaller fish and invertebrates. Bluefish bioaccumulate contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) into various adipose tissues from the water column and through the marine food chain. Two recent reports concluded that PCB concentrations for all except some of the large bluefish caught along the Atlantic coast fell below the limit of 2 ..mu..g/g set by FDA. The purpose of this study was to observe the distribution pattern of PCB in the various edible tissues. Further, it was to determine if the removal of adipose tissues would result in reduced PCB level and therefore decrease PCB exposure to the consumer.

  1. Problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in Mexico; Problematica de los bifenilos policlorados (BPC) en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valle, Esteban; Cruz, Maria Guadalupe [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A general overview is presented of the problems with the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) (askarels) in Mexico, which are mainly associated with the use of these substances in electric equipment; also, a profile of the causes why the PCBs have been classified as environmental toxic substances and a potential hazard for the health of human beings. [Espanol] Se presenta un panorama general de la problematica de bifenilos policlorados (BPC) (askareles) en Mexico, la cual esta asociada principalmente con el uso de estos compuestos en equipos electricos; asimismo, se describe una semblanza de las causas por las cuales se han catalogado a los BPC como sustancias toxicas ambientales y un peligro potencial para la salud de los seres humanos.

  2. Studies on the Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship of Substituted Biphenyls by Density Function Theory (DFT)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Xiang-Yun; ZHENG Qing

    2007-01-01

    Geometrical configurations of 16 substituted biphenyls were computed at the B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian 98 program. Based on linear solvation energy theory, lgKow as well as the structural and thermodynamic parameters obtained at this level was taken as theoretical descriptors, and corresponding equation predicting the toxicity of Daphnia magna (-lgEC50)was thus obtained, in which three parameters were contained, i.e., n-octanol/water partition coefficients (lgKow), dipole moment of the molecules (μ) and entropy (S°). For this equation, R2 =0.9582, q2 = 0.8921 and SD = 0.102. The absolute t-scores of three variables are larger than the standard one in the confidence range of 95%, which confirms the creditability and stability of this model.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  4. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, M. A.; Nakama, F.; Oomori, T.

    2007-07-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  5. Atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls in Indian cities: levels, emission sources and toxicity equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Paromita; Zhang, Gan; Eckhardt, Sabine; Li, Jun; Breivik, Knut; Lam, Paul K S; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric concentration of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured on diurnal basis by active air sampling during Dec 2006 to Feb 2007 in seven major cities from the northern (New Delhi and Agra), eastern (Kolkata), western (Mumbai and Goa) and southern (Chennai and Bangalore) parts of India. Average concentration of Σ25PCBs in the Indian atmosphere was 4460 (± 2200) pg/m(-3) with a dominance of congeners with 4-7 chlorine atoms. Model results (HYSPLIT, FLEXPART) indicate that the source areas are likely confined to local or regional proximity. Results from the FLEXPART model show that existing emission inventories cannot explain the high concentrations observed for PCB-28. Electronic waste, ship breaking activities and dumped solid waste are attributed as the possible sources of PCBs in India. Σ25PCB concentrations for each city showed significant linear correlation with Toxicity equivalence (TEQ) and Neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) values. PMID:23954623

  6. Studies on biphenyl disulphonic acid doped polyanilines: Synthesis, characterization and electrochemistry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chepuri R K Rao; R Muthukannan; M Vijayan

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we report on the results obtained for the efforts we made to bring processability to the conducting polyaniline and substituted polyanilines by designing and synthesizing a new disulphonic acid with a biphenyl moiety as spacer group, viz. 4,4'-biphenyldisulphonic acid (BPSA). When doped, the disulphonic acid acts as a spacer group between the polyaniline chains and facilitates increase in solubility and conductivity. The spacing effect is maximized when BPSA is used as doping agent in in situ polymerization reactions. The conductivity of polyaniline doped by BPSA is 4 S/cm and for the substituted polyanilines it ranged from 2 × 10-5 to 8 × 10-4 S/cm.

  7. Distribution characteristics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coastal areas of Okinawa Island, Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediment and seawater samples were collected from coastal areas around Okinawa Island from September 2001 to May 2002. The samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels and homolog composition. The results show that total PCB levels ranged from 0.32 to 128.7 ng/g (dry wt.) in sediment and 1.59 to 2.48 ng/L in seawater. The levels exceed the Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for water pollution of Japan. The distribution of PCB homolog showed different patterns in the sediments and seawaters. Penta-chlorobiphenyls (CBs) comprised the main congener group in seawater, while hexa-CBs were more abundant homologs in the sediments. The heavily contaminated sites featured higher CBs, including penta-CBs, hexa-CBs, and hepta-CBs, than those in less contaminated sites where tri-CBs dominated. This study provides current distribution and geochemical behavior of PCBs in the coastal areas around Okinawa Island.

  8. Automatic recognition of polychlorinated biphenyls in gas-chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer code for automatic recognition of mass spectra of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been developed and used as a specific PCB detector in the gas-chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis. The recognition is based on numerical features to be extracted from the mass spectrum. The code is in Fortran. The result of a classification are the so-called classification chromatograms for the particular groups of PCBs of equal chlorine number. The practical application has been tested on water- and waste oil samples, with PCBs added. The sensitivity is 0,5-1 ng for separate PCB components and 5-20 ng for technical PCD mixtures. 59 refs., 50 figs., 5 tabs. (qui)

  9. Effects of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and metals on the growth and reproduction of Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, L.M.; Kubovec, M.K.; Tryggestad, D.

    1977-07-01

    The effects of pollutants (pesticides, PCB and metals) were studied in the free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii. Eight pesticides were used--the insecticides dieldrin, aldrin and sevin, and the herbicides linuron, stam F-34, IPC, atrazine and simazine. It was shown that the sensitivity of A. castellanii to pesticides varied greatly. The population growth was inhibited by linuron, stam F-34, IPC, sevin and atrazine at a level of 10 mg/l. The polychlorinated biphenyl, Arochor 1254, had no significant effect at a concentration of 0.01 mg/l (10 ppb). The studies with metal ions showed that A. castellanii was unaffected by moderately high levels of Cu and Zn, but was sensitive to the presence of Pb and mercuric ions.

  10. Contamination of soil, leaves and vegetables by polychlorinated biphenyls in Xiamen region, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MASKAOUI Khalid; ZHOU Jun-liang; HAN Ya-li; HU Zhong; ZHENG Tian-ling; HONG Hua-sheng

    2005-01-01

    The paper aimed to identify the primary of polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) in the diulong River Estuary, investigate the spatial distribution of PCBs contamination in the environment, localize the atmospheric source and evaluate ongoing PCBs emissions by analyzing soil samples collected along the Jiulong River region. In addition, the accumulation of PCBs in the human food chain was quantified by analyzing leaf of orange trees and vegetable samples collected along a gradient of soil/atmospheric contamination moving away from the source. Consequently, the impact on the human health and the ecosystem was quantified, different management options were proposedto reduce this impact and to carry out research on organic contaminants along the Jiulong River and Xiamen region.

  11. Synthesis and Properties of a Novel Polyimide with Side Chain Containing Biphenyl Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu; CHANG Tong-xin; ZHANG Peng; CHEN Yi; LIU Xiang-yang

    2012-01-01

    A novel biphenyl side-chained diamine with alkyloxy spacer and alkyloxy tail,4'-butoxy-4-(3,5-diami-nobenzoyloxy)hexyloxybiphenyl(C6BBC4),was synthesized and characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR.A series of polyimide(PI)films with different side chain contents was synthesized from biphenyltetracarboxylicdianhydride (BPDA),4,4'-oxydianiline(ODA)and C6BBC4,and their thermal properties,optical transparency and liquid crystal alignment property,and so on,were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC),crystal rotation method,polarizing microscopy and UV-Vis spectra.With the content of side chained diamine increasing from 0 to 100%,the ηinh of poly(amide acid)(PAA)decreased rapidly from 3.0 to 0.51,the glass transition temperature(Tg)of polyimides(PIs)decreased from 274 ℃ to 203 ℃ and the Vis-light transmittance of alignment films substantially increased.As for the alignment properties,the pretilt angle of PI alignment films without rubbing could reach 90° when the content of C6BBC4 was 60% or more.At the same time,the alignment stability could meet the industrial requirements.It was considered that the alkoxy spacer,the biphenyl unit and the alkoxy tail may all play important roles in achieving a large pretilt angle even up to 90°,and the introduction of only the alkoxy spacer or alkoxy tail can also improve the pretilt angle,but not by much.

  12. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in water samples from the Yamuna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupander Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT are toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative long-range atmospheric transport pollutants. These are transported worldwide affecting remote regions far from their original sources, and can transfer into food webs with a wide range of acute and chronic health effects. India ratified the Stockholm Convention with the intention of reducing and eliminating persistent organic pollutants (POPs, and encouraged the support of research on POPs. Despite the ban and restriction on the use of these chemicals in India, their contamination of air, water, sediment, biota and humans has been reported. In this study, surface water samples were collected during January 2012 from the Yamuna River in Delhi, India, and analyzed for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs. The concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣOCPs ranged between 2-779 ng L–1 and from less than 0.1 to 618 ng L–1 (mean 99±38 ng L–1 and 221±50 ng L–1, respectively. The PCB homolog was dominated by 3-4 chlorinated biphenyls. In calculating the toxicity equivalent of dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBsusing World Health Organization toxic equivalency factors, dl-PCBs accounted for 10% of a total of 27 PCBs. The concentration of ΣHCH ranged between less than 0.1 and 285 ng L–1 (mean 151±32 ng L–1. However, ΣDDTs concentrations varied between less than 0.1 and 354 ng L–1 (mean 83±26 ng L–1. The concentrations were lower than the US guideline values; however, levels of lindane exceeded those recommended in guidelines. Further in-depth study is proposed to determine the bioaccumulation of these pollutants through aquatic biota to assess the risk of contaminants to human health.

  13. Concentration and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, T.; Hirakawa, H.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Matsueda, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu, Fukuoka (Japan); Todaka, T. [Japan Food Hygiene Association, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, S. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture, Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, T. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Non-Co-PCBs) and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Mono-Co-PCBs) accumulate in the human body due to their highly lipophilic properties. In recent years, there has been some concern about the potential health effects of dioxins and related chemicals for the general population of humans. Although there exists an enormous amount of data on this subject, most of it is from breast milk and blood, due to ease of collection; information concerning concentrations and distribution in various human organs hardly exists. Therefore, new data concerning various human tissues is required to evaluate the pathophysiological significance of dioxins and related compounds in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration levels and distribution of dioxins and related compounds in various human organ tissues. We previously reported on the concentration levels in the human liver and adipose tissues from 28 donors. In this paper, we determined the concentrations of dioxin-like isomers in 8 organs, including blood, lungs, liver, bile, spleen, pancreas, kidney and mesentery fat from 20 donors.

  14. Critical evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity in terrestrial and marine mammals: increasing impact of non-ortho and mono-ortho coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from land to ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N; Tanabe, S; Ono, M; Tatsukawa, R

    1989-11-01

    Residues of potentially toxic non-ortho chlorine substituted coplanar 3,3',4,4'-tetra-,3,3',4,4',5-penta-, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl and their mono- and di-ortho analogs 2,3',4,4',5-penta, 2,3,3',4,4'-penta-, 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexa- and 2,2',3,3',4,4'-hexa-, 2,2',3,4,4',5-hexachlorobiphenyl) were determined in humans, dogs, cats (terrestrial), a finless porpoise (Neophocoena phocoenoides--coastal), Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli, dalli), Baird's beaked whales (Berardius bairdii) and killer whales (Orcinus orca--open ocean). Among the coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, the concentration of the di-ortho congeners was the highest and the non-ortho congeners was the lowest. However, all three coplanar PCBs occurred at significantly higher levels than toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The relative bioconcentration and metabolic capacity of terrestrial and marine mammals to these chemicals, suggest that the toxic threat of coplanar PCBs increases from land to ocean, but the reverse is true for PCDDs and PCDFs. The toxic threat of coplanar PCBs to higher aquatic predators such as cetaceans was principally assessed by 2,3,7,8-T4CDD Toxic Equivalent Analysis which is based on the induction of arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD). Analysis indicates, in particular, that the bioaccumulation of toxic 3,3',4,4',5-penta- and 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyls in carnivorous marine mammals is a cause for considerable concern. PMID:2515809

  15. A cohort study of the association between secondary sex ratio and parental exposure to polybrominated biphenyl (PBB and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrell Metrecia L

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polybrominated biphenyl (PBB, a brominated flame retardant, was accidently mixed into animal feed in Michigan (1973–1974 resulting in human exposure through consumption of contaminated meat, milk and eggs. Beginning in 1976 individuals who consumed contaminated products were enrolled in the Michigan Long-Term PBB Study. This cohort presents a unique opportunity to study the association between parental exposures to PBB and offspring sex ratio. Methods We identified offspring of female PBB cohort participants (born 1975–1988 and obtained electronic birth records for those born in the state of Michigan. We linked this information to parental serum PBB and PCB concentrations collected at enrollment into the cohort. We modeled the odds of a male birth with generalized estimating equations accounting for the non-independence of siblings born to the same parents. We explored potential confounders: parental age and education at offspring's birth, parental body mass index at cohort enrollment, birth order, gestational age and year of offspring's birth. Results The overall proportion of male offspring among 865 live births to cohort mothers was 0.542. This was higher than the national male proportion of 0.514 (binomial test: p = 0.10. When both parents were in the cohort (n = 300, we found increased odds of a male birth with combined parents' enrollment PBB exposure ≥ the median concentrations (3 μg/L for mothers; 6 μg/L for fathers compared to combined parents' PBB exposure Conclusion This study adds to the body of literature on secondary sex ratio and exposure to environmental contaminants. In this population, combined parental exposure to PBBs or PCBs increased the odds of a male birth. Further research is needed to corroborate these findings and shed light on the biological mechanisms by which these types of chemicals may influence the secondary sex ratio.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  17. Synthesis, molecular structure, spectroscopic investigations and computational study of a potential molecular switch of 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-methyl-6-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-phenyl-1,3 diazabicyclo [3.1.0]hex-3-ene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AYOUB KANAANI; DAVOOD AJLOO; HAMZEH I KIYAN; FRESHTE SHAHERI; MAJID AMIRI

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a combined experimental and theoretical study on a photochromic compound, 2-([1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-2-methyl-6-(4-nitrophenyl)-4-phenyl-1,3 diazabicyclo [3.1.0]hex-3-ene, existing in closed form (‘A’) and open form (‘B’). The spectroscopic properties of the title compound have beeninvestigated by using IR, UV–Vis and ¹H NMR techniques. The molecular geometry and spectroscopic data of the title compound have been calculated by using the density functional method (B3LYP) invoking 6-311G(d,p) basis set. UV-Vis spectra of the two forms were recorded. The excitation energies, oscillator strength, etc., were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Furthermore, molecular electrostatic potential map (MEP), frontier molecular orbital analysis (HOMO–LUMO), total density of state (TDOS) and reactivity descriptors were found and discussed. We applied a first-principles computational approach to study a light-sensitive molecular switch. We find that the conductance of the two isomers varies dramatically, which suggests that this system has potential use as a molecular switch.

  18. Simultaneous sonication-assisted extraction, and determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates and polychlorinated biphenyls in sludge from wastewater treatment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di-(2-ethyl-hexyl)phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol, nonylphenol mono- and diethoxylates (NPEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are organic pollutants in sewage sludge which have to be monitored in the European Union according to a future Sludge Directive. In the present work, an analytical method for the simultaneous extraction and determination of DEHP, NPEs and PCBs is proposed for the routine analysis of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. All the compounds were simultaneously extracted by sonication with hexane and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in electronic impact mode. Recoveries achieved were 105% for DEHP, 61.4-88.6% for NPEs and 55.8-108.3% for PCBs with relative standard deviation bellow 10%. Limits of quantification were 65 μg kg-1 for DEHP, from 630 to 2504 μg kg-1 for NPEs and from 5.4 to 10.6 μg kg-1 for PCBs in dried sludge. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by the determination of these compounds in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Seville (South Spain)

  19. Biogenic volatile organic compounds - small is beautiful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, S. M.; Asensio, D.; Li, Q.; Penuelas, J.

    2012-12-01

    While canopy and regional scale flux measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (bVOCs) are essential to obtain an integrated picture of total compound reaching the atmosphere, many fascinating and important emission details are waiting to be discovered at smaller scales, in different ecological and functional compartments. We concentrate on bVOCs below ground to pollination of flowers. Although bVOC emissions from soil surfaces are small, bVOCs are exuded by roots of some plant species, and can be extracted from decaying litter. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the rhizosphere provide a specialised carbon source for micro-organisms, helping to define the micro-organism community structure, and impacting on nutrient cycles which are partly controlled by microorganisms. Naturally occurring monoterpenes in the soil system could also affect the aboveground structure of ecosystems because of their role in plant defence strategies and as mediating chemicals in allelopathy. A gradient of monoterpene concentration was found in soil around Pinus sylvestris and Pinus halepensis, decreasing with distance from the tree. Some compounds (α-pinene, sabinene, humulene and caryophyllene) in mineral soil were linearly correlated with the total amount of each compound in the overlying litter, indicating that litter might be the dominant source of these compounds. However, α-pinene did not fall within the correlation, indicating a source other than litter, probably root exudates. We also show that rhizosphere bVOCs can be a carbon source for soil microbes. In a horizontal gradient from Populus tremula trees, microbes closest to the tree trunk were better enzymatically equipped to metabolise labeled monoterpene substrate. Monoterpenes can also increase the degradation rate in soil of the persistant organic pollutants, likely acting as analogues for the cometabo-lism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Flowers of a ginger species (Alpinia kwangsiensis) and a fig species

  20. Synthesis Organic Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Rasyid, Herlina; Firdaus; Hariani, Nunuk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Synthesis of metil ??-(p-hidroksifenil)akrilic from ??-(p-hidroksifenil)akrilat acid and methanol using Dean Stark Trap method had been done. Synthesis of ths compound intended to form the starting material in the subsequent synthesis of amide???s compound through the formation of ester compound. This synthesis using H2SO4 catalyst and Dean Stark Trap method, some of benzena which is added to remove the water that resulting from the reaction. Synthesis of this compound be held at re...

  1. On labelled compounds nomenclature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different approaches of major labelled compounds producers to their nomenclature in technical and commercial documentation are discussed. Some draft options of a standard technical guide document for labelled compounds nomenclature rules are suggested. Such a document after due discussion by the experts will serve to unification of the labelled compounds nomenclature within the frame of the CMEA member-countries co-operation in this field. The suggested options are based on the general recommendations by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and incorporate some more accurate definitions originating from the labelled compounds production and application experience

  2. Organic compounds in produced waters from coalbed natural gas wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Rice, C.A.; Bartos, T.T.; Bates, A.L.; Tewalt, S.; Corum, M.D. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The organic composition of produced water samples from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) wells in the Powder River Basin, WY, sampled in 2001 and 2002 are reported as part of a larger study of the potential health and environmental effects of organic compounds derived from coal. The quality of CBNG produced waters is a potential environmental concern and disposal problem for CBNG producers, and no previous studies of organic compounds in CBNG produced water have been published. Organic compounds identified in the produced water samples included: phenols, biphenyls, N-, O-, and S-containing heterocyclic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic amines, various non-aromatic compounds, and phthalates. Many of the identified organic compounds (phenols, heterocyclic compounds, PAHs) are probably coal-derived. PAHs represented the group of organic compounds most commonly observed. Concentrations of total PAHs ranged up to 23 {mu} g/L. Concentrations of individual compounds ranged from about 18 to {lt}0.01 {mu} g/L. Temporal variability of organic compound concentrations was documented, as two wells with relatively high organic compound contents in produced water in 2001 had much lower concentrations in 2002. In many areas, including the PRB, coal strata provide aquifers for drinking water wells. Organic compounds observed in produced water are also likely present in drinking water supplied from wells in the coal. Some of the organic compounds identified in the produced water samples are potentially toxic, but at the levels measured in these samples are unlikely to have acute health effects. The human health effects of low-level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water are currently unknown. Continuing studies will evaluate possible toxic effects from low level, chronic exposure to coal-derived organic compounds in drinking water supplies.

  3. Directing effects of phenyl substitution in the reaction of OH radical with aromatics: The radiolytic hydroxylation of biphenyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial yields for formation of 2-, 3- and 4- hydroxybiphenyl following the radiolytic oxidation of biphenyl in the presence of ferricyanide are, respectively, 2.19, 1.13 and 1.55 molecules/100eV. These yields reflect relative rates of 0.71:0.37:1 for sm-bulletOH radical attack on each of the ortho, meta, and para positions of biphenyl. Comparison of the corresponding partial rate constants to that for benzene shows that phenyl substitution has a significant effect in directing sm-bulletOH addition to the ortho and para positions of aromatic systems. Comparison with phenol shows that a phenyl substitution has only a slightly smaller effect than does OH in increasing the partial rate constant at the ortho and para positions but is substantially less effective in decreasing the rate of sm-bulletOH reaction at the meta position. 15 refs., 9 figs

  4. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacetylenes (polyynes are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae, Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically active compounds, and present in fungi, microorganisms, marine invertebrates and other organisms except for plants. Acetylenes form distinct specialized group of chemically active natural compounds, which are biosynthesized in plants of unsaturated fatty acids. In addition to widespread aliphatic polyacetylenes thiophenes dithiacyclohexadienes (thiarubrines, thioethers, sulphoxides, sulphones, alkamides, chlorohydrins, lactones, spiroacetal enol ethers, furans, pyrans, tetrahydropyrans, isocoumarins, aromatic acetylenes were also found in plant species. Polyacetylenes are localized in different plant organs, and can be found both individually and as a compound with carbohydrates, terpene, phenolic and other compounds. Many polyacetylenes are found in the composition of the essential oils of plants and it confirms their strongly marked ecological functions. From biological point of view these compounds are often synthesized by plants as toxic or bitter antifeedants, allelopathic compounds, phytoalexins or broadly antibiotic components. Polyynes are strong photosensitizers. They exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, anti-bacterial, antituberculosis, anti-fungal, anti-viral, neuroprotective and neurotoxic activity. Immunostimulatory influence associated with certain allergenicity of some of these substances was established. Therefore, without a doubt polyacetylenes are of interest for the modern pharmacy and medicine.

  5. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  6. NATURAL POLYACETYLENE COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    D. A. Konovalov

    2014-01-01

    Polyacetylenes (polyynes) are compounds which contain two or more triple bonds in its structure. About 2 000 different polyacetylenes and biogenetically related substances were identified in 24 families of higher plants. However, most of these compounds were found in seven families of flowering plants: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae), Araliaceae, Asteraceae (Compositae), Campanulaceae, Olacaceae, Pittosporaceae and Santalaceae. Polyacetylenes are relatively unstable, chemically and biologically activ...

  7. Fluorogenic derivatization of aryl halides based on the formation of biphenyl by Suzuki coupling reaction with phenylboronic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Kishikawa, Naoya; Kubo, Kimiko; Hammad, Sherin Farouk; Mabrouk, Mokhtar Mohamed; Habib, Ahmed; Elfatatry, Hamed; Ohyama, Kaname; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2009-01-01

    The fluorogenic derivatization method for aryl halide was developed for the first time. This method was based on the formation of fluorescent biphenyl structure by Suzuki coupling reaction between aryl halides and non-fluorescent phenylboronic acid (PBA). We measured the fluorescence spectra of the products obtained by the reaction of p-substituted aryl bromides (i.e., 4-bromobenzonitrile, 4-bromoanisole, 4-bromobenzoic acid ethyl ester and 4-bromotoluene) with PBA in the presence of palladiu...

  8. Uptake and Translocation of Lesser-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Whole Hybrid Poplar Plants after Hydroponic Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiyan; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Mono-, di-, tri-, and tetra-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are congeners with greater volatility which remain in air, soils and sediments requiring treatment. In this study, the fate of these PCBs was investigated within whole poplar plants (Populus deltoides x nigra, DN34) with application for a treatment system such as a confined disposal facility for dredged material. Whole hybrid poplars were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of five congeners, common in the environment, h...

  9. Developmental Coexposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Has Additive Effects on Circulating Thyroxine Levels in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Veronica M; Sanchez-Morrissey, Susana; Brosch, Karl O; Seegal, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread environmental contaminants found in seafood and dairy products. PCBs and PBDEs are structurally similar chemicals and affect thyroid hormone function and behavior in children and laboratory rodents. Although coexposure frequently exists, the in vivo developmental effects of combined exposure to PCBs and PBDEs on thyroxine (T4) levels are unknown. We examined the effects of PCB and PBDE coexposure from g...

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Residential Soils and their Health Risk and Hazard in an Industrial City in India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupander Kumar; Virendra Kumar Verma; Satish Kumar Singh; Sanjay Kumar; Chandra Shekhar Sharma; Akolkar, Avinash B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have never been produced in India, but were used in industrial applications. PCBs have been detected in environmental samples since 1966, and their sources in soils come from depositions of industrial applications, incinerators and biomass combustions. PCBs adsorb to soil particles and persist for long time due to their properties. Their close proximity may also lead to human exposure through ingestion, inhalation, dermal contact, and may exert neur...

  11. Evidence of an Age Related Threshold Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Neuropsychological Functioning in a Native American Population

    OpenAIRE

    Haase, Richard F.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.; Morse, Gayle S.; Tarbell, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected for some time of having adverse effects on neuropsychological functioning in humans. While there is evidence of slowing of cognitive function in children associated with exposure to PCBs, the evidence of comparable effects on adults is far less well understood. We report here on the neuropsychological evaluation of 277 Native American adults, ranging in age from 18 -79, who were exposed to PCBs by way of environmental contamination in the S...

  12. Determinants of Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in an Urban Population

    OpenAIRE

    Herbstman, Julie B.; Sjödin, Andreas; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Witter, Frank R.; Patterson, Donald G.; Halden, Rolf U.; Jones, Richard S.; Park, Annie; Zhang, Yalin; Heidler, Jochen; Needham, Larry L.; Goldman, Lynn R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent studies have reported blood levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the U.S. population. Information about neonatal levels and about the relationship to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposures is limited. Objectives The objective was to characterize levels and determinants of fetal exposure to PBDEs and PCBs among newborns from Baltimore, Maryland. Methods We analyzed umbilical cord blood for eight PBDEs and 35 PCBs from infants delivered at the Johns Hopkins ...

  13. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoxu Jiang; Guorui Liu; Mei Wang; Minghui Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involve...

  14. Fate and transport of planar and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in Southern California sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesan, M. Indira

    2003-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are an important class of industrial pollutants that areubiquitous in the marine and freshwater environments (NAS, 1979). Although the “planar” or“non-ortho” PCB congeners are present in much lower concentrations than other PCBcongeners, they can be responsible for much of the dioxin-like (TCDD) toxicity in the marineecosystem. Further, their environmental fate may be different from other PCBs. Theirdetermination is, therefore, crucial for assessment of contam...

  15. Mass spectrometry analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls: chemical ionization and selected ion chemical ionization using methane as a reagent gas

    OpenAIRE

    RAYMOND E. MARCH; MILA D. LAUSEVIC; TATJANA M. VASILJEVIC

    2000-01-01

    In the present paper a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, coupled with a gas chromatograph, was used to compare the electron impact ionization (EI) and chemical ionization (Cl) technique, in terms of their selectivity in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) quantitative analysis. The experiments were carried out with a modified Varian SATURN III quadrupole ion-storage mass spectrometer equipped with Varian waveform generator, coupled with a gas chromatograph with DB-5 capillary column. The di...

  16. Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on the Development of Neuronal Cells in Growth Period; Structure-Activity Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Youngrok; Lee, Dong Kuck

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are accumulated in our body through food chain and cause a variety of adverse health effects including neurotoxicities such as cognitive deficits and motor dysfunction. In particular, neonates are considered as a high risk group for the neurotoxicity of PCBs exposure. The present study attempted to analyze the structure-activity relationship among PCB congeners and the mechanism of PCBs-induced neurotoxicity. We measured total protein kinase C (PKC) activities...

  17. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Exposures to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) among Pregnant African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wolff, Mary S.; Susser, Ezra; Matte, Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the associations between socioeconomic status and exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in a cohort of inner-city African-American pregnant women. Data for this study were derived from the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center subcohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. African-American women from whom venous blood had been collected during their third trimester of pregnancy during the tim...

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Enhance Metastatic Properties of Breast Cancer Cells by Activating Rho-Associated Kinase (ROCK)

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yuguo; Li, Shitao; Liu, Sijin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of structurally related chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have documented a wide spectrum of biological effects of PCBs on human health, such as immunotoxicity, neurotoxocity, estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity, and carcinogensis. The role of PCBs as etiologic agents for breast cancer has been intensively explored in a variety of in vivo, animal and epidemiologic studies. A number of investigations indicated that h...

  19. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Namieśnik; Anna Maria Sulej; Żaneta Polkowska

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/...

  20. Subchronic Polychlorinated Biphenyl (Aroclor 1254) Exposure Produces Oxidative Damage and Neuronal Death of Ventral Midbrain Dopaminergic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Donna W.; Notter, Sarah A.; Thiruchelvam, Mona; Dever, Daniel P.; Fitzpatrick, Richard; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Opanashuk, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a link between organochlorine and pesticide exposure to an enhanced risk for neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). A common biological phenomenon underlying cell injury associated with both polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and dopaminergic neurodegeneration during aging is oxidative stress (OS). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that oral PCB exposure, via food ingestion, impairs dopamine systems in the adult ...

  1. Sequential Reductive Dechlorination of meta-Chlorinated Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Sediment Microcosms by Two Different Chloroflexi Phylotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Fagervold, Sonja K.; Watts, Joy E. M.; May, Harold D.; Sowers, Kevin R.

    2005-01-01

    Three species within a deeply branching cluster of the Chloroflexi are the only microorganisms currently known to anaerobically transform polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the mechanism of reductive dechlorination. A selective PCR primer set was designed that amplifies the 16S rRNA genes of a monophyletic group within the Chloroflexi including Dehalococcoides spp. and the o-17/DF-1 group. Assays for both qualitative and quantitative analyses by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and mo...

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the Mersey Estuary, U.K.

    OpenAIRE

    Vane, C.H.; Harrison, I; Kim, A W

    2007-01-01

    Sediments from the Mersey Estuary were analysed for polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Total PAH concentrations ranged from 626 to 3766 μg/kg and total PCB concentrations ranged from 36 to 1409 μg/kg. These concentrations are intermediate in comparison to other U.K estuaries with similar histories of industrialisation and urbanisation. The distribution of individual PAHs were consistent throughout the Mersey Estuary, this together with molecular indic...

  3. Human Serum from Urban and Rural Adolescents and Their Mothers Shows Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls Not Found in Commercial Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Wen Xin; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Although polychlorinated biphenyls are no longer sold as commercial mixtures, they are still being produced through modern manufacturing processes. We have previously shown that non-Aroclor PCB11 is prevalent in indoor and outdoor air, sediment, and detected in human serum. Here we report the prevalence of non-Aroclor PCB congeners (≤0.20 weight percent in Aroclor) in human serum collected from urban and rural adolescents and their mothers. We hypothesized that additional non-Aroclors congene...

  4. The Dehalococcoides Population in Sediment-Free Mixed Cultures Metabolically Dechlorinates the Commercial Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture Aroclor 1260▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Donna L.; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial reductive dechlorination of commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (e.g., Aroclors) in aquatic sediments is crucial to achieve detoxification. Despite extensive efforts over nearly two decades, the microorganisms responsible for Aroclor dechlorination remained elusive. Here we demonstrate that anaerobic bacteria of the Dehalococcoides group derived from sediment of the Housatonic River (Lenox, MA) simultaneously dechlorinate 64 PCB congeners carrying four to nine chlorin...

  5. Photoredox-Catalyzed Tandem Insertion/Cyclization Reactions of Difluoromethyl and 1,1-Difluoroalkyl Radicals with Biphenyl Isocyanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuxiao; Tang, Xiaojun; Dolbier, William R

    2015-09-18

    Using visible-light photoredox conditions, difluoromethylation and 1,1-difluoroalkylation of biphenyl isocyanides have allowed the synthesis of a series of 6-(difluoromethyl)- and 6-(1,1-difluoroalkyl)phenanthridines via tandem addition/cyclization/oxidation processes. The reactions are carried out in wet dioxane at room temperature using fac-Ir(ppy)3 as catalyst to form a large variety of substituted phenanthridine products in good to excellent yield. PMID:26336815

  6. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls enhances lipid peroxidation in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts: a potential role for myeloperoxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Saed, Ghassan M.; Jiang, Zhong L.; Fletcher, Nicole M.; Arab, Ali Al; Diamond, Michael P.; ABU-SOUD, HUSAM M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), superoxide and lipid peroxidation (LPO) produced under oxidative stress may contribute to development of postoperative adhesions. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on LPO, superoxide dismutase (SOD3), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and nitrite/nitrate in human normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts. PCB treatment reduced iNOS expression as well as levels of nitrite/nitrate in both cell lines. Although there was no diffe...

  7. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Kenet, T; Froemke, R. C.; Schreiner, C. E.; Pessah, I N; Merzenich, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely dispersed in human environment and tissues. Here, an exemplar noncoplanar PCB was fed to rat dams during gestation and throughout three subsequent nursing weeks. Although the hearing sensitivity and brainstem auditory responses of pups were normal, exposure resulted in the abnormal development of the primary auditory cortex (A1). A1 was irregularly shaped and marked by internal nonresponsive zones, its topographic organization was grossl...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Centralized Wastewater Treatment Plant in a Chemical Industry Zone: Source, Distribution, and Removal

    OpenAIRE

    Min Yao; Zhongjian Li; Xingwang Zhang; Lecheng Lei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be dissolved in wastewater or adsorbed on particulate. The fate of PCBs in wastewater is essential to evaluate the feasibility of wastewater treatment processes and the environmental risk. Here dissolved and adsorbed concentrations of twenty concerned PCB congeners and total PCBs have been measured in the centralized wastewater treatment plant of a chemical industry zone in Zhejiang, China. It was found that the dyeing chemical processes were the main so...

  9. Unusual polymorphism in new bent-shaped liquid crystals based on biphenyl as a central molecular core

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářová, A.; Světlík, S.; Kozmik, V.; Svoboda, J.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, D.; Gorecka, E.; Podoliak, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, Apr (2014), s. 794-807. ISSN 1860-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/0723 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) M100101211 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : bent-shaped * biphenyl core * liquid crystals * mesomorphic behaviour * SmCG phase Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.762, year: 2014

  10. 8-{1-[(4′-Fluoro-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H-one chloroform 0.25-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ullah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C27H27FN2O·0.25CHCl3, there are two independent molecules (A and B together with a partially disordered chloroform molecule situated about an inversion center. The conformation of the two molecules is very similar. The bridging piperidine rings each have a chair conformation while the piperidin-2-one rings of the quinoline moiety have screw-boat conformations. The benzene rings of the biphenyl moiety are inclined to one another by 26.37 (4 and 23.75 (15° in molecules A and B, respectively. The mean plane of the central piperidine ring [r.m.s. deviation = 0.241 (2 Å in both molecules A and B] is inclined to the benzene ring of the quinoline moiety by 80.06 (4 in A and 83.75 (15° in B, while it is inclined to the adjacent benzene ring of the biphenyl group by 73.623 (15 in A and 75.65 (14° in B. In the crystal, individual molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming A–A and B–B inversion dimers with R22(8 ring motifs. The dimers are stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and linked via C—H...F and C—H...N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. Several C—H...π interactions are also present.

  11. Nomenclature for labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper report on isotopically labelled compounds. The first indexing system for isotopically labelled organic compounds is generally credited to Boughton and named after him. An extension of his principles for designating compounds containing hydrogen isotopes has been part of the Chemical Abstracts Service index nomenclature system for many years. After close on five years labor the IUPAC sponsored Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry presented in 1979 their findings on Isotopically Modified Compounds. The system codified in their rules provides for recognition of various types of isotopic modification and is therefore of more general applicability. Concurrently the rules for the nomenclature of isotopically modified inorganic compounds are developed. These are to be seen as supplementing and extending the guidelines laid down in the IUPAC Inorganic Nomenclature Rules already published

  12. Lipid–water partition coefficients and correlations with uptakes by algae of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Partition coefficients of contaminants with lipid triolein (Ktw) are measured. • Measured Ktw values are nearly the same as the respective Kow. • Sorption of the contaminants to a dry algal powder is similarly measured. • Algal uptake of a compound occurs primarily by partition into the algal lipid. - Abstract: In view of the scarcity of the lipid–water partition coefficients (Ktw) for organic compounds, the log Ktw values for many environmental contaminants were measured using ultra-pure triolein as the model lipid. Classes of compounds studied include alkyl benzenes, halogenated benzenes, short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides. In addition to log Ktw determination, the uptakes of these compounds from water by a dry algal species were measured to evaluate the lipid effect on the algal uptake. The measured log Ktw are closely related to their respective log Kow (octanol–water), with log Kow = 1.9 to 6.5. A significant difference is observed between the present and early measured log Ktw for compounds with log Kow > ∼5, which is attributed to the presence and absence of a triolein microemulsion in water affecting the solute partitioning. The observed lipid-normalized algae–water distribution coefficients (log Kaw/lipid) are virtually identical to the respective log Ktw values, which manifests the dominant lipid-partition effect of the compounds with algae

  13. Biokinetics of radioactive compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the human organism represent the central notion in this work, consisting of a theoretical and an experimental part. The first chapter contains definitions and explanations on the importance of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in clinical therapy and pharmaceuticals research as well as for assessing radiation exposure and radiation hazards. Chapter 2 describes the bases of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in the medical and non-medical sector, and biokinetics. Chapter 3 deals with obtaining biokinetics data for radioactive compounds from investigations in animals and man, evaluation of measurements, transferring data obtained by animal experiments to man, and with the variability of biokinetics data. In Chapter 4 the results of comprehensive studies in literature on the biokinetics of radioactive compounds are summarized. They relate to three areas: professional and environmental incorporation of radioactive compounds, use of radioactive pharmaceuticals in therapy and research, and incorporation of radioactive compounds by embryo and fetus in consequence of the uptake of radioactive compounds by the mother. Chapter 5 gives an assessment of radiation hazards from radioactive compounds in connection with occupational radiation exposure and nuclear diagnostics in vivo, and a comparison with other risks. For that purpose the concept of effective dose equivalent is applied in connection with suitable risk coefficients to professional and nuclear-medical radiation exposure. Chapter 6 is dedicated to measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive compounds in man using conventional devices. The object of Chapter 7 is measurement of the biokinetics of radioactive pharmaceuticals in man by means of single photon emission computed tomography. (orig./MG)

  14. Rapid Detection of Polychlorinated Biphenyls at Trace Levels in Real Environmental Samples by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Zhang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Detection of trace levels of persistent pollutants in the environment is difficult but significant. Organic pollutant homologues, due to their similar physical and chemical properties, are even more difficult to distinguish, especially in trace amounts. We report here a simple method to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs in soil and distilled spirit samples by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering technique using Ag nanorod arrays as substrates. By this method, polychlorinated biphenyls can be detected to a concentration of 5 μg/g in dry soil samples within 1 minute. Furthermore, based on simulation and understanding of the Raman characteristics of PCBs, we recognized homologues of tetrachlorobiphenyl by using the surface-enhance Raman scattering method even in trace amounts in acetone solutions, and their characteristic Raman peaks still can be distinguished at a concentration of 10-6 mol/L. This study provides a fast, simple and sensitive method for the detection and recognition of organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB degrading fungi from a historically contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Toro Sara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are widespread toxic pollutants. Bioremediation might be an effective, cost competitive and environment-friendly solution for remediating environmental matrices contaminated by PCBs but it is still unsatisfactory, mostly for the limited biodegradation potential of bacteria involved in the processes. Very little is known about mitosporic fungi potential in PCB bioremediation and their occurrence in actual site historically contaminated soils. In the present study, we characterised the native mycoflora of an aged dump site soil contaminated by about 0.9 g kg-1 of Aroclor 1260 PCBs and its changing after aerobic biotreatment with a commercial complex source of bacteria and fungi. Fungi isolated from the soil resulting from 120 days of treatment were screened for their ability to adsorb or metabolise 3 target PCBs. Results The original contaminated soil contained low loads of few fungal species mostly belonging to the Scedosporium, Penicillium and Aspergillus genera. The fungal load and biodiversity generally decreased throughout the aerobic treatment. None of the 21 strains isolated from the treated soil were able to grow on biphenyl (200 mg L-1 or a mixture of 2-chlorobiphenyl, 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl and 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (20 mg L-1 each as sole carbon sources. However, 16 of them grew in a mineral medium containing the same PCBs mixture and glucose (10 g L-1. Five of the 6 isolates, which displayed the faster and more extensive growth under the latter conditions, were found to degrade the 3 PCBs apparently without the involvement of ligninolytic enzymes; they were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium digitatum and Fusarium solani. They are the first PCB degrading strains of such species reported so far in the literature. Conclusion The native mycoflora of the actual site aged heavily contaminated soil was mainly constituted by genera often

  16. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  17. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of the Process-Related Impurities of Olmesartan Medoxomil. Do 5-(Biphenyl-2-yl-1-triphenylmethyltetrazole Intermediates in Sartan Syntheses Exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Dams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the process development for multigram-scale synthesis of olmesartan medoxomil (OM, two principal regioisomeric process-related impurities were observed along with the final active pharmaceutical ingredient (API. The impurities were identified as N-1- and N-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-ylmethyl derivatives of OM. Both compounds, of which N-2 isomer of olmesartan dimedoxomil is a novel impurity of OM, were synthesized and fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, infrared spectroscopy (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization (HRMS/ESI. Their 1H, 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance signals were fully assigned. The molecular structures of N-triphenylmethylolmesartan ethyl (N-tritylolmesartan ethyl and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, the key intermediates in OM synthesis, were solved and refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD. The SCXRD study revealed that N-tritylated intermediates of OM exist exclusively as one of the two possible regioisomers. In molecular structures of these regioisomers, the trityl substituent is attached to the N-2 nitrogen atom of the tetrazole ring, and not to the N-1 nitrogen, as has been widely reported up to the present. This finding indicates that the reported structural formula of N-tritylolmesartan ethyl and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, as well as their systematic chemical names, must be revised. The careful analysis of literature spectroscopic data for other sartan intermediates and their analogs with 5-(biphenyl-2-yltetrazole moiety showed that they also exist exclusively as N-2-trityl regioisomers.

  18. Cell death mechanisms in GT1-7 GnRH cells exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls PCB74, PCB118, and PCB153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes functional deficits in neuroendocrine systems. We used an immortalized hypothalamic GT1-7 cell line, which synthesizes the neuroendocrine peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), to examine the neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects of PCBs and their mechanisms of action. Cells were treated for 1, 4, 8, or 24 h with a range of doses of a representative PCB from each of three classes: coplanar (2,4,4',5-tetrachlorobiphenyl: PCB74), dioxin-like coplanar (2',3,4,4',5' pentachlorobiphenyl: PCB118), non-coplanar (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl: PCB153), or their combination. GnRH peptide concentrations, cell viability, apoptotic and necrotic cell death, and caspase activation were quantified. In general, GnRH peptide levels were suppressed by high doses and longer durations of PCBs, and elevated at low doses and shorter timepoints. The suppression of GnRH peptide levels was partially reversed in cultures co-treated with the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. All PCBs reduced viability and increased both apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Although the effects for the three classes of PCBs were often similar, subtle differences in responses, together with evidence that the combination of PCBs acted slightly different from individual PCBs, suggest that the three tested PCB compounds may act via slightly different or more than one mechanism. These results provide evidence that PCB congeners have endocrine disrupting and/or neurotoxic effects on the hypothalamic GnRH cell line, a finding that has implications for environmental endocrine disruption in animals.

  19. Synthesis and Physicochemical Characterization of the Process-Related Impurities of Olmesartan Medoxomil. Do 5-(Biphenyl-2-yl)-1-triphenylmethyltetrazole Intermediates in Sartan Syntheses Exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Iwona; Ostaszewska, Anna; Puchalska, Maria; Chmiel, Justyna; Cmoch, Piotr; Bujak, Iwona; Białońska, Agata; Szczepek, Wojciech J

    2015-01-01

    During the process development for multigram-scale synthesis of olmesartan medoxomil (OM), two principal regioisomeric process-related impurities were observed along with the final active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). The impurities were identified as N-1- and N-2-(5-methyl-2-oxo-1,3-dioxolen-4-yl)methyl derivatives of OM. Both compounds, of which N-2 isomer of olmesartan dimedoxomil is a novel impurity of OM, were synthesized and fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared spectroscopy (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization (HRMS/ESI). Their ¹H, (13)C and (15)N nuclear magnetic resonance signals were fully assigned. The molecular structures of N-triphenylmethylolmesartan ethyl (N-tritylolmesartan ethyl) and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, the key intermediates in OM synthesis, were solved and refined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SCXRD). The SCXRD study revealed that N-tritylated intermediates of OM exist exclusively as one of the two possible regioisomers. In molecular structures of these regioisomers, the trityl substituent is attached to the N-2 nitrogen atom of the tetrazole ring, and not to the N-1 nitrogen, as has been widely reported up to the present. This finding indicates that the reported structural formula of N-tritylolmesartan ethyl and N-tritylolmesartan medoxomil, as well as their systematic chemical names, must be revised. The careful analysis of literature spectroscopic data for other sartan intermediates and their analogs with 5-(biphenyl-2-yl)tetrazole moiety showed that they also exist exclusively as N-2-trityl regioisomers. PMID:26633332

  20. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from food and feed samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Karin; Sporring, Sune; Haglund, Peter; Björklund, Erland

    2007-01-01

    Selective pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from various food and feed samples was performed with a selective PLE method previously developed for bulk PCBs. The method utilizes sulfuric acid impregnated silica inside the extraction cell to oxidize coextracted fat. Extractions were performed at 100 degrees C with n-heptane for 5 min in two cycles. Data obtained by selective PLE combined with gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) were compared to concentrations derived from reference laboratories applying conventional sample preparation and GC-HRMS. Experiments performed on spiked vegetable oil, naturally contaminated crude fish oil and oil containing compound feed samples showed good results for these relatively simple matrices. The accuracy was generally +/-20% as compared to spiked levels or to values obtained by the reference laboratories. The precision, measured as the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency values (TEQs), was below 10% in all cases. The method was also tested on naturally contaminated herring tissue, chicken tissue, pork tissue and sepiolitic clay, which all caused some trouble. It was observed that sufficient amounts of sodium sulfate should be used for dehydration of tissue samples and additionally, the cells should not be packed too dense in order to avoid suppressed extraction efficiency. Once this was attended to, satisfactory data could be obtained, except for sepiolithic clay. This study demonstrates that selective PLE can be applied with success to a number of food and feed matrices in analysis of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since the fat removal step is on-line, the selective PLE method will reduce time and solvent consumption for sample preparation as compared to traditional clean-up. PMID:17109872

  1. Insight into the structural requirement of substituted quinazolinone biphenyl acylsulfonamides derivatives as Angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist: 2D and 3D QSAR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh C. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 19 molecules substituted quinazolinone biphenyl acylsulfonamides derivatives displaying variable inhibition of Angiotensin II receptor AT1 activity were selected to develop models for establishing 2D and 3D QSAR. The compounds in the selected series were characterized by spatial, molecular and electro topological descriptors using QSAR module of Molecular Design Suite (VLife MDS™ 3.5. The best 2D QSAR model was selected, having correlation coefficient r2 (0.8056 and cross validated squared correlation coefficient q2 (0.6742 with external predictive ability of pred_r2 0.7583 coefficient of correlation of predicted data set (pred_r2se 0.2165. The results obtained from QSAR studies could be used in designing better Ang II activity among the congeners in future. The optimum QSAR model showed that the parameters SsssCHE index, SddCE-index, T_2_Cl_4, and SssNHE-index contributed in the model. 3D QSAR analysis by kNN-molecular field analysis approach developed based on principles of the k-nearest neighbor method combined with Genetic algorithms, stepwise forward variable selection approach; a leave-one-out cross-validated correlation coefficient (q2 of 0.6516 and a non-cross-validated correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.8316 and pred_r2 0.6954 were obtained. Contour maps using this approach showed that steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic field effects dominantly determine binding affinities. The information rendered by 3D QSAR models may lead to a better understanding of structural requirements of Angiotensin II receptor and can help in the design of novel potent antihypertensive molecules.

  2. Analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls in waters and wastewaters using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Senar

    2011-03-01

    A method was developed for viable and rapid determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples with vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). At first, the most suitable extraction solvent and extraction solvent volume were determined. Later, the parameters affecting the extraction efficiency such as vortex extraction time, rotational speed of the vortex, and ionic strength of the sample were optimized by using a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The optimized extraction conditions for 5 mL water sample were as follows: extractant solvent 200 μL of chloroform; vortex extraction time of 2 min at 3000 rpm; centrifugation 5 min at 4000 rpm, and no ionic strength. Under the optimum condition, limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 0.36 to 0.73 ng/L. Mean recoveries of PCBs from fortified water samples are 96% for three different fortification levels and RSDs of the recoveries are below 5%. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of PCBs in real water and wastewater samples such as tap, well, surface, bottled waters, and municipal, treated municipal, and industrial wastewaters. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of real water samples and the results show that efficiency of proposed method is comparable to the LLE. However, the proposed method offers several advantages, i.e. reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compounds, less solvent consumption, and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal. It is also viable, rapid, and easy to use for the analyses of PCBs in water samples by using GC-MS. PMID:21280211

  3. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and dechlorane plus in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Song-Yee; Jurng, Jongsoo; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2013-01-01

    XAD-2 resin-based passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed for one year at eight cities in Mongolia, China, and South Korea to investigate the spatial distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and dechlorane plus (DP). PCB levels were highly correlated with population size and density in China and South Korea. In Mongolia, PCB levels were relatively high considering the low population. In the cases of OCPs and DP, a country-specific distribution was observed. The highest levels of HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexane isomers) and DDTs (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane isomers) were detected at sites in China, whereas the highest endosulfan and DP levels were measured at South Korean sites. These results strongly reflected the patterns of use of these chemicals. Mirex, an insecticide never registered in Mongolia and South Korea, was detected at all sampling sites; this is likely to have resulted from long-range transport. Nevertheless, OCPs were generally low in Mongolia. This study confirms that PAS results reflect well the past and current usage of POPs in Northeast Asia.

  4. Biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in heavily polluted aquatic environment in different fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázová, Tímea; Hanzelová, Vladimíra; Miklisová, Dana; Šalgovičová, Danka; Turčeková, L'udmila

    2012-11-01

    The distribution and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in fish species (European perch Perca fluviatilis, northern pike Esox lucius, pike perch Sander lucioperca, wels catfish Silirus glanus, common carp Cyprinus carpio, European eel Anguilla anguilla, freshwater bream Abramis brama, goldfish Carassius auratus, and roach Rutilus rutilus) in a heavily polluted water reservoir Zemplínska šírava (Slovakia). The study performed at two different time points 5 years apart (2004 and 2009) revealed serious PCB contamination of fish muscle tissue and significant interspecies as well as tissue-specific differences in PCB uptake by fish. Total PCBs broadly correlated with the trophic position of individual fish species within a food chain (P 0.05). The study has shown that the kind of fish, its feeding habit, and specific conditions of the habitat are mutually interrelated factors that are responsible for significant variations in fish body burdens. A tendency to PCB biomagnification was also proved in some fish species of this water reservoir. PMID:22173787

  5. Structural insights into the metabolism of 2-chlorodibenzofuran by an evolved biphenyl dioxygenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pravindra; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Dhindwal, Sonali; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Bolin, Jeffrey T.; Sylvestre, Michel (INRS); (IIT-India); (Purdue)

    2012-06-28

    The biphenyl dioxygenase of Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 (BphAE{sub LB400}) is a Rieske-type oxygenase that catalyzes the stereospecific oxygenation of many heterocyclic aromatics including dibenzofuran. In a previous work, we evolved BphAE{sub LB400} and obtained BphAE{sub RR41}. This variant metabolizes dibenzofuran and 2-chlorodibenzofuran more efficiently than BphAE{sub LB400}. However, the regiospecificity of BphAE{sub RR41} toward these substrates differs. Dibenzofuran is metabolized principally through a lateral dioxygenation whereas 2-chlorodibenzofuran is metabolized principally through an angular dioxygenation. In order to explain this difference, we examined the crystal structures of both substrate-bound forms of BphAE{sub RR41} obtained under anaerobic conditions. This structure analysis, in combination with biochemical data for a Ser283Gly mutant provided evidences that the substrate is compelled to move after oxygen-binding in BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran. In BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran, the chlorine atom is close to the side chain of Ser283. This contact is missing in the BphAE{sub RR41}:dibenzofuran, and strong enough in the BphAE{sub RR41}:2-chlorodibenzofuran to help prevent substrate movement during the catalytic reaction.

  6. Particle-Dissolved Phase Partition of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in High Altitude Alpine Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellier, Yann-Michel; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Cottin, Nathalie; Fanget, Philippe; Naffrechoux, Emmanuel

    2015-08-18

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) partitioning between the dissolved and particulate phases in two high altitude alpine lakes was determined by the quantity, size structure, or composition of suspended particles. Within- and between-lakes differences in water-particulate phase partition coefficient (Kp) were not related to total suspended matter, phytoplankton biomass, or taxonomic composition. Yet, a seasonal relationship between Kp and Kow was detected for both lakes, revealing equilibrium of PCBs partition when lakes were ice covered. On the contrary, PCBs partitioning between particles and water appeared kinetically limited during the open water season. Partition is therefore mainly governed by thermodynamic laws during the ice-covered period, while none of the tested physical or biological parameters seemed to explain the distribution of these particle-reactive contaminants in the open water period. PCBs were always mainly associated with particulate matter, but partitioning within different particulate size-fractions varied between seasons and between years during open water periods. When ice cover is absent, PCBs were mainly adsorbed on microplankton, the largest phytoplanktonic size fraction, which is the least likely to get grazed by pelagic microconsumers. PMID:26189929

  7. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikes, Ondrej; Cupr, Pavel [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Trapp, Stefan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Klanova, Jana [RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 126/3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: klanova@recetox.muni.cz

    2009-02-15

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log K{sub OW}. A negative correlation between BCF and log K{sub OW} was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log K{sub OA}. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots.

  8. Levels and Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Jeddah Coastal Sediments, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty sediment samples were collected from six sites in Jeddah coast, Red Sea to assess the concentration levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of 19 PCBs at the study area were ranged from 0.58 to 15.63 ng/g dry weight. The highest concentrations were recorded in the semi closed lagoons Al-Shabab and Al-Arbaeen (sites 4 and 5) which are highly influenced by sewage dumping. Textural classification of the sediments was found to be highly correlated with PCBs concentrations. PCB congener = 87 (penta-CB) showed the highest concentration among the 19 PCBs congeners. The descending order of different PCBs congeners was: penta-CB and gt; tetra-CB and gt; hexa-CB and gt; mono-CB and gt; tri-CB and gt; hepta-CB and gt; nona-CB. The medium PCBs congeners penta-, tetra- and hexa-CBs represented the major components at all sites. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental conditions change the homologue percentage in all stations. The contamination levels of PCBs in all sites were found to be below the two common sediment quality guidelines; the effects range-low value (ERL) and the threshold effects level (TEL). (author)

  9. Effects of liver damage induced by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) on cadmium metabolism in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were added to the diets of mice at different concentrations. Mice fed these diets were given a sc or oral doses of 109Cd. The uptake and excretion of Cd was followed by whole-body counting. The gastrointestinal absorption of Cd after an oral dose of 109Cd was less in animals fed on 66 ppm PCB diet, compared with a control group, and the body elimination of Cd was faster. In the liver, the amount of Cd was reduced by dietary PCB exposure, after both oral and sc administration of 109Cd, and the data suggest a faster transport of Cd from liver to kidneys in PCB-exposed animals than in controls. The mobilized liver Cd was not quantitatively recovered in the kidneys, thus increased urinary excretion due to PCB exposure may have taken place. Histological examination of the livers revealed a dose-dependent induction of liver changes characterized by centrilobular enlargement of liver cells and centrilobular focal necroses. In four of eight livers from animals fed 200 ppm PCB for 32 weeks there were five liver cell tumors with cytological signs of malignancy. In the control group and in groups fed lower doses of PCB (10-100 ppm) no such tumors were found among 28 animals. The results support observations made with agents inducing acute liver damage, that liver damage increases the rate of redistribution of cadmium from the liver to the kidney

  10. Placental markers of human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies have evaluated biochemical changes in placentae from humans exposed to rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in Taiwan. Placentae were obtained from nonsmoking women 4 to 5 years after the exposure had occurred. The exposed individuals ingested approximately 1 to 3 g PCBs and 5 mg PCDFs, and many exhibited symptoms characteristic of PCB poisoning. This disease was termed Yu-Cheng in Chinese. Based on data from experimental animals models, the authors examined a number of parameters in placentae from control and exposed women, including arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, cytochrome P-450 isozymes, epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding properties and actions, and Ah receptor. They also quantified concentrations of various PCB and PCDF congeners known to be present in the contaminated rice oil. The results revealed a dramatic elevation in placental AHH activity in samples from PCB/PCDF-exposed women. This increase in enzyme activity was associated with a parallel increase in placental microsomal protein immunochemically related to cytochrome P-450 form 6. EGF receptor-mediated autophosphorylation capacity was significantly diminished in PCB/PCDF placentae, but this effect was not associated with changes in plasma membrane EGF receptor binding properties. Two PCDF congeners were detected in Yu-Cheng placentae but not controls. Several PCBs were also detected in much higher concentrations in Yu-Cheng placentae. Surprisingly, placental concentrations of PCBs correlated better with effects than did the PCDFs. The findings are discussed in relation to the risk assessment process

  11. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some Double-Shell Tanks (DST) have received small quantities of PCBs in historic waste shipments. For this reason at least some DST waste has been determined to be PCB remediation waste by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This determination was documented on August 31, 2000 in the ''Framework Agreement for Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Hanford Tank Waste'' (Boston, et al.). PCB remediation waste is a new category of waste promulgated in the 1998 revision to the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) commonly called the Mega-Rule. The applicability of TSCA to tank farm waste resulted in the application of new requirements and the necessity to manage and track PCBs in tank waste. This document describes the principal methods of managing PCBs in the DST system. This document also describes waste acceptance criteria to be used in evaluating the acceptability of waste containing PCBs. The main purpose behind the transfer controls and PCB waste acceptance criteria is to ensure that the waste can be adequately treated in the Waste Treatment (vitrification) Plant. These criteria may change as additional information on the treatment plant's capability becomes available

  12. Primary source regions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Sandy; Scheringer, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Burkhart, John F.; Hungerbuhler, Konrad

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the source regions of the three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) 28, 101, and 180 measured at the Arctic stations Alert and Zeppelin, and at Birkenes, which is located in southern Norway. Although the Arctic is remote from the main use areas of these chemicals, PCBs have been found in Arctic air, seawater and biota, which has caused concerns for human and environmental health. We used 20-day backward calculations of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART to identify the origin of air masses associated with the 20% highest and lowest measured PCB concentrations. At Birkenes, high concentrations are clearly associated with air masses arriving from known source regions (primarily in Europe and Russia), whereas low concentrations are correlated with atmospheric transport from regions with low primary emissions. At Zeppelin, the influence from known source regions is also enhanced when high PCB-28 and PCB-101 concentrations were measured. At Alert, in contrast, there is no clear link between high/low PCB concentrations and atmospheric transport from source/non-source regions. Additionally, we combined the atmospheric transport patterns with PCB emission data to identify important source regions and their seasonal variability. For the Arctic stations, Western Russia is the dominant source region for PCB-28 and PCB-101. Central Europe is the most important source region for PCB-180, but sources in the US contribute up to 15% to PCB-180 measured at Alert.

  13. Congener-specific egg contribution of polychlorinated biphenyls to nestlings in two passerine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in nestlings of avian species is a common method for assessing trophic transfer and risk at PCB-contaminated sites. The proportion of nestling PCB mass due to maternal transfer is often accounted for by subtracting total PCB mass in eggs from nestlings. However, variation in physicochemical properties and metabolism among congeners may lead to differences between egg contribution based on total PCBs and dioxin-like congeners. We examined congener-specific variation in contribution of PCBs from eggs to nestlings in tree swallows and European starlings. Egg contribution of total PCB mass was 14.3 and 16.2%, respectively, whereas contribution based on dioxin-like congeners was 14.8 and 13.6%, respectively. These data suggest that using total PCB mass in eggs to adjust estimates of PCB accumulation in nestlings may not reflect patterns for dioxin-like congeners, potentially over or under-estimating the risk of toxicity of PCBs. - Congener-specific contribution of PCBs from egg to nestlings was examined.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in coastal tropical ecosystems: Distribution, fate and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) though banned still find use in most developing countries including Ghana. PCB congener residues in sediments in the coastal regions of Ghana were determined. Sediment samples (n=80) were collected between June 2008 and March 2009, extracted by the continuous soxhlet extraction using (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture for 24 h and analyzed with a CP 3800 gas chromatogram equipped with 65Ni electron capture detector (GC–ECD) and a mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7 as marker, after clean-up. Validation of the efficiency and precision of the extraction and analytical methods were done by extracting samples spiked with 2 ppm ICES PCB standard and a certified reference material 1941b for marine sediments from NIST, USA, and analyzed alongside the samples. Total PCBs detected in sediments during the dry and wet seasons were, respectively, 127 and 112 μg/kg dry weight (dw), with a mean concentration of 120 μg/kg (dw). The composition of PCB homologues in the sediments were dominated by tri-, penta- and tetra-PCBs. There was no correlation between organic carbon (OC) of the sediments and total PCBs content. Risk assessments conducted on the levels indicated that PCB levels in sediments along the coastal region of Ghana poses no significant health risk to humans.

  15. Electron ionization mass spectral fragmentation study of sulfation derivatives of polychlorinated biphenyls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertson Larry W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that can be metabolized via hydroxylated PCBs to PCB sulfate metabolites. The sensitive and selective analysis of PCB sulfate monoesters by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS requires their derivatization, for example, as PCB 2,2,2-trichloroethyl (TCE sulfate monoesters. To aid in the identification of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from biological samples, the electron impact MS fragmentation pathways of selected PCB TCE sulfate diesters were analyzed and compared to the fragmentation pathways of the corresponding methoxylated PCBs. Results The most abundant and characteristic fragment ions of PCB TCE sulfate diesters were formed by releasing CHCCl3, SO3, HCl2 and/or CCl3 from the TCE sulfate moiety and Cl2, HCl, ethyne and chloroethyne from an intermediate phenylcyclopentadienyl cation. The fragmentation pattern depended on the degree of chlorination and the position of the TCE sulfate moiety (i.e., ortho vs. meta/para to the second phenyl ring, but were independent of the chlorine substitution pattern. These fragmentation pathways are similar to the fragmentation pathways of structurally related methoxylated PCBs. Conclusion Knowledge of the fragmentation patterns of PCB TCE sulfate diesters will greatly aid in determining the position of sulfate moiety (ortho vs. meta/para of unknown PCB sulfate metabolites isolated from environmental or laboratory samples.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in freshwater salmonids from the Kerguelen Islands in the Southern Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subantarctic Kerguelen Islands (49oS, 70oE) contain freshwater ecosystems among the most isolated in the world. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in the muscle of 48 brook trout and 38 brown trout caught during summer and spring 2006 in the rivers, lakes and ponds of Kerguelen. The sum of 29 PCBs averaged 404 and 358 ng g-1 lipid, and dioxin-like PCB was 19 and 69 ng g-1 lipid, in brook and brown trout, respectively. The values showed a high variability and some fish accumulated PCBs at levels similar to those of fish from impacted areas. While inter-sex differences were limited, the season and the morphotype appeared to have the most influence. Fish captured in summer had muscle PCB concentrations about three times higher than those caught in spring and the 'river' morphotype of brook trout showed the highest PCB levels. - Highlights: → First assessment of PCB contamination of biota in Kerguelen Islands, Sub-Antarctica. → PCB bioaccumulation level in trout varies from very high to undetectable. → Habitat and morphotype are the most influential factors on the variability. → Distribution pattern of PCBs in the muscle of fish is morphotype dependent. - Salmonids in hydrosystems of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) show a high PCB bioaccumulation.

  17. Thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in waste insulating oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of thermo-chemical destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using a batch reactor and two different (vertical and horizontal) types of continuous reactor. A simple batch reactor was first designed and constructed to examine applicability of thermal-chemical destruction of PCBs. It was evidenced from the batch test results that the destruction of PCBs in the insulating oil (40% PCBs, w/w) was accomplished via abiotic dechlorination and mineralization of PCBs with quicklime at 600 deg C under nitrogen environment. PCB destruction efficiencies were obtained about 99.95%. The reaction was exothermic resulting release of heat by which the reactor temperature suddenly increased up to 750 deg C at the incipient 30 min of the experiment. Two major end products, CaCl2 and carbon, were identified. For a practical purpose, two continuous reactors were developed and tested. The observed continuous test results indicate that over 99.99% of PCB destruction efficiencies were achieved when excess quicklime (>3Ca:1Cl2 as a molar basis) was used. Specifically, the horizontal continuous reactor was suitable in view of ease of solid transfer, which is essential for complete destruction of PCBs and for full-scale applications

  18. PCB [polychlorinated biphenyls] transformer liability elimination: Carcass destruct vs. the alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askarel fluid filled transformers are still in service extensively throughout the United States. Owners of these tranformers have three choices: continue to operate the equipment, managing the risk while keeping the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in place; attempt to retrofill and reclassify the tranformers to non-PCB status; or remove the transformers from service and dispose of them. Total destruction of transformer carcasses and recycling of metals offers two important benefits: an end to the transformer is defined, as well as an end to the owner's liability, and the process is environmentally acceptable. Landfill of transformer carcasses fails to end liability, and is likely to lead to leakage and ground contamination for which the owner will be held partly liable. Retrofill of transformers is not a cost effective method for reducing liability, for the following reasons. High PCB concentrations can remain in components of the tranformer, and reclassification can take 15-24 months. Some 30% of processor method units and 60% of retrofill units leach back to 50 ppM PCB, frequently within one year. High levels of PCB are often contained in paper and wood inside the transformer. The cleaning fluid (perchloroethylene) presents environmental and health hazards, and may be incompatible with electrical equipment. Continued operation of units poses occupational, exposure, regulatory and environmental risks. 4 tabs

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Induce Mitochondrial Dysfunction in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Cocco

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, ubiquitous environmental contaminants, can adversely affect the development and function of the nervous system. Here we evaluated the effect of PCB exposure on mitochondrial function using the PCB mixture Aroclor-1254 (A1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A 6-hour exposure to A1254 (5 μg/ml reduced cellular ATP production by 45%±7, and mitochondrial membrane potential, detected by TMRE, by 49%±7. Consistently, A1254 significantly decreased oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis measured by extracellular flux analyzer. Furthermore, the activity of mitochondrial protein complexes I, II, and IV, but not V (ATPase, measured by BN-PAGE technique, was significantly reduced after 6-hour exposure to A1254. The addition of pyruvic acid during exposure to A1254 significantly prevent A1254-induced cell injury, restoring resting mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP levels, oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, pyruvic acid significantly preserved the activity of mitochondrial complexes I, II and IV and increased basal activity of complex V. Collectively, the present results indicate that the neurotoxicity of A1254 depends on the impairment of oxidative phosphorylation, aerobic glycolysis, and mitochondrial complexes I, II, and IV activity and it was counteracted by pyruvic acid.

  20. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  1. Remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls by microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using microwave-irradiated manganese dioxide (MnO2) in PCB-contaminated soils under different conditions is investigated. The removal of PCB77 in two actual soil samples exhibits strong pH-dependent behavior, and the removal efficiency is higher in acidic soil (Ali-Perudic Ferrosols) than that in neutral soil (Udic Argosols). The removal kinetics of PCB77 using microwave-irradiated MnO2 under different experimental conditions fits a pseudo-first-order kinetic model well. Both the removal efficiency and the kinetic constant (k) values of PCB77 in Ali-Perudic Ferrosols considerably increase, although in a nonlinear fashion, as the initial amount of MnO2 is increased, as the treated soil mass is increased, and as the microwave power is increased. The reactivity of three PCBs (PCB28, PCB77, and PCB118) did not present as a function of the degree of chlorination in the reaction with microwave-irradiated MnO2. The pronounced removal of three PCBs in contaminated soil (all above 95%) indicates that MnO2 in combination with microwave irradiation is promising for technological applications that seek to remediate sites critically polluted with PCBs.

  2. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm responses to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield Åslund, Melissa L; Simpson, André J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2011-06-01

    (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was used to examine the metabolic profile of D(2)O-buffer extracted tissues of Eisenia fetida earthworms exposed for 2 days to an artificial soil spiked with sub-lethal concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (0, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, or 25 mg/kg Aroclor 1254). Univariate statistical analysis of the identified metabolites revealed a significant increase in ATP concentration in earthworms exposed to the highest soil PCB concentration, but detected no significant changes in other metabolites. However, a multivariate approach which considers alterations in multiple metabolites simultaneously, identified a significant linear relationship between earthworm metabolic profiles and PCB concentration (cross-validated PLS-regression with 7 components, R(2)X = 0.99, R(2)Y = 0.77, Q(2)Y = 0.45, P earthworms (r = 0.22, P = 0.54), but were positively correlated in earthworms from the 25 mg/kg treatment (r = 0.87, P = 0.001). Overall, the observed metabolic responses suggest that PCBs disrupted both carbohydrate (energy) metabolism and membrane (osmolytic) function in E. fetida. The ability of (1)H NMR-based metabolomics to detect these responses suggests that this method offers significant potential for direct assessment of sub-lethal PCB toxicity in soil. PMID:21424327

  3. Temporal Trends of Hexabromocyclododecane, Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Ringed Seals from East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorkamp, Katrin; Riget, Frank Farsø; Bossi, Rossana;

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed a signifi......Concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were determined in a combination of archived and fresh blubber samples of juvenile ringed seals from East Greenland collected between 1986 and 2008. R-HBCD was the only diastereoisomer consistently above levels of quantification and showed...... on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been extended with new data for 2006 and 2008. ΣPBDE in juvenile seals was the only parameter with a slight upward trend, however, dependent on the low 1986 concentration. Removing this data point resulted in a downward trend, which...... also was found for adult seals with a time trend starting in 1994. ΣPCB decreased significantly in juvenile seals, again due to the 1986 value, while no trend was found for the adult animals. This indicates stagnating PCB concentrations at a relatively high level, in some cases possibly exceeding...

  4. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2013-03-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of "fresh" polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low K(OW) congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs. PMID:23258773

  5. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  6. High-pressure extraction of polychlorinated biphenyls from soils and other fine-grained solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four doped and three really contaminated samples were subjected to high-pressure PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) extraction in a laboratory-scale experimental plant using CO2 (carbon dioxide) as solvent. The PCB levels (sum out of the six key substances) of the real samples were 2.6, 6.8, and 139 mg/kg. The success of the cleaning process was determined by measuring the residual PCB levels in the soil after the extraction. Parameters were varied and samples were taken selectively from various points in the bed (length 270 mm, diameter 14 mm, weighed - in soil 50-60 g) in order to gain an idea of the effects of upscaling. The following parameters were varied: extraction temperature 40-90 C; extraction pressure 200-300 bar; CO2 flow rate 3.6-14.6 g/min; CO2 quantity 0-328 g; degree of contamination (doped samples) 12-60 mg/kg; soil moisture 0-15%; particle size 0-2000 μm; entraining agent methanol, ethanol, acetone; proportion of entraining agent 0-7.5% by weight. Furthermore the influence of moisture at the time of doping on extraction was examined. (orig./ABI)

  7. A review of the neurotoxicity of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegal, R. [Albany Univ., NY (United States). Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept. of Health and School of Public Health

    2004-09-15

    It is perhaps both presumptuous and somewhat nostalgic for me to present research findings from both myself and others describing the changes in central nervous system (CNS) function that occur following exposure to non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the 2004 Dioxin meeting. Presumptuous because my presentation occurs during this meeting where the majority of the research is concerned with the consequences of exposure to dioxins (the most toxic substance produced by man) and nostalgic because, in 1992, I presented some of my earliest work demonstrating that non-dioxin-like PCBs were capable of significantly altering neurochemical function. Much has changed in the intervening twelve years. Laboratories in the United States and Europe now routinely study and describe the neurotoxicological effects of developmental and in vitro exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs. My task will be to briefly describe the highlights of that research and suggest additional approaches that will hopefully increase our ability to understand the mechanisms of action of non-dioxin-like PCBs on neuronal and behavioral function in populations of exposed humans.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) induction of CYP3A4 enzyme activity in healthy Faroese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Halling, Jónrit; Damkier, Per;

    2007-01-01

    The CYP3A4 enzyme is, along with other cytochrome P450 enzymes, involved in the metabolism of environmental pollutants and is highly inducible by these substances. A commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, 1,1,1,-trichloro-2-(o-chlorophenyl), 2-(p'-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) and 1......,1,-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl)ethene (p,p'-DDE) are known to induce CYP3A4 activity through activation of nuclear receptors, such as the pregnane X receptor. However, this induction of CYP3A4 has not yet been investigated in humans. Thus, the aim of the study was to determine the variability of the CYP3......A4 phenotype in regard to increased concentrations of PCBs and other persistent organohalogen pollutants (POPs) in healthy Faroese adults. In 310 randomly selected Faroese residents aged 18-60 years, the CYP3A4 activity was determined based on the urinary 6beta-hydroxycortisol/cortisol (6beta...

  9. CONTAMINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FISHES LEADING TO TOXICITY IN FISH CONSUMING POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pandey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of rivers and streams with chemical contaminants has become one of the most critical environmental problems. Similar to humans and other species of animals, fish have also been found to be polluted with a large number of pollutants/contaminants. Unintentionally added chemicals causing fish toxicity include organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and other persistent chemicals in feed, chemicals in construction materials, and metabolites and degradation products of intentionally added chemicals. High levels of PCBs have been reported in farmed fishes. The fishes caught in highly polluted water could cause cells of some kinds of cancers to multiply rapidly. The PCBs are persistent environmental contaminants that are ubiquitous in the environment due to intensive industrial use. Many PCB congeners persist in ambient air, water, marine sediments and soil at low levels throughout the world. Humans may be exposed to detectable quantities of PCBs when they eat fish, use fish oils in cooking, or consume meat, milk or cheese. The general population is exposed to PCBs by inhaling contaminated air and ingesting contaminated water and food. The toxic responses to PCBs are dermal toxicity, immunotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse effects on reproduction, development and endocrine functions. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of background levels of PCBs may cause slight but measurable impairments in physical growth and learning behaviour in children.

  10. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Ava K; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 h post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. PMID:26561944

  11. Photo-activated fluorescence detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, I.S.; Kwan, W.C.; Tabash, S.P; Brown, R.S. (Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada) Dept. of Chemistry and School of Environmental Studies)

    1999-01-01

    It is often possible to employ fluorescence detection directly with minimal sample treatment or clean-up with species that are inherently luminescent. It is desirable to have a rapid detection scheme for polychlorinated biphenyls, but these methods are not used because PCBs are weakly or non-fluorescent. A scheme for the photo-activation of fluorescence for the detection of PCBs is described. Experiments with standard PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) showed that using UV-initiated photolysis can of PCBs in different solvent systems can dramatically increase the fluorescence intensity. Linear calibration curves for the Aroclor mixtures were observed from 10ppb to 10ppm, giving the possibility of PCB detection in crude sediments extracts below the parts-per-million level. Further work is in progress to determine the influence of PCB congener, extraction solvent and method, and photolysis kinetics and possible interferences. That this method can successfuly be applied to contaminated sediments is suggested by initial experiments with real-world samples. Abstract no. 860.

  12. Photo-activated fluorescence detection of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, I.S.; Kwan, W.C.; Tabash, S.P; Brown, R.S. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada) Dept. of Chemistry and School of Environmental Studies

    1999-11-01

    It is often possible to employ fluorescence detection directly with minimal sample treatment or clean-up with species that are inherently luminescent. It is desirable to have a rapid detection scheme for polychlorinated biphenyls, but these methods are not used because PCBs are weakly or non-fluorescent. A scheme for the photo-activation of fluorescence for the detection of PCBs is described. Experiments with standard PCB mixtures (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) showed that using UV-initiated photolysis can of PCBs in different solvent systems can dramatically increase the fluorescence intensity. Linear calibration curves for the Aroclor mixtures were observed from 10ppb to 10ppm, giving the possibility of PCB detection in crude sediments extracts below the parts-per-million level. Further work is in progress to determine the influence of PCB congener, extraction solvent and method, and photolysis kinetics and possible interferences. That this method can successfuly be applied to contaminated sediments is suggested by initial experiments with real-world samples. Abstract no. 860.

  13. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  14. Effects of quercetin on polychlorinated biphenyls-induced liver injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléia Rocha de Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, used as pesticides in agriculture, can lead to irreversible injuries in living organisms, particularly in liver. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the liver pathogenesis induced by different molecules, including PCBs. It has been demonstrated that quercetin, an antioxidant flavonoid found in the diet, exhibits a potent antioxidant effect in different liver pathologies. Objective: To evaluate oxidative stress caused by PCBs in liver and the antioxidant activity of quercetin. Methodology: We used male Wistar rats (n = 36, divided in 4 groups: control, quercetin (50 mg/kg/day, PCBs (0.4 ml/kg/day, and rats treated with both PCBs and quercetin. On day 25 blood was collected to assess liver integrity (enzymes AST, ALT and ALP, and liver samples to measure oxidative stress (TBARS, activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx and DNA damage (micronucleus assay, and histological damage. Results: TBARS concentration and SOD activity were significantly higher in PCBs animals as compared to the PCB group receiving quercetin. CAT and GPx decreased in PCBs and increased when quercetin was added. The histological analysis showed damage to hepatocytes in PCBs, but quercetin was able to afford protection against such damage. The micronucleus test showed there was an increase in the production of microclenucleus compared to control, and quercetin was able to reduce this effect. Conclusion: Contamination with PCBs led to increased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and the use of antioxidant quercetin was effective in reducing PCBs-induced liver injury.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from sediment cores and between 0.1 and 2.2ngg(-1) in recent sediments. Chronological records of PCB concentrations displayed a common pattern with historical PCB production and use, with the maximum peak values detected between the 1960s and the 1980s. Sediments deposited within the last two decades presented a ~40% to ~80% PCB reduction in comparison to the peak levels, reflecting the ban on PCB production and use since the late 1970s. PCB levels along with the presence of high-chlorinated congeners decreased southwards, indicating the Po River as the major source of PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea. PMID:27110972

  16. Insight into the neuroproteomics effects of the food-contaminant non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Laura; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente; Campagna, Roberta; Airoldi, Luisa; De Paola, Massimiliano; Fanelli, Roberto; Mariani, Alessandro; Mazzoletti, Marco; Pastorelli, Roberta

    2012-04-18

    Recent studies showed that food-contaminant non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) congeners (PCB52, PCB138, PCB180) have neurotoxic potential, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neuronal damage are not entirely known. The aim of this study was to assess whether in-vitro exposure to NDL-PCBs may alter the proteome profile of primary cerebellar neurons in order to expand our knowledge on NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. Comparison of proteome from unexposed and exposed rat cerebellar neurons was performed using state-of-the-art label-free semi-quantitative mass-spectrometry method. We observed significant changes in the abundance of several proteins, that fall into two main classes: (i) novel targets for both PCB138 and 180, mediating the dysregulation of CREB pathways and ubiquitin-proteasome system; (ii) different congeners-specific targets (alpha-actinin-1 for PCB138; microtubule-associated-protein-2 for PCB180) that might lead to similar deleterious consequences on neurons cytoskeleton organization. Interference of the PCB congeners with synaptic formation was supported by the increased expression of pre- and post-synaptic proteins quantified by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Expression alteration of synaptic markers was confirmed in the cerebellum of rats developmentally exposed to these congeners, suggesting an adaptive response to neurodevelopmental toxicity on brain structures. As such, our work is expected to lead to new insights into the mechanisms of NDL-PCBs neurotoxicity. PMID:22387315

  17. Age-related polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics in immature bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olin, Jill A; Beaudry, Marina; Fisk, Aaron T; Paterson, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were quantified in liver tissues of bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) ranging in age from 3 yr. Summed values of PCBs (ΣPCBs) ranged from 310 ng/g to 22 070 ng/g (lipid wt) across age classes with ΣPCB concentrations for the youngest sharks in the present study (3-yr-old sharks, highlighting the extent of exposure of this young life stage to this class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Age normalization of PCB congener concentrations to those measured for the youngest sharks demonstrated a significant hydrophobicity (log octanol/water partition coefficient [KOW ]) effect that was indicative of maternal offloading of highly hydrophobic (log KOW ≥6.5) congeners to the youngest individuals. A distinct shift in the PCB congener profiles was also observed as these young sharks grew in size. This shift was consistent with a transition from the maternally offloaded signal to the initiation of exogenous feeding and the contributions of mechanisms including growth dilution and whole-body elimination. These results add to the growing pool of literature documenting substantially high concentrations of POPs in juvenile sharks that are most likely attributable to maternal offloading. Collectively, such results underscore the potential vulnerability of young sharks to POP exposure and pose additional concerns for shark-conservation efforts. PMID:24357032

  18. Uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from soil and air into radishes (Raphanus sativus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uptake of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls from soil and air into radishes was measured at a heavily contaminated field site. The highest contaminant concentrations were found for DDT and its metabolites, and for β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Bioconcentration factor (BCF, defined as a ratio between the contaminant concentration in the plant tissue and concentration in soil) was determined for roots, edible bulbs and shoots. Root BCF values were constant and not correlated to log KOW. A negative correlation between BCF and log KOW was found for edible bulbs. Shoot BCF values were rather constant and varied between 0.01 and 0.22. Resuspended soil particles may facilitate the transport of chemicals from soil to shoots. Elevated POP concentrations found in shoots of radishes grown in the control plot support the hypothesis that the uptake from air was more significant for shoots than the one from soil. The uptake of POPs from air was within the range of theoretical values predicted from log KOA. - Uptake from air represented for majority of persistent organochlorines a dominant pathway into shoots while uptake from soil was dominant for roots

  19. Preparation and characterization of thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shouhai; Wang, Yutian; Lu, Yan; Jian, Xigao

    2015-04-01

    Novel thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (PPBES) hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were successfully fabricated by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effects of polymer dope formulation (i.e., the PPBES concentration, different types and contents of additives) and fiber spinning conditions (i.e., air gap distance, coagulation bath temperature) on the morphologies and separation performance of PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes were investigated, respectively. It was found that the water flux of hollow fiber membrane decreased with the increase of PPBES concentration or EGME content in casting solution, while the rejection of PEG increased. However, the PPBES hollow fiber UF prepared with LiCl as inorganic small molecule additive exhibited different phenomena. In addition, the decrease of air gap distance or the increase of coagulation bath temperature could improve the water flux of UF membrane while reduce the rejection of PEG. Moreover, the thermal stability of the PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes was investigated. The water flux of PPBES membrane increased dramatically from 155 to 428 L m-2 h-1 without significant decrease of rejection when the temperature of feed solution increased from 20 °C to 95 °C.

  20. Courtship behavior of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, S A; Bortolotti, G R; Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Marchant, T A; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2001-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) adversely affect reproduction in birds. Captive adult male and female American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were studied to investigate the potential behavioral and hormonal alterations during the courtship period resulting from clinical exposure to PCBs. American kestrels ingested 7 mg/kg/body weight/bird/day of a 1:1:1 mixture of Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260 through their diet of day-old cockerels. The dietary dosage of Aroclors resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in the eggs, averaging 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean). There was no difference between treatment and control birds in the circulating levels of total androgens (p = 0.44) or in 17 beta-estradiol (p = 0.29), one week following pairing. Male kestrels exposed to dietary PCBs exhibited significantly more sexual behaviors (p = 0.034) and flight behaviors (p = 0.026) than the control males. Sexual behaviors of male kestrels included; nest-box inspections, solicitation of copulation, the offer of food to the female, and giving the female food. The flight behaviors of the male included; flying from one perch to another and aerial display. In addition, the frequency of male sexual behaviors were correlated (r = 0.605, p = 0.001) with total PCB residues in the eggs of their mates. A concurrent study found that these same PCB-exposed kestrels experienced a delay in clutch initiation as well as a greater number of completely infertile clutches. PMID:11462146